Inception of Hybrid Wavelet Transform using Two Orthogonal Transforms and It’s use for Image Compression

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Inception of Hybrid Wavelet Transform using Two Orthogonal Transforms and It’s use for Image Compression Powered By Docstoc
					                                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                       Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011

   Inception of Hybrid Wavelet Transform using Two
     Orthogonal Transforms and It’s use for Image
                     Compression
         Dr. H.B.Kekre,                                Dr.Tanuja K. Sarode                                 Sudeep D. Thepade
        Senior Professor,                                Assistant Professor                               Associate Professor
Computer Engineering Department,                       Computer Engineering                         Computer Engineering Department,
 SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed-to-be                                 Department,                              SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed-to-be
            University)                           Thadomal Shahani Engineering                                  University)
  Vile Parle(W), Mumbai, India.                 College, Bandra(W), Mumbai, India.                    Vile Parle(W), Mumbai, India.
      hbkekre@yahoo.com,                             tanuja_0123@yahoo.com                             sudeepthepade@gmail.com

Abstract—The paper presents the novel hybrid wavelet transform           century [19,20]. Generally, wavelets are purposefully crafted to
generation technique using two orthogonal transforms. The                have specific properties that make them useful for image
orthogonal transforms are used for analysis of global properties         processing. Wavelets can be combined, using a "shift, multiply
of the data into frequency domain. For studying the local                and sum" technique called convolution, with portions of an
properties of the signal, the concept of wavelet transform is            unknown signal(data) to extract information from the unknown
introduced, where the mother wavelet function gives the global           signal. Wavelet transforms are now being adopted for a vast
properties of the signal and wavelet basis functions which are           number of applications, often replacing the conventional
compressed versions of mother wavelet are used to study the local        Fourier transform [23,24,25,26]. They have advantages over
properties of the signal. In wavelets of some orthogonal
                                                                         traditional fourier methods in analyzing physical situations
transforms the global characteristics of the data are hauled out
better and some orthogonal transforms might give the local
                                                                         where the signal contains discontinuities and sharp
characteristics in better way. The idea of hybrid wavelet                spikes[27,28,29]. In fourier analysis the local properties of the
transform comes in to picture in view of combining the traits of         signal are not detected easily. STFT(Short Time Fourier
two different orthogonal transform wavelets to exploit the               Transform)[29] was introduced to overcome this difficulty.
strengths of both the transform wavelets.                                However it gives local properties at the cost of global
          The paper proves the worth of hybrid wavelet                   properties. Wavelets overcome this shortcoming of Fourier
transforms for the image compression which can further be                analysis [28,29] as well as STFT. Many areas of physics have
extended to other image processing applications like                     seen this paradigm shift, including molecular dynamics,
steganography, biometric identification, content based image             astrophysics, optics, quantum mechanics etc. This change has
retrieval etc. Here the hybrid wavelet transforms are generated          also occurred in image processing, blood-pressure, heart-rate
using four orthogonal transforms alias Discrete Cosine transform         and ECG analyses, DNA analysis, protein analysis,
(DCT), Discrete Hartley transform (DHT), Discrete Walsh                  climatology, general signal processing, speech, face
transform (DWT) and Discrete Kekre transform (DKT). Te                   recognition, computer graphics and multifractal analysis.
comparison of the hybrid wavelet transforms is also done with            Wavelet transforms are also starting to be used for
the original orthogonal transforms and their wavelet transforms.         communication applications. One use of wavelet
The experimentation results have shown that the transform                approximation is in data compression. Like other transforms,
wavelets have given better quality of image compression than the         wavelet transforms can be used to transform data then, encode
respective original orthogonal transforms but for hybrid
                                                                         the transformed data, resulting in effective compression [24].
transform wavelets the performance is best. Here the hybrid of
DCT and DKT gives the best results among the combinations of
                                                                         Wavelet compression can be either lossless or lossy. The
the four mentioned image transforms used for generating hybrid           wavelet compression methods are adequate for representing
wavelet transforms.                                                      high-frequency components in two-dimensional images.
                                                                             Earlier wavelets of only Haar transform have been studied.
  Keywords-Orthogonal transform; Wavelet transform; Hybrid               In recent work [4,7,11,13] the wavelets of few orthogonal
Wavelet transform; Compression.                                          transforms alias Walsh [16,17,18], DCT [14,15], Kekre [21,22]
                                                                         and Hartley[1,2,3] are proposed. The wavelet transforms in
                      I.    INTRODUCTION                                 many applications are proven to be better than respective
    Wavelets are mathematical tools that can be used to extract          orthogonal transforms [8,9,10,12]. The paper presents the
information from many different kinds of data, including                 innovative hybrid wavelet transform generation method, which
images [4,5,6,7]. Sets of wavelets are generally needed to               generates hybrid wavelet transform of any two orthogonal
analyze data fully. A set of "complementary" wavelets will               transforms. This concept of hybrid wavelet transform can
reconstruct data without gaps or overlap so that the                     acquire the positive traits from both the orthogonal transforms
deconstruction process is mathematically reversible and is with          used to generate it. The hybrid wavelet generation concept
minimal loss. The wavelets are results of the thought process of         opens up new avenues of selection of orthogonal transforms for
many people starting with with Haar's work in the early 20th             hybrid and their use in particular image processing application



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                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                                   Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011
to gain some upper edge over individual orthogonal transforms
or respective wavelet transforms. The paper presents the use of                                                [K ] ∗ [K ]t = [D ]                            (3)
hybrid wavelet transforms generated using Discrete Walsh                              where, D is the diagonal matrix. The hybrid wavelet
Transform (DWT), Discrete Kekre Transform (DKT), Discrete                         transform of size NxN generated from any two orthogonal
Hartley Transform (DHT) and Discrete Cosine Transform                             transforms satisfies this property and hence it is orthogonal.
(DCT) for image compression. The experimental results prove
that the hybrid wavelet transforms are better than the respective
                                                                                  B. Non Involutional
orthogonal transforms as well as their wavelet transforms.
                                                                                     An involutionary function is a function that is it’s own
                                                                                  inverse. So involutional transform is a transform which is
     II.     GENERATION OF HYBRID WAVELET TRANSFORM                               inverse transform of itself. The Hybrid wavelet transform is
                                                                                  non involutional transform
             ⎡ a11   a12    L a1 p ⎤     ⎡b11 b12 L b1q ⎤
             ⎢a             L a2 p ⎥     ⎢b
                     a 22                     b22 L b2 q ⎥                        C. Transform on Vector
           A=⎢                     ⎥   B=⎢               ⎥
                21
                                                             (1)
                                           21
             ⎢ M      M     M  M ⎥       ⎢ M   M   M  M ⎥                            The hybrid wavelet transform (say ‘K’) of one-dimensional
             ⎢                     ⎥     ⎢               ⎥
             ⎢a p1
             ⎣       a p2   L a pp ⎥
                                   ⎦     ⎢bq1 bq 2 L bqq ⎥
                                         ⎣               ⎦                        vector q is given by.

                                                                                                                    Q = K ∗q []                              (4)
                                                                                       And inverse is given by

                                                                                                                                     Q
                                                                                                              q = K [ ]t ∗               ij
                                                                                                                                                             (5)
                                                                                                                                μ        ∗μ
                                                                                                                                    Ti        Tj
                                                                                      Where Qij is the value at ith row, jth column of matrix Q and
                                                                   (2)            the term μ in normalization factor can be computed as given
                                                                                  below through equations 6, 7 and 8.
                                                                                                                             t
                                                                                                                μ       =T T                                 (6)
                                                                                                                    T     AB AB
                                                                                       Such that

                                                                                   μ        =μ     μ
                                                                                       T1        A1 B1 ,
                                                                                   μ        =μ     μ
    The hybrid wavelet transform matrix of size NxN (say                               T2        A1 B2 ,
‘TAB’) can be generated from two orthogonal transform                              μ        =μ     μ
matrices ( say A and B respectively with sizes pxp and qxq,                            T3        A1 B3
where N=p*q=pq) as given by equations 1 and 2.Here first ‘q’                       M
number of rows of the hybrid wavelet transform matrix are
calculated as the product of each element of first row of the                      μ        =μ        μ                                                                   (7)
                                                                                       Tq           A1 Bq
orthogonal transform A with each of the columns of the
orthogonal transform B. For next ‘q’ number of rows of hybrid                      μ           =μ                   =L=μ                      =μ
                                                                                       Tq +1         Tq + 2                         T2q            A2
wavelet transform matrix the second row of the orthogonal
transform matrix A is shift rotated after being appended with                      μ             =μ                     =L=μ                   =μ
zeros as shown in equation 2. Similarly the other rows of                              T2q +1         T2q + 2                           T3q          A3
hybrid wavelet transform matrix are generated (as set of q rows                                 M
each time for each of the ‘p-1’ rows of orthogonal transform
matrix A starting from second row upto last row).                                  μ                  =μ                      =L=μ                      =μ
                                                                                       T(p −1)q +1             T2q + 2                        T3q            A3

     III.     PROPERTIES OF HYBRID WAVELET TRANSFORM
                                                                                     Where with reference to equation 1,                                μ A and μ B can    be
   The crossbreed of two orthogonal transforms results into
                                                                                  given as equation 8.
hybrid wavelet transform, which itself satisfies the following
properties.                                                                                                                 ⎡μ A1        0    L     0   ⎤
                                                                                                          t                 ⎢ 0     μ
                                                                                                                                        A2
                                                                                                                                              L     0   ⎥
A. Orthogonal                                                                                        AA       = μ
                                                                                                                    A
                                                                                                                        =   ⎢ M         M     M      M
                                                                                                                                                        ⎥           (8)
    The transform matrix K is said to be orthogonal if the                                                                  ⎢ 0                         ⎥
following condition is satisfied.                                                                                           ⎣           0     L    μ
                                                                                                                                                     Ap ⎦




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                                                                                                                              ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                                     (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                                               Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011
                                   ⎡μ B1                0       L     0   ⎤                   Where Iij is the pixel intensity value at ith row, jth column of
                                                                                              image I and the calculation of the term μ in normalization
                   t               ⎢ 0              μ
                                                        B2
                                                                L      0 ⎥
              BB       = μ
                             B
                                 = ⎢                                      ⎥                   factor is as given above through equations 6, 7 and 8.
                                      M                 M       M      M
                                   ⎢ 0                                    ⎥
                                   ⎣                    0       L    μ
                                                                       Bq ⎦                                IV.    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
D. Transform on Two-Dimensional Image                                                             The test bed used in experimentation for proving the worth
The hybrid wavelet transform of two-dimensional image I is                                    of hybrid wavelet transform consists of 11 color images of size
given by.                                                                                     256x256x3and is shown in figure 1. On each image all the
                                                                                              three alias orthogonal transform, wavelet transform and hybrid
                                      []
                                 Q = K ∗I∗ K            [ ]t                  (9)             wavelet transform are applied. In transform domain the high
                                                                                              frequency data is removed and the images are transformed
                                                                                              inversely back to spatial domain. To judge the performance of
And inverse is given by                                                                       the orthogonal transform, wavelet transform and hybrid
                                                                                              wavelet transform in compression; the original images are
                                           I
                                                                                              compared with these modified images (having the data loss as
                       q = K [ ]t ∗            ij
                                                                []
                                                               ∗ K
                                                                              (10)            compression) using mean squared error (MSE). In all size data
                                      ⎛μ ∗ μ ⎞
                                      ⎜       ⎟
                                      ⎝ Ti Tj ⎠                                               compression percentages are considered as 95%, 90%, 85%,
                                                                                              80%, 75% and 70%. The average of such MSEs for all images
                                                                                              for respective transform and considered percentage of data
                                                                                              compression is taken for performance analysis.




  Figure 1: The test bed of eleven original color images belonging to different categories and namely (from left to right and top to bottom) Aishwarya, Balls, Bird,
                                  Boat, Flower, Dagdusheth-Ganesh, TajMahal, Strawberry, Scenery, Tiger and Viharlake-Powai.




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Figure 2: Performance comparison of Image compression using Discrete Cosine transform (DCT), cosine wavelet transform (DCT wavelets) and the hybrid
wavelet transforms of DCT taken with Hartley (DCT_DHT) and Kekre transforms (DCT_DKT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression.


Figure 2 shows the average of mean squared error (MSE) differences of the original and respective compressed image pairs
plotted against percentages of data compression from 955 to 70% for image compression done using Discrete Cosine transform
(DCT), cosine wavelet transform (DCT wavelets) and the hybrid wavelet transforms of DCT taken with Hartley (DCT_DHT) and
Kekre transforms (DCT_DKT). Here the performance of hybrid wavelet transforms (DCT_DKT and DCT_DHT) is the best as
indicated by minimum MSE values over the respective DCT and DCT wavelet transform.




Figure 3: Performance comparison of Image compression using Discrete Walsh transform (DWT), Walsh wavelet transform (Walsh wavelets) and the hybrid
wavelet transforms of Walsh transform taken with Hartley (DWT_DHT) and Cosine transforms (DWT_DCT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression

The average of mean squared error (MSE) differences of the original and respective compressed image pairs for image compression
done using Discrete Walsh transform (DWT), Walsh wavelet transform (Walsh wavelets) and the hybrid wavelet transforms of
Walsh transform taken with Hartley (DWT_DHT) and Cosine transforms (DWT_DCT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data
compression are plotted in figure 3. Here the performance of hybrid wavelet transforms (DWT_DHT and DWT_DCT) are better
than the Walsh transform and are almost similar to the Walsh wavelet transform. The DWT_DCT hybrid wavelet transform
marginally performs better in case of 95% and 80% data compression.




 Figure 4: Performance comparison of Image compression using Discrete Hartley transform (DHT), Hartley wavelet transform (Hartley wavelets) and the hybrid
 wavelet transforms of Hartley transform taken with Walsh (DHT_DWT) and Cosine transforms (DHT_DCT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression.




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   Figure 5: Performance comparison of Image compression using Discrete Kekre transform (DKT), Kekre wavelet transform (Kekre wavelets) and the hybrid
               wavelet transforms of Kekre transform taken with Cosine transforms (DKT_DCT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression

Figure 4 gives the average of mean squared error (MSE) differences of the original and respective compressed image pairs for
image compression done using Discrete Hartley transform (DHT), Hartley wavelet transform (Hartley wavelets) and the hybrid
wavelet transforms of Hartley transform taken with Walsh (DHT_DWT) and Cosine transforms (DHT_DCT) with respect to 95%
to 70% of data compression. Here except 95% data compression in al other percentages of data compression, the performance of
hybrid wavelet transforms (DHT_DWT and DHT_DCT) are better than the Hartley transform and are almost similar to the
Hartley wavelet transform with DWT_DCT proved to be marginally better.

In case of image compression using hybrid wavelet transform (DKT_DCT) generated using discrete Kekre transform (DKT) and
discrete Cosine transform (DCT), the performance is almost similar to the Kekre wavelet transform but better than the Kekre
transform as shown in figure 5.




 Figure 6: Overall performance analysis of Image compression using the orthogonal transforms, their respective wavelet transforms and newly introduced hybrid
                      wavelet transforms for Cosine, Kekre, Walsh and Hartley transforms with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression


Figure 6 gives overall performance comparison of image compression using all the proposed hybrid wavelet transforms with
respective orthogonal transform and wavelet transform based compression methods for various percentages of data compression
from 70% to as high as 95%. Overall the best performance is given by DCT_DKT (hybrid wavelet transform of Cosine transform
with Kekre transform) followed by DCT_DWT and DCT_DHT (hybrid wavelet transform of Cosine transform taken respectively
with Walsh transform and Hartley transform). In all the respective orthogonal transforms the hybrid wavelet transforms have shown
better quality of image compression.




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Figure 7: The compression of flower image using the hybrid wavelet transform (DCT_DHT Wavelet) generated using Discrete Cosine transform and Discrete
                                           Hartley transform with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression




Figure 8: The compression of flower image using the hybrid wavelet transform (DCT_DKT Wavelet) generated using Discrete Cosine transform and Discrete
                                            Kekre transform with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression




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  Figure 9: The compression of flower image using the hybrid wavelet transform (DCT_DWT Wavelet) generated using Discrete Cosine transform and Discrete
                                              Walsh transform with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression.

Figures 7, 8 and 9 have shown the compression of flower                               in a Greyscale Image”, International Journal of Computer
image for various hybrid wavelet transforms with respect to                           Applications (IJCA), Volume 1, Number 11, December 2010, pp 32-
                                                                                      38.
the 955 to 70 % of data compression. The subjective quality
                                                                                 [5] Dr. H.B.kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Adib Parkar “Storage of Colour
of compression in all cases is quite acceptable as negligible                         Information in a Greyscale Image using Haar Wavelets and Various
distortion is observed in original and compressed images                              Colour Spaces”, International Journal of Computer Applications
even at the 95% data compression. Even the objective                                  (IJCA), Volume 6, Number 7, pp.18-24, September 2010.
criteria (i.e. mean squared error) values of differences                         [6] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Juhi Jain, Naman Agrawal,
between the original and compressed images are minimal.                               “IRIS Recognition using Texture Features Extracted from Walshlet
                                                                                      Pyramid”, ACM-International Conference and Workshop on
                                                                                      Emerging Trends in Technology (ICWET 2011),Thakur College of
                        V.     CONCLUSION                                             Engg. And Tech., Mumbai, 26-27 Feb 2011. Also will be uploaded
                                                                                      on online ACM Portal.
The innovative concept of the hybrid wavelet transforms                          [7] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Akshay Maloo, “Face
generation using any two orthogonal transforms is proposed                            Recognition using Texture Features Extracted form Walshlet
in the paper. Here the hybrid wavelet transforms are                                  Pyramid”, ACEEE International Journal on Recent Trends in
                                                                                      Engineering and Technology (IJRTET), Volume 5, Issue 1,
generated using Discrete Walsh Transform (DWT), Discrete                              www.searchdl.org/journal/IJRTET2010
Kekre Transform (DKT), Discrete Hartley Transform                                [8] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Juhi Jain, Naman Agrawal,
(DHT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for image                                   “Performance Comparison of IRIS Recognition Techniques using
compression. The experimental results prove that the hybrid                           Wavelet Pyramids of Walsh, Haar and Kekre Wavelet Transforms”,
                                                                                      International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), Number 2,
wavelet transforms are better than the respective orthogonal                          Article                4,               March               2011,
transforms as well as their wavelet transforms. The various                           http://www.ijcaonline.org/proceedings/icwet/number2/2070-aca386
orthogonal transforms can be considered for crossbreeding                        [9] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Akshay Maloo, “Face
to generate the hybrid wavelet transform based on the                                 Recognition using Texture Features Extracted from Haarlet
expected behavior of the hybrid wavelet transform for                                 Pyramid”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA),
                                                                                      Volume 12, Number 5, December 2010, pp 41-45. Available at
particular application. After proving the worth of hybrid                             www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume12/number5/1672-2256
wavelet transforms for the image compression future work                         [10] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Juhi Jain, Naman Agrawal,
could include the extension of the concept to other image                             “IRIS Recognition using Texture Features Extracted from Haarlet
processing applications like steganography, biometric                                 Pyramid”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA),
                                                                                      Volume 11, Number 12, December 2010, pp 1-5, Available at
identification , content based image retrieval etc.                                   www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume11/number12/1638-2202.
                                                                                 [11] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Akshay Maloo, “Performance
                       VI.     REFERENCES                                             Comparison of Image Retrieval Techniques using Wavelet Pyramids
[1]   R. V. L. Hartley, "A more symmetrical Fourier analysis applied to               of Walsh, Haar and Kekre Transforms”, International Journal of
      transmission problems," Proceedings of IRE 30, pp.144–150, 1942.                Computer Applications (IJCA) Volume 4, Number 10, August 2010
                                                                                      Edition,                           pp                        1-8,
[2]   R. N. Bracewell, "Discrete Hartley transform," Journal of Opt. Soc.
                                                                                      http://www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume4/number10/866-1216
      America, Volume 73, Number 12, pp. 1832–183 , 1983.
                                                                                 [12] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Akshay Maloo, “Query by
[3]   R. N. Bracewell, "The fast Hartley transform," Proc. of IEEE
                                                                                      image content using color texture features extracted from Haar
      Volume 72, Number 8, pp.1010–1018 ,1984.
                                                                                      wavelet pyramid”, International Journal of Computer Applications
[4]   Dr. H.B.kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Adib Parkar, “A Comparison of                 (IJCA) for the special edition on “Computer Aided Soft Computing
      Haar Wavelets and Kekre’s Wavelets for Storing Colour Information               Techniques for Imaging and Biomedical Applications”, Number 2,




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                                                                                                              ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                                  Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011
       Article                 2,                August              2010.        head in the Department of Computer Engg. at Thadomal Shahani
       http://www.ijcaonline.org/specialissues/casct/number2/1006-41              Engineering. College, Mumbai. Now he is Senior Professor at MPSTME,
[13]   Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Image Retrieval using Color-             SVKM’s NMIMS. He has guided 17 Ph.Ds, more than 100 M.E./M.Tech
       Texture Features Extracted from Walshlet Pyramid”, ICGST                   and several B.E./ B.Tech projects. His areas of interest are Digital Signal
       International Journal on Graphics, Vision and Image Processing             processing, Image Processing and Computer Networking. He has more than
       (GVIP), Volume 10, Issue I, Feb.2010, pp.9-18, Available online            270 papers in National / International Conferences and Journals to his
       www.icgst.com/gvip/Volume10/Issue1/P1150938876.html                        credit. He was Senior Member of IEEE. Presently He is Fellow of IETE
[14]   N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan and K. R. Rao, “Discrete Cosine                     and Life Member of ISTE Recently 11 students working under his guidance
       Transform”, IEEE Transaction Computers, C-23, pp. 90-93, January           have received best paper awards. Two of his students have been awarded
       1974.                                                                      Ph. D. from NMIMS University. Currently he is guiding ten Ph.D. students.
[15]   W. Chen, C. H. Smith and S. C. Fralick, “A Fast Computational
       Algorithm For The Discrete Cosine Transform”, IEEE Transaction             Dr. Tanuja K. Sarode has Received Bsc.(Mathematics) from Mumbai
       Communications, Com-25, pp.: 1004-1008, Sept. 1977.                                                    University in 1996, Bsc.Tech.(Computer
[16]   George Lazaridis, Maria Petrou, “Image Compression By Means of                                         Technology) from Mumbai University in 1999,
       Walsh Transform”, IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, Volume                                         M.E. (Computer Engineering) degree from
       15, Number 8, pp.2343-2357, 2006.                                                                      Mumbai University in 2004, Ph.D. from Mukesh
                                                                                                              Patel School of Technology, Management and
[17]   J. L. Walsh, “A Closed Set of Orthogonal Functions”, American
                                                                                                              Engineering, SVKM’s NMIMS University,
       Journal of Mathematics, Volume 45, pp. 5-24, 1923.
                                                                                                              Vile-Parle (W), Mumbai, INDIA. She has more
[18]   Zhibin Pan, Kotani K., Ohmi T., “Enhanced fast encoding method                                         than 12 years of experience in teaching.
       for vector quantization by finding an optimally-ordered Walsh                                          Currently working as Assistant Professor in
       transform kernel”, ICIP 2005, IEEE International Conference,                                           Dept. of Computer Engineering at Thadomal
       Volume 1, pp I - 573-6, Sept. 2005.                                        Shahani Engineering College, Mumbai. She is life member of IETE,
[19]   Charles K. Chui, “An Introduction to Wavelets”, Academic Press,            member of International Association of Engineers (IAENG) and
       1992, San Diego, ISBN 0585470901.                                          International Association of Computer Science and Information
[20]   Ingrid Daubechies, “Ten Lectures on Wavelets”, SIAM, 1992.                 Technology (IACSIT), Singapore. Her areas of interest are Image
[21]   Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Image Retrieval using Non-               Processing, Signal Processing and Computer Graphics. She has 90 papers
       Involutional Orthogonal Kekre’s Transform”, International Journal          in National /International Conferences/journal to her credit.
       of Multidisciplinary Research and Advances in Engineering
       (IJMRAE), Ascent Publication House, 2009, Volume 1, No.I, pp               Sudeep D. Thepade has Received B.E.(Computer) degree from North
       189-203, 2009. Abstract available online at www.ascent-                                                Maharashtra University with Distinction in
       journals.com                                                                                           2003. M.E. in Computer Engineering from
[22]   Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Archana Athawale, Anant S.,                                           University of Mumbai in 2008 with Distinction,
       Prathamesh V., Suraj S., “Kekre Transform over Row Mean,                                               currently submitted thesis for Ph.D. at SVKM’s
       Column Mean and Both using Image Tiling for Image Retrieval”,                                          NMIMS, Mumbai. He has more than 08 years
       International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering                                           of experience in teaching and industry. He was
       (IJCEE), Volume 2, Number 6, October 2010, pp 964-971, is                                              Lecturer in Dept. of Information Technology at
       available at www.ijcee.org/papers/260-E272.pdf                                                         Thadomal Shahani Engineering College,
[23]   K. P. Soman and K.I. Ramachandran. ”Insight into WAVELETS                                              Bandra(w), Mumbai for nearly 04 years.
       From Theory to Practice”, Printice -Hall India, pp 3-7, 2005.                                          Currently working as Associate Professor in
                                                                                                              Computer Engineering at Mukesh Patel School
[24]   Raghuveer M. Rao and Ajit S. Bopardika. “Wavelet Transforms –
                                                                                  of Technology Management and Engineering, SVKM’s NMIMS, Vile
       Introduction to Theory and Applications”, Addison Wesley
                                                                                  Parle(w), Mumbai, INDIA. He is member of International Association of
       Longman, pp 1-20, 1998.
                                                                                  Engineers (IAENG) and International Association of Computer Science
[25]   C.S. Burrus, R.A. Gopinath, and H. Guo. “Introduction to Wavelets          and Information Technology (IACSIT), Singapore. He is member of
       and Wavelet Transform” Prentice-hall International, Inc., New              International Advisory Committee for many International Conferences. He
       Jersey, 1998.                                                              is reviewer for various International Journals. His areas of interest are
[26]   Amara Graps, ”An Introduction to Wavelets”, IEEE Computational             Image Processing Applications, Biometric Identification. He has about 110
       Science and Engineering, vol. 2, num. 2, Summer 1995, USA.                 papers in National/International Conferences/Journals to his credit with a
[27]   Julius O. Smith III and Xavier SerraP“, An Analysis/Synthesis              Best Paper Award at International Conference SSPCCIN-2008, Second
       Program for Non-Harmonic Sounds Based on a Sinusoidal                      Best Paper Award at ThinkQuest-2009 National Level paper presentation
       Representation'', Proceedings of the International Computer Music          competition for faculty, Best paper award at Springer international
       Conference (ICMC-87, Tokyo), Computer Music Association, 1987.             conference ICCCT-2010 and second best research project award at
                                                                                  ‘Manshodhan-2010’.
[28]   S. Mallat, "A Theory of Multiresolution Signal Decomposition: The
       Wavelet Representation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine
       Intelligence, vol. 11, pp. 674-693, 1989.
[29]   Strang G. "Wavelet Transforms Versus Fourier Transforms." Bull.
       Amer. Math. Soc. 28, 288-305, 1993.


                      AUTHORS PROFILE
Dr. H. B. Kekre has received B.E. (Hons.) in Telecomm. Engineering.
                          from Jabalpur University in 1958, M.Tech
                          (Industrial Electronics) from IIT Bombay in
                          1960, M.S.Engg. (Electrical Engg.) from
                          University of Ottawa in 1965 and Ph.D.
                          (System Identification) from IIT Bombay
                          in 1970 He has worked as Faculty of
                          Electrical Engg. and then HOD Computer
                          Science and Engg. at IIT Bombay. For 13
                          years he was working as a professor and




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