SCAM – Software Component Assessment Model

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					                                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                 Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011



   SCAM – Software Component Assessment Model

                                           Hasan Tahir, Aasia Khannum, Ruhma Tahir
                                               Department of Computer Engineering
                                          College of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering
                                      National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)
                                                        Islamabad, Pakistan
                                                    hasanmailbox@yahoo.com
                                                     aasia@ceme.nust.edu.pk
                                                   ruhmatahir@ce.ceme.edu.pk




Abstract- It is widely understood that component based                      Wallnau define COTS components as
development is different from conventional development                       “Commercial entities – i.e. that can be sold or licensed that
because components offer accelerated growth. In the absence                 allow for packaging, distribution, storage, retrieval and
of an effective component assessment strategy the developers of             customization by users, which are usually coarse grained
a software project have no way of assessing the quality of the
                                                                            and that live in software repositories”                    [4]
software component they are about to incorporate into the
project. We present two laws that link software components,                 Using components to speed up the development process
software projects and their quality. We further propose a                   seems to present a very flexible and efficient solution
simple software component assessment strategy based on                      towards reaching our final product but in the absence of a
which both the component developers and component                           component assessment framework these components can
consumers can independently assess their component.                         prove fatal to our software project.
                                                                            Most software components available over the internet lack
Keywords – software component; software component quality;                  necessary information by which they can be assessed.
software component assessment                                               Furthermore there is no global software component
                     I.     INTRODUCTION                                    assessment model according to which software components
                                                                            are ranked and appreciated. As the trend of using
   Widespread use of computers and our dependency on                        components increases the situation starts becoming even
software has forced software developers to reconsider how                   graver because more and more developers now post their
we develop software systems. Now developers focus on                        own components on communities/groups/discussion groups
producing systems that are cheaper, more efficient, require                 for the benefit of other fellow developers. In this paper we
less development time and are not prone to errors. To                       first present two laws that govern software components,
achieve the above goals developers now increasingly use                     software projects and their quality. We further explain the
software components that can be plugged/imported into                       need for an assessment model for components. Then a
software development project [1] [2]. An advantage of such                  detailed study of the quality attributes of components is
components is that they largely promote reuse and are                       presented. In the end a five step assessment model is
considered tried and tested before they are added to the                    presented that is easily adoptable, extendible and
software project. Hence a precise definition for a component                customizable.
would be
“An independent deployable implementation of some                                   II.   THE STRUCTURE OF A SOFTWARE
functionality, to be reused as-is in a broad spectrum of                                        COMPONENT
applications”                                            [3]                A widely accepted view of software component is that it is a
         Many organizations design their own software                       software element with two interfaces i.e. provides interface
components for reuse in their future software products.                     and required interface. The services available from the
Similarly many organizations purchase components from                       component are accessible through the provide interface
other organizations while other components are available as                 while the required interface is a collection point for the
open source components readily downloadable from the                        services/ parameters required by the software component. A
internet. COTS component (Commercial off-The Shelf                          software component is a complex entity because the
components) is a term that exactly explains the financial                   required and provide interface work together to produce the
aspect of the component development industry. Brown and                     promised functionality of the software component. Using
This research work is funded by National University of Sciences and
Technology (NUST), Pakistan.

                                                                      229                              http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                       ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                    Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

these both interfaces the component becomes pluggable i.e.                  to quality.
an entity that can be attached and removed to the software                  Suppose we have a software system S. The software system
under development with relatively lesser effort. Newer                      is further composed of one or more software components �������� .
software component models reflect a software component as                   It is neither mandatory for the software or the component to
architectural units where the services are seen as ports. Ports             be assessed before they are both fully integrated.
of two different units can be linked together using
connectors [5]. The services available in a software
component can be advertised and accessed. A fundamental
property of all software components is that they can be
incorporated into a wide range of software and that they are
not specifically designed for incorporation into a fixed set of
software.




                                                                             Figure: A software system ���� which is composed of components �������� where
                                                                                                            ���� = 1,2, ⋯ , ����
         Figure I. The two interfaces of a software component

                                                                            Mathematically the integrated software components are a
      III.    NEED FOR COMPONENT ASSESSMENT                                 subset of the whole software system S.
                                                                                                  ���� = ���� ��������
                                                                                                        ����=1                     (1)
   Software consumers use CMMI (Component Maturity
Model Integrated) rating to assess an organization in terms
                                                                            Pre-integration Law The quality of an entire software
of coherence to the best software development practices.
                                                                            system cannot be certified unless the components that
Similarly software component consumers need to be assured
                                                                            constitute the software system are individually assessed and
that the components they are adopting have been developed
                                                                            certified.
keeping in view the best practices and procedures. Our
vision for a component assessment model is that once a                      Post-integration Law If a software system and a component
component is assessed it should be appreciated and valued                   are individually assessed and certified prior to integration
according to its rating. The greatest advantage of such a                   then the software must be again fully tested after the
mechanism is that the components can be embedded into the                   integration of component is complete.
system under development with as little labour as possible.
But it is important to point out that the full potential of a                    V.       COMPONENT QUALITY CERTIFICATION
software component can only be unleashed when the                              A very common method of assuring quality is through the
software component is used in collaboration with a                          use of certification. Essentially certification is the process of
component based software development model. It is widely                    assessing an entities quality against a set of properties. After
understood that component based development is different                    the assessment procedures, a formal certificate stating the
from conventional development because components offer                      quality level is issued in favour of the assessed entity. There
accelerated growth with certain limitations and problems.                   are numerous hurdles in component quality certification
   Most software assessment methodologies assess the                        because the software component industry still has not
software on its code structure and requirement                              reached consensus on how certification should take place.
documentation [6]. A very small number of component                         Researchers are still unable to define the assessment
assessment methodologies assess components at the                           procedures, assessment guidelines (properties) and
elemental level. A software component should be fully                       necessary frameworks. Once all these are in place the
analyzed before it can be certified for wide circulation.                   certification procedures can take place in a cyclic and
Since all software components are designed for reuse and                    organized manner.
adoptability therefore assessment is a necessary requirement
before masses of consumers report errors and adoptability                           VI.    COMPONENT QUALITY ATTRIBUTES
issues.                                                                     Software components are different from regular software
                                                                            systems because they are intended to be part of a larger
        IV.    LAWS OF SOFTWARE COMPONENT
                                                                            system. Therefore it is recommended that software
                      QUALITY
                                                                            components be assessed based on a wider scale and with a
Since there is no widely accepted software component                        different perspective. The quality attributes are
assessment model and strategy we therefore present two                      fundamentally influenced by the FURPS model. All quality
laws that link software and software components in relation                 attributes possess fuzzy overlapping boundaries because a




                                                                      230                                   http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500
                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                              Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

single attribute can be viewed from different perspectives               be that it presents an attractive solution to problem that will
and sometimes attribute can be better defined in conjuncture             be resolved by integrating the said component [9]. In
with other attributes. Here it is vital to define that there are         addition the component should be highly suitable for the
some metrics that are internal while others are external                 system under development.
metrics. Internal metrics are more commonly known as                     E. Reliability
white box metrics. These view the component from an                      The reliability aspect is one of those attributes that is
internal perspective. Things like coding and specifications              overlooked by many component developers. This attribute is
are mostly viewed here. On the other hand external metrics               directly related with the quality attributes of the component.
mostly discuss the component from an external perspective.               Reliability expresses the need for fault tolerance, error
That is why external metrics are also known as black box                 handling, recoverability and maturity. Evidence has shown
metrics. External metrics study things like component                    that in order for a component to be tolerated by a system an
operations, testing procedures and reliability. COTS                     additional wrapper has to be written for the component [9].
components generally fall under the category of external                 The purpose of such a scheme is that a wrapper provides a
metrics. It is also worth noting that the effect of components           border within which the component must operate. The
can be both local and global in nature [7]. For example                  wrapper limits the problematic inputs and outputs to and
some components have a very limited/restricted scope; on                 from the component thereby increasing the reliability of the
the other hand there are components whose effect is on the               component and the overall system. We can very easily
software architecture level. Even though SCAM presents a                 compare a component wrapper with a network firewall that
comprehensive list of software assessment attributes still it            filters out what is bad for the system. If a component is
can never be guaranteed that the attribute full and complete             supplied with an optional wrapper class then it will assist
in all respects. Discussed below is a range of quality                   the designers in fault tolerance and testing. Fig III shows a
attributes and their respective sub attributes based on which            component enclosed in a wrapper for increased reliability.
the actual assessment will be done.
A. Design Quality
Design quality is an attribute that reflects the general quality
with which the component has been designed. Design
quality can be seen as generally accepted design principles
that component developers base their component on. Sub
attributes for the design quality broadly explain this attribute
with more accuracy. The sub attributes are design legibility,
interface      understandability    [8],     API     simplicity,
customizability and overall design maturity.
B. Replaceability/ Plugability
This component attribute directly influences the reusability
property of the software component. It describes the ease                             Figure III. A Wrapper around a component
with which the component can be added or removed from                    F. Maintainability
the software under development. A good software                          Maintainability is an attribute that lies at the heart of all
component should have high plugability i.e. it should be                 software products. In maintainability we ensure that the
easy to assemble, easy to partially or entirely disassemble              component has been developed keeping in view best
and highly adaptable. Since the plugability of the                       programming practices and therefore the component is in
component cannot be actually tested until the component is               conformance with widely understood programming
actually incorporated into the software system therefore it is           guidelines like modularity, structuredness and conformance
essential for the software architects to study the component             to style.
in terms of availability of relevant interfaces, availability of         G. Documentation Quality
specific classes and libraries.                                          In most cases the designers and users of the component will
C. Reusability                                                           be entirely different therefore it is necessary for the
This component attribute clearly explains if the component               component to be supplied with supporting documentation.
is reusable on a wide scale or not. This property implies that           This documentation is crucial in providing support to the
the component has been designed for a broad range of                     users of the component because it will provide usage
platforms and languages. Also prerequisite requirements of               instructions, relevant demos, known issues in the
the component should be low to facilitate ease of reuse and              component, plugability details etc. Preferably the
increase plugability on a wider scale.                                   documentation should be exhaustive in nature covering
D. Functionality                                                         every aspect of the component in a way that is easy to
The functionality attribute dictates whether the component               interpret for the reader. When we say aspect this means
provides services just as it is supposed to under the specified          coverage of - functionality, interfaces, configurable entities,
conditions. Another sub attribute of the component should                version relevant information. Many components are freely




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                                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                               Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

available as open source components while others may need               software component. It is not necessary that all the above
to be purchased from the developers. Since the components               described attributes are required for the assessment. For
may be following different licensing policies it is necessary           example a component that only presents a cursor animation
for the owners to include all copyright notices and licenses            may not need to be assessed from the perspective of
with the documentation.                                                 efficiency attribute.
H. Efficiency                                                           Step IV
Efficiency is a factor that is secondary in nature when                 After a joint decision a group meeting is arranged to study
assessing software components. The primary reason for this              the component for the prescribed quality attributes. The
is that most software components are tweaked and adjusted               component is graded out of 5 marks for each quality
according to the need of the application. This means that               attribute. 0 is given if an attribute is entirely missing while 4
code is added to and removed from the component. The                    marks are given if the component demonstrates superior
efficiency of a software component is assessed in terms of              conformance to a quality attribute. A component must
resource consumption and time requirements.                             conform to the sub attributes that come under a main
                                                                        attribute. Non conformance or poor conformance to a
   VII. SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY                                specific sub attribute can cause the component to not score
The assessment methodology has been developed keeping in                in that specific attribute. For example while considering the
view that the assessment process is a team activity. It is              efficiency attribute; if a component scores very poorly in
suggested that an assessment lead may be assigned to the                terms of resource consumption then this should render a
whole process. Given below are the steps that form the                  score of very low score in the entire efficiency of the
assessment process.                                                     component. The sub attributes score Si and the obtained
Step I                                                                  total score TS can be described by the following set of
The assessment lead forms a small team that will assess a               mathematical equations.
particular software component. The team must hold people                                               1      8
                                                                                               �������� = 8       ����=1 ��������                     (2)
from various disciplines like software architects, software
programmers, software quality assurance personnel,                      Step V
software analysts, team leaders, project managers etc.                  After individual grading of the component quality attribute
Composing a team that has people belonging to various                   the total score of the component is calculated. The total
departments adds diversity and ensures exhaustive analysis              score of a component is actually an aggregation of all the
of the software component.                                              values of �������� . Since a components quality attributes are
Step II                                                                 further described using sub attributes therefore it is
With the consensus of the entire team a software component              mathematically easier to actually assess the entire quality
is chosen and each team member is required to deeply study              attribute in terms of a single number obtained through the
the component from his/ her role specific perspective.                  formulae given in table 1.
Step III
Jointly the team decides which component quality attributes
need to be assessed for a complete assessment of the
                             TABLE I. Component Quality Attributes and Sub Attributes with Grading Formulae

         Quality Attribute             Sub Attributes (Si)                             Grading Formula (Ti)
         Design Quality                Design Legibility                               T1=(S1+S2+S3+S4+S5)/5
                                       Interface Understandability
                                       API Simplicity
                                       Customizability
                                       Design Maturity
         Replacability/ Plugability    Ease of Assembly                                T2=(S1+S2+S3)/3
                                       Ease of Disassembly
                                       Adaptability
         Reusability                   Prerequisite Requirements                       T3=(S1+S2+S3)/3
                                       Platform Conformance
                                       Language Conformance
         Functionality                 Availability of functionality                   T4=(S1+S2+S3)/3
                                       Attractiveness
                                       Suitability




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                                                            (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
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         Reliability                      Fault tolerance                            T5=(S1+S2+S3+S4+S5)/5
                                          Error Handling
                                          Component Maturity
                                          Recoverability
                                          Component Wrapper
         Maintainability                  Modularity                                 T6=(S1+S2+S3)/3
                                          Structuredness
                                          Conformance to Style
         Documentation Quality            Usage instructions                         T7=(S1+S2+S3+S4 +S5)/5
                                          List of Known issues
                                          Plugability details                        Where
                                          Ease of Interpretation                     S5=(SS1+SS2+SS3+SS4+SS5)/5
                                          Coverage Extent
                                                    Functionality (SS1)
                                                    Interfaces (SS2)
                                                    Configurable Entities (SS3)
                                                    Versioning Information (SS4)
                                                    Copyright/ Licensing (SS5)
         Efficiency                       Resource Consumption                       T8=(S1+S2)/2
                                          Time Requirements
                                                                                     Total Score (TS) =
                                                                                     (T1+T2+T3+T4+T5+T6+T7+T8)/8



                VIII. ANALYTICAL STUDY                                  grading described in table II. The obtained score
While studying the common attributes we have tried to                   exhaustively describes the component from an assessment
provide a comprehensive list of attributes that are further             perspective. The score will numerate the components
composed of sub attributes. The sub attributes explain the              conformance to a large number of attributes that cover many
main attributes from varying perspectives. The grading                  different perspectives of the component. Based on the
criterion is very simple and the score can only be given on a           obtained score the assessment team can decide if the
scale of 5 numerical values. The table below explains the               component qualifies for integration into the software
individual grade and their individual significance.                     project.
                                                                                                CONCLUSION
          TABLE II. Grading values and their significance               The non deterministic nature of software components has
        Grade     Significance                                          forced researchers to consider introducing software
        0         Attribute entirely missing                            component models that aid the software developers in the
                                                                        incorporation and assessment of software components. In
        1         Poor conformance
                                                                        the non existence of such component models the software
        2         Normal level Conformance                              developers are forced to blindly incorporate components
        3         Good Conformance                                      into their system. Software components present a very
        4         Superior conformance to attribute                     attractive way of accelerating the development of software
                                                                        systems, but in the absence of an effective component
There are many attributes in which an attributes score will             assessment model the success of the software project is
not really matter to the assessment team although there will            under serious jeopardy. In this paper we present a software
also be times when the assessment team will be looking for              component assessment model that can assist software
a grade between 3 and 4. For example an assessment team                 developers, component developers and component
may require a component to score between 3 and 4 in the                 consumers in their efforts. A software component is a
functionality attribute. Also a team may choose to give a               collection of many different attributes that when collected
grade to individual sub attributes in the form of floating              reflect on the entire quality of the software component. Our
point numbers because a situation may arise where a                     proposed model is designed to be a team activity so that
component does not exactly qualify in accordance with a                 team members can analyze a component according to their
certain grade.                                                          particular domains.
The total score (TS) of the component will be a number                  We have proposed a model that assesses a software
between 0 and 4. The resulting score can be a floating point            component on the basis of 8 attributes that are further
number and it can again be analyzed according to the                    composed of 33 sub attributes. Our proposed model



                                                                  233                              http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                    (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                        Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

recommends the formation of an assessment team that
assesses the component on the basis of these attributes. A
grading criteria is also defined that is based on a scale of 5
(0 to 4) numerical values. During the assessment of a
component the obtained grade is always in the range of 0 to
4 because first the component is assessed on the basis of
individual attributes and then the individual scores are
computed to form a total score based on which the
assessment team can decide if the component qualifies for
integration into the software project.
The provided list of attributes is exhaustive in nature. This
list will not continue to increase endlessly because if the
team decides to incorporate more attributes into the
assessment process then it will definitely discard some
attributes as well. Since software components belong to a
wide range of domains therefore it can be said that no single
component will need to be assessed according to all the
attributes given in this model.
                           REFERENCES
[1] Bass, L., Buhman, C., Comella-Dorda, S., Long, F., Robert, J., Seacord,
R. and Wallnau, K, “Volume I: Market Assessment of Component-Based
Software Engineering”, Software Engineering Institute, 2001.

[2] Williams, J. D, "Raising Components Application Development
Trends”, 7(9) (2000), pp. 27-32.

[3] L. Bass, C. Buhman, S.Comella-Dorda, F. Long, J. Robert, R. Seacord
and K. Wallnau, “Volume I: Market Assessment of Component-Based
Software Engineering”, Software Engineering Institute, Technical Note
CMU/SEI-2001-TN-007, May 2000.

[4] A.W. Brown, K. Wallnau, “The current state of CBSE”. IEEE Software
15 (5), pp.37-46, 1999.

[5] K. Lau, Z. Wang, “Software Component Models” IEEE Transactions on
Software Engineering Volume 33 Number 10 2007.

[6] Zhu H, Hall PAV, May JHR, “Software Unit Test Coverage and
Adequacy”, ACM Computing Surveys 1997.

[7] M. F. Bertoa, A. Vallecillo, “Quality Attributes for COTS
Components”.

[8] M. F. Berota, J. M.Troya, A. Vallecillo, “Measuring the Usability of
Software Components”. Elsevier Journal of Systems and Software. pp. 427-
439 June 2005.

[9] Miguel Goulão Fernando Brito e Abreu, “The Quest for Software
Components Quality”, 2002.

                          AUTHORS PROFILE

   Hasan Tahir is with the NUST College of Electrical & Mechanical
Engineering (phone: +92-333-5241987; email: hasanmailbox@yahoo.com)
   Dr Aasia Khannum is with the NUST College of Electrical &
Mechanical Engineering (phone: +92-51-9278050 Ext 4114; email:
aasia@ceme.nust.edu.pk)
   Ruhma Tahir is with the NUST College of Electrical & Mechanical
Engineering (email: ruhmatahir@ce.ceme.edu.pk)




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                                                                                                           ISSN 1947-5500