TOTN: Development of A Tourism – Specific Ontology For Information Retrieval In Tamilnadu Tourism by ijcsiseditor


									                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                          Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

TOTN: Development of a tourism – specific ontology
  for information retreival in Tamilnadu tourism
              K.R.Ananthapadmanaban,                                                            Dr.S.K.Srivatsa,
                 Research Scholar,                                                             Senior Professor,
       Sri Chandrasekarendra SaraswathiViswa                                             St.Joseph„s College of Engg.,
             Mahavidyalaya University,                                                          Jeppiaar Nagar,
           Enathur, Kanchipuram-631 561,                                                       Chennai-600 064

Abstract—Tourism is an information business. Electronic tourism            representation of Knowledge. “Shared” implies that ontology is
is one of the activities that have enjoyed of an important success         not supposed to represent the subjective knowledge of some
in the Internet. The constant fast growth in travel related                individual, but it captures consensual knowledge accepted by a
information makes it difficult to find, organize, access and               group or a community. In short ontology is the manifestation of
maintain the information required by users. E-tourism is a                 shared understanding of a domain that acquired a consensus,
perfect candidate form Semantic web and the success of Semantic            and such consensus can facilitate effective communications.
Web depends on ontologies. Ontology, an explicit specification of          This in turn leads to other benefits such as interoperability,
Conceptualization [1] and provides a description of the domain of          reuse and sharing [8] [9]. Semantic web is about making the
interest. This paper focus on creating tourism ontology in order
                                                                           web more understandable by computer [10]. Hence, ontologies
to improve the process of searching for the perfect tourism
package according to user context for Tamilnadu tourism.
                                                                           form the backbone of semantic web [11] as a method for
                                                                           knowledge representation and sharing on the web. The
    Keywords-component; Ontologies, semantic web, Protégé                  semantic web architecture lists the underlying machine
tool,OWL                                                                   understandable languages for knowledge representation. XML
                                                                           (Extensible Markup Language), RDF (Resource Description
                         I.      INTRODUCTION                              Framework) and OWL (Web Ontology Language) are those
    The study of E-Commerce in the tourism industry has                    languages and OWL facilitates greater machine interpretability
emerged as a „frontier area‟ for information technology [2].               of web content than of XML and RDF.
Tourism has become the world‟s largest trade and its expansion                 OWL is a set of XML elements and attributes, with well-
shows a constant year-to-year raise.”Competitive benefit is no             defined meaning, that are used to define terms and their
longer ordinary, but increasingly driven by science,                       relationships (e.g. Class, equivalent property, intersection Of,
information technology and innovation [3]. The internet is                 Union Of, etc.,). Reasoning tasks like verification of ontology
already the major source for travelers to plan their trip. Though          consistency, computing inferences and realization can be easily
the web is rich of content the users find difficult on retrieving          executed with OWL representation.
data from the large set, which consumes more human effort.
Current web has been designed for direct human processing,
                                                                                               III.   LITERATURE SURVEY
but the next generation “semantic web “aims at machine
process able information [4]. Recent advances in the semantic                  Presentation of tourist destinations on the web makes a
web technologies offer means for organization to exchange                  huge amount of data. As quality of available information is
knowledge in meaningful way [5]. The application that offers               large, it is difficult for the tourist to find his desired destination.
these new online solutions is based on ontology. Ontology and              Ontology has the potential to improve the process of searching
ontology based information retrieval have the potential to                 appropriate destination according to user preference. Here we
significantly improve the process of searching on the World                are going to analyze various papers on tourism ontologies.
Wide Web. This paper proposes ontology creation for tourism                    Eleni Tomai, Stavros Michael and Poulicos Prastacos
in Tamilnadu based on the user profile and user interest to                explored how the use of ontologies in a web-based
search for perfect destination for tourist.                                environment can be used for tourism applications. Their
                                                                           methodology consist of building two separate ontologies, one
                   II.        SEMANTIC WEB LAYER                           for the user profile and another one concerning tourism
   Ontology is an explicit formal specification of shared                  information and data in order to assist visitors of an area to plan
conceptualization [6] [7]. “Conceptualization means an abstract            their visit. The user profile ontology is elicited by user
simplified view of the World. The World actually refers to                 responses by means of a form (interface) where user can fill the
some phenomenon, topic or subject area in the World.                       area of interest and tourism ontology developed by the service
“Explicit” means that the type of concepts and the constraints             provider. In this paper, reference point for all users is taken to
on using the concept are explicitly defined in the data structure          be the centre of city Heraklion. Concepts such as time needed
of ontology. “Formal” indicates that the ontology should be                to visit interested destinations, time needed to visit interested
machine interpretable. “Specification” means a declarative                 destinations from the point of reference, average time to see the

                                                                                                         ISSN 1947-5500
                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                          Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

place and comeback, accessibility of the spot, entrance fees if                2.   Arranging classes and the class hierarchy(Hierarchy
any and opening hours of the spot if applicable, are other                          classes)
crucial parameters 12].
                                                                               3.   Defining the properties and data values for the
                                                                                    classes(Relations and Characteristics)
    Robert Barta, Christina Feilmayr, Christoph Grun and                       4.   Creating instances of the classes
Hannes Werthner explored user preferences which according to
them, it is fundamental to personalise information about tourist            Figure 1 shows the generic procedure for ontology building.
objects i.e. user preferences can be aggregated to set of tourist
types. In this paper, concepts like opening hours of point of
interest, opening days of point of interest, time pattern to model
recurring events are included [13].
    Waralak V.Siricharoen discusses some ontological trends
that support the growing domain of online tourism. Concepts
like date and time of travel, contact data, tickets and locations
are explored. His focus is on description of accommodation,
infrastructure i.e. many prefer to stay close to an
accommodation that is close as possible to an infrastructure
    Weiwanag Et al. explored how the use of ontologies can
assist tourist plan their trip in Web-based environment. It
consist of two Ontologies on for user profile and the other
concerning about tourism information and data in order to
assist visitors of an area to plan their visit, Bayesian network is
used to estimate the travelers preferred activities[15].

    Danica Damljanovic and Vladan Devedzic illustrated how
the semantic web technologies combined with traditional e-
tourism application concepts such as user interest, activities,
age group are used and concepts like vacation packages, types               Fig.1. Generic Procedure of Ontology Building
of vacation, traveler‟s types, accommodation, food service,
transportation service and room type in hotel are the valid                 A. Ontology creation basics
parameters [16].
                                                                               Tourism ontology can be built to answer four types of
    Ou, S., Pekar, V., Orasan, C., Spurk, C., Negri, M explored             questions that can be asked when developing the e-tourism
on spatial temporal entities which have both temporal and                   package. These questions involve the predicates What, Where,
spatial context. It comprised activities, which might be                    When and How [19].
performed at a certain destination and events which refer to an
                                                                               1.   What [Activities]: What can a tourist do while staying?
occurrences with specific content at a specific location with a
certain time period [17]. Reservations, booking or any kind of                 2.   Where [Place]: Where are the interesting places located
tickets are temporal entities as they are valid for certain period                  to see and visit?
of time.
                                                                               3.   When [Season]: When can the tourist visit a particular
    On observations, challenges remain for users in reusing
                                                                               4.   How [Transportation]: How can the tourists gets to the
available ontologies information. Lack of standards is very
                                                                                    destination to see or do an activity?
vital issue, and parameters vary from one ontology to another.
In e-tourism different ontologies have been developed for                      The concepts What, Where, When and How can be
different areas and they might not meet the needs to regional                  represented as classes. The class What refers to activities
destination for any specific area, they are mostly location                    that a tourist does while staying such as trekking, water
based. In this paper, we are going to construct tourism                        games, billiard, cycling etc. The class Where represents
ontology for Indian scenario especially with parameters for                    places to see and visit. The class When relates to season
Tamilnadu tourism to assist visitors to plan their trip                        that the tourist can visit the particular place or it can be
accurately.                                                                    related to time when that tourist spot is open e.g. opening
                                                                               time of Zoological park or opening days. And the class
             IV.   CREATING A TOURSIM ONTOLOGY                                 How shows how tourist gets to its destination i.e. preferable
  Creating ontology requires the following steps according to                  mode of transportation e.g. Air, Bus, Rail or Taxi.
Noy and McGuiness [18]                                                         A class hierarchy is defined by stating that a class is a
   1.   Determining the scope of a domain(Area of interest)                    subclass of another. The class Thing is the class that

                                                                                                       ISSN 1947-5500
                                                      (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                      Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

represents the set containing all individuals because of this;            B. Tourism Ontology for Tamilnadu - TOTN
all classes are subclass of Thing. The class Trekking,                    The ontology has been developed using protégé 4.1 beta
Cycling, Swimming are subclasses of Activity. It is also                  version for travel and tourism domain. Protégé[20] is an
possible to assert that two classes are disjoint from each                open source tool which is used to construct knowledge
other. For example class Budget Hotel is disjoint with the                based application using ontology. It provides a platform for
class Star Hotel. This ensures that an individual which has               creating ontology and form the ontology knowledge base.
been asserted to be a member of one of the classes in the                 The tool displays and edits ontology in graphical mode. It
group cannot be a member of any other classes in the                      also helps in building OWL-DL ontology and using
group, i.e. it would not make sense for an individual to be               Description Logic Reasoner to check the consistency of the
Budget Hotel and a Star Hotel. There are two main types of                ontology and automatically compute the ontology class
properties in OWL. The first one, called the object                       hierarchy.
property, can be used to relate two individuals e.g.
Accommodation [hasactivity Swimming]. The second is                       The Tourism Ontology for Tamilnadu (TOTN) is built to
referred as data type property which related an individual to             conceptualize     TouristSpots,     Accommodation,       and
XML schema data type value or an RDF literal. Example:                    Activities during the travel. While creating the ontology,
Visitors [canspend 1500].                                                 certain parameters are being analyzed and our objective is
                                                                          to answer the following questions initially and we also look
In OWL properties, may have a domain and range                            at certain aspects which come across while creating
specified. Properties link individuals from the domain to                 ontology and we are trying to find solutions for the same.
individuals from range. For example in our tourism
ontology if the object property is [isinterested] then the                   1) What kind of tourist spots can be assigned to a user
domain will be tourister and range will be Wildlife
                                                                           based on user interest and preferences?
Sanctuary. Data type properties allow instances to have data
values in specific data types. The OWL uses the data types                   2) How can the tourist object such as tourist
borrowed from XML Schema such as “xsd:string”,                             spots,accommodation, activities and transportation are
„xsd:int”and“xsd:boolean”. Properties can have several                     mapped for the tourist.
characteristics in representing the relation between classes.
Properties can be symmetry, if the pair (X, Y) is an instance                3) While on tour, which accommodation can tourist
of the symmetric property P then the pair(Y, X) is also an                 have, based on the constraints accomodation expense.
instance of P. For example, the cousin relationship or friend             The TOTN ontology contains five important classes, each
relationship can be asserted to be a symmetric property.                  class has subclasses. Fig.2 shows the representation of
Properties may be stated to be transitive. If the pair of (X,             classes relationship in the travel ontology.
Y) is an instance of transitive property P and the pair(Y, Z)
is an instance of P. For example the ancestor relationship
can be asserted to be a transitive property. Properties can
state to have unique value using functional property whose
minimum cardinality is zero and maximum cardinality is
one. For example [hasAge] can be stated to be a functional
property. Properties also have restrictions so that an
instance can satisfy a certain condition; some of restrictions
are all values from, some values from, hasvalue
mincardinality, maxcardinality and cardinality. Cardinality
Restrictions-Meaning: The property must have at
least/almost/exactly X values. Example: A Family
destination is a destination that has at least one
Accommodation and at least 2 Activities.
allValues From Restrictions-Meaning: All values of the
property must be of a certain type Example: Hiking is a
sport that is only possible in National Parks.
Some Values from Restrictions – Meaning: At least one                                      Fig.2. Tourism Ontology
value of the property must be of the property must be of a              The Concepts such as accessibility, entrance_fees,
certain type example: A National Park is an urban area that
                                                                       opening_days, opening_hours, time_needed are also added.
has at least one Campground and offers at least one Hiking
                                                                       The concept Wellness is added for the users who will be
                                                                       interested in Ayurvedic treatment or Yoga. The details of
hasValueRestrictions-Meaning: At least one of the values               fitness centres are added for those who go for Gym regularly.
of the property is a certain value. Example: A part of                 The relation among concepts were expressed by the properties
Coimbatore is a destination where one of the values of the             to model the ontology.The figure 3 below shows the core
ispartof property Coimbatore.                                          concepts of tourism ontology and table 1 shows the

                                                                                                 ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                    (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                    Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

description of main classes in tourism ontology. The figure 4
shows the properties used in the tourism ontology.

                                                                                              Fig.4.The Properties of Tourism Ontology.
            Fig.3. The concepts of Travel Ontology
                                                                                     From the point of application, the classes cannot exist
                  Table 1 . Description of main classes                              independently and they are related to one another. An interest
S.No.      Class                             Description                             spot must be of interest to some tourist. (i.e. hasinterestof
                           Tourister is the visitor. All the constraints are         some Tour). The tourist should have some accommodation
                           based on the tourist preferences. All the                 (i.e. hasaccomodationof some Tourister). Depending upon the
  1       Tourister        classes and subclasses are related to the
                                                                                     affordability for the accommodation by the tourist, the
                                                                                     accommodation is further classified as Low, Medium and
                           The places of interest which the tourist visits,          High. Example, “accomodatein some Medium”. The Fig.5.
                           having        three        subclasses         –
                           History_Heritage_Archaelogical, Nature and
                                                                                     below shows the Axiom of “accomodatein some Medium” and
                           Spiritual.    History_Heritage_Archaelogical              “accomodatein some High”.
                           consists   of     six   subclasses     namely
                           ArchaelogicalTemple,      ArtGallery,     Fort,
  2      InterestSpot      Palace, Memorial and Monument.
                           Nature consists of six subclasses -
                           BotanicalGarden, Beaches, Hill Stations,
                           WildLifeSanctuary, WildlifeZoologicalPark
                           and WaterFalls.
                            Spiritual consists of four subclasses -
                           Temples, Church, Mosque and Ashrams.
                           The places providing accommodation service
                           having seven subclasses – BudgetHotels,
 3      Accommodation      DeluxeHotels,       Resorts,     GuestHouse,
                           BoatHouse, Cottage and StarHotels.

                           This class is about the hospitals and health. It
                           consists of seven subclasses namely
  4       Wellness         GovenmentHospital, MultispecialityHospital,                             Fig.5. Axioms of Accommodation
                           Pharmacy,        Spa,        AyurvedicCentre,
                           YogaCenter, and FitnessRoom.
                           This informs about Leisure activities or
                           services, having five subclasses - Activity,              As per our objective our main focus is on 3 questions and the
  5        Leisure                                                                   solutions are given below.
                           Nightlife, AmusementPark, Culture and
                           It provides means of transport to the tourist. It             1) If the tourist X is interested to visit a Nature spot,
  6     Transportation     has five subclasses and they are Air, Bus,
                           Rail, Car and Taxi.                                              Hillstation, then X has the choice to go to Ooty,
                                                                                            Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Yelagiri and Kotagiri. Fig.6.
                                                                                            shows the result of the query.

                                                                                                               ISSN 1947-5500
                                                   (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                   Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

                      Fig.6. Query result                                       Fig.8. Query result for Accommodation

2) The concepts such as tourist spots, accommodation,               A tourist spot ThanjavurMarathaMarvels is a palace and also
   activities and transportation with the tourist are               can view as ArtGallery. Similarly some temples are of
   mapped by means of object property [hasinterestof],              archaeological importance and also attract tourist as a
   [accomodatein], [hasactivity] and [transportby].                 worshipping temple. E.g.Vaigundaperumal temple built by
   Example: The interest spot hill station, Ooty is related         Pallava dynasty exhibits the archaeological importance and
   with the tourist as “hasinterestof some Tourister”.              also has deities worshipped by people and is a spiritual spot.
   The Fig.7. Shows the mapping of activities,                      Such diversity in tourist spots can be interpreted by multiple
   transportation and accommodation using OntoGraf.                 tourism resources. This is especially helpful when two or more
                                                                    people of different choices decide a destination together.
                                                                    Vaigundaperumal temple is given as subclass of
                                                                    Archaeological spot and is related to the subclass Temple of
                                                                    Class Spiritual. Thus, multidiversity in tourism is handled for
                                                                    the delicate retrieval of tourism information.
                                                                    Some tourist spots are in cities and in suburbans. The tourist
                                                                    spots in suburbans are linked to the nearest cities as point of
                                                                    reference in the ontology. In TOTN, we have six point of
                                                                    reference. For example, the Hillstation, Yercaud is linked to
                                                                    the nearest city Salem for accommodation and transportation.
                                                                    So all the answers from the system concerning distance are
                                                                    measured from the point of reference. And the point of
                                                                    reference will be the nearest city from an interest spot.
                                                                    Some interest spots like Wildlife Zoological Spots will be
                                                                    opened for some opening hours and has some working days.
                                                                    Fees such as entrance fee, camera fee will also be a parameter
                                                                    for the tourist to visit that place. Properties such as
                                                                    have_entrance_fee, have_camera_fee, are_open_on, and
                                                                    are_open_from_to are assigned. The other parameters the time
    Fig.7. Mapping of Classes using OntoGraf.                       it takes for the user to get to the point of interest, average time
                                                                    to see the place and come back to the place are also added.
3) The class Accommodation has subclasses namely
   Budget Hotels, Deluxe Hotels, Star Hotels, Resorts,                                     V.    CONCLUSION:
   Cottages etc. Based on the amount the tourist can                This paper aimed at building a service of searching for the
   spend for his accommodation, X can be                            perfect tourism package according to the user context. To do
   accommodated in any one of the Hotels. The extent                this, tourism ontology was formalized in TNTO ontology
   of the accommodation expense X can spend is                      model by organising; interest spots, accommodation and
   classified into Low (less than Rupees 500 per day),              activities. Further, time variable i.e. the time it takes for the
   Medium (Between Rupees 501 to 1000 per day) and                  user to get to the point of interest, average time to see the
   High (More than Rupees 1001 per day). Fig.8 shows                place and come back to the centre and amount of time spend
   the result of the query for accommodation with the               will be our future enhancements.
   constraint that X can spend only Rs.501 to Rs. 1000.

                                                                                                ISSN 1947-5500
                                                    (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                    Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

                       References                                           and Bayesian Network based Semantic Mashup for
                                                                            Tourism, IEEE, Computer Society 2008.
[1]    Gruber, T: A Translation Approach to Portable                 [16]   Danica Damljanovic, Vladan Devedzic :”Applying
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[4]    T.Berners-Lee, J.Hendler, and O.Lassila, “The                 [18]   Noy, N, and McGuiness, D., 2001, Ontology
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[5]    P.H.Alesso, C.F.Smith, Developing Semantic Web                [19]    Cardoso, J: E-tourism: Creating Dynamic Packages
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[8]    Agarwal, P., 2005.Ontological Considerations in GI                                 AUTHORS PROFILE
       Science, International Journal of Geographical
       Information Science, 19,501-536.                                               K.R.Ananthapadmanaban has completed his M.C.A
                                                                                      from the University of Madras in the year 2000. He has
[9]    Gasevic, D., Djuric, D., and Devedzic, V., 2006,
                                                                                      completed M.Phil in Manomaniam Sundaranar
       Model      Driven     Architecture   and    Ontology                           University, Thirunelveli in 2003. He has 10+ years of
       Development, Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg.                                      teaching experience. He is presently working as
[10]   Heflin, J. and Hendler, J., 2001, A Portrait of the                            Associate Professor and Head in the Department of
                                                                                      Computer Science in S.R.M. Arts and Science College.
       Semantic Web in Action, IEEE Intelligent Systems,
                                                                                      Kattangalathur. His area of interest is in Semantic
       16, 54-59.                                                                     Web. He is pursuing his research in Semantic Web in
[11]   Fensel, D, 2003, Ontologies: Silver Bullet for                                 S.C.S.V.M.V University, Kanchipuram in the
       Knowledge Management and Electronic Commerce,                                  Department of Computer Science. He has also
                                                                                      presented papers in State, National and in International
       Springer, Berlin-Hedelberg.
[12]   Elen Tomai, Spanakim, Poulicous Prastacos
       Kavouras M. Ontology Assisted Decision Making-A                              Dr.S.K.Srivatsa was born at Bangalore on 21 stJuly 1945.
       Case Study in Trip Planning for Tourism,                                     He received his Bachelor of Electronics and
                                                                                    Communication Engineering Degree (Honors) from
       International    Workshop       on     Semantic-based
                                                                                    Javadpur University (Securing First Rank and Two
       Geographical      Information     Systems,    Cyprus,                        Medals)      and    Master    Degree      in   Electrical
       November 3-4,2005.                                                           Communication Engineering (With Distinction) from
[13]   Robert Barta, Christina Feilmayr, Christoph Grun,                            Indian Institute of Science and Ph.D also from Indian
                                                                                    Institute of Science, Bangalore. In July 2005, he retired
       Hannes Werthner. Covering the Semantic Space for
                                                                                    as professor of Electronics Engineering from Anna
       Tourism-An Approach based on Modularized                                     University. He taught twenty-eight different courses at
       Ontologies, Proceeding of the Ist Workshop on                                the U.G. Level and 40 different courses at P.G. Level
       Context, Information and Ontologies June 1, 2009,                            during the last 34years. He has functioned as a Member
                                                                                    of the Board of Studies in some Educational Institutions.
       Heraklion Greece ACM 2009 ISBN: 978-1-60558-
                                                                                    His name is included in the Computer Society of India
       528-4.                                                                       database of Resource Professionals. He has received
[14]   Waralak V. Siricharoen, “Using Ontologies for E-                             about a dozen awards. He has produced 34 PhDs. He is
       Tourism”, Proceedings of 4th WSEAS/IASME                                     the author of well over 500 publications.
       International Conference on Engineerng Education,
       Agios Nikolaos, Crete Island, Greece, July 24-
[15]   Wei Wanag, Guosun Zeng, DongqiZhang, Yu Huang,
       Yufeng Qiu, Xi aojun wang-“An Intelligent Ontology

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