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									Pee
Nu                                                                   Author                                                              Publication                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure                                                                                                                                                                                            Test-Objects
mbe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Proximity                                                                                                                                                                Number           Parts of
Stu Sorting-                                                                                                                                                                                               Pulse repetition         Pulse                      Intensit      Powerflux-density                                                                                Technical                 Exposure device                                                   Kind
                        Names                                          Affilation       Address        Country     Year       Title                               Journal               Frequency                                              Modulation                                                         Specific absorption rate (SAR)                      to                                                                   Duration of exposure                       Human Biological object              Gender           of            organism                    System of body
dy Name *                                                                                                                                                                                                    frequency              width                          y              (PFD)                                                                                      application          (device to generate the field)                                         of exp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SAR                                                                                                                                                                  objects         exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               avarage                                                                             energy        threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    clearly     acc.                                                                       acute=
                                                                                                                              Abbreviations:                                                                                                                                 CW-                 PW-         CW-                    PW-            deposit                                      CW-               PW-                                       <day
163                                                                                                                                                                             min.      max. further      min.      all     min.      all                     / peak                                                                                              below;   Pull-Down-                                                                                                                                                                  whole body;
                                                                                                                              CW = Continuos Wave                                                                                                                          exposure            exposure    exposure               exposure        CW vs. PW                                   exposure          exposure                                  temporar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  [W]                                                                                             close to;     Menu                                                                                                                                                                      part body;
                                                                                                                              EMF = Electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           near-field                  y= <<life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               average /                            average /       cw < pw         clearly                                                                                            continuous                      animal                                                cell;                                acc.
                                                                                                                              Field(s)                                          [GHz]     [GHz]   [GHz]     [Hz]     [Hz]     [µs]      [µs]                              [mW/cm2]                             [W/Kg]                                                                                                          far-field      date           time                     1 = yes                             female,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 peak                                 peak          cw > pw         above                                                                                              intermittent                 (type, age)                                              cell                             list below
                                                                                                                              MW = Microwave(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  n.n.                      chron=                                                         male, nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              [mW/cm2]                               [W/Kg]         cw ≤ pw       (ref. 0,08                                                                                                                                                                             component;
                                                                                                                              PW = Pulsed Wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             near life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    cw ≥ pw         W/kg /                                                                                                                                                                                  model
                                                                                                                              RF = Radiofrequency                                                                                                                         common mark                        common                              (SAR- or PFD-                                   common mark means:                                          time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              means:                       mark means:                           value)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2 W/kg)                      not differently mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           not differently                 not differently                                                                                                                                  multi=



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The hearts were irradiated
                                                                                                                                                                  IEEE Trans                                                                                                                                                                                                                      from the bottom of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 pulsed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 organ
                        Abbate, M.;                                                                                             EVALUATION OF PULSED                Microw                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the holder by using a tapered
                                                                       Universita di                                                                                                                                                           (heartbeat                                                                                                                       medical                                                      > 10 - 40                                            (heart of chick,                                            part:                           organ
 1    Abbate, M.        Tine, G.;                                                                          Italy
                                                                                        Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Universita di Palermo, I-90128 Palermo, Italy
                                                                                                                      1996      MW INFLUENCE ON                   Theory Tech   2.45      2.45      none     2.3     2.3       nn       nn                        nn                     /3                                    nn                         nn         nn                                                       near-field                    acute       continuous       0                                    nn              nn
                                                                       Palermo                                                                                                                                                                 frequency                                                                                                                       application   open coaxial section improved                   minutes                                               9 - 12 day old                                             heart                     (cardio-vascular)
                        Zanforlin, L.                                                                                           ISOLATED HEARTS                        44                                                                                                                                                                                                                           with a matching
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               modulated)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            embryos)
                                                                                                                                                                   (10 pt. 2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                            set-up.




                                                                                                                          PARTIAL-BODY EXPOSURE
                                                                                                                          OF HUMAN VOLUNTEERS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1 exp: 3 males,
                        Adair, E. R.;                                                                                                                   Bioelectro-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  horn antenna                                                                                                                        6 (36-68 yr
                                                                       AFRL/HEDR,                                         TO 2450 MHz PULSED OR                                                                                                                                 27;              27;                                    /5,94;                     clearly                                                                                                                                                    pw;
 2    Adair, E. R.      Mylacraine, K. S.;                                                            USA                                                e-mail:eleanor.adair@he.brooks.af.mil (RR/E.R.A., B.L.C.); Veridian, Inc.,65
                                                                                        AFRL/HEDR, 8315 Hawks Rd., Bldg. 1162, Brooks AFB, TX 78235-5324,magnetics
                                                                                                                2001                                                   2.45    2.45     none      10000     10000       65          Brooks AFB, TX (K.S.M.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             pulsed               nn                                                 nn                              cw = pw                       nn        Cober Electronics model 6823      far-field    45 minutes      acute       continuous       1             human                            olsd) + 7 (41-    whole body                   thermo-regulatory
                                                                       Brooks AFB                                         CW FIELDS PROVOKES                                                                                                                                    35               35                                      /7,7                      above                                                                                                                                                 2exp: 5 males
                        Cobb, B. L.                                                                                                                        22(4)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Klystron amplifier                                                                                                                     68 yr old)
                                                                                                                          SIMILAR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cw
                                                                                                                          THERMOREGULATORY
                                                                                                                          RESPONSES




                                                                                                     EFFECT OF EM RADIATION
                                                                                                     IN DECIMETRE                    Biophysics                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cell
                        Alekseev, S. I.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           below /
                                                 USSR Academy                                        WAVELENGTH                     (Engl Transl                                                                     0,5 -                        pulsed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (neurones of the                                                                                 cell
 3    Alekseev, S. I.   Il'in, V. I.; Tyazhelov,                                  USSR
                                                              Instit. of Biological Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, Pushchino (Moscow Region), USSR
                                                                                               1987                                                0.9                                     0.9      none     0.5               nn       nn                        nn                     nn                                  0,2 - 20                cw = pw      close to /       nn            waveguide chamber            near-field    10 minutes      acute       continuous       0                                    nn              nn               cell
                                                 of Sciences                                         RANGE ON CALCIUM                 Biofizika)                                                                     1000                          (AM)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         nerve ring of Limnea                                                                            (nervous)
                        V. V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       above
                                                                                                     CURRENT OF MOLLUSK                 31(2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        stagnalis)
                                                                                                     NEURONES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       6;
                      Philippova, T. M.;
                                                                                                                           MW EFFECT ON CAMPHOR         Bioelectro-                                                   16;                                                                                                                                          below /                                                                                                                               cell
                      Novoselov, V. I.;                                USSR Acad. of                                                                                                                                                                                                     nn                                  0,5 - 18                                                            standard waveguide                                                                                                                                            cell:                              cell
 4    Alekseev, S. I.                                                                                       Physics,
                                                                                        Inst. of Biological USSR USSR Acad.BINDING TO142292 Pushchino, Moscow Region, USSR (RR/T.M.P.)
                                                                                                                     1988   of Science, RAT             magnetics     0.9    0.9     none                     1       32;      nn       nn        pulsed          nn                                                                                 cw = pw      close to /       nn                                         near-field        nn           nn            nn            0       (olfactory tissue of         nn              nn
                      Bystrova, M. F.;                                 Science                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           olfactory tissue                      (sensoric)
                                                                                                                           OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM            9(4)                                                       50;                                                                                                                                           above                                                                                                                                rat)
                      Alekseev, S. I.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      75;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     100




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1;
                                                                                                                                 Influence of MW on different                                                        6;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 cell
                      Philippova, T. M.;                               Russian                                                                                   Bioelectro-                                                                                                                                                                                       below /
                                                                                                                                 types of receptors and the role                                                     16;                          pulsed                                 nn                        e.g.                                                                                    nn                                                                                   (hippocampus; liver                                                                         cell
 5    Alekseev, S. I. Novoselov, V. I.;                                Academy of       Institute of Cellular Biophysics, 1994
                                                                                                            Russia        Russian Academy of Sciences, Puschino, Moscow Region.0.9
                                                                                                                                                                 magnetics                 0.9      none      1                nn       nn                        nn                                                                 0,5 - 18             nn      close to /       nn                                             nn        e.g. 15 min     acute       continuous       0                                    nn              nn               cell
                                                                                                                                 of peroxidation of lipids on                                                        32;                       (rectangular)                                                       1,0                                                                                                                                                                                of rat)                                                                        (nervous, digestive)
                      Alekseev, S. I.                                  Sciences                                                                                     15(3)                                                                                                                                                                                           above
                                                                                                                                 receptor-protein shedding                                                           75;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     100




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    bilayer lipid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         8;
                                                                       Temple Univ.                                          MILLIMETER MW EFFECT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               membranes (formed
                                                                                                                                                               Bioelectro-                    53 - 78                   12;                                                                                                                                                                          rectangular
                        Alekseev, S. I.;                               Medical Sch.;                                         ON ION TRANSPORT                                                                                                       pulsed                                                                                                         clearly                                                                                                                              from
 6    Alekseev, S. I.                                                                                   USSR           Temple Univ. Medical Sch., 3400 N. Broadmagnetics
                                                                                        Center for Biomedical Physics,1995                                      St., Philadelphia, PA19140 (RR/M.C.Z.); Inst. of Cell Biophysics,nn
                                                                                                                                                                                54      76    (1 GHz        1          16;               Acad. of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region,142292 Russia (S.I.A.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Russian nn                       / 0,02              nn                                      2000                   cw = pw                       nn                                             nn        5 minutes       acute       continuous       0                                    nn              nn         model system             physical model system
                        Ziskin, M. C.                                  Russian Acad. of                                      ACROSS LIPID BILAYER                                                                                                  (square)                                                                                                        above                           waveguide outlet                                                                             phosphatidylcholine
                                                                                                                                                                  16(2)                        step)                    32;
                                                                       Sciences                                              MEMBRANES.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and cholesterol in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     decane)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       100;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1000




                                                                       A. N. Marzeev
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                "P-37"
                                                                       Research Inst. of                                                                                                                                                                                               0,01;                                                                                                                                               30 or 45 days                                                 rat                                                                           organ (endocrine);
      Antipenko, E.     Antipenko, E. N.;                                                                                     CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF Dokl Biol Sci              2,375      2,75                                                                                                                                                                   close to /                  "Luch-58"      apparatus in
 7                                                                     General and                       USSR
                                                                                         A. N. Marzeev Research Inst. of General and Communal Hygiene, Kiev, USSR
                                                                                                                      1988                                                                          none     300     300      2.7       2.7       pulsed          nn                   0,05;                                   nn                    cw = pw                       nn                                             nn           for 7     temporary     intermittent      0          (3-5 mo old              male             nn          whole body                           cell
      N.                Koveshnikova, I. V.                                                                                   MW OF NONTHERMAL                 296(3)           (CW)      (PW)                                                                                                                                                                      above                     apparatus      an anaechoic
                                                                       Communal                                                                                                                                                                                                         0,5                                                                                                                                                 hours/day.                                               mongrel)                                                                              (digestive)
                                                                                                                              INTENSITY IN MAMMALS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             chamber
                                                                       Hygiene




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             45 days,
                                                                       A. N. Marzeev
                                                                                                                              CHANGES IN BODY WEIGHT                                                                                                                          0,01;                                                                                                                                                         7h/d (2.375
                                                                       Res. Inst.                                                                                                                                                                                                                0,01;                                                                                                                                                                                                   rat
      Antipenko, E.     Koveshnikova, I. V.;                                                                                  OF RATS DURING              Radiobiologiia        0,546      2,75   2,375                                                                       0,05;                                                                               above /                     "Luch-58"                                      GHz and
 8                                                                     General and                      USSR
                                                                                        A. N. Marzeev Res. Inst. General and Communal Hygiene, Kiev, USSR
                                                                                                                     1988                                                                                    nn       nn       nn       nn        pulsed          nn                             0,05;                         nn                    cw = pw                       nn                           P-37 device       nn                    temporary      intermittent      0         (random-bred          female, male         nn          whole body                     whole organism
      N.                Antipenko, E. N.                                                                                      IRRADIATION WITH MW OF          28(4)             (PW)      (PW)    (CW)                                                                        0,06                                                                                close to                    apparatus                                     2.750) and
                                                                       Communal                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0,06                                                                                                                                                                                                  albino)
                                                                                                                              NONTHERMAL INTENSITY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         14 hours/day
                                                                       Hygiene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (546 MHz)




                                                   Marzeev
                                                                                                        THE PARTICIPATION OF                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           rat
                                                Scientific Res.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        organ (endocrine);
       Antipenko, E.      Koveshnikova, I. V.;                                                         THYROID HORMONES IN Radiobiologiia                                        2,45      2,75                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 hours/day,                                           (mature, white
 9                                                                              USSR
                                Marzeev Scientific Res. Inst. of General and Communal Hygiene, Kiev, Ukraine
                                               Inst. of General                             1991                                                                                                    none     400     400      2.7       2.7       pulsed          nn                     0.5                                   nn                    cw = pw       above           nn                      nn                     nn                      temporary    intermittent      0                                    nn              nn          whole body                           cell
            N.             Antipenko, E. N.                                                                 MODIFYING THE      31(1)                                            (CW)      (PW)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               30 days                                                mongrel,
                                               and Communal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (digestive)
                                                                                                     MUTAGENIC EFFECT OF MW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         3 mo-old)
                                                   Hygiene




                                                                                                                               CAN ELECTROMAGNETISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                  0,22 -
                               Balanovski, E.;                                                                                      ACCOUNT FOR                   Nature                                                                                        0,001;                                                                                                                           tuneable RF source;
 10   Balanovski, E.                                                   Dept. Mathematics, King's Coll., London WC2, UK
                                                                         King's Coll.                       UK       1978                                                       0.22       17     0,95;      nn       nn       nn       nn        pulsed                                 nn                                    nn                    cw = pw         nn            nn                                             nn            nn           nn            nn            1             human                  nn              nn          whole body                     whole organism
                                Taylor, J. G.                                                                                      EXTRASENSORY                  276(5683)                                                                                      0,005                                                                                                                            tuneable MW source
                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 - 17
                                                                                                                                    PHENOMENA?
                        Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Seite 1 von 100
                        Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                   Measurement                                                                       Classification                                                                                                                                                                                                   Objectives and Results

                                                                                                                                                                             Biological
            Measured                                        Temperature                     Temperatu                                 Type of
                                                                                                             Class      Category                       Abstract              endpoint                                                                     Difference between CW and PW effects                                                                                                                         Biological effects of CW and PW exposure
           parameters                                         control                       re effects?                                study
                                                                                                                                                                              of view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  kind of effect
                                                       yes                                  (caused by                                                                                                                                                                        Tendencies
                                                                                                                                                                                                  no     yes                                                                                                                                                             sham-exposure /                                    cw vs. pw or vs. control
                                                        fix  Point of                        irridation)      acc.                                                                                                               Kind of difference                        (without statistical
                                                                                                                                          acc.                                                                                                                                                         The authors conclude/                  Action-hypothesis          shelf control /                           ↑+; ↑++; ↓+; ↓++; ↕+; ↕++ ("changes"); ´-; nn
                                                     =contro measure                                       pull-down-                                                                                                                                                         significance)
                                                                                                                                      list below                                                                                                                                                            suggest…                            (if mentioned)           pre-exposure/
                                                       lled   ment                                           menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         no control/ n.n.
                                                        nn                                     yes;                                                                                              104      59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                sham/control                 cw                        pw               effect categories
                                                                                                no                                                                                               63.8%   36.2%                               (uncompleteley simplified)

                                                                                                                                                   Previous                                                      no heartbeat modification; cardiac frequ. shifted                                Therefore, the authors concluded       dragging phenomena of MWs: nn                         nn                      ´-(heartbeat              ´-(heartbeat
                                                                                                                                                   experiments                                                   towards pulse rep. rates but maintained its                                      that any heartbeat increase was not    based on effects on the sodium-                                               modification)           modification); ↕+
                                                                                                                                                   showed that applied                                           characteristic frequency distribution;                                           related to temperature variations.     potassium and                                                                                         (dragging effect)
                                                                                                                                                   modulated                                                                                                                                      Dragging and regularization effects,   sodium-calcium exchange
                                                                                                                                                   microwaves (MWs)                                                                                                                               observed when                          processes.
  heart frequency (instantaneous,                                                external                                                          could capture and                                                                                                                              the samples were irradiated for
dragging effects, MW regularization                         fix                   Ringer        no            EXP         CVS          in vitro    entrain the beat of      organ function        no      -/-                                                                      nn             short periods, appeared during
   effects), interbeat fluctuations                                              solution                                                          an isolated chicken                                                                                                                            longer irradiation periods as well
                                                                                                                                                   embryo heart when                                                                                                                              and lasted through the entire
                                                                                                                                                   the modulation                                                                                                                                 exposure time.
                                                                                                                                                   frequency was
                                                                                                                                                   slightly faster than
                                             Tes- at the                                                                                           Theunperturbed
                                                                                                                                                   the authors                                                   Minimal changes in Tes and MHP; no reliable                                 The authors concluded that partial nn                                   sham exposure             nn                    ´- (Tes); ↕+ (Tsk)        ´- (Tes); ↕+ (Tsk)
 subjective judjements; deep body           atrium of the                                                                                          examined                                                      differences between the effects of CW and PW                                body exposure of adult humans to
 temp(Tes) and average skin temp              heart; Tsk-                                                                                          thermoregulatory                                              irradiation; Tes did not exceed 0.1 C, which falls                          CW or PW 2,450-MHz RF radiation
      (Tsk) (Luxtron probe).;                 at ventral                                                                                           responses of                                                  within the variability range of the Luxtron probe.                          does not stimulate increases in Tes.
                                                 upper                                                                                             humans to partial-                                            Local Tsks showed similar power density dependent                           As was the case in two previous
  Metabolic heat production(MHP)     yes at    thigh, left                                                                                         body                                                          trends for CW and PW irradiation with only one                              studies (Adair et al. 1998 and
(oxygen and carbon dioxide fractions fixed upper chest,                                                                   RES;         in vivo     irradiation with                                              exception. The Tsk measured at the upper back                               1999), the magnitude of the
                                                                                                yes           EXP                                                        thermoregulation         no      -/-                                                                     nn
           in expired air);         ambient ventral left                                                                  TMP         probands     pulsed wave (PW)                                              (facing the antenna) was significantly greater during                       measured thermophysiological
                                       T°   forearm, left                                                                                          or continuous wave                                            PW than during CW irradiation. Local sweat rates                            responses was power density-
    local skin blood flow(SkBF)             upper back,                                                                                            (CW)                                                          and SkBFs were both Ta- and power density-                                  dependent and related to the
       (Dopplerflowmeters);                     central                                                                                            radiofrequency                                                dependent, and showed greater inter-subject                                 prevailing thermal environment.
                                             lower back,                                                                                           (RF) radiation. Two                                           variability than other measures between CW and PW                           There is no clear evidence for a
        local sweating rates                 and central                                                                                           experiments were                                              exposure. The subjective judgments made during                              differential response to CW and
                                               forehead                                                                                            conducted, one in                                             the experiments generally matched measured                                  PW RF radiation. Experiments
                                                                                                                                                   A number of                                                   Increase in the calcium current were proportional to The temperature        The authors calculated the heating nn                                   nn                        nn                   ↑+ (calcium current)      ↑+ (calcium current)
                                                                                                                                                   studies have                                                  the SAR only and did not depend on the parameters    change values          effect of MWF exposure in
                                                                                                                                                   suggested that                                                of modulation. A solution flow speed of 2-3 ml/min   computed from the      comparison to the temperature
                                                                                                                                                   calcium flux in                                               abolished any significant response to microwave      increment of calcium coefficient (Q10) of the calcium
                                                                                                                                                   neural tissue may                                             radiation.                                           current somewhat       current, and concluded that the
                                                                                                                                                   be very sensitive to                                                                                               exceed the             effects of MWF can be attributed to
        intracellular dialysis to                                                                                                                  the effects of                                                                                                     experimental value for a thermal effect.
                                                                                 external                                BMP;                      amplitude-                                                                                                         the change in
follow the calcium current of mollusk                       fix                                 yes           EXP                      in vitro                         membrane function         no      -/-
                                                                                 solution                                CEF                       modulated, low-                                                                                                    temperature which
               neurones
                                                                                                                                                   intensity                                                                                                          might indicate
                                                                                                                                                   microwave fields                                                                                                   selective overheating
                                                                                                                                                   (MWF). In an                                                                                                       of the cells in the
                                                                                                                                                   attempt to isolate                                                                                                 MWF, but is more
                                                                                                                                                   the specific                                                                                                       likely only the
                                                                                                                                                   components of the                                                                                                  consequence of
                                                                                                                                                   MWF effect, the                                                                                                    measurement errors.
                                                                                                                                                   In order to assess                                            MW irradiation markedly decreased specific 3H-                              The authors conclude that ligand     Mechanism for MW binding           nn                        nn                    ↓++(specific ligand     ↓++(specific ligand
                                                                                                                                                   possible effects of                                           camphor binding in membrane suspensions while                               binding inhibition occurs only in    inhibition: the formation of field                                                      binding)                binding)
                                                                                                                                                   an electromagnetic                                            nonspecific 3H-camphor binding was not affected.                            intact membranes in this model.      gradients within the                                                             ´- (non-specific ligand ´- (non-specific ligand
                                                                                                                                                   field on ligand                                               Inhibition of 3H-camphor binding was not modulation-                                                             heterogenous regions of the                                                             binding)                binding)
 binding of camphor to the isolated                                                                                                                binding to receptor                                           frequency dependent and was not a linear function of                                                             membranes activates some
                                                                                                                         BMP;                      elements, the                                                 SAR. The mean reduction was 44.9% at a SAR of 3                                                                  membrane enzymes which
   membrane fraction of olfactory                           fix                    nn           no            EXP                      in vitro                         membrane function         no      -/-                                                                    none
                                                                                                                         SEN                       effects of                                                    W/kg. Receptor binding inhibition was the same at                                                                induce shedding of specific
             epithelium
                                                                                                                                                   microwave (MW)                                                control temperatures of 10, 20, and 37 C.                                                                        membrane proteins into
                                                                                                                                                   irradiation on                                                                                                                                                                 solution.
                                                                                                                                                   the binding of
                                                                                                                                                   camphor to the
                                                                                                                                                   isolated membrane
                                                                                                                                                   The effects of a                                              Binding of ligands to cell membranes was                                         nn                                     Enzymatic peroxidation of lipids nn                   nn                      ↕+ (bindings of      ↕+ (bindings of ligands
                                                                                                                                                   continuous wave or                                            differentially affected by exposure to microwaves.                                                                      in localized areas of receptor                                                 ligands to cell       to cell membranes
                                                                                                                                                   pulse-modulated,                                              Under the same field conditions, binding of ligands                                                                     binding remain a possibility for                                            membranes were            were differentially
                                                                                                                                                   900 MHz                                                       depends on the type of ligand and membranne.                                                                            a mechanism.                                                              differentially affected)        affected)
                                                                                                                                                   microwave field                                               Binding is not dependent on modulation or on a
                                                                                                                                                   were studied by in                                            change in the constant of stimulus-receptor binding
                                                                                                                         BMP;
binding of ligands to cell membranes                        nn                     nn           nn            EXP                      in vitro    vitro assays of rat   membrane function        no      -/-    but depended on a shedding of the membrane's                      nn
                                                                                                                         CEF
                                                                                                                                                   chemoreceptors.                                               receptor elements into solution. The magnitude
                                                                                                                                                   The pulsed field                                              of inhibition correlated with the oxygen
                                                                                                                                                   was modulated as                                              concentration in the exposed suspension.
                                                                                                                                                   rectangular waves                                             Antioxidants (dithiothreitol and ionol) inhibited the
                                                                                                                                                   at rates of 1, 6, 16,                                         shedding of receptor elements. The microwave
                                                                                                                                                   32, 75, or 100 pps.                                           exposure did not cause an accumulation of
                                                                                                                                                   The effects of                                                capacitance: The capacitance of unmodified BLM                                   The authors concluded that all                       nn                           nn                  nn              ↕+ (TPhB)                   ↕+ (TPhB)
                                                                                                                                                   millimeter waves                                              decreased reversibly 1.2 +/- 0.5% after CW                                       MMW-induced changes in                                                                                             ↕(+) (Gramicidin)           ´- (Gramicidin)           change (cw)
                                                                                                                                                   (MMW) on the                                                  irradiation (61.22 GHz, 20 mW) for 5 min. BLM                                    membrane capacitance and
                                                                                                                                                   capacitance and                                               modified by 2 different concentrations of TPhB                                   currents
                                                                                                                                                   conductance of                                                showed a reversible increase of 5 +/- 1% in the                                  were equivalent to heating by
                                                                                                                                                   bilayer lipid                                                 membrane current. Similar results were obtained                                  approximately 1.1 C, and were
                                                                                                                                                   membranes (BLM),                                              after irradiation for 5 min at other frequencies in the                          therefore
                                                                                                                                                   formed from                                                   54-76 GHz range with a 1 GHz step lead. No                                       thermal in nature and without
                                                                                                                                       physical    phosphatidylcholine                                                                                                                            "resonance-like" characteristics.
           capacitance;                                                           in the                                                                                                                         resonance-like effects on membrane capacitance,
                                                            fix                                 yes           EXP         PHY           model      and cholesterol in    membrane function        -/-     yes                                                                      nn
           conductance                                                           sample                                                                                                                          ionic channel currents, or TPhB transport were
                                                                                                                                       system      decane, was                                                   detected.
                                                                                                                                                   reported in this
                                                                                                                                                   paper.                                                        Consistent with a thermal explanation, PW and
                                                                                                                                                   The BLM were 10(-                                             CW irradiation at the same average temporal
                                                                                                                                                   5) mm in thickness.                                           powers effected the same changes in TPhB
                                                                                                                                                   Some membranes                                                transport.Changes correlated with a temperature
                                                                                                                                                   were modified with                                            rise of 1.1 +/- 0.1 C at an output power of 20 mW
                                                                                                                                                   gramicidin A or                                               measured at the waveguide outlet. The rate of
                                                                                                                                                   amphotericin B,
                                                                                                                                                   A direct cytogenetic                                          temperature rise was 0.48 +/- 0.04 C/sec. was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The cytogenetic effect of MW irradiation                                         The authors suggest that it involves nn                                nn                    nn                      ↕+ (cytogenetic     ↕+ (cytogenetic effects
                                                                                                                                                   effect of low-level                                           found to vary with the intensity. Reduced number                                 a stimulation of genetic repair as a                                                                              effects vary with the vary with the intensity;
                                                                                                                                                   microwave (MW)                                                of aberrations at 10 or 50 uW/cm2, and an increase                               result of enhanced production of                                                                                 intensity; reduction of       reduction of
                                                                                                                                                   irradiation would                                             in aberrant hepatocytes at 500 uW/cm2. The                                       thyroid hormones.                                                                                                   aberrations and          aberrations and
 number of cells with chromosomal                                                                                                                  not be expected                                               mutagenic increase is equivalent to an ionizing                                                                                                                                                    increase in aberrant    increase in aberrant
                                                                                                                          END;        in vivo ->   because of the low                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   hepatocytes)            hepatocytes)
 aberrations (in late anaphase and                          nn                     nn           nn            EXP                                                          genotoxicity           no      -/-    radiation dose of 0.5 Gy in rats of the same series.              nn
                                                                                                                          GEN            vitro     energy potential of                                           Removal of the thyroid gland led to the loss of the
          early telophase)
                                                                                                                                                   such radiation,                                               antimutagenic effect of MW irradiation. The
                                                                                                                                                   however an indirect                                           antimutagenic effect of MW radiation cannot be
                                                                                                                                                   effect may be                                                 explained by faster removal of damaged cells.
                                                                                                                                                   possible though the
                                                                                                                                                   neuroendocrine
                                                                                                                                                   The effects of long-                                          Exposure to MW resulted in growth delay throughout                               The authors suggest that the           nn                              shelf control         nn                     ↓+(body weight)           ↓+(body weight)
                                                                                                                                                   term exposure to                                              the entire experiment. The decrease in weight gain                               observed changes in body weight
                                                                                                                                                   microwaves (MW)                                               was observed after irradiation with both the CW and                              were associated with MW-induced
            body weight                                     nn                     nn           nn            EXP         GRO           in vivo    of nonthermal                 growth           no      -/-    PW MWs at all three frequencies over the 10-60                    nn             stimulation of thyroid gland function.
                                                                                                                                                   intensity                                                     uW/cm2 PFD range. Significant differences
                                                                                                                                                   were studied in                                               (p<0.001) between irradiated and control rats were
                                                                                                                                                   random-bred albino                                            first observed by the end of week 1-2 and reached
                                                                                                                                                         The authors                                             HCAI was 2, 1.8, and 3 times higher in groups 1, 2,
                                                                                                                                                       conducted two                                             and 3 (cw), respectively,
                                                                                                                                                           series of                                             compared to control group 4 (p<0.05). The HCAI
                                                                                                                                                    experiments on the                                           was 1.4, 1.5, and 1.9 times
                                                                                                                                                           effects of                                            higher in groups 5, 6, and 7 (pw), respectively,                                 The authors conclude that any
                                                                                                                                                          microwave                                              compared to control group 8                                                      change in thyroid gland function
                                                                                                                                                        irradiation on                                           (p<0.05) in the second series. (see remarks)                                     (both lower and higher than normal
     index of hepatocytes with                                                                                                                      mature (3-mo-old)                                                                                                      difference between     levels of thyroid hormone)
                                                                                                                          END;        in vivo ->                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ´-(mutagenic
     chromosome aberrations                                 nn                     nn           nn            EXP                                   white mongrel rats.       genotoxicity        no      -/-                                                                 PW and CW is        enhances the mutagenic effect of                     nn                      shelf control                        ↑+(mutagenic effect)     ↑+(mutagenic effect)
                                                                                                                          GEN            vitro                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         effect)
               (HCAI)                                                                                                                                In the first series,                                                                                                       insignificant     microwaves, while normal function
                                                                                                                                                        animals were                                                                                                                              of the thyroid gland is an important
                                                                                                                                                          exposed to                                                                                                                              condition for the stabilization of
                                                                                                                                                      continuous 2450                                                                                                                             chromosome integrity.
                                                                                                                                                     MHz microwaves
                                                                                                                                                        (CMW). The
                                                                                                                                                            animals
                                                                                                                                                     were divided into
                                                                                                                                                      Electromagnetic                                            no indication on human sensitivity to EM radiation,
             sensivity;                                                                                                                                                     changes of the
                                                                                                                                                       (EM) detectors                                            both PW and CW MW or RF, was found in humans                                                                                                                                                       ´- (sensitivity to low
     EM emission from subjects                                                                                                         in vivo                            neurological system;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ´- (sensitivity to low
                                                            nn                     nn           nn            EXP         HYP                         covering a wide                             no      -/-    with extrasensory phenomena                                       nn                              nn                                  nn                           nn                  nn              levels of EM
            performing                                                                                                                probands                                 physiology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    levels of EM radiation)
                                                                                                                                                           range of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       radiation)
 alleged extrasensory phenomena
                      Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                               frequencies were                                                                                                                                              Seite 2 von 100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                      Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                                                                                                                                    used to search for
                 Thermal
                 nature of
Reversibility
                  effect
  of effect
                    (if
                mentioned)

 yes/no/nn

     nn          athermal




     nn           thermal




     nn           thermal




     nn             nn




     nn             nn




     yes          thermal




     nn             nn




     nn             nn




     nn             nn




     nn             nn

                   Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                             81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                              Seite 3 von 100
                   Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                              Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
   Nu                                                                  Author                                                   Publication                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure                                                                                                                                                                                       Test-Objects
   mbe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Proximity                                                                                                                                                            Number           Parts of
   Stu Sorting-                                                                                                                                                                                     Pulse repetition          Pulse                    Intensit      Powerflux-density                                                                                 Technical              Exposure device                                                    Kind
                          Names                                          Affilation       Address   Country   Year    Title                               Journal              Frequency                                                  Modulation                                                          Specific absorption rate (SAR)                   to                                                                   Duration of exposure                     Human Biological object            Gender           of            organism                    System of body
   dy Name *                                                                                                                                                                                          frequency               width                        y              (PFD)                                                                                       application       (device to generate the field)                                          of exp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAR                                                                                                                                                              objects         exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       avarage                                                                              energy        threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             clearly     acc.                                                                     acute=
                                                                                                                      Abbreviations:                                                                                                                                 CW-                    PW-          CW-                PW-             deposit                                   CW-               PW-                                        <day
   163                                                                                                                                                                  min.     max. further        min.      all      min.      all                   / peak                                                                                               below;   Pull-Down-                                                                                                                                                              whole body;
                                                                                                                      CW = Continuos Wave                                                                                                                          exposure               exposure     exposure           exposure         CW vs. PW                                exposure          exposure                                   temporar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          [W]                                                                                              close to;     Menu                                                                                                                                                                  part body;
                                                                                                                      EMF = Electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          near-field                  y= <<life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           average /                          average /      cw < pw         clearly                                                                                          continuous                      animal                                              cell;                                acc.
                                                                                                                      Field(s)                                          [GHz]    [GHz]   [GHz]       [Hz]     [Hz]      [µs]      [µs]                            [mW/cm2]                                 [W/Kg]                                                                                                     far-field        date         time                     1 = yes                            female,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             peak                               peak         cw > pw         above                                                                                            intermittent                 (type, age)                                            cell                             list below
                                                                                                                      MW = Microwave(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 n.n.                      chron=                                                        male, nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          [mW/cm2]                             [W/Kg]        cw ≤ pw       (ref. 0,08                                                                                                                                                                         component;
                                                                                                                      PW = Pulsed Wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            near life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cw ≥ pw         W/kg /                                                                                                                                                                              model
                                                                                                                      RF = Radiofrequency                                                                                                                         common mark                            common                           (SAR- or PFD-                                common mark means:                                           time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      means:                           mark means:                        value)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 W/kg)                   not differently mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   not differently                     not differently                                                                                                                             multi=




                                                                                                                      ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAP
                                                                                                                      HIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       organ
                                   Baranski, S.;                                                                                             Acta Physiol
    11    Baranski, S.                                                               nn      nn      Poland    1967    STUDIES ON THE EFFECT                              3        3       none       nn       nn        nn        nn       pulsed       nn                        5-7                                   nn                        nn       above         nn                     nn                       nn            nn        chronic         nn           nn               nn                 nn              nn               nn                          (nervous;
                                   Edelwejn, Z.                                                                                               Pol 18(4)
                                                                                                                       OF MW ON THE CENTRAL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 thermo-regulation)
                                                                                                                          NERVOUS SYSTEM




                                                                                                                      Histological and histochemical
                                                                                                                      effect of MW irradiation on the    Am J Phys
    12    Baranski, S.               Baranski S.                                     nn      nn      Poland    1972                                                      nn       nn       none       nn       nn        nn        nn       pulsed       nn                          nn                                  nn                        nn         nn          nn                     nn                       nn            nn          nn            nn           nn               nn                 nn              nn               nn                        whole organism
                                                                                                                         central nervous system of       Med 51 (4)
                                                                                                                          rabbits and guinea pigs




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      RF cavity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      amplifier
                                               State Univ. of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (model
                                                 New York;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         10W1000M7)                                                                                                                 34 birds (133
                                                  Univ. of                                  RESPONSES OF NEURONS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    driven by an                                                                          zebra finches                         neurons)           cell:
                            Beason, R. C.;                                                                                Neurosci Lett                                                                                                                                                    /0,1; 0,5                                                                                    nn           HP 8350A                                                                                                                                                                           cell
                                                                            USA      Columbus Ave., Sandusky, OH 44870 (present address/R.C.B.); Dept. ofZoology, J. W.217
v. Ave., Monroe, LA 71209, e-mail: beason@ulm.edu (RR/R.C.B.);USDA/APHIS/WS/WRC, 61002002
     13 Beason, R. C.                           Louisiana at                                    TO AN AMPLITUDE                           0.9      0.9      none        Goethe Univ., Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt a.M., Germany (P.S.)
                                                                                                                                                                                217        nn      nn         pulsed           nn          nn                                                                    nn             0.05               nn       below         nn                                              nn        10 minutes     acute       continuous       0         (Taenopygia              nn                         neurons of the
                              Semm, P.                                                                                       333(3)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    sweep                                                                                                                                                                         (nervous)
                                                  Monroe;                                  MODULATED MW STIMULUS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            guttata)                             cw: 3         avian brain
                                               J. W. Goethe                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           oscillator                                                                                                                neurons
                                                   Univ.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             with an HP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    83522A RF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   unit set at 900
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MHz.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Amplitude
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   modulation of
                              Birenbaum L;                                                                                                                J Microw
                                Kaplan IT;                                                                                                                  Power
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   part:
    14    Birenbaum L      Metlay W, Rosenthal                                       nn      nn     Canada     1969   Effects of MW on the rabbit eye       4 (4);       5.5      5.5      70         nn       nn        nn        nn       pulsed       nn                          nn                                  nn                        nn         nn          nn                     nn                       nn            nn          nn            nn            0             rabbit               nn              nn                                                 sensoric
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   eye
                                   SW;                                                                                                                   IEEE Trans
                                Schmidt H;                                                                                                               Biomed Eng
                                Zaret MM                                                                                                                    16(1)
                              Birenbaum L;
                                                                                                                       MW and infra-red effects on
                                Kaplan IT;                                                                                                                 J Microw                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                part:
                                                                                                                      heart rate, respiration rate and                                                                                                                                                                   nn                                 clearly                              nn                                                                                           rabbit                                                                           cardio-vascular
    15    Birenbaum L           Metlay W;                                            nn      nn     Canada     1975                                         Power        2.8      2.8                1000     1000      1.3       1.3       pulsed       nn             20                    20                                              cw = pw                     nn                                              nn            nn          nn            nn            0                                  nn              nn          entire dorsal
                                                                                                                      subcutaneous temperature of                                                                                                                                                                                                           above                                                                                                                                                                                                                respiratory
                             Rosenthal SW;                                                                                                                   10 (1)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              surface
                                                                                                                                 the rabbit
                                Zaret MM




                                                    Pacific
                                                                                                                                                                                         0,0001 -
                                                  Northwest                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  human                                                 part:
                                                                                                        LOW POWER RF AND MW                                                                0,96                                                                                                                                                                                       wire rod                                                                                                                                                                            whole organism
                                               Center for the                                                                                            Physiol Chem             9,6                                             2 on                                -13      -10              -9                                                          clearly                                     open              nn                                                            (men and women,                                           torso;
    16      Bise, W.              Northwest                                        USA
                          PacificBise, W. Center for the Study Non-Ionizing Radiation, Box 22053, Portland, EFFECTS ON HUMAN
                                                                                              1978          OR 97222                                                  0.0001               (cw)       nn       nn        2                  pulsed       nn        10       - 10             10                          nn                   cw < pw                     nn         monopole                                           nn          nn            nn            1                              female, male      5+5                                   (nervous system, EEG
                                                 Study Non-                                                                                               Phys 10(5)             (pw)                                             6 off                                                                                                                     below                                     waveguide       (far-field)                                                             ages,                                               head;
                                                                                                            EEG AND BEHAVIOR                                                              8,5-9,6                                                                                                                                                                                     antenna                                                                                                                                                                              and behaviour)
                                                   Ionizing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18-48 yr)                                             sternum
                                                                                                                                                                                           (pw)
                                                  Radiation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    cell:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              neurons of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cell                                           large parietal
                                                                                                         BURSTING RESPONSES OF                            Bioelectro-                                                                                                                                                                                       below /
         Bol'shakov, M.       Bolshakov, M. A.;      USSR Acad. of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (neurons of large                                       ganglia of                             cell
    17                                                                               USSR
                                Inst. of Biological Physics, USSR Acad. of Science, Puschino, Moscow Region, USSR NEURONS TO MW
                                                                                                 1992    LYMNEA                                           magnetics      0.9      0.9      none       0.5   0,5 - 110    nn        nn       pulsed       nn                          nn                    0.5 - 15            0,5 - 4        cw ≥ pw      close to /     nn        modified waveguide system             nn            nn         acute       continuous       0                                  nn              nn
               A.              Alekseev, S. I.           Science                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        parietal ganglia of                                       Lymnea                             (nervous)
                                                                                                                RADIATION                                    13(2)                                                                                                                                                                                           above
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Lymnea stagnalis)                                     stagnalis (after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  pronase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 digestion)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0,12 / 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2,5;                                                                                                            (first                                                                                                                                                          embryo
                                                                                                                         EFFECT OF LOW-
                              Bol'shakov, M. A.;                                                                                                                                                               6;                                                                                                         experiment)                                                                                                                                                  (Drosophila melano-
                                                                                                                        FREQUENCY PULSE-                 Radiats Biol
         Bol'shakov, M.        Kniazeva, I. R.;      Tomsk State                                                                                                                                              10;                                                                                                                                         above (cw)                                                                                                                       gaster, line                                                                                cell
    18                                                                               Russia
                                              Tomsk State Univ., 634050 Russia, e-mail: physiol@bio.tsu.ru
                                                                                                  2001                 MODULATED 460 MHz EM               Radioecol     0.46     0.46      none       2.5                nn        nn       pulsed       nn                          nn                           6                           cw > pw                     nn        "Romashka" device (Russia)            nn         5 minutes     acute       continuous       0                                  nn            30,000             cell
               A.                Lindt, T. A.;           Univ.                                                                                                                                                16;                                                                                                         0,12; 0,24;                     below (pw)                                                                                                                      Cantor S.; at                                                                              (embryo)
                                                                                                                          IRRADIATION ON                    41(4)
                              Evdokimov, E. V.                                                                                                                                                                22;                                                                                                         0,36; 0.5 /                                                                                                                                                  sensitive age: 15 hr,
                                                                                                                       DROSOPHILA EMBRYOS
                                                                                                                                                                                                               40                                                                                                           (second                                                                                                                                                           10 min)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          experiment)




                          Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Seite 4 von 100
                          Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                       Measurement                                                                       Classification                                                                                                                                                                                                    Objectives and Results

                                                                                                                                                                                 Biological
               Measured                                         Temperature                     Temperatu                                 Type of
                                                                                                                 Class      Category                       Abstract              endpoint                                                                     Difference between CW and PW effects                                                                                                                           Biological effects of CW and PW exposure
              parameters                                          control                       re effects?                                study
                                                                                                                                                                                  of view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        kind of effect
                                                           yes                                  (caused by                                                                                                                                                                         Tendencies
                                                                                                                                                                                                      no     yes                                                                                                                                                                   sham-exposure /                                cw vs. pw or vs. control
                                                            fix  Point of                        irridation)      acc.                                                                                                               Kind of difference                         (without statistical
                                                                                                                                              acc.                                                                                                                                                         The authors conclude/                     Action-hypothesis             shelf control /                       ↑+; ↑++; ↓+; ↓++; ↕+; ↕++ ("changes"); ´-; nn
                                                         =contro measure                                       pull-down-                                                                                                                                                          significance)
                                                                                                                                          list below                                                                                                                                                            suggest…                               (if mentioned)              pre-exposure/
                                                           lled   ment                                           menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   no control/ n.n.
                                                            nn                                     yes;                                                                                              104      59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       sham/control               cw                        pw               effect categories
                                                                                                    no                                                                                               63.8%   36.2%                               (uncompleteley simplified)

                                                                                                                                                          Es wurde eine          Die chronische Exposition bei Mikrowellen innerhalb
                                                                                                                                                         Reihe von EEG-          des 10 cm Bandes (Leistungsflussdichte 7 mW/cm²),
                                                                                                                                                               und               die nicht die Temperatur erhöht, erzeugt sowohl
                                                                                                                                                        morphologischen          funktionelle als auch morphologische Änderungen.
                                                                                                                                                         Untersuchungen          Ihre Stärke nimmt zu, wenn Pulsmodulation und                                    Das Nicht-Vorhandensein
      morphological/ histopathological                                                                                                                  durchgeführt, um         keine kontinuierliche Modulation angewendet wird.                              erkennbarer funktioneller und
         changes in brain-tissue-cuts                                                                                                                   den Einfluss einer       Das Nicht-Vorhandensein einer großen Wirkung
                                                  rectal; at                                                                                                                                                                                                 morphologischer Änderungen nach
    (Hämatoxylin-Eosin-Färbung; Nissl-                                                                                                                     Mikrowellen-          einer einzelnen Mikrowellen-Exposition
                                                the cerebrall                                                                                                              morphological and                                                                 Exposition bei 3 cm Mikrowellen ist
                  Färbung);                                                                  EOR;            nn
                                                    cortex                                                                                              Exposition auf das       (Leistungsflussdichte 5-7 mW/cm²) und die
                                                                                                                                                                             pathological                                                                    ein Nachweis für die Abhängigkeit                                                                                        ↑+                     ↑++
      effects on the neurologic system   yes                       yes          EXP          NES;      (in vivo; in                                              -/-
                                                                                                                                                       Zentralnervensyste yes    gleichzeitige Verstärkung der Änderungen, wenn die            nn                                                             nn                         nn                   nn                                                            amplification (pw)
                                                   surface;                                                                                                                    changes;                                                                      der Wirkung von der Wellenlänge.                                                                                   thermal effect         athermal effect
          (EEG); Thermoregulation                                                            TMP           vitro)                                      m zu untersuchen.         Dauer der Exposition verlängert wird, deutet auf die
                                                 subcutaneo                                                                                                                thermoregulation                                                                    Dies wiederum scheint mit der
    (Rectaltemp.; Temp. of the surface                                                                                                                    Es wurde der           Möglichkeit der Kumulation der angewendeten
                                                      us                                                                                                                                                                                                      Absorption der Energie über das
        of the cerebrale cortex and in                                                                                                                   Unterschied der         Dosen hin. Der negative Effekt einer einzelnen                             Oberflächen-Gewebe verbunden zu
       subcutane tissue of the head)                                                                                                                   Wirkung von einem         Mikrowellen-Exposition gleichwertiger Länge hängt                                          sein.
                                                                                                                                                          gepulsten und          von der Leistungsflussdichte und von der Art der
                                                                                                                                                        einem konstanten         angewendeten Modulation ab.
                                                                                                                                                        (kontinuierlichen)       Die aufgedeckten Änderungen unter Pulsmodulation
                                                                                                                                                       elektromagnetische        scheinen unabhängig von der thermischen Wirkung
                                                                                                                                                        n Feld untersucht.       Diesein. Im Gegenteil dazu scheinen die eineder
                                                                                                                                                                                 zu Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass Art
                                                                                                                                                                                 chronische wiederholte Exposition in Mikrowellen, bei
                                                                                                                                                                                 Leistungsflussdichten, die keinen Temperaturanstieg
                                                                                                                                                                                 hervorrufen, zum Auftreten morphologischer
                                                                                                                                                                                 Läsionen führen könnte, indikativ für metabolische
                                                                                                                                                                                 Störungen der Myelinscheiden und der Glia-Zellen,
                                                                                                                                                                                 was durch das Auftreten seltsamer                                                                                                                                                                    ↓+                     ↓++
              Enzym-Aktivitäten;
                                                                                                                                                                                 metachromatischer kugeliger Körper in der weißen                                                                                                                                          (Acetylcholinesterase- (Acetylcholinesterase-
    morphologische/histopathologische                                                        CEF;                                         morphological and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  attenuation (pw)
                                                                                                             nn                                                                  Substanz des Gehirns und des Kleinhirns zum                                                                                                                                                       activity)               activity)
             Veränderungen des                                                               ENA;                                            pathological
ische/histopathologische Veränderungen (morphologische und histologische Bewertung des Gehirn-Gewebes (z.B. Läsionen, sphärische (kugelige) Körper, die metachromatisch anffärbbar sind, Ödeme; verschiedene Färbe-Methoden)); Effekte auf das neurologische System. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass eine chronische wiederholte Exposition in Mikrowellen, bei Leistungsflussdichten, die keinen Temperaturanstieg hervorrufen, zum Auftreten morphologischer Läsionen führen könnte, indikativ für metabolische Störungen der Myelinscheiden und der Glia-Zellen,
                                          nn          nn            no          EXP                     (in vivo ->                                              -/-      yes                                                                  nn                             nn                              nn                         nn                   nn
               Gehirngewebes;                                                                EOR;                                             changes;                           Ausdruck kommt. Eine proliferative Reaktion der Glia-
                                                                                                           vitro)                                                                Zellen wurde auch aufgedeckt. Biochemische                                                                                                                                                           ↓+                     ↓++
       Effekte auf das neurologische                                                         NES                                             cell function                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   attenuation (pw)
                                                                                                                                                                                 Bestimmungen und Bewertungen der                                                                                                                                                           (Bernsteinsäuredehyd (Bernsteinsäuredehydr
                   System
                                                                                                                                                                                 histochemischen Präparationen zeigen, dass die                                                                                                                                               rogenase-activity)      ogenase-activity)
                                                                                                                                                                                 Acetylcholinesterase-Aktivität und die Bernsteinsäure-
                                                                                                                                                                                 Dehydrogenase-Aktivität nach chronischer
                                                                                                                                                                                 Mikrowellen-Exposition abnimmt. Dieser Effekt ist
                                                                                                                                                                                 nach gepulster Mikrowellen-Exposition ausgeprägter
                                                                                                                                                                                 als nach Exposition bei kontinuierlichen Wellen (CW),
                                                                                                                        The authors                                              was showed some response to RF signal
                                                                                                                                                                                 69% tiefere biologische Effekte evoziert . exposure,                            The authors concluded that
                                                                                                                                                           examined the                                              52% excitation and 17% inhibitory response. With                                  irradiation of nerve cells in the avian
                                                                                                                                                        responses of bird                                            an unmodulated 900 MHz signal: none of 3 cells                                      brain with a RF signal typical of a
                                                                                                                                                         brain neurons to                                            exhibited any response.                                                           GSM cell phone produced changes
                                                                                                                                                            exposure to                                              Four cells that did not respond to the modulated                                   in neural activity for more than half
                                                                                                                                                       cellular phone-type                                           signal at its usual power                                                         of the measured cells (69% in these
                                                                                                                                                          radiofrequency                                             density (0.1 mW/cm2) were tested at higher power                                  experiments). Most cells responded                                                                                                         ↑++ (52%; excitation,        increase (pw)
                   neuronal
                                                                                                                                                       (RF) fields. Thirty- membrane function                        densities, up to 0.5                                                               by increasing their rate of firing (by                                                                                                    incresing firing rate) ;
                    activity                                    nn                     nn           nn            EXP         SIG           in situ                                                   -/-     yes                                                                       nn                                                                     nn                    pre-exposure        ↑(+); ↓(+)                ´-
                                                                                                                                                       four zebra finches                                            mW/cm2. Three of these cells showed no response                                        an average 3.5-fold), while a                                                                                                           ↓+ (17%; inhibitory
        (firing rate of the neurons)
                                                                                                                                                           (Taenopygia                                               at the higher power                                                                     minority of responding cells                                                                                                                respone)              decrease (pw)
                                                                                                                                                           guttata) were                                             densities and one cell responded at 0.3 mW/cm2                                    exhibited decreases in spontaneous
                                                                                                                                                        anesthetized with                                            with a depression of its                                                             firing. Whether similar neuronal
                                                                                                                                                        an im injection of                                           firing rate.                                                                      responses occur in other mammals,
                                                                                                                                                             0.05-mg/g                                                                                                                                  including humans, warrants further
                                                                                                                                                         ketamine:0.01-                                                                                                                                   study. The authors noted that a
                                                                                                                                                       mg/g xylazine and                                                                                                                               previous study with a GSM-type RF
                                                                                                                                                                             damage of eye lenses both by PW and CW at 5.5
                                                                                                                                                                             GHz, recognized at the 4 th day of irradiation                                                                   Preliminary results with 70 GHz
                                                                                           EOR;                                         changes of the                                                                                                       MW energy is more harmful at                                                                               ↑+ (damage of eye      ↑+ (damage of eye
     histological damage of zwischen      kontinuierlichen (CW) undyes gepulsten Mikrowellen-Befeldung gefunden werden. Eine Schädigung der Linse war nahezu immer am vierten Tag nach der Befeldung zu erkennen. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse, die bei unterschiedlichen Frequenzen erhalten wurden, weisen darauf hin, dass die Mikrowellen-Energie um so schädlicher wird, umso mehr die Frequenz zunimmt. Vorläufige Resultate der Befeldung bei 70 GHz lassen auf einen thermischen Effekt der Mikrowellen-Befeldung schließen
konnten keine Unterschiede eye lens einer nn           nn           einer      EXP                      in vivo                                               no      -/-                                                                  nn                                                   irradiation suggest thermal            nn                 nn
                                                                                            EYE                                       neurological system                                                                                                          lower frequencies.                                                                                          lenses)               lenses)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     effects of the MW.

                                                                                                                                                           Birenbaum et al.                                          no difference between the effects on the parameters
                                                                                                                                                          (1975), in another                                         at cw and pw
                   EKGs,                                                                                                      CVS;
                                                                               subcutaneo                                                                      endeavor to
      respiration rates, subcutaneous                          yes                                  yes           EXP         RES;          in vivo                                physiology         no      -/-                                                                       nn                               nn                                    nn                         nn                 nn                    ´-                        ´-
                                                                                   us                                                                   replicate the results
                temperatures                                                                                                  TMP
                                                                                                                                                           of Presman and
                                                                                                                                                                 Levitina,
                                                                                                                                                              concurrently
                                                                                                                                                               Temporary                                             Frequencies that produced an increased amplitude                                                                                                                                                         ↕++ (increased           ↕+ (increased
                                                                                                                                                                changes in                                           of EEG alpha component, increased slow wave                                                                                                                                                            amplitude of EEG         amplitude of EEG
                                                                                                                                                        electroencephalogr                                           index, and desynchronizations included 200, 350,                                                                                                                                                       alpha component,         alpha component,
                                                                                                                                                           ams (EEG) and                                             360, and 365 MHz CW radiation, and 9100 and 9150                                                                            Since the relaxation frequency                                           increased slow wave      increased slow wave
                                                                                                                                                             behavior were                                           MHz pulsed radiation. Frequencies that produced                                                                                of protein-bound water is                                                   index, and               index, and          amplification (cw)
                                                                                                                                                                 observed                                            decreased amplitude of EEG alpha component,                                                                                 considered to fall between 0,1-                                           desynchronizations;      desynchronizations;
                                                                                                                                                                                changes of the
                                                                                                                                                            in a pilot study                                         increased slow wave index, and desynchronizations                                                                               1 GHz, absorptions and                                                200, 350, 360, and      9100 and 9150 MHz
                  EEG;                                                                                                        BEH;         in vivo                            neurological system;
                                                                nn                     nn           nn            EXP                                         involving the                           -/-     yes    ranged from 130-960 MHz for CW radiation and                       nn                               nn                       quantum effects may be the              nn                 nn                365 MHz CW                  pulsed
                 behavior                                                                                                     CNS         probands                                 behaviour
                                                                                                                                                           exposure of five                                          9150 MHz for pulsed radiation. Mental and                                                                                   mecha-nistic basis for the EEG                                                  radiation)
                                                                                                                                                              men and five                                           behavioral changes were also noted and included                                                                                           changes.                                                                               ↓++ (decreased
                                                                                                                                                            women (ages,                                             short term memory impairment followed by                                                                                       It is likely that resonance                                              ↓++ (decreased          amplitude of EEG
                                                                                                                                                               18-48 yr) to                                          concentration inhibition and irritability, apprehension,                                                                         absorptions occurred.                                                 amplitude of EEG         alpha component,
                                                                                                                                                            radiofrequency                                           and mental and physical sluggishness.                                                                                                                                                                  alpha component,       increased slow wave
                                                                                                                                                                 (RF) and                                            The EEG changes seen in most of the                                                                                                                                                                  increased slow wave            index, and
                                                                                                                                                                microwave                                            participants were produced by CW RF radiation                                                                                                                                                              index, and          desynchronizations;
                                                                                                                                                           Previous studies                                          Exposure of BP-4 or unidentified neurons to a CW
                                                                                                                                                             have revealed                                           field at SARs from 0.5 to                                                         Because bursting responses to PW
                                                                                                                                                          differences in the                                         4.0 W/kg did not change firing rate patterns                                         irradiation were not due to ionic
                                                                                                                                                               response of                                           noticeably. However, PWs                                                          current activation by mediators or to
                                                                                                                                                                molluscan                                            within the same range of SARs caused changes                                       thermal effects in their system, the
                                                                                                                                                        neurons to CW and                                            in firing rate and provoked burst-like changes                                          authors propose that the
                                                                                                                                                                   to PW                                             independent of modulation frequency between                                       observed biological effects might
           spontaneous electrical                                                                                                                          electromagnetic                                           0.5 and 100 pps, but sensitive to SAR at a                                        have been caused by mechanical                                                                                                                                           change (pw)
                                                                                                                                                             fields (EMFs).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ´- (firing rate)        ↕+ (firing rate)
   activity and ionic currents of neurons                                            external                                                                                                                        threshold near 0.5 W/kg. Bursts occurred at the                                         vibrations in the chamber
                                                               yes                                  yes           EXP         SIG          in vitro     These investigators membrane function         -/-     yes                                                                       nn                                                                     nn                         nn                 nn          nn (interburst interval) ↓+ (interburst interval)
                 (firing rate,                                                       medium                                                                                                                          very beginning of exposure with a latency of 42 sec                                 resulting from exposure to the
                                                                                                                                                       explored the effects                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ´- (ionic currents)      ´- (ionic currents)
              bursting patterns)                                                                                                                                                                                     (+/- 22 sec), and did not reappear over the 10-min                                  pulse-modulated field. There is
                                                                                                                                                           of CW and PW                                              exposure period. PW exposure (SAR of 2 W/kg, 16                                      also no indication of a "window"
                                                                                                                                                              EMFs on the                                            pps) also decreased the interburst interval in                                      effect at a specific combination of
                                                                                                                                                           bursting patterns                                         neurons with irregular spiking activity from a mean of                              frequency and intensity, since the
                                                                                                                                                                (BPs) and                                            290 +/- 70 sec (n=50) to 140 +/- 21 sec (n=15). In                                bursting response to PW exposure
                                                                                                                                                       receptor systems of                                           these experiments, bursts were not evoked by                                       was not frequency-dependent over
                                                                                                                                                        neurons of Lymnea                                            conventional heating rates up to 0.2 C/sec, and in                                         the range examined.
                                                                                                                                                                 stagnalis.                                          fact, showed a decrease in firing rate and cessation
                                                                                                                                                            Reportedly, the
                                                                                                                                                          The authors have                                           The differences between exposed and sham-                                                To explain the frequency
                                                                                                                                                             shown earlier                                           irradiated groups appeared significant (at p<0.05) at                                dependence of PID, the authors
                                                                                                                                                          (Bol'shakov et al.,                                        all modulation frequencies. However, the PID was                                       suggested that at modulation
                                                                                                                                                               Radiats Biol                                          higher with exposure to fields modulated at 2.5,                                  frequencies of 2.5, 6, 22, and 40 Hz
                                                                                                                                                                Radioecol                                            6, 22, and 40 Hz (6-7%), and lower with fields                                     the EMF effect on embryos was of
                                                                                                                                                         36:676-680, 1996;                                           modulated at 10 and 16 Hz (3.4 and 3.1%,                                           a mainly thermal nature, whereas
     number of nonflown imagoes per                                                                                                                       BENER Abstract                                             respectively). The latter values were close to 3.2%,                               at 10 and 16 Hz both thermal and
                hundred                                                                                                                                    No. 16225) that                                           which was the effect of non-modulated EMR at an                                         non-thermal mechanisms                                                                                                                       ↑+ (PID)
                                                                                                                                                                 460-MHz                                                                                                                                                                                                                               sham ↑(+) vs.                                                          contrary effects
               ovipositions                                                                       no and                                                                                                             SAR of 6 W/kg. This comparison showed that the                                     contributed to the PID value. Non-                                         sham-exposure and                                               2.5, 6, 22 and 40 Hz
                                                                fix                    nn                         EXP         TER          in vitro                               teratogenity        -/-     yes                                                                       nn                                                                     nn                                      control ´- (PID          ↓+ (PID)
                    =                                                                              yes                                                     electromagnetic                                           isoeffective SAR in the case of a non-modulated                                     thermal effects may be in a sense                                            shelf control                                                       ↓+ (PID)
                                                                                                                                                           radiation (EMR)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                values)
        percentage of interrupted                                                                                                                                                                                    (continuous wave) field is 50 times as high as in the                               favorable and mitigate deleterious                                                                                                            10 and 16 Hz
           development (PID)                                                                                                                                     produces                                            case of frequency modulation.                                                                thermal effects.
                                                                                                                                                         teratogenic effects
                                                                                                                                                       in Drosophila, which                                          The second series of experiments were planned to                                  The authors emphasize that health
                                                                                                                                                                 are most                                            analyze the dependence of PID on the mean SAR                                       standards for pulse modulated
                                                                                                                                                              expressed in                                           value. The SARs corresponding to the pulse period                                 EMR should take into account the
                                                                                                                                                          embryos exposed                                            to pulse duration ratios indicated above were 0.12,                                         ambiguous
                                                                                                                                                          at an age of 15 hr                                         0.24, 0.36, and 0.5 W/kg. The results showed that                                  frequency dependence of its
                                                                                                                                                         10 min +/- 10 min.                                          PID increased with the mean SAR practically                                              biological effects.




                          Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Seite 5 von 100
                          Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                 Thermal
                 nature of
Reversibility
                  effect
  of effect
                    (if
                mentioned)

 yes/no/nn




                 thermal (cw)
     nn
                athermal (pw)




     nn            athermal




     nn                nn




     nn             thermal




     nn                nn




     yes               nn




                   athermal
     no           (chamber
                  vibrations)




                  athermal (10
                  and 16 Hz),
     nn
                thermal (2.5, 6,
                 22 and 40 Hz)




                      Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                             81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                 Seite 6 von 100
                      Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                              Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
   Nu                                                                   Author                                            Publication                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure                                                                                                                                                                                           Test-Objects
   mbe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Proximity                                                                                                                                                              Number           Parts of
   Stu Sorting-                                                                                                                                                                           Pulse repetition             Pulse                         Intensit       Powerflux-density                                                                                    Technical                Exposure device                                                     Kind
                           Names                                          Affilation   Address   Country   Year   Title                        Journal               Frequency                                                      Modulation                                                                 Specific absorption rate (SAR)                    to                                                                  Duration of exposure                         Human Biological object           Gender           of            organism                   System of body
   dy Name *                                                                                                                                                                                frequency                  width                             y               (PFD)                                                                                          application         (device to generate the field)                                           of exp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SAR                                                                                                                                                                objects         exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     avarage                                                                                  energy        threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               clearly     acc.                                                                        acute=
                                                                                                                  Abbreviations:                                                                                                                                    CW-                   PW-             CW-                  PW-            deposit                                     CW-               PW-                                         <day
    163                                                                                                                                                       min.     max. further        min.         all      min.      all                        / peak                                                                                                   below;   Pull-Down-                                                                                                                                                               whole body;
                                                                                                                  CW = Continuos Wave                                                                                                                             exposure              exposure        exposure             exposure        CW vs. PW                                  exposure          exposure                                    temporar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        [W]                                                                                                  close to;     Menu                                                                                                                                                                   part body;
                                                                                                                  EMF = Electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 near-field                    y= <<life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         average /                             average /       cw < pw         clearly                                                                                             continuous                      animal                                            cell;                                acc.
                                                                                                                  Field(s)                                    [GHz]    [GHz]    [GHz]       [Hz]       [Hz]      [µs]      [µs]                                  [mW/cm2]                                   [W/Kg]                                                                                                       far-field       date            time                     1 = yes                           female,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           peak                                  peak          cw > pw         above                                                                                               intermittent                 (type, age)                                          cell                             list below
                                                                                                                  MW = Microwave(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        n.n.                        chron=                                                       male, nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        [mW/cm2]                                [W/Kg]         cw ≤ pw       (ref. 0,08                                                                                                                                                                          component;
                                                                                                                  PW = Pulsed Wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     near life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cw ≥ pw         W/kg /                                                                                                                                                                               model
                                                                                                                  RF = Radiofrequency                                                                                                                            common mark                              common                            (SAR- or PFD-                                  common mark means:                                            time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     means:                             mark means:                         value)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 W/kg)                     not differently mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  not differently                       not differently                                                                                                                                 multi=




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   embryo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Drosophila melano-
                                                                                                            EFFECTS OF 460 MHz MW                                                                       6;
                               Bol'shakov, M. A.;                                                                                             Radiats Biol                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         gaster,
          Bol'shakov, M.                              Tomsk State                                          RADIATION AND ELEVATED                                                                       10;                                                                                                                                                 above (cw)                                                                                                                                                                                                                    cell
     19                           Tomsk I. R.;                                      Russia         physiol@bio.tsu.ru
                                Kniazeva,State Univ., 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050, Russia, e-mail: 2002                                        Radioecol      0.46      0.46     none        6                    nn       nn          pulsed           nn                       nn                                6             0,12 / 3       cw > pw                      nn                      nn                     nn        5 minutes         acute       continuous       0          Cantor S.,at           nn           15,000             cell
                A.                                        Univ.                                                 TEMPERATURE ON                                                                          16;                                                                                                                                                 below (pw)                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (embryo)
                               Evdokimov, E. V.                                                                                                  42(2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      sensitive age: 15 hr,
                                                                                                             DROSOPHILA EMBRYOS                                                                         22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 min))




                                                     Ogden                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0,36;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0,18;
                                                  BioServices                                                                                                                                                              10;                       7,2 - 160                                                 0,73;                                                                      Varian
                               Brown, D. O.;                                                            CHARACTERISTICS OF MW            Bioelectro-                                                                                                                                                                              0,36;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           nervous
                                                     Corp.;                                                                                                                                                              25.000;                       (CW);                                                   1,45;                                                                     traveling           Cober                                                                                mouse
g, MD (D.O.B., S-T.L.); Dept. of Microwave Res., Walter ReedArmy Inst. of Res., Washington, DC1994
     20   Brown, D. O.           Lu, S-T.;                                         USA         (E.C.E.); 6 Montgomery Village Ave., Suitemagnetics
                                                                                                                                          222, Gaithersburg, MD20879 (RR/S-T.L.)
                                                                                                              EVOKED BODY                               1.25    1.25   none                  80         80        10                   pulsed                                    nn                                               0,73;              nn       above          nn                                             nn            nn             nn            nn            0                               female           nn           whole body                 (MW induced body
                                                  Walter Reed                                                                                                                                                             2000                       160 or 16                                                 0,90;                                                                    wave tube         transmitter                                                                            (BALB/c)
                              Elson, E. C.hu                                                               MOVEMENTS IN MICE.               15(2)                                                                                                                                                                                 1.45                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          movements)
                                                  Army Inst. of                                                                                                                                                            ms                         for PW                                                   1,03;                                                                     amplifier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  kJ/kg
                                                      Res.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1,05




                                                                                                         DIFFERING EFFECTS OF
                                                                                                          PULSED AND CW MW                    IEEE Trans
                                                    Walter Reed                                                                                                                                                                                      5 / 5.000
           Brown, P. V.          Brown, P. V. K.;                                                        ENERGY UPON NERVE                      Microw                                                                                                                                                                                                        clearly                                                                                                                              nerves                                              cell:                               cell
     21                                              Army Walter Reed Army Inst. Research, Washington, DC 20012
                                  Dept. Microwave Research, Inst.                  USA       1980                                                               nn       nn       nn       1000       1000        1            1       pulsed          (PW)                      nn                                       123                   cw = pw                      nn                      nn                     nn            nn             nn            nn            0                                 nn             nn
               K.                 Larsen, L. E.                                                         FUNCTION AS DETECTED                  Theory Tech                                                                                                                                                                                                     above                                                                                                                                (crab)                                             nerve                             (nervous)
                                                      Research                                                                                                                                                                                        5 (CW)
                                                                                                           BY BIREFRINGENCE                     28(10)
                                                                                                            MEASUREMENTS




                                                                                                          MW RADIATION, IN THE
                                                                                                               ABSENCE OF                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cober high power microwave
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      pulsed;                                                                                                                                                                                        30 minutes;
           Browning, M.    Browning, M. D.;      The Rockefeller                                         HYPERTHERMIA, HAS NO                 Neurotoxicol                         2      500 (2,8    6000                                                       1; 5; 10; 20;          1; 5; 10; 20;                                                                                      generating system or                                        acute;      continuous;                                                                                                    histological cut
     22                                                                            USA
                   Lab. of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller Univ., 1230 York Ave., New York, NY10021
                                                                                               1988                                                            0.5      2.8                                      10000    10000    modulated at 16      nn                                                        1; 2 (chronic exp)            cw = pw       above          nn                                          far-field   23 h/daysfor                                    0               rat               nn             nn           whole body
               D.           Haycock, J. W.            Univ.                                              DETECTABLE EFFECT ON                 Teratol 10(5)                      2,45      GHz)      (2GHz)                                                            50                     50                                                                                       Microwave Cavity Laboratory                                     chronic     intermittent                                                                                                      (nervous)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hz                                                                                                                                               Model 15022 generator                          7 days
                                                                                                          SYNAPSIN I LEVELS OR
                                                                                                           PHOSPHORYLATION.




                                                                                                                                                                                                       0,5-32
                                                                                                                                                                                                      (0.3 Hz                                                                                                                                                                          tapered, open coaxial antenna
                            Caddemi, A.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            organ
                                                                                                                                               Bioelectro-                                           higher or                                                                                                                                                                                connected to a
                         Tamburello, C. C.;        Universita di                                           MW EFFECTS ON ISOLATED                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (heart of chick,                                        part:                           organ
     23                                                                                  Scienze, 90128 Palermo,Italy (RR/C.C.T.)
               Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Universita di Palermo, Viale delleItaly
           Caddemi, A.                                                                             1986                                        magnetics      2.45      2.45     none       0.5         lower     nn       nn          pulsed           nn                          3                                     0.95                  cw = pw      close to        nn              Hewlett Packard                         up to 3 hours      acute       continuous       0                                 nn             39
                            Zanforlin, L.;           Palermo                                                 CHICK EMBRYO HEARTS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               9 - 12 day old                                         heart                     (cardio-vascular)
                                                                                                                                                  7(4)                                               than the                                                                                                                                                                             model 8620B microwave
                         Torregrossa, M. V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      embryos)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       natural                                                                                                                                                                                   generator
                                                                                                                                                                                                      rhythm)




                                                   Universita di
                                                     Bologna;
                             Calzoni, G. L.;
                                                    Ass. per la                                           WEAK EXTREMELY HF MW
                              Borghini, F.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CromoStim 2000 unit                                                                                                                                    cell; (directly
                                                     Medicina                                               AFFECT POLLEN-TUBE
                            Del Giudice, E.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        irradiated)
                                                    Applicata                                            EMERGENCE AND GROWTH            J Altern                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (PromoPharma,                                                                                         pollen
                               Betti, L.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        nn                                       nn                   cw = pw                    medical        Republic of San Marino;                                                                                                                                 water, used for                        cell
                                                   M.M.); Associazione per la Medicina Applicataalla RicercaIN KIWIFRUIT: POLLEN ItalyComplement Nazionale di78
peranza@mail.cib.unibo.it (RR/A.S., G.L.C. F.D.R., alla Ricerca
    24 Calzoni, G. L.                                                               Italy       2003         Italiana sull'Aqua, Roma, (F.B.); Istituto 40           Nucleare, 10
                                                                                                                                                              Fisica 40 - 78 Milano,Italy (E.D.G.); Dipartim nn
                                                                                                                                                                                           10       nn                                 pulsed          0.02                                                                                                     nn                                                          nn        30 minutes        acute       continuous       0       (kiwifruit Actinidia      nn             nn
                              Dal Rio, F.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (0,02 W)                  application                                                                                                                                                             growth medium                     (reproductive)
                                                      Italiana                                             GRAIN IRRADIATION AND        Med 9(2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       device designed for magnetic                                                                              deliciosa)
                              Migliori, M.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 resonance therapy)                                                                                                                                       (indirectly
                                                    sull'Aqua;                                                 WATER-MEDIATED
                              Trebbi, G.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          irradiation)
                                               Istituto Nazionale                                                    EFFECTS
                             Speranza, A.
                                                     di Fisica
                                                     Nucleare




                                Capri, M.;
                              Scarcella, E.;
                               Fumelli, C.;       Univ. of Bologna;                                              IN VITRO EXPOSURE OF
                               Bianchi, E.;         Telecom Italia                                              HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES TO                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TEM cell                                                                                                     cell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (model IFI CC104SEXX)                                    1 hour/day
                               Salvioli, S.;            Mobile;                                                   900 MHz CW AND GSM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (lymphocytes,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      fed by a                                         for 3 days;
                               Mesirca, P.;        Univ. of Genoa;                                              MODULATED RF: STUDIES           Radiat Res                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   peripheral blood                    31 volunteers        cell:                           cell culture
Physics, Univ. of Bologna, Bologna,Italy (P.M., C.A., G.C., F.B.); TILab, Telecom ItaliaItaly
    25       Capri, M.                                                                   Mobile, Torino, Italy (A.A., A.S.); ICEmB,Centro Interuniversitario Interazione Campi Elettromagnetici e Biosistemi, Univ. nn Genoa, Genova,Italy (F.B.); Dept. Gerontological Res., INRCA, Anacona, Italy (C.Franceschi); CentroInterdipartimentale "L. Galvani," Bologna, Italy (M.C., G.C., F.B., C.Franceschi)
                                                                                                    2004                                                           0.9     0.9     none      217         217        of      nn       GSM-like            nn                   nn                 0,07/        0,076 /         cw = pw          below            nn                                                          nn        30 minutes-       acute      intermittent      1                                 nn
                               Agostini, C.;           INRCA;                                                      OF PROLIFERATION,               162(2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PC-controlled                                                                                            mononuclear cells,                      nn cells       lymphocyte                          (immune)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              power amplifier and/or a                               intervalls/day
                               Antolini, A.;            Centro                                                        APOPTOSIS AND                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         of human healthy
                              Schiavoni, A.;      Interdipartimenta                                                   MITOCHONDRIAL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         commercial GSM cell phone                                                                                       young volunteers)
                              Castellani, G.;      le "L. Galvani,"                                              MEMBRANE POTENTIAL.
                               Bersani, F.;
                              Franceschi, C.


                           Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Seite 7 von 100
                           Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                   Measurement                                                                       Classification                                                                                                                                                                                                      Objectives and Results

                                                                                                                                                                             Biological
           Measured                                         Temperature                     Temperatu                                 Type of
                                                                                                             Class      Category                        Abstract             endpoint                                                                     Difference between CW and PW effects                                                                                                                             Biological effects of CW and PW exposure
          parameters                                          control                       re effects?                                study
                                                                                                                                                                              of view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      kind of effect
                                                       yes                                  (caused by                                                                                                                                                                         Tendencies
                                                                                                                                                                                                   no     yes                                                                                                                                                                   sham-exposure /                                 cw vs. pw or vs. control
                                                        fix  Point of                        irridation)      acc.                                                                                                                Kind of difference                        (without statistical
                                                                                                                                          acc.                                                                                                                                                           The authors conclude/                   Action-hypothesis              shelf control /                        ↑+; ↑++; ↓+; ↓++; ↕+; ↕++ ("changes"); ´-; nn
                                                     =contro measure                                       pull-down-                                                                                                                                                          significance)
                                                                                                                                      list below                                                                                                                                                              suggest…                             (if mentioned)               pre-exposure/
                                                       lled   ment                                           menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                no control/ n.n.
                                                        nn                                     yes;                                                                                               104      59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sham/control               cw                         pw                effect categories
                                                                                                no                                                                                                63.8%   36.2%                              (uncompleteley simplified)

                                                                                                                                                    In a previous study                                           Exposures to continuous wave EMR at 24.5 or 40 C
                                                                                                                                                     (Bol'shakov et al.,                                          resulted in approximately the same dPID values: 3.2
                                                                                                                                                           Radiats Biol                                           +/- 0.7 or 3.8 +/- 1.1%, respectively. Effects of
                                                                                                                                                    Radioecol 41:399-                                             exposures with pulse modulation depended on
                                                                                                                                                               402,                                               modulation frequency, and were different at normal
                                                                                                                                                        2001; BENER                                               incubation temperature and under heating. At                                                                                                                                                                                   ↑++ (PID value, 6 and
                                                                                                                                                          Abstract No.                                                                                                                                                                          The authors assume that
 number of nonflown imagoes per                                                                                                                                                                                   frequencies of 6 and 22 Hz, dPID values in                                                                                                                                                                                     22 Hz, 24,5 und 40°C)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               exposure to pulse EMR at                                                                                                        increase (pw)
            hundred                                                                                                                                23743), the authors                                            exposures without heating were approximately 7%.                                                                                                                                                                               ↑+ (PID value, 10 and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              modulation frequencies of 10                           sham ↑(+) vs.
           ovipositions                                                          external                                                              showed that the                                            With heating, the EMR effect was insignificantly (by 1-                                                                                                       sham-exposure and                       ↑+ (PID value, 24.5         16 Hz, 24,5°C)
                                                           yes                                  yes           EXP         TER          in vitro                              teratogenity          -/-     yes                                                                        nn                              nn                        and 16 Hz initiates a non-                           control ´- (PID
                =                                                                medium                                                                      effect of                                            2%) higher. At frequencies of 10 and 16 Hz,                                                                                                                      shelf control                            und 40°C)            ↓+ (PID value, 10 and
                                                                                                                                                      pulse-modulated                                                                                                                                                                             thermal mechanism                                     values)
    percentage of interrupted                                                                                                                                                                                     exposures at 24 C resulted in dPID values                                                                                                                                                                                          16 Hz, 40°C)
                                                                                                                                                       electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                         that normalizes embryonic                                                                                                      contrary effects
       development (PID)                                                                                                                                                                                          approximating 4%, whereas at 40 C, the effect was
                                                                                                                                                    radiation (EMR) on                                                                                                                                                                                development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  significantly lower (approximately 1%, with p equal or
                                                                                                                                                   Drosophila embryos                                             less than 0.05).
                                                                                                                                                      depended on the
                                                                                                                                                           modulation
                                                                                                                                                           frequency.
                                                                                                                                                        Extending that
                                                                                                                                                      investigation, the
                                                                                                                                                    The characteristics                                           The incidence of MW evoked body movement                                           The authors concluded that
                                                                                                                                                        of microwave                                              inceresed with dose. The dose response curves                                      microwave evoked body
                                                                                                                                                         induced body                                             appeared to level off at doses higher than 16 J for                                movements can be considered to
                                                                                                                                                   movements in mice                                              either type of microwave mode. Significant                                         be a special example of a
                                                                                                                                                               were                                               differences in incidence rate were noted for                                       biological response to a high
                                                                                                                                                          investigated.                                           different peak or average power. A 20-W/20-J                                       rate of energy deposition as
                                                                                                                                                       Female BALB/c                                              microwave was therefore considered to be the                                       reflected by the high threshold for
                                                                             rectal or                                                             mice were placed in                                            requisite for evoking body movements at the                                        sc heating rate
body movements; body and cranial                                             along the                                                               a motion resistant                                           maximum rate in mice. Higher doses or higher                                       (0.24 C/sec). Due to the high sc                                                                                   ↑+(body movement)         ↑+(body movement)
                                                           yes                                  yes           EXP         BEH           in vivo                             motor system           no      -/-                                                            nn                                                                               nn                          yes                 nn
        sc temperatures                                                      middle of                                                                          test                                              power microwaves did not evoke additional                                          heating rates, the microwaves                                                                                      ↑+ (sc temperature)       ↑+ (sc temperature)
                                                                           the cranium                                                               chamber that was                                             responses. The mice also showed evoked body                                        used in these experiments must
                                                                                                                                                     placed in a low-Q                                            movements to the acoustic and tactile stimuli. The                                 be perceived by the mouse as an
                                                                                                                                                        [quality factor]                                          durations of the responses induced by the microwave                                intense thermal sensation but not
                                                                                                                                                       resonant cavity.                                           radiations and the acoustic and tactile stimuli did not                            a pain sensation because the
                                                                                                                                                               They                                               differ significantly. The maximum increases in body                                temperature increment was
                                                                                                                                                            had been                                              temperature induced by the microwave exposures                                     well below the threshold for
                                                                                                                                                   instrumented with a                                            were < 0.1 C. Sc temperature increases of 0.8-1.6                                  thermal pain. The results of this
                                                                                                                                                    thermistor inserted                                           C were observed. The increases were                                                study should be considered when
                                                                                                                                                        The rectum to
                                                                                                                                                       in theperipheral                                           independent of dose or data indicated that pulsed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Statistical analysis of the type of radiation. The
                                                                                                                                                    nerve response to                                             MW energy degraded the birefringence
                                                                                                                                                     microwave (MW)                                               amplitude more than CW energy of the same
                                                                                                                                                        radiation was                                             average power or commensurate heating. The rate
                                                                                                                                                        measured by                                               of degradation was also greater for pulsed energy.
                                                                                                                                                         following the                                            CW energy and heating caused no changes from
                                                                                                                                                     change in resting                                            the control condition.
                                                                                                                                                      birefringence of
 change in resting birefringence of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ´- (birefringence
                                                                                 external                                 PNS;                            crab nerves                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ´-                                     ↓+ (birefringence
           crab nerves;                                    yes                                  yes           EXP                      in vitro             coincident   membrane function         -/-     yes                                                                        nn                              nn                                   nn                         control                                 amplitude)                                       decrease (pw)
                                                                                 medium                                   SIG                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ´- (heating)                                    amplitude)
           temperature                                                                                                                              with propagation of
                                                                                                                                                   the action potential.
                                                                                                                                                        Nerves were
                                                                                                                                                    exposed to pulsed
                                                                                                                                                               MW
                                                                                                                                                    energy (5 kW peak
                                                                                                                                                   power, 1 usec pulse
                                                                                                                                                          width, 1000
                                                                                                                                                     pulses/sec pulse
                                                                                                                                                        Synapsin I, a                                             None of the various levels of acute exposure,
                                                                                                                                                      neuron-specific                                             even power densities producing
                                                                                                                                                      phosphoprotein                                              hyperthermia, had any significant effect on
                                                                                                                                                            present in                                            synapsin I levels, and only
                                                                                             yes (power                                                                                                                                                                     Chronic MW exposure
                                                                                                                                                          presynaptic                                             hyperthermic levels (50 mW/cm2) produced
                                                                                              densities                                                                                                                                                                         produced a slight         The authors conclude that MW
                                                                                                                                                     vesicles, may be                                             significant depression of synapsin
                                                                                            greater than                                                                                                                                                                           increase in                    exposure, in the                                                                                     `- (synapsin I levels);   `- (synapsin I levels);
                                                                                                                                                     used as a reliable                                           I phosphorylation. Chronic MW exposure also had
calcium-dependent phosphorylation                                                           10 mW/cm2                                 in vivo ->                           changes of the                                                                                     calcium-dependent         absence of hyperthermia, may not                                                             `- (synapsin I       ↓+(hyperthermic           ↓+(hyperthermic
                                                           yes                     nn                         EXP         SIG                             quantitative                             no      -/-    no significant effect on                                                                                                                 nn                     sham-exposure
      and levels of synapsin I                                                                prodiced                                   vitro                           neurological system                                                                                        synapsin I         significantly alter these components                                                              levels);      reduction of synapsin     reduction of synapsin
                                                                                                                                                           indicator of                                           synapsin I levels.
                                                                                            moderate (1-                                                                                                                                                                     phosphorylation, but of synaptic transmitter release and                                                                                          levels)                   levels)
                                                                                                                                                      neurotoxicity. In
                                                                                                3C)                                                                                                                                                                            the effect was not                neuronal function.
                                                                                                                                                    order to investigate
                                                                                            hyperthermia                                                                                                                                                                    statistically significant.
                                                                                                                                                    possible neurotoxic
                                                                                                                                                            effects of
                                                                                                                                                     microwave (MW)
                                                                                                                                                    radiation, calcium-
                                                                                                                                                           dependent
                                                                                                                                                    Based on previous
                                                                                                                                                            reports of                                            A preliminary experiment investigating the effects of                                   The authors concluded that
                                                                                                                                                   microwave-induced                                              increasing the temperature on heart rate found that                                  microwave irradiation of isolated
                                                                                                                                                          bradycardia                                             the beat rates increased linearly with temperature                                  chick embryo hearts alters cardiac
                                                                                                                                                         (decrease in                                             over the 35-40 C range by 0.1 to 0.25 Hz/C.                                          activity. CW irradiation caused a
                                                                                                                                                       beating rate) in                                                                                                                                slight bradycardia, while pulsed-
                                                                                                                                                    cardiac tissue from                                           Of the remaining 36, 26 started to pulse normally                                          modulated fields (in the                                                                                                                                     change (pw;
                                                                                                                                                     turtles and frogs,                                           within 10 min. The other 13 showed a persistent                                                                           The locking of the heart rate to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        physiological frequency range)                                                                                                                                    depending on
                                                                                                                                                           the authors                                            strong arrhythmia. In experiments with pulse-                                                                             the modulation frequency could                                                                         ↕+ (heart rate; ↕
                                                                                 external                                                                                                                                                                                                            locked the cardiac frequency to the                                                                                                                               modulation frequency)
         heart beat rates                                  yes                                  yes           EXP         CVS          in vitro         examined the       organ function          -/-     yes    modulated microwaves, modulation frequencies that                  nn                                                     reflect a rectification of the MW                              ´-              ↓+ (heart rate)          depending on
                                                                                 medium                                                                                                                                                                                                                modulation frequency, increased                                           nn (pre-exposure)
                                                                                                                                                            effects of                                            were at least 0.3 Hz higher or lower than the natural                                                                           signal at membrane                                                                             modulation frequency)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        heart rate amplitude, and could
                                                                                                                                                           microwave                                                                                                                                                                                       level.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  rhythm were used. In 85 of 108 tests, locking of the                                  regularize heart rates in cases
                                                                                                                                                   radiation on isolated                                          cardiac frequency to the modulation frequency                                           where strong arrhythmias or
                                                                                                                                                        chick embryo                                              was observed. The synchronization was typically                                        extremely weak activity were
                                                                                                                                                     hearts. Fifty one                                            delayed by up to 10 min, although in some cases it                                  evident. It is not easy to identify a
                                                                                                                                                          living hearts                                           was immediate. In the remaining 23 tests, no                                           mechanism for the observed
                                                                                                                                                    obtained from 9- to                                           significant effects were detected.                                                                 effects.
                                                                                                                                                      12-day old chick                                            In 6 tests, irradiation was performed with an initial
                                                                                                                                                       embryos were
                                                                                                                                                         The authors                                              modulation frequency close thethe rate of an pollen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Results were expressed as to percentage of                                                                                                                                                                                     ´- (tube emergence
                                                                                                                                                        examined the                                              grains producing a tube. A germination test on                                                                                                                                                                                 and growth, directly
                                                                                                                                                       effects of weak                                            basal medium using untreated pollen indicated                                                                                                                                                          ´- (tube emergence after direct irradiation)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and growth, directly
                                                                                                                                                        extremely high                                            germination was 80.0 +/0 3.0%.                                                       The authors concluded that either
                                                                                                                                                      frequency (EHF)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  after direct irradiation) ↑+ (tube emergence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The initial level of pollen tube emergence and                                        direct or indirect irradiation with
                                                                                                                                                           microwave                                              growth in directly irradiated pollen grains did not                                 EHF microwaves produced by the                                                                                                              and elongation, 2-4
                                                                                                                                                    radiation on pollen                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ↑(+) (tube emergence         days after direct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  differ significantly from control values when                                            CromoStim 2000 appear to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and elongation, 2-4
                                                                                                                                                   growth processes in                                            measured just after irradiation with pulsed                                           significantly affect pollen growth                                                                                                             irradiation)
                                                                                                                                                        kiwifruit. This                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     days after direct
                                                                                                                         GRO;                                               cell vitality, cell                   microwaves. The extent of tube growth however                                        processes. In both cases, water
 tube emergence; tube elongation                            nn                     nn           nn            EXP                      in vitro                                                    -/-     yes                                                                       nn                                                                    nn                         control              ´-                  irradiation)
                                                                                                                         REP                         system was used             division                         appeared to be significantly reduced at this time                                   appears to play a primary role, and                                                                                                          ↑++ (growth tube
                                                                                                                                                       as an objective,                                           (p<0.001). On days 2 and 4, however, both                                          the authors interpreted these results                                                                                                       emergence, indirect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ↑+ (growth tube                                  amplification (pw)
                                                                                                                                                      developmentally                                             percentage of tube emergence and elongation of                                          according to quantum electro                                                                                                           irradiation, g-stress)
                                                                                                                                                       well understood                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  emergence, indirect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  irradiated samples was significantly increased                                      dynamical coherence theory, which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        irradiation, g-stress)
                                                                                                                                                     model in which to                                            compared to the controls. The total duration of                                       suggests that the response has                                                                                                            ↓+ (tube elongation,
                                                                                                                                                    study processes of                                            pollen grain longevity following irradiation did not                                    implications for homeopathy.                                                                                                            indirect irradiation)
                                                                                                                                                    cellular growth and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ↓(+) (tube elongation,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  differ significantly from the control value.
                                                                                                                                                       polarity. Pollen                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   indirect irradiation)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rehydrated pollen grains that had received g-stress
                                                                                                                                                    samples of kiwifruit                                          and were cultured in growth medium made up
                                                                                                                                                   (Actinidia deliciosa),
                                                                                                                                                          The authors                                             Exposure to the GSM-like signal caused a small,
                                                                                                                                                        examined the                                              but statistically significant (p<0.05) 9% decrease in
                                                                                                                                                      effects of in vitro                                         cell proliferation when the lowest PHA dose (0.1
                                                                                                                                                   exposure of human                                              ul/ml) was used to stimulate the cells. A similar, but
                                                                                                                                                         lymphocytes                                              non-significant trend was observed in cells following
                                                                                                                                                          to 900-MHz                                                                                                        A similar but non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  treatment with 1-ul/ml PHA and treatment with 10
                                                                                                                                                      continuous wave                                                                                                        significant trend
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and 20-ng/ml alphaCD3. Exposure to the GSM                                          The authors concluded that GSM
  cell proliferation (by uptake of                                                                                                                   (CW) or GSM cell                                                                                                        (decrease in cell                                                                                                                                                    ↓+ (cell proliferation)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  signal caused a slight increase (3%) in apoptosis                                  modulated RF fields might be more
        tritiated thymidine)                                                                                                                       phone-like radiation                                                                                                     proliferation) was                                                                                                                                                        ↑+ (apoptosis)
                                                                                                                          CEF;                                              cell vitality, cell                   in PBMCs treated with 10-mM dRib as indicated by                                      effective in inducing biological                                                                                                                                       decrease (pw)
cell cycle kinetics, apoptosis, and                         fix                  TEM cell       yes           EXP                      in vitro              on cell                               -/-     yes                                                              observed in cells                                                              nn                     sham-exposure            ´-                    ´-              ´- (cell cycle kintetics,
                                                                                                                          HCS                                                    division                         an increase in Annexin V-positive lymphocytes (26.9                                    effects than CW fields. The                                                                                                                                           increase (pw)
mitochondrial membrane potential                                                                                                                      proliferation, cell                                                                                                  following treatment                                                                                                                                                     mitoch. membrane
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  +/- 3.4% vs. 24.3 +/- 3.4%, p=0.0173). No                                            apparent lack of an effect of RF
    (MMP) (by flow cytometry)                                                                                                                           cycle kinetics,                                                                                                   with 1-ul/ml PHA and                                                                                                                                                           potential)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  significant changes in mitochondrial membrane                                      fields requires further investigation.
                                                                                                                                                       apoptosis, and                                                                                                    treatment with 10 and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  potential with spontaneous or dRib-induced
                                                                                                                                                        mitochondrial                                                                                                     20-ng/ml alphaCD3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  apoptosis were seen following treatment with 5- or
                                                                                                                                                           membrane                                               10-mM dRib. GSM exposure did not significantly
                                                                                                                                                      potential (MMP).                                            alter cell cycle kinetics or the MMP. Exposure to
                                                                                                                                                      Peripheral blood                                            the CW RF signal did not significantly alter cell
                      Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                              mononuclear cells                                             cycle proliferation, cell cycling, spontaneous or                                                    Seite 8 von 100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                      Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                                                                                                                                   (PBMCs) harvested                                              dRib-induced apoptosis, or MMP compared to
                 Thermal
                 nature of
Reversibility
                  effect
  of effect
                    (if
                mentioned)

 yes/no/nn




                athermal (10
     nn
                 and 16 Hz)




     yes          thermal




     nn              nn




     nn           thermal




     nn              nn




      no
    (tube
                     nn
 emergence
   effect)




     nn              nn




                    Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                             81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                               Seite 9 von 100
                    Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                              Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
  Nu                                                                 Author                                                  Publication                                                                                                                                                                               Exposure                                                                                                                                                                                     Test-Objects
  mbe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Proximity                                                                                                                                                        Number      Parts of
  Stu Sorting-                                                                                                                                                                            Pulse repetition         Pulse                        Intensit      Powerflux-density                                                                                      Technical                 Exposure device                                                 Kind
                        Names                                          Affilation       Address   Country   Year    Title                          Journal             Frequency                                              Modulation                                                               Specific absorption rate (SAR)                        to                                                                 Duration of exposure                       Human Biological object          Gender         of       organism                  System of body
  dy Name *                                                                                                                                                                                 frequency              width                            y              (PFD)                                                                                            application          (device to generate the field)                                       of exp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SAR                                                                                                                                                          objects    exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                avarage                                                                                   energy        threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           clearly     acc.                                                                     acute=
                                                                                                                    Abbreviations:                                                                                                                            CW-                 PW-             CW-                      PW-            deposit                                      CW-               PW-                                     <day
  163                                                                                                                                                           min.     max. further      min.      all     min.      all                       / peak                                                                                                    below;   Pull-Down-                                                                                                                                                     whole body;
                                                                                                                    CW = Continuos Wave                                                                                                                     exposure            exposure        exposure                 exposure        CW vs. PW                                   exposure          exposure                                temporar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   [W]                                                                                                   close to;     Menu                                                                                                                                                         part body;
                                                                                                                    EMF = Electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          near-field                  y= <<life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                average /                                  average /       cw < pw         clearly                                                                                          continuous                     animal                                      cell;                              acc.
                                                                                                                    Field(s)                                    [GHz]    [GHz]    [GHz]    [Hz]     [Hz]     [µs]      [µs]                                [mW/cm2]                                [W/Kg]                                                                                                           far-field      date           time                     1 = yes                          female,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  peak                                       peak          cw > pw         above                                                                                            intermittent                (type, age)                                    cell                           list below
                                                                                                                    MW = Microwave(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 n.n.                      chron=                                                      male, nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               [mW/cm2]                                     [W/Kg]         cw ≤ pw       (ref. 0,08                                                                                                                                                                component;
                                                                                                                    PW = Pulsed Wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            near life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           cw ≥ pw         W/kg /                                                                                                                                                                     model
                                                                                                                    RF = Radiofrequency                                                                                                                    common mark                           common                                 (SAR- or PFD-                                   common mark means:                                        time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               means:                          mark means:                              value)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 W/kg)                      not differently mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            not differently                    not differently                                                                                                                                   multi=

                                                                                                           INHIBITION OF DNA
                                                                                                             SYNTHESIS AND
                                                                                                        ENHANCEMENT OF THE
                             Chang, B. K.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cell
                                                  Duke Univ.                                            UPTAKE AND ACTION OF                      Cancer Res                                                                                                                    10 / 111 -                                                  cw ≤ pw                     medical                                                                                                                                                         cell:                         cell
   26    Chang, B. K.         Hematology                                          USA
                         Div.Huang, A. T.; & Oncology, Dept. Medicine, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710
                                                                                              1980                                                                1        1       none     nn       nn       nn       nn         pulsed          nn           5 - 50                                                 nn                                    nn                           AIL 125 generator             nn        20 minutes      acute       continuous       0       (L1210 leukemia          nn           nn
                                                Medical Center                                         METHOTREXATE BY LOW                          40(4)                                                                                                                          121                                                      cw ≥ pw                    application                                                                                                                                                 L1210 leukemia                (haematopoetic)
                            laJoines, W. T.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cells)
                                                                                                         POWER-DENSITY MW
                                                                                                          RADIATION IN L1210
                                                                                                            LEUKEMIA CELLS




                                                                                                                EFFECTS OF MW
                                                      Microwave
                                                                                                             EXPOSURE AT VARIOUS                                                                                                                                                   0,1;
                                   Chiang, H.;     Instit., Zhejiang
                                                                                                              POWER DENSITIES ON                  J Bioelectr   2,45                                                                                            1,0;               0,5;                                                                                                                                                                                                   mouse                                                                   histological cut
   27     Chiang, H.                       Microwave Instit., Zhejiang Medical Univ., Hangzhou, 310006 China
                                   Yao, G. D.;      Medical Univ.,                      China      1984                                                                  3 (pw)    none     935     935      1.2       1.2        pulsed          nn                                                                  nn                    cw ≥ pw       above            nn                     nn                              3 hours        acute       continuous       0                                nn          > 10      whole body
                                                                                                            MITOCHONDRIAL MARKER                     3(3)       (cw)                                                                                            5,0                1,0;                                                                                                                                                                                                (C57BL, adult)                                                                (nervous)
                                    Zhou, S.          Hangzhou,
                                                                                                               ENZYMES IN MOUSE                                                                                                                                                    5,0
                                                    310006 China
                                                                                                                    BRAINS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           nerves,
                                                                                                                                                  IEEE Trans                                                                                                                                                                                              below /                                                                                                                          muscles
                                                  Univ.                                                 EFFECTS OF EMF ON                                                                                                                                                                                                       /                                                                                                                                                                                                      part:                         organ
                            Chou, C-K.;                                                                                                             Microw                                                                                                                nn                                                                             close to /                      S-band waveguide                                                                                    (frog;
   28                                                                             USA
          Bioelectromagnetics Res. Lab., Dept. Rehabilitation Medicine RJ-30, Univ. Washington Sch.Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195
          Chou, C-K.                         Washington Sch.                                 1978      ISOLATED NERVE AND                                       2.45     2.45      none     nn       nn       nn       nn         pulsed          nn                                              0,3-1.500                  300 -               nn                        nn                                      near-field       nn            nn            nn            0                                nn           nn        nerve;                   (nervous; muscle-
                            Guy, A. W.                                                                                                            Theory Tech                                                                                                                                                                                             clearly                                                                                                                             cat;
                                                 Medicine                                            MUSCLE PREPARATIONS.                                                                                                                                                                                                   220.000                                                                                                                                                                                                   muscle                       sceleton)
                                                                                                                                                     26(3)                                                                                                                                                                                                 above                                                                                                                            rabbit;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              rat)




                                Chou, C.K.;
                                 A.W. Guy;                                                                             Effects of continuous and     Radio                                                                                                                                                        / 1,64 head,                                                                                                   2 hours/day
   29     Chou, C-K.                                                               nn      nn      USA       1979                                               2.45     2.45      none     nn       nn       10       10         pulsed          nn                      1.5                                                               cw = pw        below           nn                     nn                                           temporary    intermittent      0               nn               nn           nn          nn                                     nn
                              J.A. McDougall;                                                                       pulsed MW exposure on rabbits Science. 14                                                                                                                                                        2,1 body                                                                                                   for 3 months
                                 L.-F. Han




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               pulsed; pulsed
                            Chou, C-K.;           Univ.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20                                                      rabbit                                  whole body
                                                                                                     MW RADIATION AND HEART- J Microw                                                                                  1;     (syncron with R                                                                                           cw = pw; cw >    close to /
   30   Bioelectromagnetics Research Lab., Dept. Rehabilitation Medicine RJ-30, Univ. Washington Sch.Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195
          Chou, C-K.         Han, L. F.;    Washington Sch.                      USA        1980                                                                2.45     2.45      none     700     700       1                                   nn           5; 80           5 / 7,1; 13,7                      0,12 - 1,79                                              nn                     nn                   nn       minutes/day    temporary    intermittent      0         (New Zealand           nn           3         (dorsal;                    cardio-vascular
                                                                                                      BEAT RATE OF RABBITS       Power 15(2)                                                                           10       wave of the                                                                                                  pw            above
                          Guy, A. W.sea          Medicine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       for 10 days                                              albino, adult)                               ventral)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cardiogram)




                           Chou, C-K.;
                                                   Univ.                                              EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                pulse generator                       2 hours/day,                                              rabbit
                           Guy, A. W.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 male; 9
   31                                                                             USA
             Bioelectromagnetics Res. Lab., Dept. Rehabilitation Medicine, Univ. Washington Sch. Medicine,Seattle, WA 98195 MW Radio Sci 17
          Chou, C-K.                         Washington Sch.                                 1982    AND PULSED CHRONIC                                         2.45     2.45      none     100     100       10       10         pulsed          10             1.5               1,5 /                 nn                 1,6 - 2,1       cw = pw       above            nn                                       far-field   5 days/weeks temporary      intermittent      0      (New Zealand, 3 mo                    18        whole body                  whole organism
                         McDougall, J. A.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (Applied MW Lab. PH4OK)                                                                                                 female
                                                 Medicine                                              EXPOSURE ON RABBITS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       for 90 days                                                old)
                            Han, L-F.




                                                                                                     EFFECTS OF PULSED MW           J Microw
                            Yee, K-C.;            Univ.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.55;                      below (cw) /
                                                                                                        RADIATION ON THE             Power                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               S-band, WR-284                                                     continuous;                     organ                                      part:                          organ
Bioelectromagnetics ResearchChou, C-K.; Center for Bioengineering, Univ. of Washington Schoolof Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195 (RR/A.W.G.)
    32     Chou, C-K.        Lab., RJ-30,  Washington Sch.                      USA        1986                                                                 2.45     2.45      none     16       16       10       10         pulsed          nn                      nn                          0.003                    2;           cw < pw      close to /        nn                                          nn        30 minutes      acute                        0                                nn          81
                                                                                                      CONTRACTILE RATE OF         Electromagn                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               waveguide                                                       intermittent                (heart of frog)                                heart                    (cardio-vascular)
                            Guy, A. W.          Medicine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      200                       above (pw)
                                                                                                    ISOLATED FROG HEARTS. Energy 21(3)




                                                                                                    THE IN VIVO EFFECTS OF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5;                5;
                                                   USA                                            2.45 GHz MW RADIATION ON                          Radiat                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  rabbit
                         Wangemann, R. T.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                       10;               10;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cell
   33    Cleary, S. F. USA Environmental Hygiene Agency, Laser Microwave Div., Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010
                                              Environmental                    USA        1976           RABBIT SERUM                               Environ     2.45     2.45      none     nn       nn       nn       nn         pulsed          nn                                                                  nn                    cw = pw       above            nn                     nn                   nn         2 hours        acute       continuous       0      (Dutch, 6- to 10-mo-      nn           nn       whole body
                            Cleary, S. F.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25;               25;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (haematopoetic)
                                             Hygiene Agency                                            COMPONENTS AND                             Biophys 13                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 old )
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 50                50
                                                                                                        SLEEPING TIMES




                        Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
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                        Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                  Measurement                                                                       Classification                                                                                                                                                                                                  Objectives and Results

                                                                                                                                                                          Biological
           Measured                                        Temperature                     Temperatu                                 Type of
                                                                                                            Class      Category                       Abstract            endpoint                                                                    Difference between CW and PW effects                                                                                                                Biological effects of CW and PW exposure
          parameters                                         control                       re effects?                                study
                                                                                                                                                                           of view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     kind of effect
                                                      yes                                  (caused by                                                                                                                                                                      Tendencies
                                                                                                                                                                                              no     yes                                                                                                                                                      sham-exposure /                                  cw vs. pw or vs. control
                                                       fix  Point of                        irridation)      acc.                                                                                                            Kind of difference                         (without statistical
                                                                                                                                         acc.                                                                                                                                                      The authors conclude/                  Action-hypothesis   shelf control /                         ↑+; ↑++; ↓+; ↓++; ↕+; ↕++ ("changes"); ´-; nn
                                                    =contro measure                                       pull-down-                                                                                                                                                       significance)
                                                                                                                                     list below                                                                                                                                                         suggest…                            (if mentioned)    pre-exposure/
                                                      lled   ment                                           menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              no control/ n.n.
                                                       nn                                     yes;                                                                                           104      59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  sham/control                 cw                        pw               effect categories
                                                                                               no                                                                                            63.8%   36.2%                               (uncompleteley simplified)

                                                                                                                   The in vitro and in                                     Stimulation of 3H-MTX uptake by L1210 cells was
                                                                                                                  vivo effects of low-                                     observed by CW radiation, with an inverted U dose-
                                                                                                                      power-density                                        response curve indicating that there exists only a
                                                                                                                    continuous wave                                        small range of power level in which stimulatory
                                                                                                                           (CW)                                            effects may be seen. Suppression of DNA synthesis
             uptake and                                                                                                                      cancer;                                                                                                                                           The therapeutic index of MTX may
                                                                                       CEF;        in vivo ->        or pulsed wave                                        was a function of power density, with a peak effect                                                                                                                                                                          ↑+ (MTX uptake,      ↑+ (MTX uptake, DNA
 action of 3H-MTX (methotrexate);     nn           nn         nn           EXP                                                           cell vitality, cell no      -/-                                                                                                        nn                      be improved by                            nn                 nn                 nn
                                                                                       TUM       vitro; in vitro (PW) microwave                                            between 15- 25 mW/cm2 for CW radiation, perhaps                                                                                                                                                                             DNA synth inhibition)     synth inhibition)
           DNA synthesis                                                                                                                      division                                                                                                                                                  the use of MW
                                                                                                                   (MW) radiation on                                       attributable to increased membrane permeability in
                                                                                                                   the cellular uptake                                     MW-exposed cells. PW exposure at 10 mW/cm2
                                                                                                                            and                                            gave a similar inhibition. In vivo, combined treatment
                                                                                                                         action of                                         with 5 mW/cm2 MW radiation for 20 min and MTX
                                                                                                                      methotrexate                                         altered the duration of survival to an equivalent tumor
                                                                                                                       The effect of                                       Mice exposed to PW microwaves at incident power
                                                                                                                    continuous wave                                        densities of 0.5 mW/cm2 or more had significantly
                                                                                                                     (CW) or pulsed                                        decreased amounts of SDH and MAO in both the
                                                                                                                        wave (PW)                                          hypothalamus and hippocampus. The lowest
                                                                                                                        microwave                                          levels occurred in the 5 mW/cm2 group. Additional
                                                                                                                       exposure on                                         groups of mice were exposed at 0, 0.3, and 0.5
                                                                                                                  brain mitochondrial                                      mW/cm2 to PW microwaves to establish a threshold.                                                                     The authors conclude that PW
   brain mitochondrial enzymes:                                                                                   enzymes succinate                                        Significantly reduced SDH activity was observed only                                                                microwaves are more effective than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ↓+ (at 5 mW/cm2;        ↓+ (at 0.5, 1.0, 5.0          attentuation
succinat dehydrogenase (SDH) and                                                                   in vivo ->        dehydrogenase                                         in the 0.5 mW/cm2 group. Mice exposed to CW                                                                           CW microwaves in decreasing
    monoamine oxidase (MAO)
                                      nn           nn         nn           EXP         ENA
                                                                                                       vitro            (SDH) and          cell function     -/-    yes                                                                                                         nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          brain SDH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  nn            sham-exposure           nn               SDH- und MAO           mW/cm2; SDH- und          (pw;dependening on
                                                                                                                                                                           microwaves showed a significant reduction in
                                                                                                                       monoamine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              levels)              MAO levels)                    PFD)
   (by microspectrophotometry)                                                                                                                                             enzyme activity only at 5.0 mW/cm2.                                                                                      and MAO levels under the
                                                                                                                    oxidase (MAO) in                                                                                                                                                              experimental conditions used.
                                                                                                                    mice was studied
                                                                                                                  using histochemical
                                                                                                                   methods. Groups
                                                                                                                             of
                                                                                                                     10 adult C57BL
                                                                                                                  mice in were sham-
                                                                                                                 irradiated, irradiated
                                                                                                                  Isolated frog sciatic                                    As long as the temperature of the nerves or muscles
                                                                                                                        nerves, cat                                        was kept constant, no changes in amplitude or
                                                                                                                   saphenous nerves                                        conduction characteristics or
                                                                                                                       rabbit vagus                                        in contraction were observed for CW and PW.
                                                                                                                          nerves,                                          Changes                                                                                                             No direct electric field stimulation of                                                                   ´- (stimulation of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ´- (stimulation of
                                             2) measured                              NES;                          superior cervical                                      observed at the highest power levels were due to                                                                     nerve axons, ganglia, or muscles                                                                       muscles and axons);
   nerve action potential; muscle  1) fix 2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  muscles and axons);
                                                 in ext       yes          EXP        MUS;           in vitro                           membrane function    no      -/-                                                                                                        nn                              was                               nn                 nn                 nn                  ↑+ (thermal
         contractile tension         yes                                                                             ganglia, and rat                                      associated increases in                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ↑+ (thermal stimulation
                                                solution                               SIG                        diaphragm muscles                                        temperature and were duplicated by increasing the                                                                      observed during microwave                                                                           stimulation of muscles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of muscles and axons)
                                                                                                                    (maintained at a                                       solution temperature.                                                                                                            irradiation.                                                                                     and axons)
                                                                                                                         constant
                                                                                                                     temperature by
                                                                                                                    Ringer's solution)
                                                                                                                  were exposed in an                                        Keine Effekte bei: Körpergewicht, EEG,
       Körpergewicht, EEG,                                                                              nn                              morphoplogical and
                                                                                                                                                                           hämatologische Tests, Catarakt-Bildung im Auge
                    2450MHz, 1,5mW/cm², 2h/d, 3 Monate. Eine Gruppe CW, eine Gruppe 10µs Pulse. Peak vivo ->
 hämatologische Tests, Catarakt-      nn           nn         nn           EXP         EOR        (in SAR Kopf: 1,64 W/kg, Körper 2,1W/kg. Keine Effekte bei: Körpergewicht, EEG, hämatologische Tests, Catarakt-Bildung im Auge
                                                                                                                                           pathological      no      -/-                                                                                                        nn                               nn                               nn                 nn                 nn                      ´-                        ´-
          Bildung im Auge                                                                             vitro)                                 changes
                                                                                                                                                       The effects of                                        The relative change in heart beat was random in
                                                                                                                                                    microwave (MW)                                           nature for ventral and dorsal exposures to both
                                                                                                                                                    radiation on heart                                       CW and PW MW energy. With dorsal high-power
                                                                                                                                                  rates were studied.                                        CW exposure , the animals were disturbed by heat
                                                                                                                                                             Three                                           stress; after exposure, heart rates increased, then
                                                                                                                                                   adult New Zealand                                         returned to normal after about 20 min. Exposure to
                                                                                                                                                   albino rabbits were                                       PW, synchronized to the R wave peak of the EKG
                                                                                                                                                        exposed both                                         lead to random changes in heart rate; Only one
                                                                                                                                                         dorsally and                                        rabbit showed a consistent positive chronotropic
     heart beats (EKG), SAR                                nn                     nn           nn            EXP         CVS           in vivo             ventrally        physiology        no      -/-                                                                       nn                               nn                               nn                 nn                 nn                ↕+ (hearbeat)            ↕+ (hearbeat)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             effect, when the pulse was delayed 100 or 200
                                                                                                                                                   to 2450-MHz MW                                            msec. No cumulative effects were observed over a
                                                                                                                                                   plane waves for 20                                        period of 4 mo.
                                                                                                                                                  min/day for 10 days
                                                                                                                                                       under each of
                                                                                                                                                            several
                                                                                                                                                      field conditions:
                                                                                                                                                    continuous waves
                                                                                                                                                          (CW) at 5
                                                                                                                                                    mW/cm2; pulsed
                                                                                                                                                       The effects of                                        No significant differences were observed
                                                                                                                                                         exposure to                                         between the exposed and sham rabbits in body
                                                                                                                                                     continuous wave                                         wt (measured every other day); EEG and evoked
                                                                                                                                                    (CW) and pulsed                                          potentials (recorded 1/wk); blood tests
                                                                                                                                                    microwave (MW)                                           (hematological, chemical, and morphological studies,
                                                                                                                                                     fields for a 3-mo                                       1/mo); or cataract examination before and after the
                                                                                                                                                         period were                                         3-mo exposure. However, 5 animals injected with
                                                                                                                                                     investigated and                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ´- ( EEG;              ´- ( EEG;                ´- ( EEG;
              EEG;                                                                                                                                                            growth;                        apomorphine died (1 exposed to CW, 3 pulse-
                                                                                                                                                      compared in 18                                                                                                                                                                                                             evoked potentials;     evoked potentials;       evoked potentials;
     evoked potentials; blood;                                                                                                                                           morphological and                   exposed, and 1 sham exposed) , indicating sensitivity
                                                           nn                     nn           nn            EXP         EOR           in vivo          New Zealand                           no      -/-                                                                       nn                               nn                               nn            sham-exposure           blood;                 blood;                   blood;
             cataract;                                                                                                                                                     pathological                      to it. The remaining 5 rabbits showed no
                                                                                                                                                  rabbits (3 mo old; 9                                                                                                                                                                                                                 cataract;              cataract;                cataract;
         tissue damage                                                                                                                                                       changes                         histopathological changes.
                                                                                                                                                     male, 9 female).                                                                                                                                                                                                             tissue damage)         tissue damage)           tissue damage)
                                                                                                                                                        Animals were
                                                                                                                                                   placed in Plexiglas
                                                                                                                                                  cages and exposed
                                                                                                                                                    singly in miniature
                                                                                                                                                  anechoic chambers
                                                                                                                                                    to CW, pulsed, or
                                                                                                                                                     sham 2450-MHz
                                                                                                                                                        Contradictory                                        The contractile rates of hearts in the control group
                                                                                                                                                           effects of                                        dropped linearly during the 60-min recording period
                                                                                                                                                          microwave                                          to about 67% of its initial beat rate. All of the groups
                                                                                                                                                   exposure on heart                                         showed no significant alteration in the reduction of
                                                                                                                                                      rate have been                                         heart rate with time compared to
                                                                                                                                                           reported                                          the control that could be directly attributable to                                  The authors concluded that the
                                                                                                                                                      in the literature.                                     microwave exposure.                                                                   effects of pulsed microwave                                                                           1) ´- (nonthermal
                                                                                                                                                            Several                                          Significant differences were seen between the                                                                                                                                                                         1) ´- (nonthermal
                                                                                 heart                                                                                                                                                                                                         radiation on the isolated frog hearts                                                                    reduction of heart
                                                                                                                                                   investigators have                                        controls and the groups where a tempearture                                                                                                                                                                          reduction of heart
                                                                                muscle;                                                                                                                                                                                                             are purely thermal and no                                                                                   rate);
         contractile rates                                yes                                  yes           EXP         CVS          in vitro                            organ function      no      -/-                                                                       nn                                                                nn            sham-exposure            ´-                                               rate);
                                                                                external                                                             reported effects                                        incease in the ext solution, either due to MWs or                                   bradycardia, as was previously                                                                           2) ↑++ (thermal
                                                                                                                                                            ranging                                          conventional heating .                                                                                                                                                                                                 2) ↑++ (thermal
                                                                                solution                                                                                                                                                                                                        reported, occurs when hearts are                                                                        reduction of heart
                                                                                                                                                  from bradycardia to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          reduction of heart rate)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               isothermally exposed to microwave                                                                                rate)
                                                                                                                                                         tachycardia,                                                                                                                                        radiation.
                                                                                                                                                  including no effects
                                                                                                                                                        at all. Soviet
                                                                                                                                                        investigators
                                                                                                                                                     reported severe
                                                                                                                                                    clinical symptoms
                                                                                                                                                           including
                                                                                                                                                       The effects of                                        Statistically significant and consistent changes were
                                                                                                                                                  relatively low power                                       noted in glucose, BUN, and uric acid following                                                                                                                                            ↑++ (glucose, BUN,
                                                                                                                                                   density microwave                                         microwave exposure. The response appeared to                                                                                                                                                 uric acid; 25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2
                                                                                                                                                        exposures on                                         be dose-dependent with increases of 44% in                                                                                                                                                     mW/cm )
                                                                                                                                                            various                                          animals exposed at 25 mW/cm2, continuous
    gross and histopathological                                                                                                                   serum components                                           wave (CW); 29% in animals exposed to 10                                                                                                                                                    ↑+ (glucose, BUN,
           examinations                                                                                                                             were studied in 6-                                       mW/cm2, CW; and 18% in animals exposed at 5                                          It is concluded that the results of                                                                   uric acid; 5 and 10
                                                                                                                                                  to 10-mo-old Dutch morphological and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2                                           ?
                                                                                                                                                                                                             mW/cm2, CW. Other serum components did not                                         the blood chemistry and sleeping                                                                             mW/cm )
 serum components (i.e. calcium,                                                                                         HCS;        in vivo ->      rabbits weighing      pathological                      show consistent variation from baseline values.                                    time experiments were consistent                                                                                                          nn
                                                          yes                    rectal        yes           EXP                                     2.09 +/- 0.29 kg.                        -/-     yes                                                          nn                                                                             nn                 nn                 nn                                                                  increase (cw)
inorganic phosphate, glucose, uric                                                                                       BEH            vitro                                changes;                        Observed physiologic response, as well as rectal                                  with a dose-dependent response to                                                                         ´- (other serum                 ´- ?
                                                                                                                                                     Both continuous                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        changes (cw)
            acid etc.)                                                                                                                                                      physiology                       temperature measurements, indicated that the                                       a nonspecific thermal stress at all                                                                       components)
                                                                                                                                                     wave and pulsed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        decrease (cw)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             thermoregulatory capability of the rabbits was                                              power densities used.
          sleeping time                                                                                                                                   mode 2-hr                                          sufficient to compensate for the thermal burden at 5                                                                                                                                       ↕+ (nephrosis; 25
                                                                                                                                                        exposures at                                         and 10 mW/cm2 but could be overridden by a 2-hr                                                                                                                                                mW/cm2)
                                                                                                                                                      2.45 GHz were                                          exposure at 55 mW/cm2. Pathology findings
                                                                                                                                                       used at power                                         included a mild, repairable nephrosis in animals                                                                                                                                          ↓+ (sleeping time; 5-
                                                                                                                                                   densities of 25, 10,                                      exposed at a power density of 25 mW/cm2. A                                                                                                                                                                2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           50 mW/cm )
                                                                                                                                                     and 5 mW/cm2.                                           further investigation of analeptic effects in
                                                                                                                                                             Blood                                           phenobarbital sedated rabbits at power densities



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                     Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                 Thermal
                 nature of
Reversibility
                  effect
  of effect
                    (if
                mentioned)

 yes/no/nn




     nn               nn




     nn               nn




     nn            thermal




     nn               nn




     yes              nn




     nn               nn




     nn            thermal




                athermal (5 and
                             2
                  10 mW/cm )
     nn
                thermal (55 (25
                            2
                  ?) mW/cm )




                     Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                              81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                Seite 12 von 100
                     Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                               Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
    Nu                                                                  Author                                                 Publication                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure                                                                                                                                                                                     Test-Objects
    mbe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Proximity                                                                                                                                                        Number       Parts of
    Stu Sorting-                                                                                                                                                                           Pulse repetition         Pulse                       Intensit        Powerflux-density                                                                                   Technical                Exposure device                                                   Kind
                           Names                                          Affilation       Address   Country   Year    Title                      Journal               Frequency                                               Modulation                                                            Specific absorption rate (SAR)                        to                                                                  Duration of exposure                       Human Biological object         Gender         of        organism                  System of body
    dy Name *                                                                                                                                                                                frequency              width                           y                (PFD)                                                                                         application         (device to generate the field)                                         of exp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SAR                                                                                                                                                          objects     exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                avarage                                                                                 energy         threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          clearly     acc.                                                                      acute=
                                                                                                                       Abbreviations:                                                                                                                           CW-                PW-           CW-                     PW-            deposit                                     CW-                PW-                                       <day
    163                                                                                                                                                         min.      max. further      min.      all     min.      all                      / peak                                                                                                   below;   Pull-Down-                                                                                                                                                     whole body;
                                                                                                                       CW = Continuos Wave                                                                                                                    exposure           exposure      exposure                exposure        CW vs. PW                                  exposure           exposure                                  temporar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   [W]                                                                                                  close to;     Menu                                                                                                                                                         part body;
                                                                                                                       EMF = Electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       near-field                  y= <<life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  average /                               average /      cw < pw          clearly                                                                                           continuous                     animal                                     cell;                               acc.
                                                                                                                       Field(s)                                 [GHz]     [GHz]   [GHz]     [Hz]     [Hz]     [µs]      [µs]                                 [mW/cm2]                             [W/Kg]                                                                                                            far-field      date           time                     1 = yes                         female,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    peak                                    peak         cw > pw          above                                                                                             intermittent                (type, age)                                   cell                            list below
                                                                                                                       MW = Microwave(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              n.n.                      chron=                                                     male, nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 [mW/cm2]                                  [W/Kg]        cw ≤ pw        (ref. 0,08                                                                                                                                                                component;
                                                                                                                       PW = Pulsed Wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         near life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         cw ≥ pw          W/kg /                                                                                                                                                                     model
                                                                                                                       RF = Radiofrequency                                                                                                                   common mark                        common                                (SAR- or PFD-                                   common mark means:                                          time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 means:                       mark means:                             value)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2 W/kg)                     not differently mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              not differently                 not differently                                                                                                                                    multi=
                                                                                                                         INVESTIGATION OF THE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cell:
                                                                                                                        EFFECTS OF CW, PULSE-
                                      Liu, L-M.;                                                                                                  Bioelectro-                                                                    pulsed and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 cell                                   single cells of
                                                                                                                                 AND                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cell
     34    Cleary, S. F.             Garber, F.;                                      nn      nn      USA       1982                              magnetics     2.45        3       2.7      nn       nn       nn       nn      sinusoidally-      nn                       nn                                       nn                        nn          nn          nn        waveguide exposure chamber           nn            nn            nn            nn            0         (green alga           nn          65      Chara corallina;
                                                                                                                           AM MW ON SINGLE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (algae Chara corallina)
                                     Cleary, S. F.                                                                                                   3(2)                                                                        modulated                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Chara corallina)                             green algae
                                                                                                                          EXCITABLE CELLS OF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     giant cells
                                                                                                                           CHARA CORALLINA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cell:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       RBC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (whole -
                                   Cleary, S. F.;        Virginia                                              EFFECTS OF X-BAND MW               Bioelectro-                                        138;                                                                                                                                                                             waveguide exposure                                                                                    cell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   heparinized-                       cell
     35    Cleary, S. F.                                                                 USA
                                   Dept. Biophys., Med. Coll. Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA 23298
                                    Garber, F.;      Commonwealth                                     1982      EXPOSURE ON RABBIT                magnetics     8.42      8.42      none     138     413;      5            5     pulsed           nn              nn             / 14500             21.7                   21.6         cw = pw        above         nn                 chambers                    nn          2 hours        acute       continuous       0           (rabbit,            nn           nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    blood sus-                   (haematopoetic)
                                     Liu, L. M.            Univ.                                                   ERYTHROCYTES                      3(4)                                            555                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                adult Dutch)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     pensions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    or washed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       cells)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   described by Cleary et al.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (Bioelectromagnetics 6:53-60,
                              Cleary, S. F.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1985; BENER Abstract No.                                                                                    cell
                                                                                                     EFFECT OF ISOTHERMAL RF                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cell culture:
                                 Du, Z.;           Virginia                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5 - 50;                                                                                                                                                                          (T-lymphocytes of
                                                                                                            RADIATION ON             FASEB J                                                                                                                                                                                             cw ≥ pw;                                            2418)                                                                                                                                    cytotoxic                       cell culture
    Bioelectromagnetics Lab., Dept. of G.;
     36     Cleary, S. F.                       and Biophysics,
                                Cao, Physiology Commonwealth Medical Coll. of Virginia, VirginiaCommonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA 23298
                                                                                 USA           1996                                                             2.45      2.45      none     50       50      6670     6670       pulsed           nn                       nn                          5                     5                          above         nn                                          near-field     2 hours        acute       continuous       0         cloned murine         nn           nn
                                                                                                             CYTOLYTIC T               10(8)                                                                                                                                                                                             cw = pw                                      and Liu and Cleary                                                                                                                          T-lympho-cytes                       (immune)
                                Liu, L-M.;          Univ.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (Bioelectromagnetics 9:249-                                                                              cytolytic)
                                                                                                           LYMPHOCYTES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (CTLL-2)
                              McCrady, C.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         257, 1988; BENER Abstract
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           No. 4753)




                                                                                                            EFFECTS OF MOBILE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      microscope stage exposure                                                                                                                            cell:
                              Cranfield, C. G.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cell
                                                                                                          PHONE TYPE SIGNALS ON                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  system described by Anderson                                                                                                                         Jurkat
           Cranfield, C.       Wood, A. W.;      Swinburne Univ.                                                                     Int J Radiat                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (human                                                                      cell culture
                                                                                  Australia        andrewwood@swin.edu.au (RR/A.W.W., C.G.C., K.G.M., V.A.) 0.915
cal Sciences & Electrical Engineering, Swinburne Univ. of Technology, Melbourne,Australia, e-mail:2001
     37                                                                                                   CALCIUM LEVELS WITHIN                    0.915                            none     217     217       nn       nn       GSM-like          nn                       nn                                     1 - 2,1                cw = pw       close to       nn         et al. (Development of a new     near-field   10 minutes       acute       continuous       1                               nn           nn     E6-1, American
                G.             Anderson, V.;      of Technology                                                                       Biol 77(12)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    lymphocytes; Yurkat                                                               (immune)
                                                                                                           HUMAN LEUKAEMIC T-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    in vitro RF exposure device for                                                                                                                   Type Culture
                              Menezes, K. G.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cells)
                                                                                                           CELLS (JURKAT CELLS)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   confocal microscopy imaging)                                                                                                                      Collection




                             Stewart-DeHaan, P.
                                      J.;
                                                                                                                            LENS CATARACT          Invest
                               Trevithick, J. R.;
           Creighton, M.                           Univ. Western                                                         FORMATION IN VITRO:     Ophthalmol                                                                        pulsed                                                                                             cw = pw (same                                                                                                                                         lens                                       part:                      histological cut
     38                       Creighton, M. O.;                                   Canada
                                                  Univ. Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada1980                                                            0.915     0.915     none     nn       nn       nn       nn                         nn                       nn                                       nn                                    nn          nn                       nn                    nn        20 minutes       acute       continuous       0                               nn           nn
                O.                                    Ontario                                                          THE EFFECTS OF HEAT AND    Vis Sci                                                                       (high power)                                                                                          average power)                                                                                                                                        (rat)                                      lens                          (sensoric)
                                Ross, W. M.;
                                                                                                                            MW IRRADIATION       19(Suppl.)
                                Larsen, L. E.;
                                 Jacobi, J. H.




                             Creighton, M. O.;
                               Larsen, L. E.;
                           Stewart-DeHaan, P.                                                               IN VITRO STUDIES OF MW-
                                                 Univ. of Western
                                     J.;                                                                        INDUCED CATARACT.
                                                      Ontario;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             lens
           Creighton, M.       Jacobi, J. H.;                                                                                             Exp Eye Res                                                                                           0.5 - 65 /                                                                            cw = pw (same      clearly                                                                                                                                                                       part:                      histological cut
       Ontario, London,Ontario (RR/ J.R.T., M.O.C.); Baskerville Associates, 319 Piccadilly St, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1,Canada; Dept. of Microwave Res., 0.918 Reed Armynone of Res., Washington, DC (L.E.L., J.H.J.)
estern39                                           Walter Reed                      Canada         1987                                                   Walter 0.918    Inst.    nn      varied     10        10                pulsed                                    nn                                   5,75 - 750                                            nn             WR975 waveguide                 nn         6 minutes       acute       continuous       0            (rat,              nn           nn
                 O.             Sanwal, M.;                                                                      II. COMPARISON OF            45(3)                                                                                              24000                                                                                average power)     above                                                                                                                                                                         lens                          (sensoric)
                                                   Army Inst. of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Sprague-Dawley )
                             Baskerville, J. C.;                                                             DAMAGE OBSERVED FOR
                                                       Res.
                              Bassen, H. E.;                                                                    CW AND PULSED MW
                               Brown, D. O.;
                              Trevithick, J. R.




                                                                                                                   MW EFFECTS ON THE
                                                       Natl. Res. Inst.                                          BLOOD-FORMING SYSTEM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2 hours/day
                                                                                                                                                   Ann N Y                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 rabbit;
     40     Czerski, P.                 Dept. P.        Genetics, and                      Poland
                                      Czerski, of Human of Mother Natl. Res. Inst. of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland
                                                                                                        1975         WITH PARTICULAR                            2.95      2.95      none    1200     1200      1            1     pulsed           nn               3                3                               nn                   cw = pw        above         nn                       nn                    nn        for 37 or 79   temporary    intermittent      0                               nn           nn           nn                        haematopoetic
                                                                                                                                                 Acad Sci 247
                                                            Child                                                   REFERENCE TO THE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                days
                                                                                                                       LYMPHOCYTE.




                           Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Seite 13 von 100
                           Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                       Measurement                                                                       Classification                                                                                                                                                                                                       Objectives and Results

                                                                                                                                                                                  Biological
                Measured                                        Temperature                     Temperatu                                 Type of
                                                                                                                 Class      Category                        Abstract              endpoint                                                                      Difference between CW and PW effects                                                                                                                           Biological effects of CW and PW exposure
               parameters                                         control                       re effects?                                study
                                                                                                                                                                                   of view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         kind of effect
                                                           yes                                  (caused by                                                                                                                                                                            Tendencies
                                                                                                                                                                                                       no     yes                                                                                                                                                                  sham-exposure /                                 cw vs. pw or vs. control
                                                            fix  Point of                        irridation)      acc.                                                                                                                 Kind of difference                          (without statistical
                                                                                                                                              acc.                                                                                                                                                            The authors conclude/                   Action-hypothesis            shelf control /                        ↑+; ↑++; ↓+; ↓++; ↕+; ↕++ ("changes"); ´-; nn
                                                         =contro measure                                       pull-down-                                                                                                                                                             significance)
                                                                                                                                          list below                                                                                                                                                               suggest…                             (if mentioned)             pre-exposure/
                                                           lled   ment                                           menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   no control/ n.n.
                                                            nn                                     yes;                                                                                               104      59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sham/control             cw                       pw                effect categories
                                                                                                    no                                                                                                63.8%   36.2%                                (uncompleteley simplified)

                                                                                                                                                                                      Cells maintained at constant temp during exposure
                                                                                                                                                                                      showed no consistent or statistically significant                                                                                                                                                      ´- (resting potential,   ´- (resting potential,
      electrophysiology cell reactions                                                                                                                                                MW-dependent alterations in any of the dependent                                     The effects of intensity or pulse                                                                                   amplitude of the     amplitude of the action
   (resting potent., conduction velocity,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 repetition rate windows, variations                                                                                action potential, rise    potential, rise and
                                                                                          BMP;                                                                                        variables.
    amplitude under no impressed MW). The dependent variables measured before, during and after exposurein vitro S-band MW fields included: resting potential, amplitude of the action potential, rise and decay time of the action potential, conductionnn
waveguide (i.e.,of action potent., action fix    nn             nn          EXP                          to the                          membrane function         no          -/-                                                                        velocity, and excitability. Cells maintained at 22 +/- 0.1 C during exposure showed no consistent or statistically significant MW-dependent alterations in any of the dependent variables. The effects of intensity or pulse repetition rate windows, variations in modulation index, exposure temperature, and carrier wave frequency w
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            in modulation index, exposure                      nn                       nn                       nn         and decay time of the      decay time of the
                                                                                           CEF
      potent. rise time, decay time of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      temperature, and carrier wave                                                                                      action potential,        action potential,
         action potent., excitability)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   frequency will require further study.                                                                               conduction velocity,    conduction velocity,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                and excitability)        and excitability)

                                                                                                                                                           The effects of                                             Statistically significant increases in K+ efflux
                                                                                                                                                         continuous wave                                              compared to water-bath-heated controls were
                                                                                                                                                         (CW) and pulsed                                              detected when RBC were exposed in whole blood
                                                                                                                                                         microwave (MW)                                               suspensions to either CW or pulse-modulated 8.42-
                                                                                                                                                           heating on the                                             GHz MW energy at specific absorption rates (SAR)                                                                                Measured differences in
                                                                                                                                                          permeability of                                             resulting in sample temperatures of 24.6 and 24.4 C,                                                                           sample heating rates and
                                                                                                                                                        erythrocyte (RBC)                                             respectively. Pulsed MW exposure resulted in a                                                                              temperature gradients between
                                                                                                                                                       plasma membranes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ↑++ (K+ efflux, whole   ↑(+) (K+ efflux, whole
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      small but consistent enhancement of K+ efflux in                                                                               MW-exposed and heated                                                                                                     amplification (cw)
    permeability of erythrocyte plasma                                                                                                                 were studied. RBC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    blood suspension)        blood suspension)
                                                                                                                             BMP;                                                                                     1:1 red cell suspensions and to a lesser extent in                                                                             control suspensions may         control (water bath
               membranes:                                      yes             suspension           yes           EXP                      in vitro             from        membrane function          -/-     yes                                                                         nn                              nn                                                                                   ´-
                                                                                                                             HCS                                                                                      whole blood, compared with CW exposure. No                                                                                       account in part for the            heated)
                 K+ efflux                                                                                                                              adult Dutch rabbits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                +
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ´- (K efflux, 1:1 red   ↑+ (K+ efflux, 1:1 red
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      statistically significant K+ efflux occurred in the                                                                            differential effect of MW                                                                                                   increase (pw)
                                                                                                                                                         were exposed as                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      cell suspension)       cell suspension)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      case of 1:1 red cell suspensions under the same                                                                              exposure, but such effects do
                                                                                                                                                       whole (heparinized)                                            exposure conditions.                                                                                                               not appear to fully
                                                                                                                                                        blood suspensions                                                                                                                                                                         explain the results of this study.
                                                                                                                                                        or as washed cells
                                                                                                                                                           in 1:1 isotonic
                                                                                                                                                         buffered K+-free
                                                                                                                                                        saline suspensions
                                                                                                                                                                  in
                                                                                                                                                          Previous in vitro                                           Exposure to CW and PW had similar effects: it
                                                                                                                                                               studies have                                           increased cell proliferation when measured shortly
                                                                                                                                                         provided evidence                                            after exposure and decreased cell
                                                                                                                                                        that radiofrequency                                           proliferation when measured 24 hr after irradiation.
                                                                                                                                                                     (RF)                                             The proliferative effects were independent of IL-2                                   The authors concluded that these
                                                                                                                                                       radiation modulates                                            concentration when measured immediately                                                results are consistent with the
                                                                                                                                                              proliferation of                                        after irradiation and cell proliferation decreased with                                hypothesis that 2,450-MHz RF                                                                                        1) ↑+ (cell
                                                                                                                                                                                cell vitality, cell
                                                                                                                                                                   gliomas,                                           increasing IL-2 concentration when measured 24 hr                                       radiation affects CTLL-2 cell                                                                                     proliferation      1) ↑+ (cell proliferation
                                                                                                                                                         lymphocytes, and           division,                         post-irradiation. In CLTT-2 cells, cultured without IL-
    cell proliferation (measuring uptake                                             external                                 CEF;                                                                                                                                                                         proliferation by altering membrane                                                                               immediately after      immediately after exp);
                                                                fix                                 no            EXP                      in vitro                            morphological and       no      -/-                                                                         nn                                                                   nn                    sham-exposure             ´-
      of tritiated thymidine 3H-TDR)                                                 medium                                   IMM                                 other cell                                          2 (which led to mitotic arrest of the cells) prior to                                signal transduction, a direct effect                                                                           exp);        2) ↓+ (cell 2) ↓+ (cell proliferation
                                                                                                                                                               types but the     pathological                         exposure, irradiation did not effect 3H-TdR uptake                                  that is independent of heating. The                                                                             proliferation 24h after      24h after exp)
                                                                                                                                                         mechanism of RF           changes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      when measured immediately after exposure. This                                        effect depends on the presence                                                                                          exp)
                                                                                                                                                          radiation-induced                                           suggested that irradiation effects required the                                     during exposure of unoccupied high-
                                                                                                                                                            cell proliferation                                        presence of IL-2 receptors on the CTLL-2 cell                                               affinity IL-2 receptors.
                                                                                                                                                          modulation is not                                           membrane. When assessed 24 hr after irradiation,
                                                                                                                                                           well understood.                                           3H-TdR uptake occurred, but the extent of uptake
                                                                                                                                                                The authors                                           was smaller than in cells that had been cultured with
                                                                                                                                                            investigated the                                          IL-2 before irradiation. This indicated mitotically
                                                                                                                                                                 hypothesis
                                                                                                                                                                The authors                                           arrested CTLL-2 cells retained their ability to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Except for a significant spectral shift in the
                                                                                                                                                               examined the                                           frequency of Ca++
                                                                                                                                                          effects of cellular                                         spikes in activated cells exposed to a simulated
                                                                                                                                                                    phone                                             GSM signal, revealed inthe fast Fourier transform of
                                                                                                                                                             radiofrequency                                           calcium fluorescence variations over each
    calcium ion (Ca++) levels and Ca++                                                                                                                                (RF)                                            600-sec period in sham/exposed minus control
    signaling patterns (regression slope                                                                                                                   fields on calcium                                          period, there were no
                                                                                                                                                          ion (Ca++) levels                                                                                                                                The authors concluded that these
    of Ca++ fluorescence, mean Ca++                                                                                                                                                                                   significant differences in any of the examined Ca++
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          results provide no evidence that RF
      concentration, number of Ca++                                                                                                                     and Ca++ signaling                                            parameters between                                                                                                                                                                                                            ↑++(spectral shift of
                                                                fix                                 nn            EXP         BMP          in vitro       patterns in Jurkat     cell function         no      -/-                                                                         nn               emissions from cell phones are                      nn                    sham-exposure             ´-                  ´-
     spikes in each 10-min period, the                                                                                                                                                                                cells exposed to either the CW RF fields or the                                                                                                                                                                                  Ca++spikes)
                                                                                                                                                       E6-1 cells, a human                                                                                                                                  associated with any changes in
      mean height of the Ca++ spikes,                                                                                                                                                                                 simulated GSM signal.
                                                                                                                                                               T-lymphocyte                                                                                                                                  Ca++ concentrations or Ca++
       and the average frequency of
                                                                                                                                                        hybridoma cell line.                                                                                                                                    signaling in lymphocytes.
                 the spikes)
                                                                                                                                                          Jurkat E6-1 cells,
                                                                                                                                                         obtained from the
                                                                                                                                                            American Type
                                                                                                                                                         Culture Collection,
                                                                                                                                                            were cultured in
                                                                                                                                                          HEPES-buffered
                                                                                                                                                         The effect of heat                                           Lenses heated for 5 min were almost as damaged
                                                                                                                                                            and microwave                                             as those heated for 20 min at 41 C, suggesting that
                                                                                                                                                           irradiation on rat                                         the initial heat shock is the critical factor in heat-
                                                                                                                                                                 lenses was                                           induced cataract formation.
                                                                                                                                                                investigated                                          Controls at 39 C showed very small changes from
                                                                                                                                                              in vitro. Intact                                        normal lens morphologic appearance in both
                                                                                                                                                             lenses in tissue                                         epithelial and fiber cells, whereas progressive
                                                                                                                                                            culture medium                                            damage (greater with PU than CW) occurred with
                                                                                                                             EOR;                          were exposed to     morphological and
    depth of degeneration (by scanning                                               external                                                                                                                         increasing time of exposure. The maximum
                                                               yes                                  nn            EXP        EYE;          in vitro                elevated      pathological          -/-     yes                                                                         nn                              nn                                   nn                   controls (heated)          nn          ↑+ (lens damage)         ↑++ (lens damage)         amplification (pw)
           electron microscopy)                                                      medium                                                                                                                           damage, observed at this temperature, occurred at
                                                                                                                             SEN                          temperatures for         changes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the maximum PU time of exposure tested (20 min);
                                                                                                                                                         periods of up to 1                                           this involved the production of holes in the equatorial
                                                                                                                                                              hr, followed by                                         lens fiber cells to a depth of approximately 80-100
                                                                                                                                                       incubation at 35.5 C                                           um below the lens capsule.
                                                                                                                                                            for 2 days. The
                                                                                                                                                         maximum depth of
                                                                                                                                                              degeneration,
                                                                                                                                                                observed by
                                                                                                                                                           Thescanning of
                                                                                                                                                                   possibility                                        Several kinds of damage were observed including                                       Of several possible mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                         nonthermal effects                                           holes in the fiber cells, capsular effects such as                                     discussed, the authors conclude
                                                                                                                                                               of radiation in                                        pitting or surface granulation, globular degeneration,                                 that thermoelastic expansion,
                                                                                                                                                                 microwave                                            foam, and granulation of fiber cells.                                               resulting in pressure waves induced
                                                                                                                                                          cataractogenesis                                            Statistically significant greater damage was                                          in the aqueous medium and lens
                                                                                                                                                        was investigated by                                           observed for all combinations of PW radiation                                       tissue by thermoacoustic expansion
                                                                                                                                                              comparing the                                           except one (23 mW/gm for 6 min) when                                                 following each pulse of microwave
                                                                                                                                                           effects of pulsed                                          compared to CW radiation of the same average                                          energy, is the mechanism most
       damage of lense (by scanning                                                                                                                                  (PW)      morphological and
                                                                                                                              EYE;                                                                                    power. PW radiation produced 4.7 x the depth of                                          likely to explain the greater
        electron microscopy or light                            fix                    nn           yes           EXP                      in vitro     or continuous (CW)       pathological          -/-     yes                                                                         nn                                                                   nn                           nn                 nn          ↑+ (lens damage)         ↑++ (lens damage)         amplification (pw)
                                                                                                                              SEN                                                                                     damage caused by CW radiation. The separate-                                          effects of PW radiation. These
                microscopy)                                                                                                                                      radiation of      changes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      effects model provided slightly better fit to variation in                              results support the concept of
                                                                                                                                                                  equivalent                                          depth of damage, but the authors feel the reciprocal-                                establishing lower occupational
                                                                                                                                                         absorbed average                                             effects model provides adequate fit for practical                                    exposure limits for PW than CW
                                                                                                                                                                    power                                             purposes.                                                                           radiation, and may, in part, explain
                                                                                                                                                          (temperature and                                                                                                                                    differences in safety standards
                                                                                                                                                                duration are                                                                                                                              established in Western and Eastern
                                                                                                                                                         constant). Lenses                                                                                                                                countries where experimental work
                                                                                                                                                        of Sprague-Dawley                                                                                                                                 was performed mainly with CW and
                                                                                                                                                                 Therats
                                                                                                                                                                       author                                          Hematologic parameters such as hemoglobin                                              PW transmitters, respectively.
                                                                                                                                                            summarized his                                            levels and hematocrits were not affected by any
                                                                                                                                                            research on the                                           irradiation. 37 days' exposure to PW caused larger
                                                                                                                                                        effects of low-level                                          disturbances in iron metabolism and larger
                                                                                                                                                                 microwave                                            decreases in RBC counts compared to CW.                                                   The author concluded that
                                                                                                                                                            radiation on the                                          Comparable changes in iron metabolism and RBC                                        responses of blood and the blood-
                                                                                                                                                              hematopoietic                                           counts due to CW irradiation were seen only after 79                                    forming system to microwave
                                                                                                                                                          system in various                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   '-(hematologic         -(hematologic
    Hematologic, such as hemoglobin                                                                                                                                                                                   days of exposure.                                                                   irradiation may reveal subtle effects
                                                                                                                                                               experimental                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                parameters); ↕+ (iron parameters); ↕+ (iron
       level and hematocrits; iron                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        induced at low power density levels.
                                                                nn                     nn           nn            EXP         HCS           in vivo                animals.       physiology           -/-     yes                                                                         nn                                                                   nn                    sham-exposure             nn           metabolism); ↓+      metabolism); ↓++
     metabolism (uptake of iron-59                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           These types of responses may
                                                                                                                                                           Three groups of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (RBC counts) after 37 (RBC counts) after 37           attenuation (pw)
                 (59Fe))                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    represent a convenient model for
                                                                                                                                                                rabbits were                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    days of exp           days of exp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            use in cytophysiologic studies and
                                                                                                                                                              irradiated with                                                                                                                              possibly biophysical investigations.
                                                                                                                                                          continuous wave
                                                                                                                                                            (CW) or pulsed
                                                                                                                                                                 2,950-MHz
                                                                                                                                                           radiation for 2 hr
                                                                                                                                                          daily at the same
                                                                                                                                                           power density (3




                          Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Seite 14 von 100
                          Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                 Thermal
                 nature of
Reversibility
                  effect
  of effect
                    (if
                mentioned)

 yes/no/nn




     nn                nn




                   possibly
     nn
                   thermal




     nn            athermal




     nn                nn




     nn             thermal




                    thermal
     nn         (thermoelastic
                  expansion)




                   athermal
     nn
                (subtle thermal)




                      Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                              81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                 Seite 15 von 100
                      Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                               Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
    Nu                                                                   Author                                             Publication                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure                                                                                                                                                                                         Test-Objects
    mbe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Proximity                                                                                                                                                            Number          Parts of
    Stu Sorting-                                                                                                                                                                          Pulse repetition         Pulse                           Intensit      Powerflux-density                                                                               Technical               Exposure device                                                     Kind
                            Names                                          Affilation   Address   Country   Year   Title                          Journal             Frequency                                                 Modulation                                                             Specific absorption rate (SAR)                    to                                                                  Duration of exposure                        Human Biological object          Gender           of           organism                   System of body
    dy Name *                                                                                                                                                                               frequency              width                               y              (PFD)                                                                                     application        (device to generate the field)                                           of exp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SAR                                                                                                                                                              objects        exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   avarage                                                                            energy        threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       clearly     acc.                                                                       acute=
                                                                                                                   Abbreviations:                                                                                                                                CW-                PW-           CW-                  PW-            deposit                                   CW-                PW-                                         <day
    163                                                                                                                                                        min.     max. further       min.      all     min.      all                          / peak                                                                                             below;   Pull-Down-                                                                                                                                                             whole body;
                                                                                                                   CW = Continuos Wave                                                                                                                         exposure           exposure      exposure             exposure        CW vs. PW                                exposure           exposure                                    temporar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      [W]                                                                                            close to;     Menu                                                                                                                                                                 part body;
                                                                                                                   EMF = Electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        near-field                   y= <<life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   average /                           average /       cw < pw         clearly                                                                                            continuous                     animal                                            cell;                               acc.
                                                                                                                   Field(s)                                    [GHz]    [GHz]   [GHz]      [Hz]     [Hz]     [µs]      [µs]                                   [mW/cm2]                             [W/Kg]                                                                                                        far-field      date            time                     1 = yes                          female,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     peak                                peak          cw > pw         above                                                                                              intermittent                (type, age)                                          cell                            list below
                                                                                                                   MW = Microwave(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               n.n.                       chron=                                                      male, nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  [mW/cm2]                              [W/Kg]         cw ≤ pw       (ref. 0,08                                                                                                                                                                        component;
                                                                                                                   PW = Pulsed Wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           near life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       cw ≥ pw         W/kg /                                                                                                                                                                             model
                                                                                                                   RF = Radiofrequency                                                                                                                        common mark                        common                             (SAR- or PFD-                                 common mark means:                                            time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  means:                       mark means:                          value)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 W/kg)                    not differently mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               not differently                 not differently                                                                                                                                 multi=




                                                      Center for
                                                                                                            EFFECTS OF CONTIUOUS
                                                     Devices and
                                                                                                             AND PULSED 2450-MHz
                               Czerska, E. M.;       Radiological                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  S-band wave guide
                                                                                                                   RADIATION ON
                                Elson, E. C.;           Health;                                                                             Bioelectro-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (WR430, 109.22 mm 54.61                                                                                     cell
                                                                                                                  SPONTANEOUS                                                                  100 -                                pulsed                                                                                                           close to /                                                                                                                                                                                                            cell culture
ockville, MD (E.M.C., M.L.S., P.C.); ElectricalEngineering Dept., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (RR/C.C.D.); Dept. of Microwave Res., WalterReed Army Inst. of 2.45 Washington, DC (E.C.E.)
       41    Czerski, P.        Davis, C. C.;           Univ. of                        USA         1992                                    magnetics     2.45       Res., none       100                     1            1                         nn                      nn                  up to 12,3/         up to 12,3 /       cw = pw                      nn                                            nn             nn            nn            nn            1            (human              nn              nn             cell
                                                                                                                LYMPHOBLASTOID                                                                 1000                                (square)                                                                                                            above                          mm internally)                                                                                                                                                                        (immune)
                               Swicord, M. L.;         Maryland;                                                                               13(4)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  lymphocytes)
                                                                                                              TRANSFORMATION OF                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               fed by a common MW source
                                 Czerski, P.         Walter Reed
                                                                                                            HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES IN
                                                     Army Inst. of
                                                                                                                       VITRO
                                                         Res.




                                                                                                            BEHAVIORAL AND THERMAL                                                 0,4
                                                                                                                                                           0,6     0,6                                                                                               5;
                              D'Andrea, J. A.;                                                                    EFFECTS OF MW                                                    0,5
                                                                                                                                           Radio Sci      (CW     (CW                                                   3;                                          7,5;           0,51; 5,1                                                                                                                                                                                               rat                                                                        whole organism
ng, Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City, Gandhi, O. (J.A.D., O.P.G.); Utah
     42 D'Andrea, J. A.         UT 84112 P.;                                            Engineering, Univ. Utah, Salt Lake AT RESONANT(J.L.L.)Radio Sci 12(6S):251-256
                                                      Univ. Dept.Biology and Electrical USA        1977      RADIATION City, UT 84112                                              0,7     1000     1000      3                     pulsed           nn                                                  nn                             cw ≥ pw       above          nn            nn                              nn             nn            nn         continuous       0                                nn              3          whole body
                                                                                                                                             12(6S)        and     and                                                 30                                           10;              /170                                                                                                                                                                                             (Long-Evans)                                                                      (behavior)
                                 Lords, J. L.                                                                    AND NONRESONANT                                                  (only
                                                                                                                                                          PW)     PW)                                                                                               20
                                                                                                                   WAVELENGTHS                                                    CW)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cell:
                                Dardanoni, L.;                                                                   MILLIMETER-WAVE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           cell
                                                       Universita di                                                                             J Bioelectr                                                                        pulsed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         7   cultures of the                   cell culture
     43    Dardanoni, L.            Istituto M. V.;                                      Italy
                              Torregrossa, di Igiene, Universita di Palermo, Via del Vespro 133, 90127 Palermo,EFFECTS ON CANDIDA
                                                                                                    1985       Italy                                            72       72        nn      1000     1000      nn       nn                          / 0,0002                  nn                                   nn                         nn         nn           nn                     nn                     nn          3 hours         multi       continuous       0       (yeast, Candida          nn          4 - 5 x 10
                                                        Palermo                                                                                     4(1)                                                                           (square)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            yeast Candida                  (colony-forming)
                                  Zanforlin, L.                                                                   ALBICANS CELLS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        albicans)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          albicans




                                                                                                              OPERANT BEHAVIOR AND
                                                                                                              COLONIC TEMPERATURE
                                                       Naval Air                                                                                 Bioelectro-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Styrofoam chair;                                                                                    monkey
                                                                                                                OF MACACA MULATTA                                                                                                                                                                                                                     clearly                                                                60-minutes-
     44   de Lorge, J. O.               Naval Aerospace Medical Res. Lab., Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL 32508
                                   de Lorge, J. O.      Station,                        USA         1984                                         magnetics      1.3      1.3                370     370       3            3        pulsed           nn           20-95             20-95                         nn                    cw = pw                      nn                                            nn                        temporary    intermittent      0       (rhesus, Macaca          nn              5          whole body                    whole organism
                                                                                                             EXPOSED TO RF FIELDS AT                                                                                                                                                                                                                  above                        free-field radiation                       sessions
                                                       Pensacola                                                                                    5(2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                mulatta)
                                                                                                               AND ABOVE RESONANT
                                                                                                                   FREQUENCIES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 Generators:                      rats(30
                                                                                                                                        Crit Rev                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1) utilizing a                minutes/day
                                               Russian Acad. of
                                                                                                                                      Biomed Eng                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MIRA-2D                       for 7days);
                                                   Sciences;                                           EFFECT OF LOW-ENERGY
                            Devyatkov, N. D.;                                                                                             29(1);                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              pulsed X-ray                     mice (30                                                    rat
                                                "Extremely High                                         AND HIGH-PEAK-POWER                                   5,6
          Devyatkov, N.      Pletnyov, S. D.;                                                                                              Bio-    30 mm             7,1 mm                                                                                                                                                                                                     Yav1-          unit, and 2)                  minutes/day                                                (female);                        50(rats)+                               digestive; respiratory
     Electronics, Russian Acad. of Sciences, Moscow, Russia (N.D.D.,O.V.B., V.V.F.); "Extremely2001 Frequency" Medical and Technical Assoc., Moscow, Russia (S.D.P.)
 and 45                                           Frequency"                     Russia         High   NANOSECOND PULSES OF                                   mm                             6       6       0.01      0.01         pulsed           0.1            10                nn                 nn                                  nn       above          nn                                            nn                        temporary    intermittent      0                              female                       whole body
                D.            Betskii, O. V.;                                                                                         meditsinskay (PW)               (CW)                                                                                                                                                                                                     generator          based                      for 4days, 1                                                 mouse                         77(mouse)                                       (tumor)
                                                  Medical and                                               MW RADIATION                                     (CW)
                               Faikin, V. V.                                                                                            a Radio-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               on a "Sinus-                    day break                                                 (BDF-1)
                                                   Technical                                            ON MALIGNANT TUMORS
                                                                                                                                       elektronika                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             G1" pulsed                        and for
                                                    Assoc.,
                                                                                                                                           (10)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                accelerator                      further 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  design                          days)




                                                                                                              NON-THERMAL DNA
                                                                                                           BREAKAGE BY MOBILE-
                                  Diem, E.;
                                                 Medical Univ. of                                          PHONE RADIATION (1800                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4;                                                     cell culture
                               Schwarz, C.;                                                                                                                                                                                    different mobile-
                                                     Vienna;                                                    MHz) IN HUMAN             Mutat Res                                                                                                                                                               1,2;                                              mobile                                                       16;                      continuous;                 ((human diploid                                                                  cell culture
       Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna, F.;
tional46      Diem, E.                                                            Austria
                                Adlkofer, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna 1090,Austria (RR/H.R., E.D., C.S., O.J.); Verum Foundation, Munich, Germany (F.A.)
                                                                                               2005                                                      1.8             1.8      none      217     217       nn       nn            phone           nn                      nn                                                         cw = pw       above                                 nn                     nn                          acute                        1                                nn              nn         cell culture
                                                      Verum                                                 FIBROBLASTS AND IN              583(2)                                                                                                                                                                 2                                              telephone                                                      24                       intermittent              fibroblasts and rat                                                             (muscle-skeleton)
                                  Jahn, O.;                                                                                                                                                                                       modulations
                                                   Foundation,                                            TRANSFORMED GFSH-R17                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  hours                                                    granulosa)
                                Rudiger, H.
                                                                                                         RAT GRANULOSA CELLS IN
                                                                                                                      VITRO




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            cell
                                   Dutta, S. K.;                                                                       LACK OF MICROBIAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2 hours (cw);                                                (yeast:
                                  Nelson, W. H.;                                                                     GENETIC RESPONSE TO          J Microw                      8,5-9,6                                                                                                                                                 cw ≤ pw                                                                                                                                                                                                                            cell culture
     47     Dutta, S.K.                                                              USA
                                                  Dept. Botany, Howard Univ., Washington, DC 20059
                                                    Howard Univ.                                1979                                                           2.45      9.6               1000     1000      nn       nn           pulsed           nn             20              1 - 45               40               nn                          above          nn            nn               nn             nn         90 minutes       acute       continuous       0       Saccharomyces;           nn              nn             cell
                                 Blackman, C. F.;                                                                   2.45-GHz CW AND 8.5 - 9.6-   Power 14(3)                     GHz                                                                                                                                                    cw ≥ pw                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (bacteria)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (pw)                                              bacteria: Salmonella
                                   Brusick, D. J.                                                                        GHz PULSED MW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      typhi-murium)




                            Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Seite 16 von 100
                            Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                   Measurement                                                                      Classification                                                                                                                                                                                                    Objectives and Results

                                                                                                                                                                           Biological
           Measured                                         Temperature                    Temperatu                                 Type of
                                                                                                            Class      Category                       Abstract             endpoint                                                                      Difference between CW and PW effects                                                                                                                  Biological effects of CW and PW exposure
          parameters                                          control                      re effects?                                study
                                                                                                                                                                            of view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        kind of effect
                                                       yes                                 (caused by                                                                                                                                                                         Tendencies
                                                                                                                                                                                                 no     yes                                                                                                                                                     sham-exposure /                                   cw vs. pw or vs. control
                                                        fix  Point of                       irridation)      acc.                                                                                                               Kind of difference                         (without statistical
                                                                                                                                         acc.                                                                                                                                                         The authors conclude/                 Action-hypothesis   shelf control /                          ↑+; ↑++; ↓+; ↓++; ↕+; ↕++ ("changes"); ´-; nn
                                                     =contro measure                                      pull-down-                                                                                                                                                          significance)
                                                                                                                                     list below                                                                                                                                                            suggest…                           (if mentioned)    pre-exposure/
                                                       lled   ment                                          menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                no control/ n.n.
                                                        nn                                    yes;                                                                                              104      59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sham/control                   cw                       pw              effect categories
                                                                                               no                                                                                               63.8%   36.2%                               (uncompleteley simplified)

                                                                                                                                                    This investigation                                          There were no significant differences in
                                                                                                                                                       attempted to                                             distribution of cell sizes in control and sham-
                                                                                                                                                     resolve previous                                           exposed cultures incubated 120 hr. A low level of
                                                                                                                                                       contradictory                                            spontaneous lymphoblastoid transformation (1.2 +/-
                                                                                                                                                        findings by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          37 and 37.5°C: ´-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                0.9/100 cells) was evident in pooled or control and                                                                                                                37 and 37.5°C: ´-, ´-
                                                                                                                                                     others regarding                                           sham-exposed results. Distribution of cell sizes in
                                                                                                                                                       the effects of                                                                                                                              The authors concluded that PW                                                                            38.5°C: ↑++ (cells
                                                                                                                                                                                                                conventionally heated cultures subjected to                                                                                                                          38.5°C: ↑+, ↑+
                                                                                                                                                  pulsed (PW) and of                                                                                                                               2450-MHz and CW 2450-MHz                                                                                    150-200 µm2;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                increasing increments of heat showed no significant                                                                                                                  (cells 150-200
                                                                                                                                                     continuous (CW)                                                                                                                              microwaves delivered at the same                                                                           ↓+ (cells 100-120        37 and 38°C: ↑++
                                                                                                                         HCS;                                                                                   (p<0.3) differences between control and sham-                                                                                                     sham-exposure
   lymphoblastoid transformation                           yes             suspension          yes           EXP                      in vitro                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             µm2)
                                                                                                                         TUM                       microwaves of the cell transformation         -/-     yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                exposed cultures at 37 and 37.5 C. At 38.5 C, there
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   nn                       average SAR act                         nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   shelf-control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    µm2)                 (number of          amplification (pw)
                                                                                                                                                     same frequency                                                                                                                                  differently on the process of                                                                                    →             lymphoblastoid cells)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                was a decrease in intermediate cells 100-120 um2 in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    spontaneous lymphoblastoid                                                      ↓+, ↓+ (cells 100-        enhancement of
                                                                                                                                                   and same average                                             area and a significant (p<0.001) increase in cells 150-
                                                                                                                                                       dose rate on                                             200 um2 in area but not in lymphoblastoids,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         transformation in vitro.                                                       120 µm2)           blastic tranformation
                                                                                                                                                       spontaneous                                              suggesting enhancement of the transforming
                                                                                                                                                    transformation of                                           process.
                                                                                                                                                  human lymphocytes
                                                                                                                                                           in vitro.                                            Cultures exposed to CW 2450 MHz microwaves at
                                                                                                                                                   Lymphocytes and                                              heating and nonheating (37 C) levels showed a
                                                                                                                                                        monocytes
                                                                                                                                                      Behavioral and                                            significant (p<0.005) decrease at 38.5 C in in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                First study: Rats were individually exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ↓+ (400, 500, 700
                                                                                                                                                    thermal effects of                                          random order to 400, 500, 600, and 700-MHz
                                                                                                                                                        microwave                                               continuous wave (CW) radiation at a power density                                                                                                                                            MHz; 20 mw/cm2;
                                                                                                                                                    radiation in Long-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       stoppage of lever
                                                                                                                                                                                                                of 20 mW/cm2. Radiation at all wavelengths
                                                                                                                                                         Evans rats                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        pressing; rise of body
                                                                                                                                                                                                                produced rises of body temperature and stoppage
                                                                                                                                                  were investigated at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         temperature)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                of lever pressing, with the averaged rise in body
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Overall, the data show that the
                                                                                                                                                          differing                                             temperature
                                                                                                                                                  wavelengths and at                                                                                                                              mature Long-Evans rat is resonant                                                                         ↓++ (600 MHz; 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                being the greatest and work stoppage being most                                                                                                                                                               2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ´- (600 MHz; 0.51 and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   at a frequency of near 600 MHz                                                                            and 20 mW/cm ;
                                                                                                                         BEH;                         various power                                             rapid during exposures at                                                                                                                                                                                              5.1 mW/cm2;
    stoppage of lever pressing                             yes                    body         yes           EXP                       in vivo           densities.        behaviour             no      -/-                                                                       nn             and that work stoppage during short-              nn                 nn                  nn                stoppage of lever
                                                                                                                         TMP                                                                                    600 MHz.                                                                                                                                                                                                             stoppage of lever
                                                                                                                                                     In one study five                                                                                                                                term exposures to 600-MHz                                                                            pressing; rise of body
                                                                                                                                                                                                                In a second study, six rats were exposed in random                                                                                                                                                                       pressing)
                                                                                                                                                  rats were trained to                                                                                                                            radiation occurs at a power density                                                                          temperature)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                order to 600-MHz CW radiation at power densities of
                                                                                                                                                     perform a lever-                                                                                                                               between 7.5 and 10 mW/cm2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                5, 7.5, 10, and 20 mW/cm2 while performing the
                                                                                                                                                    pressing task and                                           same lever-pressing task. Exposures at 10 and 20                                                                                                                                            ´- (600 MHz; 5 and
                                                                                                                                                  were rewarded with                                            mW/cm2 resulted in work stoppage, while                                                                                                                                                         7.5 mW/cm2;
                                                                                                                                                   food on a variable                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        stoppage of lever
                                                                                                                                                                                                                exposures at 5 and 7.5 mW/cm2 did not.
                                                                                                                                                  interval schedule of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     pressing; rise of body
                                                                                                                                                                                                                In addition, three of the rats were subsequently
                                                                                                                                                      reinforcement.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            temperature)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                exposed, while responding, to 600-MHz pulsed
                                                                                                                                                         Rats were
                                                                                                                                                        In previous                                             CW-exposed cells showed a higher growth rate
                                                                                                                                                     experiments, the                                           (about 25%), whereas a
                                                                                                                                                    number of colony-                                           reduction of about 15% was seen in cells
                                                                                                                                                    forming units that                                          exposed to square-wave-modulated microwaves
                                                                                                                                                           could be                                             in comparison with sham-exposed controls.
                                                                                                                                                      recovered from                                            Remarkable variability of the results was noted,
                                                                                                                                                       cultures of the                                          which the authors suggest may have been a result of                               Remarkable variability of the results
                                                                                                                                                       yeast Candida                                            subpopulations with different sensitivity in the yeast                              was noted, which the authors
          growth rate;                                                                                                                                  albicans was      cell vitality, cell                   cultures.                                                                         suggest may have been a result of                               sham-exposure
                                                            nn                     nn          nn            EXP         CEF          in vitro           significantly                           -/-     yes                                                                       nn                                                               nn                                      ´-               ↑++ (growth rate)        ↓+ (growth rate)        contrary effects
  number of colony-forming units                                                                                                                                               division                                                                                                            subpopulations with different                                   shelf-control
                                                                                                                                                        reduced after                                                                                                                                 sensitivity in the yeast
                                                                                                                                                    exposure to 1 kHz                                                                                                                                        cultures.
                                                                                                                                                        square-wave-
                                                                                                                                                          modulated
                                                                                                                                                    microwaves at 72
                                                                                                                                                             GHz
                                                                                                                                                   in comparison with
                                                                                                                                                        nonirradiated
                                                                                                                                                      controls, but no
                                                                                                                                                   Five food-deprived                                           The threshold power density of disrupted response
                                                                                                                                                     rhesus monkeys                                             rate was 57 mW/cm2. These power densities were
                                                                                                                                                    (Macaca mulatta)                                            associated with reliable increases in colonic
                                                                                                                                                    were irradiated at                                          temperatures above sham-exposure levels. The
                                                                                                                                                             three                                              mean
                                                                                                                                                           different                                            increase was typically in the range of 1 C, and
                                                                                                                                                         frequencies                                            response-rate changes were                                                          In these experiments increase of
                                                                                                                                                      (radiofrequency                                           not observed in the absence of concomitant                                          colonic temperature was a much
            behavior:                                                                                                                                continuous-wave                                            temperature increases.                                                                better predictor of behavioral                                                                           ↑+ (disrupred         ↑+ (disrupred
                                                                                                                         BEH;
    power desinsity of disrupted                           yes                   colonic       yes           EXP                       in vivo    energy at 225 MHz;         behaviour           no      -/-                                                                       nn             disruption than was either the power              nn                 nn                   ´-             response at increased response at increased
                                                                                                                         TMP
            response                                                                                                                               microwave energy                                                                                                                                   density of the incident field or                                                                          colonic t°)           colonic t°)
                                                                                                                                                       at 1.3 1.3-GHz                                                                                                                              estimates of whole-body-averaged
                                                                                                                                                  pulsed, 3 usec, 370                                                                                                                                  rates of energy absorption.
                                                                                                                                                    pps, and 5.8-GHz
                                                                                                                                                      pulsed, 0.5 or 2
                                                                                                                                                    usec, 662 pps) to
                                                                                                                                                        determine the
                                                                                                                                                       minimal power
                                                                                                                                                           densities
                                                                                                                                                         The authors                                            Pulsed and continuous mm-wave exposure
                                                                                                                                                   conducted a series                                           produced similar results. The combination of
                                                                                                                                                       of experiments                                           endoxan and irradiation with pulsed or CW 5.6-mm
                                                                                                                                                        examining the                                           radiation reduced the rate of tumor growth by 35.1
                                                                                                                                                      antitumorigenic                                           and 36.1%, respectively, compared to rats given
                                                                                                                                                      potential of low                                                                                                                             Combined microwave irradiation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                endoxan only. The combination
                                                                                                                                                   energy, high-peak-                                                                                                                                     and treatment with a
          growth rates of:                                                                                                                                                                                      of 7.1-mm CW radiation and endoxan did not
                                                                                                                                                   power nsec-pulsed                                                                                                                               chemotherapeutic agent such as
        hepatic carcinoma,                                                                                                                                                                                      produce a significant
                                                                                                                                                      millimeter wave                                                                                                                                    endoxan produces the
non-metastatic PC-1 tumor (hamster                                                                                                                                                                              therapeutic advantage compared to endoxan alone.
                                                            nn                     nn          nn            EXP         TUM           in vivo           (mm-wave)             cancer            no      -/-                                                                       nn              best anti-tumorigenic effect. The                nn                 nn                  nn                ↓+(tumor growth)        ↓+(tumor growth)
    pancreatic adenocarcinoma                                                                                                                                                                                   In mice implanted with
                                                                                                                                                          microwave                                                                                                                                  results also indicated that low
              cell line),                                                                                                                                                                                       metastatic lung tumors, irradiation with pulsed or CW
                                                                                                                                                       radiation. The                                                                                                                             energy pulsed and CW microwave
  metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma                                                                                                                                                                               microwaves without
                                                                                                                                                  rationale behind the                                                                                                                            radiation produce almost the same
                                                                                                                                                                                                                endoxan treatment reduced the incidence of
                                                                                                                                                       experiments is                                                                                                                                            effect.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                metastasis by an average of 23%
                                                                                                                                                  that development of                                           for 30- and 5.6 mm-wave radiation, while CW 7.1
                                                                                                                                                  malignant tumors is                                           mm radiation had almost no
                                                                                                                                                         a reversible                                           effect. The reduction in metastatic lung lesions for
                                                                                                                                                   process and that, if                                         the combined treatments,
                                                                                                                                                            genetic
                                                                                                                                                     Cultured human                                             compared to endoxan alone, indicated improvements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 RF-EMFexposure (1800 MHz; SAR 1.2 or 2 W/kg;
                                                                                                                                                    diploid fibroblasts                                         different modulations; during 4, 16and 24 hr;
                                                                                                                                                      and cultured rat                                          intermittent 5 min on/10 min off or continuous
                                                                                                                                                       granulosa cells                                          wave) induced DNAsingle- and double-strand
                                                                                                                                                             were                                               breaks. Effects occurred after 16 hr exposure in
                                                                                                                                                          exposed to                                            both cell types and after different mobile-phone
                                                                                                                                                      intermittent and                                          modulations. The intermittent exposure showed a
                                                                                                                                                          continuous                                            stronger effect in the comet assay than continuous
       DNA strand breaks                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Therefore we conclude that the
                                                                                                                                                       radiofrequency                                           exposure.                                                                                                                                                                                     ↑+ (DNA strand         ↑++ (DNA strand
 (by means of alkaline and neutral                          nn                     nn          nn            EXP         GEN          in vitro       electromagnetic       genotoxicity          -/-     yes                                                                       nn                   induced DNA damage                          nn                 nn                  nn                                                                amplification (pw)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  breaks)                breaks)
         comet assay)                                                                                                                                fields (RF-EMF)                                                                                                                              cannot be based on thermal effects.
                                                                                                                                                       used in mobile
                                                                                                                                                         phones, with
                                                                                                                                                     different specific
                                                                                                                                                          absorption
                                                                                                                                                     rates (SAR) and
                                                                                                                                                     different mobile-
                                                                                                                                                  phone modulations.
                                                                                                                                                     Strain D4 breaks
                                                                                                                                                   DNA strandof the                                             The studies revealed no increase in mutations
                                                                                                                                                             yeast                                              or in mitotic gene conversions. Decreased viability of
                                                                                                                                                     Saccharomyces                                              cells was noted in
                                                                                                                                                       cerevisiae and                                           all cultures tested after irradiation at power densities
              mutations                                                                                                                              strains TA-1535,                                           of 30 mW/cm2 or                                                                   Decreased viability of cells was due                                                                     ´- (mutations, mitotic   ´- (mutations, mitotic
                                                            fix                                yes           EXP         GEN          in vitro                             genotoxicity          no      -/-                                                                       nn                                                               nn                 nn                  nn
   or in mitotic gene conversions                                                                                                                          TA-100,                                              more; however, this appeared due primarily to                                            primarily to heating.                                                                              gene conversions)        gene conversions)
                                                                                                                                                     and TA-98 of the                                           heating.
                                                                                                                                                          bacterium
                                                                                                                                                          Salmonella
                                                                                                                                                    typhimurium were




                      Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Seite 17 von 100
                      Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                 Thermal
                 nature of
Reversibility
                  effect
  of effect
                    (if
                mentioned)

 yes/no/nn




     nn             nn




     nn           thermal




     nn             nn




     nn           thermal




     nn             nn




     nn          athermal




     nn             nn




                   Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                              81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                              Seite 18 von 100
                   Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                               Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
    Nu                                                                   Author                                                         Publication                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure                                                                                                                                                                                   Test-Objects
    mbe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Proximity                                                                                                                                                       Number     Parts of
    Stu Sorting-                                                                                                                                                                                   Pulse repetition         Pulse                      Intensit      Powerflux-density                                                                                  Technical               Exposure device                                                Kind
                            Names                                          Affilation        Address       Country    Year      Title                      Journal              Frequency                                               Modulation                                                         Specific absorption rate (SAR)                       to                                                               Duration of exposure                      Human Biological object          Gender           of      organism                  System of body
    dy Name *                                                                                                                                                                                        frequency              width                          y              (PFD)                                                                                        application        (device to generate the field)                                      of exp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SAR                                                                                                                                                         objects   exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       avarage                                                                               energy        threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              clearly     acc.                                                                  acute=
                                                                                                                                Abbreviations:                                                                                                                       CW-                 PW-          CW-                      PW-           deposit                                    CW-               PW-                                    <day
    163                                                                                                                                                                  min.     max. further      min.      all     min.      all                     / peak                                                                                                below;   Pull-Down-                                                                                                                                                    whole body;
                                                                                                                                CW = Continuos Wave                                                                                                                exposure            exposure     exposure                 exposure       CW vs. PW                                 exposure          exposure                               temporar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          [W]                                                                                               close to;     Menu                                                                                                                                                        part body;
                                                                                                                                EMF = Electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               near-field                 y= <<life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       average /                               average /      cw < pw         clearly                                                                                       continuous                     animal                                        cell;                             acc.
                                                                                                                                Field(s)                                 [GHz]    [GHz]   [GHz]     [Hz]     [Hz]     [µs]      [µs]                              [mW/cm2]                             [W/Kg]                                                                                                        far-field      date          time                     1 = yes                          female,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         peak                                    peak         cw > pw         above                                                                                         intermittent                (type, age)                                      cell                          list below
                                                                                                                                MW = Microwave(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      n.n.                     chron=                                                      male, nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      [mW/cm2]                                  [W/Kg]        cw ≤ pw       (ref. 0,08                                                                                                                                                               component;
                                                                                                                                PW = Pulsed Wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                near life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              cw ≥ pw         W/kg /                                                                                                                                                                    model
                                                                                                                                RF = Radiofrequency                                                                                                               common mark                        common                                (SAR- or PFD-                                 common mark means:                                       time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      means:                       mark means:                             value)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2 W/kg)                    not differently mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   not differently                 not differently                                                                                                                               multi=




                                                                                                                                   ULTRASTRUCTURAL
                                                                                                                                 STUDIES ON THE EFFECT
                                                                                                                                 OF LOW FIELD INTENSITY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Red kidney bean
                                   Dwivedi, R. S.;                                                                                MW RADIATION ON THE      J Cell Biol                                                                                                           5;                                                                                                                                                                                                  plants (Phaseolus                                                            whole organism
     48    Dwivedi, R. S.                                                      Dept. Botany,                  USA
                                                                               Howard Univ. Howard Univ., Washington, DC 1979                                            2.45     2.45      none     nn       nn       nn       nn         pulsed        nn                      10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          nn                   cw = pw       above         nn                      nn                   nn           nn           nn            nn            0                                nn             nn     whole body
                                   Vaidya, C. B.                                                                                  MEMBRANES OF LEAF        83(2 Pt 2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                vulgaris L., 1-4 wk                                                             (plants)
                                                                                                                                  CELLS OF RED KIDNEY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        old)
                                                                                                                                   BEANS (PHASEOLUS
                                                                                                                                      VULGARIS L.)




                                                          Motorola Florida                                                                                 Bioelectro-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             clearly                                                                                                                      rabbit;                                       part:                         sensoric
     49     Elder, J.A.                         Motorola Florida Research Laboratories, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USAOcular effects of RF energy
                                        Elder, J.A.           Research                        USA         2003                                             magnetics     2.45     2.45      none     nn       nn       nn       nn         pulsed        nn                      nn                                       150                  cw = pw                     nn                      nn                   nn       30 minutes      acute       continuous       0                                nn             nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             above                                                                                                                        monkey                                        eye                        (ocular system)
                                                            Laboratories                                                                                     24 (6)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        standard horn antenna
                                                                                                           EFFECT ON THE IMMUNE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              powered by a
                                                  Natl. Res. Inst.                                                                                                                                                                         pulsed                                                                                                                                                                                3 hours/day
                                 Elekes, E.;                                                              SYSTEM OF MICE EXPOSED Bioelectro-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             TK1 type TR-TK0603
                                                 for Radiobiology                                                                                                                                                                       (square wave                                                                                                                                                                                for 6                                                 mouse
                                and Radiohygiene, Budapest, Hungary;Natl. Res. Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, POB 101, H-1775 Budapest, Hungary (RR/E.E.)
rie" Res. Inst. for RadiobiologyThuroczy, G.;
      50      Elekes, E.                                                          Hungary        1996       CHRONICALLY TO 50 Hz         magnetics    2.45    2.45                          none     50       50       nn       nn                       nn                     0,1/                                  0,12 - 0,16/             cw = pw      close to       nn        microwave generator coupled        nn                     temporary    intermittent      0                            female, male       nn     whole body                   whole organism
                                                        and                                                                                                                                                                               amplitude                                                                                                                                                                              consecutive                                             (BALB/c)
                                Szabo, L. D.                                                               AMPLITUDE-MODULATED            17(3)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             to an OMSZOV
                                                   Radiohygiene                                                                                                                                                                          modulated)                                                                                                                                                                                 days
                                                                                                            2.45 GHz MICROWAVES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          type BE-104 function
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               generator




                                                                                                     HEART RATE CHANGES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cardio-vascular
                             Jauchem, J. R.;    NASA-Lyndon B.                                         DUE TO 5.6-GHz RF                                  Proc Soc Exp                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      rat
                                                                                                                                                                                                             250;                                                                30;                                      6;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (heart rate, blood
     51               Medical Research R.;
            Frei, M. R.                          Johnson SD3,
                               Frei, M. Branch, Mail Code SpaceNASA-Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston,RADIATION:
                                                                                USA        1984             TX 77058                                        Biol Med      5.6      5.6      none     250               1        1-2        pulsed        nn                                                                                    cw = pw       above        radar                                      far-field       nn          acute      intermittent      0      (Sprague-Dawley,        female          28      whole body
                                                                                                                                                                                                             500                                                                 60                                       12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 pressure, respiratory
                               Heinmets, F.           Center                                         RELATION TO AVERAGE                                     177(3)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        adult)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      rate)
                                                                                                         POWER DENSITY




                                                  Trinity Univ. ;
                                                                                                         PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS            J Microw                                                                                                                                                                        8,4;
                                Frei, M.;            Sch. of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             12,6;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cardio-vascular
                                                                                                         OF 2.8 GHz RF RADIATION:           Power                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           rat
v. (M.F.); Sch. of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, TX (M.F.);Radiation Sciences Division, Sch. of1988
      52     Frei, M. R.      Jauchem, J.;         Aerospace                        USA           Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, TX (J.J.); Univ. of Texas,Austin, TX (F.H.)
                                                                                                                                                          2.8       2.8     none                     500     500       2            2      pulsed        nn           30; 45; 60; 75 (pw) /                                                    cw < pw       above         nn                      nn                far-field     4 hours       acute      intermittent      0                              female          10      whole body              (respiratory , thermo-
                                                                                                        A COMPARISON OF PULSED Electromagn                                                                                                                                                                               16,8;                                                                                                                                                       (Sprague-Dawley)
                              Heinmets, F.          Medicine;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           21 (pw)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   regulatory)
                                                                                                            AND CW RADIATION.           Energy 23(2)
                                                 Univ. of Texas




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   standard-gain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     standard-gain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         horn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           horn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   antenna in an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     antenna in an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     anechoic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       anechoic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      chamber
                                                                                                               THERMAL AND                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              chamber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      fed by a
                                                                                                        PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           fed by a                                                                                                                                                                thermo-regulatory
                              Frei, M. R.;    Brooks Air Force                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     model 2852 S-
                                                                                                         IN RATS EXPOSED TO CW            Int J Radiat                                                                                                                                                                                                                                model 1325                                                                                            rat                                                                    (thermal and
             Frei, Div.,    SAM, Brooks Air
adiation Sciences M. R.USAF Jauchem, J. R.; Force Base, TX 78235 (M.R.F., J.R.J., USA
      53                                            Base;                         J.M.P.);Dept. of Biology, Trinity Univ., San Antonio, TX (M.R.F)
                                                                                             1989                                                                         2.8      2.8      none    1000     1000     0.5       0.5        pulsed        nn                      nn                                       14                   cw = pw       above         nn                       band peak-                       nn           nn        intermittent      0                               male           20      whole body
                                                                                                          AND PULSED 2.8 GHz RF             Biol 56(6)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 RF source                                                                                     (Sprague-Dawley)                                                              physiological
                             Padilla, J. M.      Trinity Univ.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          power
                                                                                                                  RADIATION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Cober                                                                                                                                                                     responses)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     emissions
                                                                                                        IN E AND H ORIENTATIONS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Electronics,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     simulator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Inc.),
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (Cober
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Electronics,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Inc.),
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         far-field
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       far field




                            Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Seite 19 von 100
                            Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                        Measurement                                                                      Classification                                                                                                                                                                                                 Objectives and Results

                                                                                                                                                                                  Biological
                Measured                                         Temperature                    Temperatu                                 Type of
                                                                                                                 Class      Category                        Abstract              endpoint                                                                 Difference between CW and PW effects                                                                                                                       Biological effects of CW and PW exposure
               parameters                                          control                      re effects?                                study
                                                                                                                                                                                   of view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                kind of effect
                                                            yes                                 (caused by                                                                                                                                                                    Tendencies
                                                                                                                                                                                                    no     yes                                                                                                                                                                 sham-exposure /                            cw vs. pw or vs. control
                                                             fix  Point of                       irridation)      acc.                                                                                                             Kind of difference                      (without statistical
                                                                                                                                              acc.                                                                                                                                                     The authors conclude/                     Action-hypothesis             shelf control /                   ↑+; ↑++; ↓+; ↓++; ↕+; ↕++ ("changes"); ´-; nn
                                                          =contro measure                                      pull-down-                                                                                                                                                     significance)
                                                                                                                                          list below                                                                                                                                                        suggest…                               (if mentioned)              pre-exposure/
                                                            lled   ment                                          menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               no control/ n.n.
                                                             nn                                    yes;                                                                                            104      59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  sham/control             cw                        pw              effect categories
                                                                                                    no                                                                                             63.8%   36.2%                              (uncompleteley simplified)

                                                                                                                                                         Red kidney bean                                           At 10 mW/cm2, the membranes of leaf
                                                                                                                                                        plants (Phaseolus                                          chloroplasts of 1- to 2-wk-old plants were totally
                                                                                                                                                        vulgaris L., 1-4 wk                                        disrupted; mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticular, and
                                                                                                                                                         old) were treated                                         nuclear membranes were fragmented and
                                                                                                                                                                with                                               vesiculated. Similar but less severe damage- in
                                                                                                                                                             2450 MHz                                              leaves of 3and 4-wk-old plants. At a field intensity                                   Differential susceptibility of
                                                                                                                                                       microwaves at field                                         of 5 mW/cm2 -greater degree of damage in                                              membranes at 5 mW/cm2
                                                                                                                                                          intensities of 5                                         mitochondrial and ER than that to chloroplast                                   intensity. The age of the plants also
                                                                                                                                                         mW/cm2 and 10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ↑+ (disruptiom of         ↑+ (disruptiom of
      disruption of membranes of leaf                                                                                                     in vivo ->                                                               membranes. Similar damage was caused by                                         affects their general susceptibility to
                                                                 nn                     nn          nn            EXP         EOR                        mW/cm2. Small membrane function            no      -/-                                                                      nn                                                                    nn                          nn              nn         membranes of leaf         membranes of leaf
                chloroplasts                                                                                                                 vitro                                                                 continuous and pulsed modes of radiation.                                         microwaves. The results suggest
                                                                                                                                                           pieces of leaf                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            chloroplasts)             chloroplasts)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     that membranes are the primary
                                                                                                                                                       samples selected at                                                                                                                                   targets of microwave
                                                                                                                                                           random were                                                                                                                                irradiatio for nonthermal effects.
                                                                                                                                                            prepared for
                                                                                                                                                              electron
                                                                                                                                                         microscopy after
                                                                                                                                                          glutaraldehyde-
                                                                                                                                                         osmium fixation.
                                                                                                                                                       The membranes of                  The nonhuman primate study showed that the
                                                                                                                                                                                         incident power density levels causing cataracts in
                                                                                                                                                                                         rabbits and other laboratory animals cannot be
                                                                                                                                                                                         directly extrapolated to primates, including human
                                                                                                                                                                                         beings (due to different facial structure). It is                            Clinically significant ocular effects,
                                                                                                                                                                                         reasonable to assume that an SAR that would                                  including cataracts, have not been
                                                                                                                                                                                         induce temperatures 41°C in or near the lens in                                confirmed in human populations
                 ocular effects                                                                                                                                                          the human eye would produce cataracts by the                                 exposed for long periods of time to
     (cataracts, corneal lesions, retinal            in or near                                  EYE;                                              changes of the
0 min at power densities causing extremely high dose rates (150 W/kg) yes temperatures (41°C) in or near the lens vivo
                                            yes                       and         EXP                                                                                    were not observed in the monkey eye exposedthat caused cataracts
                                                                                                               in caused cataracts in the rabbit eye. However, cataracts no        -/-   same mechanism (heating) to similar exposure conditions, reflecting the different patterns ofThe results of four (SAR, specific absorption rate) distribution, due to their different facial structure. ´- (ocular effects) head is similareffects)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      nn                low level RF. energy absorption                   nn                            nn                      nn                Since the monkey       ´- (ocular in structure to the human head, the nonhuman primate study showed that the incident power density levels causing cataracts in rabbits and other laboratory anim
         effects, changes in vascular                 the lens                                   SEN                                            neurological system                      in the rabbit lens; however, such an exposure                                  recent human studies show that
                 permeability)                                                                                                                                                           would greatly exceed the currently allowable limits for                        there is no clear evidence of an
                                                                                                                                                                                         human exposure and would be expected to cause                                 association between RF exposure
                                                                                                                                                                                         unacceptable effects in other parts of the eye and                                    and ocular cancer.
                                                                                                                                                                                         face; some unconfirmed effects: corneal lesions after
                                                                                                                                                                                         CW; retinal effects after PW;



                                                                                                                                                        The immunological                                          Body weights were not affected by any microwave
                                                                                                                                                           effects of 50-Hz                                        exposure. Spleen weights and the spleen index
                                                                                                                                                              square wave                                          were moderately increased by 15% only in male                                                                                                                                                 ´- (spleen weights and     ↑+ (spleen weights;
                                                                                                                                                                amplitude                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              increase (pw)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   mice exposed to AM modulated microwaves, but the                                                                                                                                                  index; male and               male)
      body weight; weight of spleens;                                                                                                                      modulated (AM)                                          spleen index increase was not quite significant           Spleen weights and                                                                                                                          female)
            spleen index (defined                                                                                                                         2.45-GHz or CW                                                                                                                           The authors concluded that 50-Hz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (p=0.0687). No changes in spleen weight or index        the spleen index were
      as ratio of spleen weight to body                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            AM modulated and CW 2.45-GHz              The lack of an effect in female                                                                                         amplification (pw)
                                                                                                                                                                2.45-GHz                                           were induced by AM modulated microwaves in              moderately increased                                                                                                                    ↑+ (plaque forming       ↑++ (plaque forming
      weight); number of splenocytes;                                                                                                                    microwaves were                                                                                                                               microwave radiation causes                  mice may be due to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   female mice or by CW microwave radiation in              by 15% only in male                                                                                                                   cell assay response;      cell assay response;
             hemagglutinin titers;                                                                                                                      evaluated in mice.                                                                                                                          moderate increases in antibody                    differences in
                                                                                                                                          in vivo ->                             immunological                     mice of either sex. No exposure-related changes          mice exposed to AM                                                                                                        nn                only male)                only male)
                   IgG levels                                    nn                     nn          nn            EXP         IMM                         Male and female                           -/-     yes                                                                                    production in male, but not female            psychoneurohormonal              shelf-control
                                                                                                                                             vitro                                 reactions                       in splenocyte counts were seen.                                modulated                                                                                                           (´-)
                                                                                                                                                        BALB/c-mice were                                                                                                                             mice. The small response was             regulation or differences in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The splenic PFC response to SRBCs was                    microwaves, but the                                                                                                                      ´- (splenocytes
       The splenic response to SRBC                                                                                                                            exposed to                                                                                                                          attributed to the low power level of        situational stress between
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   increased by 37.07% in male mice exposed to CW          spleen index increase                                                                                                                          counts)          ´- (splenocytes counts)
                 inoculation                                                                                                                            radiation 3 hr daily                                                                                                                           the and short duration of the               males and females.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   microwave radiation (from 15,343.3 +/- 1700.5 to             was not quite
      was determined using the plaque                                                                                                                     for 6 consecutive                                                                                                                                      exposure.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   21,031.2 +/- 2517.6 PFC/spleen, p=0.0929) and by        significant (p=0.0687).                                                                                                                    ´- (serum                 ´- (serum
         forming cell (PFC) assay.                                                                                                                                 days.                                           55.41% in males exposed to modulated radiation                                                                                                                                                 hemagglutinin titer,      hemagglutinin titer,
                                                                                                                                                        The time averaged                                          (from 11,980.4 +/- 1437.4 to 18,619.0 +/- 3136.2                                                                                                                                               IgG, body weight)         IgG, body weight)
                                                                                                                                                        power density was                                          PFC/spleen, p=0.0918), differences which the
                                                                                                                                                         0.1 mW/cm2 and                                            authors considered significant. This parameter was
                                                                                                                                                           the whole body
                                                                                                                                                            This study was                                         No significantly affected in female mice.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   not differences were observed between results
                                                                                                                                                               designed to                                         obtained with pulsed and continuous wave
                                                                                                                                                        investigate effects                                        exposures. Heart rate increased at exposure to 60
                                                                                                                                                       on heart rate, blood                                        mW/cm2, and not to 30 mW/cm2. The time taken to
                                                                                                                                                             pressure, and                                         reach a colonic
                                                                                                                                                         respiratory rate of                                       temperature of 39.5 C was over twice as long at 30
                                                                                                                                                                 5.6 GHz                                           mW/cm2 as at 60 mW/cm2,
                                                                                                                                                            radiofrequency                                         but the time taken to return to 38.5 C was similar.                             The authors doubt that exposure to
         blood pressure; respiration;                                                                                         CVS;                      radiation (RFR) at                                         No changes in mean arterial blood pressure or in                                 these RFR conditions would have                                                                               ↑+ (heart rate at 60      ↑+ (heart rate at 60
                                                                yes                   colonic       yes           EXP                       in vivo     power densities of         physiology       no      -/-                                                                      nn                                                                    nn                          nn              nn
                    EKG                                                                                                       RES                                                                                  respiratory rate were observed.                                                 any serious long-term physiological                                                                                 mW/cm2)                   mW/cm2)
                                                                                                                                                                30 and 60                                                                                                                                    consequences
                                                                                                                                                       mW/cm2, exposure
                                                                                                                                                                conditions
                                                                                                                                                           characteristic of
                                                                                                                                                               high-power
                                                                                                                                                        stationary tracking
                                                                                                                                                         radars for military
                                                                                                                                                        applications and of
                                                                                                                                                          naval ship radar.
                                                                                                                                                                The acute                                          No significant difference in heating or cooling                                                                                                                                                ´- (heating or cooling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ´- (heating or cooling
                                                                                                                                                       thermophysiological                                         responses were seen between the PW- and the                                                                                                                                                          responses)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  responses)
                                                                                                                                                        effects of exposure                                        CW-RFR exposed animals at any of the power
                                                                                                                                                                  to PW                                                                                                                              The authors conclude, however,                                                                               ´- (respiratory rate)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   densities tested. Average power density was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    that no significant difference was                                                                                                      ´- (respiratory rate)
                                                                                                                                                            radiofrequency                                         inversely related to the time to achieve the 1 C
                                                                                                                                                           radiation (RFR)                                                                                                                         shown between the effect of acute                                                                              ↓+ (blood pressure)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   colonic temperature increase; however, the time to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Heart rate was slightly CW or PW RFR exposure upon the                                                                                                           ↓+ (blood pressure)
                                                                                      chamber                                                           were compared to                                           recovery of the baseline temperature was
         arterial blood pressure;                                                                                                                        those of exposure                                                                                                   decreased but not      anesthetized rat's colonic thermal                                                                                ´- (heartrate)                                   increase (pw)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   unaffected. No linear relationship exists between
             respiratory rate;                                                                                                CVS;                                                                                                                                         significantly changed response, heart rate, arterial blood                                                                                                        ↑+ (heartrate; ≥ 30
                                                                                  colonic;                                                                  to CW RFR in           physiology;                     power density and core temperature increase; this is                                                                                                                                                                                   2
                   ECG;                                         yes                                 yes           EXP         RES;          in vivo             ketamine-                           -/-     yes                                                             during 30-mW/cm2        pressure, or respiratory rate. The                     nn                          nn              nn                                         mW/cm )
                                                                                 tympanic;                                                                                      thermoregulation                   in contrast to a cadaver or saline model. Heart rate
    temperature (colonic, subcutaneous,                                                                                       TMP                        anesthetized rats.                                                                                                  pulsed irradiation.   differential in the effects of PW and                                                                             ↑++ (tympanic,                                  amplification (pw)
                                                                                subcutaneo                                                                                                                         was slightly decreased but not significantly changed
                 tympanic)
                                                                                    us                                                                   Female Sprague-                                           during 30-mW/cm2 pulsed irradiation. Heart rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     CW RFR on subcutaneous and                                                                                   subcut. temperature)       ↑+++ (tympanic,
                                                                                                                                                         Dawley rats were                                                                                                                              tympanic heating did not, it is                                                                                                     subcut. temperature)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   significantly increased during PW-RFR exposure
                                                                                                                                                            exposed in the                                                                                                                           concluded, significantly alter the                                                                                ↑+ (colonic                                   amplification (pw)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   in an inverse relationship to power density at
                                                                                                                                                       far-field to 2.8-GHz                                                                                                                             colonic heating and cooling                                                                                   temperature)               ↑++ (colonic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   values greater than 30 mW/cm2. Heart rate was
                                                                                                                                                          PW (2 usec, 500                                                                                                                                         responses.                                                                                                                    temperature)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   not affected significantly during CW RFR
                                                                                                                                                        pps) and CW RFR                                            exposure at the different power densities. Mean                                                                                                                                                 ↕+ (changes within
                                                                                                                                                         at average power                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the temperature                                     change (cw)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   blood pressure decreased slightly during irradiation
                                                                                                                                                        densities ofmale45,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2
                                                                                                                                                              Twenty 30,                                           The times required for Tc to increase from 38.5                                                                                                                                                cycles; 60-mW/cm )
                                                                                                                                                          Sprague-Dawley                                           to 39.5 C under each of the exposure conditions
                                                                                                                                                             rats, weighing                                        were nearly equal during CW and pulsed
                                                                                                                                                         between 304-361                                           exposure in either orientation; but the time
                                                                                                                                                                  g, were                                          required for E-orientation exposure was
                                                                                                                                                         anesthetized with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ↑+ (colonic;              ↑+ (colonic;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   significantly longer (2-3 times) than for H-
                                                                                                                                                             ketamine HCl                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tympanic;                 tympanic;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   orientation. H-orientation exposure produced faster
                                                                                                                                                        (Velatar) and were                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           subcutaneous              subcutaneous
        ECG; arterial blood press.;                                               colonic;                                                                                                                         Tc increases (except for the tail), higher local SHR in
                                                                                                                              CVS;                     exposed individually                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          temperatures)             temperatures)
                respirat. rates;                                                 tympanic;                                                                                         physiology;                     the anesthetized rats, and higher local SAR in the rat
                                                                yes                                 yes           EXP         RES;          in vivo                 in E                            no      -/-                                                                      nn                               nn                                   nn                          nn              nn
    temp. (left and right sub-cutaneous,                                        subcutaneo                                                                                      thermoregulation                   carcasses. During Tc increases from 38.5 to 39.9 C,
                                                                                                                              TMP                      (long axis parallel to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ↑+ (heart rat, blood      ↑+ (heart rat, blood
       right tympanic, colonic, tail)                                               us                                                                                                                             heart rate and blood pressure increased, but there
                                                                                                                                                       electric field) and H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           pressure)                 pressure)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   were no differences in these changes between the
                                                                                                                                                       (long axis parallel to                                      effects of E- and H-orientation exposure or between
                                                                                                                                                                      a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ´- respiration rate       ´- respiration rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CW and pulsed irradiation. The respiratory rate did
                                                                                                                                                            magnetic field)                                        not change significantly under any exposure
                                                                                                                                                        orientations to both                                       conditions.
                                                                                                                                                           CW and pulsed
                                                                                                                                                            radiofrequency
                                                                                                                                                                 radiation




                           Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Seite 20 von 100
                           Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                 Thermal
                 nature of
Reversibility
                  effect
  of effect
                    (if
                mentioned)

 yes/no/nn




     nn          athermal




     nn           thermal




     nn             nn




     nn           thermal




     yes
   (blood         thermal
  pressure)




     nn           thermal




                   Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                              81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                              Seite 21 von 100
                   Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                               Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
   Nu                                                                  Author                                                              Publication                                                                                                                                                                       Exposure                                                                                                                                                                                      Test-Objects
   mbe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Proximity                                                                                                                                                      Number      Parts of
   Stu Sorting-                                                                                                                                                                                       Pulse repetition          Pulse                    Intensit      Powerflux-density                                                                                      Technical                Exposure device                                                 Kind
                          Names                                          Affilation            Address         Country     Year    Title                      Journal              Frequency                                                Modulation                                                       Specific absorption rate (SAR)                           to                                                                 Duration of exposure                      Human Biological object       Gender           of       organism                   System of body
   dy Name *                                                                                                                                                                                            frequency               width                        y              (PFD)                                                                                            application         (device to generate the field)                                       of exp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SAR                                                                                                                                                        objects    exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         avarage                                                                                 energy          threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    clearly     acc.                                                                    acute=
                                                                                                                                   Abbreviations:                                                                                                                      CW-                PW-           CW-                     PW-              deposit                                      CW-                PW-                                     <day
    163                                                                                                                                                                     min.     max. further      min.      all      min.      all                   / peak                                                                                                    below;   Pull-Down-                                                                                                                                                   whole body;
                                                                                                                                   CW = Continuos Wave                                                                                                               exposure           exposure      exposure                exposure          CW vs. PW                                   exposure           exposure                                temporar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [W]                                                                                                   close to;     Menu                                                                                                                                                       part body;
                                                                                                                                   EMF = Electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    near-field                 y= <<life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         average /                               average /        cw < pw           clearly                                                                                         continuous                    animal                                      cell;                               acc.
                                                                                                                                   Field(s)                                 [GHz]    [GHz]   [GHz]     [Hz]     [Hz]      [µs]      [µs]                            [mW/cm2]                             [W/Kg]                                                                                                              far-field      date          time                     1 = yes                      female,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           peak                                    peak           cw > pw           above                                                                                           intermittent               (type, age)                                    cell                            list below
                                                                                                                                   MW = Microwave(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           n.n.                     chron=                                                  male, nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        [mW/cm2]                                  [W/Kg]          cw ≤ pw         (ref. 0,08                                                                                                                                                              component;
                                                                                                                                   PW = Pulsed Wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     near life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cw ≥ pw           W/kg /                                                                                                                                                                   model
                                                                                                                                   RF = Radiofrequency                                                                                                              common mark                        common                                  (SAR- or PFD-                                    common mark means:                                        time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        means:                       mark means:                               value)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2 W/kg)                     not differently mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     not differently                 not differently                                                                                                                                     multi=




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      thermo-regulatory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            model 1326
                                                                                                       THERMOREGULATORY              Radiat                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (thermo-regulatory-
                               Frei, M. R.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  RF power
                                                Trinity Univ.;                                         RESPONSES OF RATS            Environ                                                                                                                               30;              30;               9,3;                  9,3;                                                                   model 2852                                                                                rat                                                             regulatory responses
. of Biology, Frei, M. R. 715Jauchem,Dr.,R.; Antonio, TX 78284 (F.H.); RadiationSciences Div.,1989
      54      Trinity Univ.,  Stadium J. San                                     USA           USAF/SAM, Brooks AFB, TX 78235 (M.R.F., J.R.J.)                               9.3      9.3      none     500     500        2            2     pulsed       nn                                                                                      cw = pw         above        radar      source (Cober                     far-field       nn          acute      intermittent      0                           female           6       whole body
                                                 USAF/SAM                                             EXPOSED TO 9.3-GHz RF         Biophys                                                                                                                               60               60                18,6                  18,6                                                                  power source                                                                        (Sprague-Dawley)                                                             and related
                               Heinmets, F.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Electron.),
                                                                                                             RADIATION                28(1)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              physiological
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              far-field
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          processes)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0,6 / 200
                                                                                                                                     AVOIDANCE BY RATS OF                                                     100 (exp.                                                                   (exp.1)
                                                                                                                                                              J Comp
                                     Frey, A. H.;                             (no affiliation                                       ILLUMINATION WITH LOW                                                        1);                30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   whole organism
    55      Frey, A. H.                                                                       (no affiliation given) USA    1975                               Physiol       1.2      1.2      none     100                30                 pulsed       nn        2,4 (exp.2)                                            nn                     cw > pw         above         nn                       nn                    nn           nn          acute       continuous       0            rat              nn             nn      whole body
                                     Feld, S. R.                                 given)                                             POWER NONIONIZING EM                                                        1000               5000                                                  0,2 / 2,1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (behavior)
                                                                                                                                                            Psychol 89(2)
                                                                                                                                           ENERGY                                                              (exp.2)                                                                    (exp.2)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         30 minutes,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              standard horn antenna                                                                                              female (1.               whole body (1.                  nervous
                                                                                                                                     NEURAL FUNCTION AND                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4 times/day
                                     Frey, A. H.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               experiment)                experiment)                     (central
                                                                                                                                          BEHAVIOR:           Ann N Y                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Model 411A                                                                                      rat
    56      Frey, A. H.              Feld, S. R.;                         Randomline, Inc. Huntingdon Valley, PA 19006 1975
                                                                           Randomline, Inc.,               USA                                                              1.22     1.22      none    1000     1000      500       500       pulsed       nn             2.4            0,2 / 2,1                          nn                     cw > pw         above         nn        Microdot power oscillator was     far-field                   acute      intermittent      0                                            nn                                 nervous system
                                                                                                                                        DEFINING THE        Acad Sci 247                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 30 minutes                                          (Sprague-Dawley)
                                       Frey, B.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   male (2.                   head (2.              function and behavior;
                                                                                                                                        RELATIONSHIP                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            fed to the antenna)                          (2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                experiment)                experiment)                      BBB)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         experiment)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0,65;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0,2;
                                                                                                                 EXPOSURE TO RF                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            standard gain
                                                        Randomline,                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0-0,1                                                 cw = pw (0.2);    above /                                                                                                                           rat                           16;
                                     Frey, A. H.;                                                               ELECTROMAGNETIC                             Aggressive                                                              100;                                                                                                                                                   horn antenna;                                      5                                                                                                                       whole organism
    57      Frey, A. H.                                                                USA
                                        Randomline, Inc., County Line and Mann Roads, Huntingdon Valley, PA 19006
                                                      Inc., Huntingdon                            1986                                                                       1.3      1.3      none    1000     1000      100                 pulsed       nn             0.2                /                 nn                                 cw < pw;        below /        nn                                             nn                     temporary    intermittent      0      (Sprague-Dawley,      male           16;      whole body
                                     Spector, J.                                                               ENERGY DECREASES                             Behav 12(4)                                                             500                                                                                                                                                    EM anechoic                                   minutes/day                                                                                                               (aggressive behavior)
                                                            Valley                                                                                                                                                                                                                          nn                                                    cw > pw         close to                                                                                                                         male)                          60
                                                                                                             AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            chamber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0,4;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0,05 - 0,2




                               Fritze, K.;    Max-Planck-Inst.
                                                                                                             EFFECT OF GLOBAL
                             Sommer, C.;       for Neurological
                                                                                                            SYSTEM FOR MOBILE
                             Schmitz, B.;           Res.;                                                                                   Acta                                                                                                                                                                                                                   below /                          plastic tubes
                                                                                                          COMMUNICATION (GSM)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      rat                                                                           nervous
eler Strasse 50,D-50931 Cologne, Germany (K.F.,Ruprecht-Karls-
     58       Fritze, K.       Mies, G.;                                          Germany
                                                B.S., G.M., K.A.H.); Inst. for Neuropathology, Ruprecht-Karls-Univ.,Heidelberg, Germany (C.S., M.K.); Novartis Pharma Inc.,none
                                                                                                1997                                    Neuropathol      0.9      0.9      Nervous Syst. Res., Basel, Switzerland(C.W.)
                                                                                                                                                                                    217        217       nn       nn                         GSM-like      nn                      nn                         7.5            0,3; 1,5(brain)       cw > pw        close to /     nn            in a circular carousel,      near-field     4 hours       acute       continuous       0                            male          4 x 20    whole body
                                                                                                             MW EXPOSURE ON                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Wistar)                                                                         (BBB)
                           Hossmann, K. A.;         Univ.;                                                                               (Berl) 94(5)                                                                                                                                                                                                               above                  heads facing a central antenna
                                                                                                          BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER
                             Kiessling, M.;   Novartis Pharma
                                                                                                           PERMEABILITY IN RAT
                             Wiessner, C.            Inc.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sleeved dipole sleeved dipole
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               antenna        antenna
                              Fritze, K.;       Max-Planck-Inst.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        whole body:                                                            fed by a       fed by a
                            Wiessner, C.;        for Neurological                                           EFFECT OF GLOBAL                                                                                                                                                                                               0,17;                                                                signal      commercial
                             Kuster, N.;                Res.;                                              SYSTEM FOR MOBILE                                                                                                                                                                                               0,84;                                                             synthesizer   GSM phone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1;                                                                                                      below /
                            Sommer, C.;           Ruprecht-Karls                                          COMMUNICATION MW             Neuroscience                                                                                                                                                                         4,2                                                               (HP8656)       (Motorola                                                                             rat                                                                    histological cut
                                                                                 Germany         Germany (C.S.,P.G., M.K.); Lab. of EMF and Microwave Electronics, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. 217
rmany (K.F.,C.W., D.M.H., RR/K-A.H.); Inst. of Neuropathology, Ruprecht-Karls Univ., Heidelberg,1997
    59      Fritze, K.                                                                                                                                0.89     0.915 0,9 (cw)       217         (ETH), Zurich,Switzerland (N.K.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                         nn       nn         GSM-like                      5;                      nn                                                              cw = pw        close to /     nn                                         near-field     4 hours       acute       continuous       0                            male            nn      whole body
                              Gass, P.;                Univ.;                                               EXPOSURE ON THE                81(3)                                                                                                                                                                           brain:                                                                          International                                                                         (Wistar)                                                                    (nervous)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           25                                                                                                       above
                           Hermann, D.M.;         Swiss Federal                                         GENOMIC RESPONSE OF                                                                                                                                                                                                 0,3;                                                                                2000)
                            Kiessling, M.;         Inst. of Tech.                                             THE RAT BRAIN                                                                                                                                                                                                 1,5;                                                                          controlled by a
                           Hossmann, K-A.              (ETH)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7,5 /                                                                            GSM RF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               test set
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (HP8922A)




                          Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
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                          Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                   Measurement                                                                     Classification                                                                                                                                                                                                        Objectives and Results

                                                                                                                                                                            Biological
           Measured                                         Temperature                   Temperatu                                 Type of
                                                                                                           Class      Category                        Abstract              endpoint                                                                  Difference between CW and PW effects                                                                                                                                     Biological effects of CW and PW exposure
          parameters                                          control                     re effects?                                study
                                                                                                                                                                             of view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         kind of effect
                                                       yes                                (caused by                                                                                                                                                                        Tendencies
                                                                                                                                                                                              no     yes                                                                                                                                                                       sham-exposure /                                     cw vs. pw or vs. control
                                                        fix  Point of                      irridation)      acc.                                                                                                             Kind of difference                          (without statistical
                                                                                                                                        acc.                                                                                                                                                            The authors conclude/                     Action-hypothesis            shelf control /                            ↑+; ↑++; ↓+; ↓++; ↕+; ↕++ ("changes"); ´-; nn
                                                     =contro measure                                     pull-down-                                                                                                                                                         significance)
                                                                                                                                    list below                                                                                                                                                               suggest…                               (if mentioned)             pre-exposure/
                                                       lled   ment                                         menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               no control/ n.n.
                                                        nn                                   yes;                                                                                            104      59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sham/control                   cw                       pw               effect categories
                                                                                              no                                                                                             63.8%   36.2%                               (uncompleteley simplified)

                                                                                                                                                    Research on the                                          At both power densities the sc and tympanic
                                                                                                                                                  biological effects of                                      temperature increases significantly exceeded the
                                                                                                                                                           gigahertz                                         colonic temperature
                                                                                                                                                       radiofrequency                                        increase. Furthermore, heart rates increased
                                                                                                                                                           radiation                                         significantly during RFR
                                                                                                                                                     (RFR) suggests                                          exposure (both CW and pulsed) and returned to
                                                                                                                                                 that acute exposure                                                                                                                                               The authors
                                                                                                                                                                                                             normal upon cessation of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    interpreted their results as indicative
  respiratory rates; arterial blood                                          colonic;                                                                 to high levels of                                      exposure. Neither blood pressure nor respiratory                                                                                                                                                             ↑++ (sc and tympanic ↑++ (sc and tympanic
                                                                                                                        CVS;                             RFR in this                                                                                                                                     of a marked effect of carrier
pressure; tympanic, sc, and colonic                                         tympanic;                                                                                        physiology;                     rate changed                                                                                                                                                                                                  temp; heart rate); ´- temp; heart rate); ´-
                                                           yes                                yes           EXP         RES;          in vivo             frequency                           no      -/-                                                                          nn                frequency upon the pattern of heat                    nn                          nn                   nn
           temperatures                                                    subcutaneo                                                                                     thermoregulation                   significantly during RFR exposure. No significant                                                                                                                                                              (blood preassure,     (blood preassure,
                                                                                                                        TMP                        range may induce                                                                                                                                      distribution and physiological
                                                                               us                                                                                                                            differences in the                                                                                                                                                                                                 resp. rate)           resp. rate)
                                                                                                                                                  both morphological                                                                                                                                                responses
                                                                                                                                                                                                             effects of CW or pulsed RFR were noted. As
                                                                                                                                                    and/or functional                                                                                                                                 elicited in RFR-exposed animals.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             compared to previous studies
                                                                                                                                                  changes in diverse                                         conducted at a frequency of 2.8 GHz, the levels of sc
                                                                                                                                                  biological systems.                                        heating and heart
                                                                                                                                                         Most of this                                        rate change were greater and latencies for 1-degree
                                                                                                                                                  research, however,                                         colonic heating and
                                                                                                                                                  has utilized RFR in                                        cooling were increased at both power densities at 9.3
                                                                                                                                                 the frequency range
                                                                                                                                                    Rats spent more                                          GHz.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             1. experiment:Rats spent more time in the halves of
                                                                                                                                                 time in the halves of                                       shuttle boxes that were shielded from illumination by
                                                                                                                                                   shuttle boxes that                                        1.2 GHz microwave energy than in the unshielded.
                                                                                                                                                  were shielded from
                                                                                                                                                   illumination by 1.2                                       2. experiment: The rats avoided the pulsed energy,
                                                                                                                                                     GHz microwave                                           but not the continuous energy.
                                                                                                                                                   energy than in the
                                                                                                                                                        unshielded. In
                                                                                                                                                   Experiment 1, rats                                                                                                                                                                                                                  nn                                   ´- (time spent in the   ↑+ (time spent in the
           time spent in
                                                            nn                    nn          nn            EXP         BEH           in vivo     avoided the energy         behaviour        -/-     yes                                                                          nn                                 nn                                   nn                   (shielded shuttle           nn             shielded halve of the    shielded halve of the       increase (pw)
the shielded half of the shuttle box
                                                                                                                                                         when it was                                                                                                                                                                                                                 boxes)                                       shuttle box)           shuttle box)
                                                                                                                                                    presented as 30-
                                                                                                                                                            musec
                                                                                                                                                  pulses with a pulse
                                                                                                                                                     repetition rate of
                                                                                                                                                       100 pulses per
                                                                                                                                                   second (pps). The
                                                                                                                                                      average power
                                                                                                                                                         The was about
                                                                                                                                                   density authors                                           1. experiment: No significant differences in time                                             The authors concluded that
                                                                                                                                                   examined the                                              spent in the shielded half of the shuttle box were                                       irradiation of small mammals with
                                                                                                                                                       effects of                                            seen for the first 2 days of the experiment, however                                       low power RF energy affects
                                                                                                                                                  radiofrequency                                             differences emerged by the third and fourth days.                                         BBB integrity. Because parts of
                                                                                                                                                (RF) radiation on                                            The group exposed to the pulsed radiation spent,                                        the body other than the brain were                                                                                                              ↑+ (time spent in the
                                                                                                                                                         central                                             on average, 30% of its time in the unshielded half           1. experiment: time           irradiated, it cannot be stated                                                                                                               shielded half of the
                                                                                                                                                 nervous system                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ´- (time spent in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                             of the box, the sham irradiated group spent 52%              spent in the shielded          decisively that the observed                                                                                                                     shuttle box;
           time spent in                                                                                                          in vivo (1. (CNS) function and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           shielded half of the                                 increase (pw)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             of its time, and the group exposed to CW                    half of the shuttle box:       changes in BBB permeability                                                                                                                 differences emerged
the shielded half of the shuttle box                                                                                    BBB;     experiment)       behavior. The    morphological and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            shuttle box)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             radiation spent 64% of its time in the unshielded          the difference between             were a direct result of RF                                                                                                               by the third and fourth
          (1. experiment)                                   nn                    nn          nn            EXP         BEH;       in vivo ->      purpose of the     pathological            -/-     yes                                                                                                                                                  nn                    sham-exposure              ´-
                                                                                                                                                                                                             half of the box. The difference between the group           the CW group and the        exposure. The effects could be a                                                                                                                 day of experiment)
                                                                                                                        NES         vitro (2.        experiments   changes; behaviour                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ↑+ (fluorescein
                                                                                                                                                                                                             exposed to the pulsed radiation and the sham                sham irradiated group         secondary to irradiation of some
BBB permeability (2. experiment)                                                                                                 experiment) was to determine if                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               staining, BBB                                  amplification (pw)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             irradiated group and between the pulsed and CW                was not statistically             other part of the body.                                                                                                                   ↑++ (fluorescein
                                                                                                                                                    there was an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               permeability)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             irradiated groups was statistically significant (both at          significant.            Nonetheless, it appears that RF                                                                                                                  staining, BBB
                                                                                                                                                      association                                            p=0.013) while the difference between the CW group                                     energy affects brain permeability                                                                                                                   permeability)
                                                                                                                                              between changes in                                             and the sham irradiated group was not.                                                 and behavior and that pulsed RF
                                                                                                                                                          CNS                                                                                                                                       energy is more effective than CW
                                                                                                                                                     function and                                            2. experiment: The intensity of fluorescein                                                 radiation in doing this. The
                                                                                                                                              avoidance behavior                                             staining in the sections and the number of                                             results also indicate that there is an
                                                                                                                                                  and changes in
                                                                                                                                                 Based on earlier                                            fluorescing sections were generally greater in
                                                                                                                                                                                                             The EM exposure substantially reduced
                                                                                                                                               work which points                                             aggressive behavior at incident average power
                                                                                                                                                 to the dopamine                                             densities of 50 and 100
                                                                                                                                                 (DA) and opiate                                             uW/cm2, as did the CW exposure; 20 uW/cm2 was
                                                                                                                                                        systems                                              not effective. The pulse
                                                                                                                                                   of the brain as                                           width did not appear to be critical.
                                                                                                                                               being mediators of                                                                                                                                                                               the authors hypothesize that
                                                                                                                                                 electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                              aggression induced by aversive
                                                                                                                                                  (EM) irradiation                                                                                                                                                                             stimulation would be modified                                                 ↓++ (aggressive           ↓++ (aggressive
       aggressive behavior                                  nn                    nn          nn            EXP         BEH          in vivo  effects, the authors     behaviour              no      -/-                                                                          nn                                 nn                                                         sham-exposure              ´-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               by exposure of the animals to                                                   behaviour)                behaviour)
                                                                                                                                                 hypothesize that                                                                                                                                                                                       low-intensity
                                                                                                                                              aggression induced                                                                                                                                                                                         EM energy.
                                                                                                                                                      by aversive
                                                                                                                                                stimulation would
                                                                                                                                                  be modified by
                                                                                                                                                  exposure of the
                                                                                                                                                  animals to low-
                                                                                                                                                        intensity
                                                                                                                                                     EM authors
                                                                                                                                                     The energy.                                             In the brains of freely-moving control rats, only 1                                          The authors concluded that
                                                                                                                                                   examined the                                              spot of extravasated serum albumin was seen in a                                       microwave irradiation of the brain at
                                                                                                                                                       effects of                                            single animal. In the 20 sham- exposed controls, 4                                           frequencies and intensities
                                                                                                                                                      microwave                                              circumscribed extravasation areas were seen in 3                                       corresponding to cellular telephones
                                                                                                                                                radiation with the                                           animals. In microwave-irradiated animals, 5 out of                                         produces no or only negligible
                                                                                                                                                characteristics of                                           10 animals irradiated at SARs of 0.3, 1.5, and 7.5                                       permeability changes in the BBB.
                                                                                                                                                global system for                                            W/kg that were killed at the end of exposure showed                                       The observed changes are not
  extent of immunohistochemical                                                                                                                          mobile                                                                                                           stat. insignificant                     associated
                                                                                                                                                                                                             7, 6, and 14 extravasation areas, respectively. In the
     staining for extravasated                                                                                                                                      morphological and                                                                                      increase in the
                                                                                                                                   in vivo ->    communications                                              10 animals in the 0.3, 1.5, and 7.5-W/kg groups that                                         with any lasting histological                                         sham exposure/      ↑++ (extravasation     ↑++ (extravasation        ↑++ (extravasation
          serum albumin                                     nn                    nn          nn            EXP         BBB                     (GSM) signals on      pathological            no      -/-                                                              extravasation areas at       damage. These data, therefore, do                      nn
                                                                                                                                      vitro                                                                  were killed 7 days after exposure ended, the total                                                                                                                   shelf control           areas)           areas) at 7.5 W/kg        areas) at 7.5 W/kg
                 =>                                                                                                                            blood-brain barrier      changes                                                                                          0.3 and 1.5 W/kg              not support the view that use of
                                                                                                                                                                                                             number of
         BBB permeability                                                                                                                     (BBB) permeability                                                                                                             exposures                cellular phones presents a health
                                                                                                                                                                                                             extravasation areas was 2, 0, and 1, respectively.
                                                                                                                                               in rats. Groups of                                            The microwave-induced increases in number of                                                          risk to the
                                                                                                                                                           20                                                serum albumin extravasation areas was                                                    brain. The authors noted that the
                                                                                                                                                  unanesthetized                                             statistically significant only for the group                                           limited extravasation was seen only
                                                                                                                                                 male Wistar rats                                            exposed at SAR of 7.5 W/kg. The size and                                                 at the highest exposure level (7.5
                                                                                                                                               were irradiated for                                           appearance of the extravasation areas were very                                              W/kg) which is close to the
                                                                                                                                               4 hr with 900-MHz                                             similar regardless of the radiation intensity or the time                                           threshold for
                                                                                                                                                      microwave
                                                                                                                                                     The authors                                             In investigation. No evidence of histological damage
                                                                                                                                                                                                             of the positive controls, marked induction of the                                      thermal effects, occurred in animals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The authors concluded that 4-hr
                                                                                                                                                   examined the                                              mRNAs was observed, confirming the reliability of                                             exposure to microwave
                                                                                                                                                       effects of                                            the in-situ hybridization technique. Immediately after                                 radiation at SARs ranging up to 7.5
                                                                                                                                                      microwave                                              exposure, slight induction of hsp 70 mRNA was                                            W/kg did not produce any major
                                                                                                                                                      exposures                                              seen in the cerebellum and                                                             abnormalities in gene expression in
                                                                                                                                                 produced by the                                             hippocampus of rats exposed to the 7.5-W/kg                                                the rat brain. Lasting tissue
   hsp 70, c-fos, c-jun, and glial                                                                                                             Global System for                                             radiation, but this was not                                                                 reactions to these types of
  fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)                                                                                                                       Mobile                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1) ↑+ (induction of    1) ↑+ (induction of
                                                                                                                                                                                                             observed at lower intensities. A slight increase in c-                                  exposures are, therefore, unlikely.                                                            1) ´- (induction of
    mRNA (in-situ hibridization);                                                                                                               Communications                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             hsp 70 mRNA at 7.5 hsp 70 mRNA at 7.5
                                                                                                                                   in vivo ->                          molecular                             fos mRNA expression was seen in the cerebellum,                                                       It cannot                                                    sham-exposure /      hsp 70 mRNA);
 expression of C-FOS, FOS-B,C-                             yes                   rectal       no            EXP         CEF                                                                   no      -/-                                                                         nn                                                                       nn                                                                     W/kg);                  W/kg);
                                                                                                                                      vitro       (GSM) on gene       biosynthesis                           neocortex, and piriform cortex of all animals that had                                   be stated with absolute certitude                                           shelf control     2) ↑+ (induction of
  JUN, JUN-B, HSP, KROX-20                                                                                                                       expression in rat                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2) ↑+ (induction of c- 2) ↑+ (induction of c-
                                                                                                                                                                                                             been immobilized (sham-irradiated controls and                                            that mobile telephones do not                                                                   c-fos mRNA);
(immunocytochemical technique);                                                                                                               brain. Male Wistar                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               fos mRNA);              fos mRNA);
                                                                                                                                                                                                             irradiated animals); however, there were no                                                           present a
           cell proliferation                                                                                                                  rats were exposed                                             differences in c-fos mRNA expression among the                                           health risk to the central nervous
                                                                                                                                                       to a GSM                                              different irradiated groups. c-Jun and GFAP mRNA                                       system since the effects of chronic
                                                                                                                                              microwave signal at                                            expression was not                                                                         microwave exposure and of
                                                                                                                                                        antenna                                              increased in any irradiated group. No changes in the                                     microwave exposures combined
                                                                                                                                              powers of 1 or 5 W                                             level of expression                                                                              with other noxious
                                                                                                                                                 or to 25-W 900-                                             of any of the immediate early gene-encoded proteins                                       conditions were not examined.
                                                                                                                                                 MHz continuous                                              and stress proteins,




                      Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Seite 23 von 100
                      Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                 Thermal
                 nature of
Reversibility
                  effect
  of effect
                    (if
                mentioned)

 yes/no/nn




     yes          thermal




     nn             nn




     nn             nn




     yes            nn




     nn             nn




     nn             nn




                   Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                              81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                              Seite 24 von 100
                   Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                               Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
    Nu                                                                  Author                                                       Publication                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure                                                                                                                                                                                        Test-Objects
    mbe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Proximity                                                                                                                                                          Number         Parts of
    Stu Sorting-                                                                                                                                                                                Pulse repetition           Pulse                         Intensit      Powerflux-density                                                                               Technical               Exposure device                                                  Kind
                           Names                                          Affilation     Address       Country     Year      Title                    Journal               Frequency                                                   Modulation                                                           Specific absorption rate (SAR)                    to                                                                 Duration of exposure                      Human Biological object            Gender          of          organism                    System of body
    dy Name *                                                                                                                                                                                     frequency                width                             y              (PFD)                                                                                     application        (device to generate the field)                                        of exp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAR                                                                                                                                                            objects       exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         avarage                                                                           energy         threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             clearly     acc.                                                                    acute=
                                                                                                                             Abbreviations:                                                                                                                            CW-                PW-           CW-                PW-             deposit                                    CW-                 PW-                                     <day
    163                                                                                                                                                              min.      max. further      min.       all      min.      all                        / peak                                                                                             below;   Pull-Down-                                                                                                                                                          whole body;
                                                                                                                             CW = Continuos Wave                                                                                                                     exposure           exposure      exposure           exposure         CW vs. PW                                 exposure            exposure                                temporar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [W]                                                                                            close to;     Menu                                                                                                                                                              part body;
                                                                                                                             EMF = Electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 near-field                   y= <<life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         average /                           average /      cw < pw          clearly                                                                                         continuous                      animal                                           cell;                                acc.
                                                                                                                             Field(s)                               [GHz]      [GHz]   [GHz]     [Hz]      [Hz]      [µs]      [µs]                                 [mW/cm2]                             [W/Kg]                                                                                                     far-field        date          time                     1 = yes                            female,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           peak                                peak         cw > pw          above                                                                                           intermittent                 (type, age)                                         cell                             list below
                                                                                                                             MW = Microwave(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        n.n.                       chron=                                                        male, nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        [mW/cm2]                              [W/Kg]        cw ≤ pw        (ref. 0,08                                                                                                                                                                     component;
                                                                                                                             PW = Pulsed Wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    near life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            cw ≥ pw          W/kg /                                                                                                                                                                          model
                                                                                                                             RF = Radiofrequency                                                                                                                    common mark                        common                            (SAR- or PFD-                                  common mark means:                                         time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        means:                       mark means:                         value)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 W/kg)                    not differently mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     not differently                 not differently                                                                                                                              multi=




                                                                                                                  THE ABSENCE OF                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 cell:
                                                                                                              SIGNIFICANT SHORT-TERM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      giant internodal
                                                                                                                        EM           IEEE Trans                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cells of
                                 Gokhale, A. V.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     electrolyte
                                                        Washington                                              BIOEFFECTS IN GIANT    Microw                                           8,4 -             0,00001;             0,1;                                                                                                                        close to /                                                                                                                         cell                                           eukaryotic
     60   Gokhale, A. V.                 Dept. of                                        USA
                                 Brunkard, K. M.; Electrical Engineering, Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO 63130
                                                                                                      1984                                                            8.4      12.4             0.00001              0.1                   pulsed          nn          0,1 - 10          0,1 - 10              nn                            cw = pw                      nn           culture                     near-field         nn           nn            nn            0                                  nn            nn                                                     cell
                                                            Univ.                                             ALGAL CELLS EXPOSED TO Theory Tech                                        12,4                0,001               1                                                                                                                            above                                                                                                                        (green alga)                                      green algae
                                  Pickard, W. F.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     apparatus
                                                                                                                   CW AND PULSE-        32(8)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Chara braunii
                                                                                                                 MODULATED X-BAND                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and Nitella
                                                                                                                      BURSTS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   flexilis




                                                                                                                                                                                       VHF;
                                                                                                                   EVIDENCE THAT
                                                                                                                                                                                        UHF;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cell
                                                           Univ.                                               CHARACEAN MEMBRANE
                                  Gokhale, A. V.;                                                                                                     Radiat Res                       X-band                                                                                                                                                              close to /                                                                                                                  (single giant of the
     61   Gokhale, A. V.                                                                USA
                                      Dept. of Psychiatry, Washington Univ. Sch. of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110
                                                    Washington Sch.                                  1985        TRANSPORT IS NOT                                    0.05      0.917              nn        nn        nn       nn          pulsed          nn                   0,01 - 500                              nn                   cw = pw                      nn                  flow channel             nn             nn           nn         continuous       0                                  nn            nn              cell                                   cell
                                  Pickard, W. F.                                                                                                        102(3)                          e.g.                                                                                                                                                                 above                                                                                                                    algae Chara braunii
                                                         Medicine                                              SIGNIFICANTLY ALTERED
                                                                                                                                                                                        147;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and Nitella flexilis)
                                                                                                             BY INCIDENT EM RADIATION
                                                                                                                                                                                        450




                                                                                                                             ABSENCE OF MW EFFECT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              rat
                                 Gruenau, S. P.;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1;
                                                                                                                             ON BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER                                                                                                                       10;                                                                                                                                                                                                         (Tac:N[SD]sBR,120-
                                  Oscar, K. J.;                           Naval Medical                                                               Exp Neurol                                                                                                                              5;                                          cw = pw (40);                                                                                                                                                                                                                           nervous
     62   Gruenau, S. P.                                                Naval Medical Research Inst., Bethesda, MD 20014
                                                                                                            USA       1982       PERMEABILITY TO                      2.8       2.8     none      500       500       2            2       pulsed          nn             40                                            nn                                  above         nn                       nn                             30 minutes      acute       continuous       0              150                male           nn          whole body
                                  Folker, M. T.;                          Research Inst.                                                                75(2)                                                                                                                                10;                                            cw > pw                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (BBB)
                                                                                                                               [14C]SUCROSE IN THE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     days old, weighing
                                 Rapoport, S. I.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             15
                                                                                                                                  CONSCIOUS RAT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           250-300 g)




                                                                                                                                                                    0,2712
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              cell                                                                          cell culture
                                  Anderstam, B.;                                                                                                                     (CW-
                                                                                                              STUDIES OF POSSIBLE                                                                                                                                                                         4 (RF);                                                                                                                                                                         (strains of                                                                      (mutation of
                                  Hamnerius, Y.;         Univ. of                                                                                     Hereditas     electric    3,07    2,45
     63   Hamnerius, Y.                                                               Sweden
                                           Dept. of Radiobiology, Wallenberg Lab., Univ. of Stockholm, Sweden GENETIC EFFECTS IN
                                                                                                    1983                                                                                          nn        nn        nn       nn          pulsed          nn                      nn                    35 - 100                            cw = pw        above         nn             nn                         far-field     1 - 7 hours   temporary     continuous       0          Salmonella              nn         13 strains         cell                        Salmonella
                                   Hussain, S.;        Stockholm                                                                                       98(1)          and      (PW)    (CW)
                                                                                                              BACTERIA OF HF EMF                                                                                                                                                                           (MW)                                                                                                                                                                        typhimerium and                                                                   typhimerium and
                                  Ehrenberg, L.                                                                                                                     magneti
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Escherichia coli)                                                                 Escherichia coli)
                                                                                                                                                                       c)




                                                                                                                                                                     0,2712
                                                                                                                                                                      (CW-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     cell
                                                                                                            BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF
                                                                                                                                                                    electric                                                             pulsed or                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Salmonella
                                  Hamnerius, Y.;                                                            HF EMF ON SALMONELLA                      Bioelectro-                                                                                                                                                                                                                   modified version of the Ames
                                                     Chalmers Univ.                                                                                                    and    3,1       2,45                                             amplitude                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        typhimurium                                                                      cell culture
     64   Hamnerius, Y.                                                               Sweden
                                  Applied Electron Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
                                  Rasmuson, A.;                                                     1985        TYPHIMURIUM AND                       magnetics                                   500       500       1            1                       nn                      nn                                   nn                        nn          nn          nn                                     far-field (PW)       nn           nn            nn            0                                  nn            nn              cell
                                                      of Technology                                                                                                 magneti (PW)       (CW)                                            modulated (2.45                                                                                                                                          test                                                                                  cultures; Drosophila                                                              (genetic damage)
                                  Rasmuson, B.                                                                    DROSOPHILA                             6(4)
                                                                                                                                                                        c,                                                                 GHz)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          melano-gaster
                                                                                                                 MELANOGASTER.
                                                                                                                                                                    Drosoph                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 embryos)
                                                                                                                                                                    ila only)




                              Nilsson, R.;        Univ. of
                             Hamnerius, Y.;     Goteborg;                                               MW EFFECTS ON THE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4
                            Hansson Mild, K.; Chamlers Univ.                                             CENTRAL NERVOUS
                                                                                                                                    Health Phys                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   4 hours/day                                               monkey                             (2 pw
       65 Hamnerius, Health,Hansson, H-A.; Sweden (K.H.M.); Inst. ofNeurobiology, Univ. of Goteborg, Box 33031, S-400 33 Goteborg, Sweden (H-A.H.); Dept. of2.45
al Inst. of Occupational Y.  S-901 87 Umea, of Technology;                    Sweden        1989             SYSTEM --                            2.45       Neurology,Univ. of Goteborg, Sahlgren Hosp., S-413 45 Goteborg, Sweden (E.H., L.I.P.); Dept. of PsychiatryIII, Univ.2,6 Goteborg, Lillhagen Hosp., Box 3005, S-422above
                                                                                                                                                                    none        nn        nn       nn       nn        pulsed         nn             10             10             of - 4,8     2,6 - 4,8        cw = pw         03 Goteborg, Sweden (S.O.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             radar                                                 nn                  nn                       temporary    intermittent      0                                  nn                        whole body                            nervous
                                                                                                                                      56(5)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       on 12 days                                             (cynomolgus)                           1 cw
                             Hjelmqvist, E.;  National Inst. of                                          A STUDY OF RADAR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1 control)
                              Olanders, S.;    Occupational                                                 MECHANICS
                             Persson, L. I.       Health;




                           Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
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                           Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                                   Measurement                                                                   Classification                                                                                                                                                                                                     Objectives and Results

                                                                                                                                                                          Biological
           Measured                                         Temperature                 Temperatu                                 Type of
                                                                                                         Class      Category                        Abstract              endpoint                                                                      Difference between CW and PW effects                                                                                                            Biological effects of CW and PW exposure
          parameters                                          control                   re effects?                                study
                                                                                                                                                                           of view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   kind of effect
                                                       yes                              (caused by                                                                                                                                                                         Tendencies
                                                                                                                                                                                               no     yes                                                                                                                                                     sham-exposure /                                cw vs. pw or vs. control
                                                        fix  Point of                    irridation)      acc.                                                                                                                Kind of difference                        (without statistical
                                                                                                                                      acc.                                                                                                                                                         The authors conclude/                  Action-hypothesis   shelf control /                       ↑+; ↑++; ↓+; ↓++; ↕+; ↕++ ("changes"); ´-; nn
                                                     =contro measure                                   pull-down-                                                                                                                                                          significance)
                                                                                                                                  list below                                                                                                                                                            suggest…                            (if mentioned)    pre-exposure/
                                                       lled   ment                                       menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              no control/ n.n.
                                                        nn                                 yes;                                                                                               104      59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 sham/control                 cw                         pw               effect categories
                                                                                            no                                                                                                63.8%   36.2%                                (uncompleteley simplified)

                                                                                                                                                   In an attempt to                                            In no instance was a
                                                                                                                                                  detect short term                                           significant radiation-correlated offset of the resting
                                                                                                                                                effects of low-level                                          potential observed.
                                                                                                                                                X-band frequency
                                                                                                                                                       microwave
                                                                                                                                                     irradiation on
                                                                                                                                               cellular function, the
                                                                                                                                                   vacuolar resting                                                                                                                              The authors conclude that there
                                                                                                                                                        potential                                                                                                                                appears to be no simple, rapid,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ´- (electrical effect on   ´- (electrical effect on
     vacuolar resting potential                             nn                              nn            EXP         BMP          in vitro            of the giant    membrane function       no      -/-                                                                      nn                            obvious                             nn                  nn               nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the resting potential)     the resting potential)
                                                                                                                                                 internodal cells of                                                                                                                                electrical effect of X-band
                                                                                                                                                  eukaryotic green                                                                                                                                irradiation in this preparation.
                                                                                                                                               algae Chara braunii
                                                                                                                                                            and
                                                                                                                                                 Nitella flexilis was
                                                                                                                                                    measured with
                                                                                                                                                           glass
                                                                                                                                                  microelectrodes.
                                                                                                                                                  Cells from Chara
                                                                                                                                                 The authors have                                             No radiation-correlated
                                                                                                                                                    continued their                                           changes of vacuolar resting potential or noise which
                                                                                                                                                  ongoing study of                                            were attributable to
                                                                                                                                               single giant cells of                                          intermediate or long-term irradiation were observed
                                                                                                                                                            the                                               at any of the
                                                                                                                                               algae Chara braunii                                            frequencies tested.
                                                                                                                                               and Nitella flexilis in
                                                                                                                                                     an attempt to
                                                                                                                                                          detect                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ´- ( vacuolar resting      ´- ( vacuolar resting
        vacuolar potential                                  nn                   nn         nn            EXP         BMP          in vitro     membrane-related membrane function             no      -/-                                                                      nn                               nn                               nn                  nn               nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           potential)                 potential)
                                                                                                                                                  electromagnetic
                                                                                                                                               bioeffects in a well-
                                                                                                                                                    defined cellular
                                                                                                                                                     system. The
                                                                                                                                               exposure apparatus
                                                                                                                                                    consisted of a
                                                                                                                                                     narrow silver
                                                                                                                                                        microstrip
                                                                                                                                                          with a
                                                                                                                                               The possible effect                                            Regardless of the power density level of the MW, the
                                                                                                                                               of microwave (MW)                                              PA values did
                                                                                                                                                radiation on blood-                                           not show significant differences from the respective                                The findings indicate that MW
                                                                                                                                                brain barrier (BBB)                                           regional values of                                                                             irradiation
                                                                                                                                                  permeability was                                            sham-irradiated control animals.                                                     under the given experimental
                                                                                                                                               investigated in adult                                                                                                                             conditions does not damage the
                                                                                                                                                        male rats                                                                                                                               BBB. It is suggested that the dual
                                                                                                                                                   (Tac:N[SD]sBR;                                                                                                                                   compartment technique is
                                                                                                                                                         120-150       morphological and                                                                                                         considerably more sensitive than
permeability-capillary surface area                                                                                               in vivo ->                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ´- (BBB
                                                            nn                   nn         nn            EXP         BBB                       days old, weighing       pathological          no      -/-                                                                      nn               other existing techniques for the                nn                sham                            ´- (BBB permeability)      ´- (BBB permeability)
 product (PA) for [14C] sucrose                                                                                                      vitro                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       permeability)
                                                                                                                                                  250-300 g). The           changes                                                                                                              measurement of cerebrovascular
                                                                                                                                                     permeability-                                                                                                                             permeability. With [14C]sucrose as
                                                                                                                                                   capillary surface                                                                                                                           the test tracer, this technique gives
                                                                                                                                                            area                                                                                                                                  results that are independent of
                                                                                                                                                   product (PA) for                                                                                                                             regional cerebral blood flow which
                                                                                                                                                 [14C]sucrose was                                                                                                                                may increase in response to MW
                                                                                                                                                   examined at the                                                                                                                                           exposure.
                                                                                                                                                         BBB of
                                                                                                                                                    unanesthetized
                                                                                                                                                 Thirteen strains of                                          No difference was seen in pooled mutation
                                                                                                                                                      Salmonella                                              frequency between
                                                                                                                                                  typhimerium and                                             exposed and control organisms for all exposures and
                                                                                                                                                   Escherichia coli                                           strains. Growth
                                                                                                                                                     were exposed                                             stimulation was observed in some situations and a
                                                                                                                                                  to high frequency                                           weak prophage inducing                                                           The authors attempt to extrapolate
                                                                                                                                                   electromagnetic                                            capacity was noted.                                                                        the results to the                                                             ´-                ↑+ (growth            ↑+ (growth
       cellular growth rate;                                                                                                                       (EM) fields in an                                                                                                                           situation of occupational exposure                                                                   stimulation; prophage stimulation; prophage
                                                                                                                                                attempt to discover     cell vitality, cell
forward mutation, backmutation, or                                                                                    CEF;                                                                                                                                                                         to EM fields in Sweden and                                                                              inducing              inducing
                                                            fix                  nn         no            EXP                      in vitro       athermal effects.         division;          no      -/-                                                                      nn                                                                nn                sham
             prophage                                                                                                 GEN                                                                                                                                                                                   estimate a                                                                                    capacity)             capacity)
                                                                                                                                                EM fields included        genotoxicity
             induction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cancer risk, and risk of heritable
                                                                                                                                                      27.12 MHz                                                                                                                                   damage, of less than 1 case                                                    ´- (mutations)         ´- (mutations)             ´- (mutations)
                                                                                                                                                  continuous wave                                                                                                                                            annually.
                                                                                                                                                           (CW)
                                                                                                                                                electric field, 27.12
                                                                                                                                                CW magnetic field,
                                                                                                                                                2.45 GHz CW EM
                                                                                                                                                 far field, and 3.07
                                                                                                                                                GHz pulsed EM far
                                                                                                                                                   Radiofrequency                                              In Drosophila- no effects. In bacteria-
                                                                                                                                                   electromagnetic                                            significantly higher cell density after exposure to
                                                                                                                                               radiation (EMR) has                                            27.12 MHz magnetic field, 2.45 GHz CW and 3.10
                                                                                                                                                  been reported to                                            GHz pulsed microwave radiation, without a
                                                                                                                                                          induce                                              corresponding increase in mutant cell numbers.                                     The authors conclude that their
                                                                                                                                                genetic damage in                                                                                                                                             results
                                                                                                                                                   various types of                                                                                                                             demonstrate no genetic damage,
                                                                                                                                               eukaryotic cells, but    cell vitality, cell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    but a distinct non-thermal                                                                           ´- (mutation in            ´- (mutation in
somatic mutagenicity (Drosophila);                                                                                                                                          division;
                                                                                                                      CEF;                        questions remain                                                                                                                                        physiological                                                                              drosophila);      ↑++      drosophila);      ↑++
  number of reversion mutations                             fix            ext medium       no            EXP                      in vitro          regarding the       teratogenity;         no      -/-                                                                      nn                                                                nn                sham                ´-
                                                                                                                      GEN                                                                                                                                                                        effect on bacterial growth with                                                                    (bacteria cell density;    (bacteria cell density;
 (bacteria); cell density (bacteria)                                                                                                             importance of the        genotoxicity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                exposure to high frequency EMR,                                                                     ´- (bacteria mutation)     ´- (bacteria mutation)
                                                                                                                                                temperature rise in                                                                                                                                        as has been
                                                                                                                                                 the test system in                                                                                                                            reported by others for other genera
                                                                                                                                                     producing this                                                                                                                                 of bacteria and in yeast.
                                                                                                                                               genetic effect. The
                                                                                                                                                   aim of this study
                                                                                                                                                was to determine if
                                                                                                                                                   genetic damage
                                                                                                                                                  The be induced
                                                                                                                                                could possibility ofin                                        The monkey exposed to 2.45 GHz PW MW at 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The authors point out that the
                                                                                                                                                    central nervous                                           mW/cm2 for 4 hr/day on 12 consecutive days (SAR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   clinical significance of the CSF
                                                                                                                                                  system effects in                                           of 2.6-4.8 W/kg) exhibited an increase in a protein
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 protein difference is not clear, but
                                                                                                                                                  radar mechanics                                             band with a pI of 4.5. Only a faint band was seen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                the surprisingly high time derivative
                                                                                                                                                            and                                               in the CSF from the monkey exposed to CW MW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of the magnetic fields close to some
                                                                                                                                                        engineers                                             of the same power density and duration. The band
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of the transmitter units indicates that
                                                                                                                                                    occupationally                                            was absent or weak in CSF from the unexposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 engineers and mechanics may be
                                                                                                                                                      exposed to                                              monkey and from the monkey exposed to PW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 exposed to magnetic flux density
                                                                                                                     EOR;                       microwaves (MW) morphological and                             radiation for only 2 days.                                                                                                                                         ´- / ´- (protein
  proteins in cerebrospinal fluid                           nn                   nn         nn            EXP                       in vivo       was investigated       pathological          -/-     yes                                                                      nn             levels a thousand times higher than                nn             shelf control                        ↑+ (protein band)         ↑++ (protein band)        amplification (pw)
                                                                                                                     NES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               band)
                                                                                                                                                                            changes                                                                                                               those measured in front of video
                                                                                                                                                     clinically in 17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   display terminals. The authors
                                                                                                                                               subjects (mean age
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   suggest that the time derivative
                                                                                                                                                52 yr). Seventeen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               factor should be controlled in future
                                                                                                                                                men with probable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               animal and epidemiological studies
                                                                                                                                                      exposure to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and the effects of CW and PW
                                                                                                                                                  moderate or high
                                                                                                                                                     levels of MW                                                                                                                                     MW radiation should be
                                                                                                                                                  radiation, and 12                                                                                                                                         differentiated.
                                                                                                                                                     unexposed or




                      Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Seite 26 von 100
                      Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
                 Thermal
                 nature of
Reversibility
                  effect
  of effect
                    (if
                mentioned)

 yes/no/nn




     nn             nn




     nn             nn




     nn             nn




     nn          athermal




     nn          athermal




     yes            nn




                   Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e.V.                                              81f351b6-1389-434b-8ff2-d06730020ff2.xlsstudies
                                                                              Seite 27 von 100
                   Werner Alsbach / Jürgen Zschernitz / Margarita Simeonova                                               Ausdruck vom 7/5/2011
    Nu                                                                   Author                                                                 Publication                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure                                                                                                                                                                                        Test-Objects
    mbe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Proximity                                                                                                                                                         Number      Parts of
    Stu Sorting-                                                                                                                                                                                                Pulse repetition         Pulse                              Intensit      Powerflux-density                                                                                Technical               Exposure device                                                   Kind
                            Names                                          Affilation         Address         Country     Year       Title                              Journal              Frequency                                                  Modulation                                                              Specific absorption rate (SAR)                     to                                                                Duration of exposure                        Human Biological object         Gender           of       organism                   System of body
    dy Name *                                                                                                                                                                                                     frequency              width                                  y              (PFD)                                                                                      application        (device to generate the field)                                         of exp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SAR                                                                                                                                                           objects    exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            avarage                                                                             energy        threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 clearly     acc.                                                                     acute=
                                                                                                                                     Abbreviations:                                                                                                                                       CW-                PW-           CW-                PW-               deposit                                    CW-               PW-                                       <day
     163                                                                                                                                                                              min.      max. further     min.      all     min.       all                            / peak                                                                                              below;   Pull-Down-                                                                                                                                                      whole body;
                                                                                                                                     CW = Continuos Wave                                                                                                                                exposure           exposure      exposure           exposure           CW vs. PW                                 exposure          exposure                                  temporar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               [W]                                                                                             close to;     Menu                                                                                                                                                          part body;
                                                                                                                                     EMF = Electromagnetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              near-field                   y= <<life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            average /                           average /        cw < pw         clearly                                                                                          continuous                     animal                                       cell;                               acc.
                                                                                                                                     Field(s)                                        [GHz]      [GHz]   [GHz]    [Hz]     [Hz]     [µs]      [µs]                                      [mW/cm2]                             [W/Kg]                                                                                                       far-field      date            time                     1 = yes                         female,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              peak                                peak           cw > pw         above                                                                                            intermittent                (type, age)                                     cell                            list below
                                                                                                                                     MW = Microwave(s)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     n.n.                       chron=                                                     male, nn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           [mW/cm2]                              [W/Kg]          cw ≤ pw       (ref. 0,08                                                                                                                                                                 component;
                                                                                                                                     PW = Pulsed Wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 near life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 cw ≥ pw         W/kg /                                                                                                                                                                      model
                                                                                                                                     RF = Radiofrequency                                                                                                                               common mark                        common                              (SAR- or PFD-                                 common mark means:                                          time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           means:                       mark means:                           value)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 W/kg)                    not differently mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        not differently                 not differently                                                                                                                                multi=




                                                                                                             THE EFFECT OF 2450-MHz                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2 minutes -
                                                         National Inst.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Hewlett           Applied                                                                             embryo
                                   Hamrick, P. E.;                                                           MW IRRADIATION ON THE                                    Health Phys                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1 hour,                                                                                                                           cardio-vascular
      66   Hamrick, P. E.             National Inst. Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle 1980 NC 27709
                                                        Environmental                    USA          Park,                                                                           2.45      2.45     none     10     10-50      10        10            pulsed          0.1 - 10                  nn                      0.3-30                              cw = pw       above         nn          Packard          Microwave       nn                          acute       continuous       0      (Japanese quail, 8-      nn             nn      whole body
                                    McRee, D. I.                                                                  HEART RATE OF                                         38(3)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           typical                                                                                                                             (heart rate)
                                                       Health Sciences                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  mode 18690B         PH 49k                                                                             13 day old)
                                                                                                                 EMBRYONIC QUAIL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5-10 minutes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 sec.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             on 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sec. off;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 sec.
                                    Haugh, C.;                                                                                     PULSING MW ENERGY: A                                                                                     on, 3
                                                                                                                                                                   J Interv Card
                                 Davidson, E. S.;                          Tufts Univ. Sch.                                        METHOD TO CREATE MORE                                                                                   sec. off;                                                                                                              cw = pw                  medical                                                                                                         ovine endocardial
      67   Haugh, C.                                                                                           USA
                                                                                              Cardiac Arrhythmia Service, New England Medical Center, Tufts Univ. Sch. of Medicine, Boston, MA02111 none
                                                                                                                           1997                                    Electrophysiol 0.915     0.915                 nn       nn       nn                      pulsed            20                      nn                                   nn                                     nn                                  nn                   nn        30 seconds        acute       continuous       0                               nn             nn     model system            physical model system
                                 Estes, N. A., 3rd;                        of Medicine                                             UNIFORM MYOCARDIAL                                                                                                                                                                                                              (20 W)                 application                                                                                                            model
                                                                                                                                                                        1(1)
                                   Wang, P. J.                                                                                     TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS                                                                                     5 sec
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             on, 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            sec off

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            with 30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sec total




                                                                                                            CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO 50-
                                Heikkinen, P.;                                                                Hz MAGNETIC FIELDS OR
                                                   Univ. of Kuopio;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1,5 hours/day
                                 Kumlin, T.;                                                                  900 MHz EMF DOES NOT                Electro                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wavetek signal generator;
                                                     Natl. Public                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5 days/week                                                 mouse                                                                   neuro-endocrine
Univ. of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland (RR/P.H., T.; J.J.); Dept. ofPhysiology, Univ. of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland (J.T.L.); Lab. of Toxicology, Natl. Public HealthInst., Kuopio,0.902 (H.K.)
      68    Heikkinen, P.       Laitinen, J. T.K.,                                   Finland       1999          ALTER NOCTURNAL                Magnetobiol 0.902          Finland none                           217     217       nn        nn           GSM-like           nn                      nn                         1.5               0.35           cw > pw       above         nn                                                                      chronic     intermittent      0