Chapter 2 – Populations Major Concepts 1 Populations are groups of the same type of organisms that interbreed and live in a particular area 2 Predictable factors influence by qac17679

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									                 Chapter 2 – Populations

Major Concepts
1. Populations are groups of the same type of organisms that
   interbreed and live in a particular area.
2. Predictable factors influence the size of populations which tends to
   fluctuate naturally through time.
3. Populations tend to be restricted to certain types of environments
   and to be affected by certain limiting factors.
4. The carrying capacity of an environment tends to determine a
   population’s maximum size.
5. Some critical factors determine the carrying capacity for humans on
   earth.
6. Global cooperations is necessary to solve some environmental
   problems.




                                Terms


Asexual Reproduction     Dispersal                 Limiting Factor
Behavioral Barrier       Emigration                Mortality Rate
Birth Rate               Environment               Nonrenewable resources
calorie                  Famine                    Population
Calorie                  Geographical Barrier      Resources
Carrying Capacity        Growth Rate               Sexual Reproduction
Climate                  Homeostasis
Community                Immigration
                                Chapter 2 Populations
               Worksheet 1 – Individuals, Populations, and Environment

Read the Guidepost and think about a response to it as you read this section.

2.1 Populations are made up of individuals
1. Write a definition for the term Population.
2. Can species that only reproduce asexually make up a population? Explain.
3. In order to define a population of organisms what three things must you be able to
    identify (be sure that you have included these in your definition above)?
4. Why is it important to test hypothesis on ‘populations’?
5. How does the concept of ‘Community’ differ from that of population?

2.2 Four rates Determine Population Size.
6. List the four factors that determine the size of a population.
7. Which of your four factors is the Mortality Rate?
8. Which of your 4 factors are the Birthrate?
9. How does Immigration and Emigration differ in their affect on population growth?
10. Do immigration and emigration rates apply to every population? Explain.

2.3 The Environment Limits Population Size
11. Name and describe the two components of the Environment.
12. Is a dead zebra that is being eaten by lions an abiotic or biotic component of the
    environment? Explain.
13. Is petroleum (that was once plants) considered an abiotic or biotic component?
    Explain.
14. Give an example of a biotic Limiting Factor not mentioned on this page.
15. Define Climate (as opposed to weather). Why is climate considered a ‘group’ abiotic
    limiting factor?
16. What environmental factors are important to the seedling in Figure 2.3 (include 3)?
17. Discuss why space is more of a limiting factor for some populations as opposed to
    others?
18. What information would you need to know in order to determine the density of oak
    trees out at the school’s forest?
19. Complete the problem in figure 2.4. Show all your math work!

Terms
Asexual Reproduction            Emigration                      Mortality Rate
Birth Rate                      Environment                     Population
Climate                         Immigration                     Sexual Reproduction
Community                       Limiting Factor
                                Chapter 2 Populations
                           Worksheet 2 – Carrying Capacity

Read the Guidepost and think about a response to it as you read this section.

2.4 Abiotic and Biotic Factors Work Together to Influence Population Size
1. What are Resources and what effect do they have on individuals? Populations?
2. After reading the second paragraph is this section, discuss why ecosystems need
    ‘balance’?
3. What is Carrying Capacity and what determines it?
4. What is Homeostasis when we’re talking about ecology? Using the discussion of deer
    in this section as an example, write a similar description of how rabbits in the are
    around Shepherd are kept in homeostasis.

2.5 Population Density May fluctuate
5. What does it mean when it refers to a natural population in an ecosystem as ‘open’ ?
6. Look at Figure 2.6 on page 35. It shows the Growth Rate of a Rat population.
    Calculate the changes asked for in the description under the graph. Notice that the
    growth rate is not uniform (duh, Mr Vigneault). What might have caused the
    different increases and decreases in the growth of the rat population that occurred
    after the poisoning in 1942 (read the text)?
7. After reading about the lemmings and where they live, consider what types of
    factors may limit their population size. Write 3 factors that might lemming’s
    population size.
8. Give two examples of how the sudden reduction in a Lemming population may affect
    other populations in the ecosystem.

2.6 Populations May Spread to Neighboring Areas
9. Discuss how the concept of Dispersal is usually different between animals and plants.

2.7 Barriers Can Prevent Dispersal
10. Discuss why you believe that there are no Penguins at the North Pole (the Artic).
11. Give an example of a Geographical Barrier and a Behavioral Barrier.
12. Give an example of a tree in Shepherd whose seeds are dispersed easily by the wind.
13. Give an example of plant in Shepherd the relies on the behavior of other organisms in
    their ecosystem for their dispersal.

Terms
Behavioral Barrier              Geographical Barrier            Resources
Carrying Capacity               Growth Rate
Dispersal                       Homeostasis
                                Chapter 2 Populations
                           Worksheet 3 – Human Populations

Read the Guidepost and think about a response to it as you read this section.

2.8 Few Barriers Prevent Human Dispersal
1. In order for the human population to continue to grow like it has, what will we need
    more of?
2. Is the growth rate of the human population increasing or decreasing?
3. Discuss three things that have allowed the human population to temporarily disrupt
    it’s homeostasis.
4. Write a paragraph summarizing both sides of the debate that suggests that the
    human population is increasing so fast that it is outgrowing the resources of the
    earth – disrupting the balance in the biosphere.
5. Look at Figure 2.12 and read the caption under the picture. We can apply this to
    Shepherd. In recent years we have seen much of the farm land around Shepherd
    converted to residential properties (houses being built on it). Is the good or bad?
    Explain your answer.

2.9 Earth’s Carrying Capacity Is Limited
6. Of the resources; food, water and available living space, which of these do you think
    has the greatest effect as a limiting factor on the earth’s human population?
    Support your answer.
7. Currently, how much fish is it safe to eat that come from the Great Lakes? (this
    answer is not in the book, you’ll have to use alternative sources to find it)

2.10 Uneven Distribution of Food May Limit Population Size
8. Look up (alternative source) and then describe the difference between Food and
    Nutrients. In this section the word food is used to describe both food and nutrients.
    It is important to know, however, the difference between them.
9. If adequate amounts of food are produced overall, why do some countries experience
    famine?
10. Describe the difference between a calorie in science and a Calorie (notice the
    capitalization difference), sometimes referred to as a Food Calorie.
11. Taking into account your activity level, how many calories a day do you think you
    need? Have the activity levels of the normal American teen increased or decreased
    over the past 100 years? Support your answer.
12. Besides getting the proper number of Calories a day, what else is important in terms
    of the food you eat?
13. Why can’t America continue to produce food at the same level for ever? What are
    Nonrenewable resources?
2.11 Human Activities Change the Environment
14. What human activities are contributing to the following environmental problems:
    ozone hole, global warming, acid rain and water shortages.
15. Where do we get most of our drinkable water from?

2.12 Managing Earth Requires Global Cooperation
16. Look at Figure 2.14 and read the caption. How are the new techniques it refers to
    different from what we see going on in the picture? How are these new techniques
    beneficial?

Read Biology Today. What needs to be done to create a long term solution to the famine
   problem in Africa?


Terms

calorie
Calorie
Famine
Nonrenewable resources

								
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