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Children as the extension of family

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					  Protestant Views of Children:
  Historical & Cultural Context
• Printing press (bible could be read by
  everyone!)
• Modern states emerged
• Reform followed church corruption (selling
  church offices, sell virtue of the saints to
  redeem sins)
• “Two religious cultures fighting over the
  soul of western civilization”
               Protestants
• Altered view of Christianity (more private,
  more spiritual)
• No sign of limbo in scripture
• Questioned infant baptism
• Renewed interest in children
• Retained some superstitious rituals
            Family Structure
• Average household = 4.47 (rich = 6.2 vs
  poor = 2.1
• Smaller families among poor:
  – Longer to accumulate dowry
  – Reproductive span shorter
  – Higher infant mortality rates in rural areas
        Nurture & Discipline
• Martin Luther – leader of the reform
  movement
• Interested in character formation
• Parents were chastised for giving in to
  children
• Mother blame more prominent
• Child-rearing books
            Child-rearing Books
• Proliferated
• Moral codes of behavior (by 16 th and 17th century
  from church pulpit)
• “Books of urbanity”
   –   Became children’s books
   –   EX: Robin Hood (1500), Aesop’s Fables (1483)
   –   Desiderius Erasmus “Manners for Children” (1530)
   –   Otto Brunfels’s “On disciplining and instructing
       children (1525)
                Education
• Developed 7 types of schools including
  elementary or petty schools (4 - 7 years)
  where they had abecedary instruction
• Grammar school – free (7 - 15 years)
• Tutors/instructors were licensed and given
  authority in loco parentis
• Theme of universal education
• Jesuits
        Laws to Help Children
• England Act of 1547 – enslaved & branded
  homeless children
• Act of 1549 – eliminated corporal punishment of
  children
• Poor Law Act of 1572 – legally care for children
  until adolescence
• Act of 1576 – restricted to legitimate children
• Act of 1601 – tried to curtail physical abuse
• Bureau of wet nurses (1769)
                     Girls
• Subordinate to husbands at home
• Second-class citizens in community
• Protestant reformation: favorable impact on
  females
• “Six seasons of a woman’s life”
• Maypole custom
  – April 30th
  – Advertising availability and/or flaws

				
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