Meaning and Characteristics of the Italian Renaissance ► Renaissance=Rebirth ► Jacob Burkhardt Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860) ► Ageof Recovery ► Emphasis on individual ability The Making of Renaissance Society ► Economic Recovery Manufacturing ►Textiles, printing, mining and metallurgy ► Banking Florence and the Medici The Italian Renaissance ► Many people believed they were living in the second coming of Classical Society (Greco-Roman) ► Other people believed they were entering into a completely new era ► Almost everyone believed that they were leaving an old “dark” time period Greco/Roman-Middle Ages-Renaissance What brought about the Renaissance? ► Venice became very rich from the Crusades, particularly the 4th Crusade and riches of Constantinople. ► Italian states benefited from trade with the Middle East ► Better ships were built that could carry more cargo, easier The Italian States in the Renaissance ► Five Major Powers Milan Venice Florence The Papal States Kingdom of Naples ► Independent City-States Mantua Ferrera Urbino Florence What are they looking at? A Renaissance Banquet ► First Course: Pieces of marzipan and marzipan balls Neapolitan spice cakes Malaga wine and Pisan biscuits Fresh grapes Prosciutto cooked in wine, served w/ capers Salted pork tongues, cooked in wine sliced Spit-roasted songbirds, cold with their tongues sliced over them A Renaissance Banquet ► Second Course: Fried veal sweetbreads (throat, stomach) and liver Spit-roasted skylarks with lemon sauce Spit-roasted quails with sliced eggplants Stuffed spit-roasted pigeons with capers Spit-roasted rabbits, with sauce and crushed pine nuts Partridges larded and spit-roasted served w lemon Heavily seasoned poultry w lemon slices Slices of veal, spit-roasted (Au jus sauce) Leg of goat, spit-roasted (Au jus sauce) Soup of Almond paste, with the flesh of three pigeons to each serving A Renaissance Banquet ► Third Course: Stuffed fat geese, boiled Lombard style (w/ pork sausage) and covered w/ sliced almonds Stuffed breast of veal, boiled Very young calf, boiled Almonds in garlic sauce Turkish-style rice with milk, sprinkled with cinnamon Stewed pigeons with mortadella sausage and whole onions Cabbage soup with sausages Poultry pie, two chickens to each pie Fricasseed breast of goat dressed with fried onions (Stew) Pies filled with custard cream Boiled calves’ feet with cheese and egg A Renaissance Banquet ► 4th Course Bean tarts Quince pastries (Like apples/pears) Pear tarts, the pears wrapped in marzipan Parmesan cheese and Riviera cheese Fresh almonds on vine leaves Chestnuts (Roasted, salt and pepper) Milk curds Ring shaped cakes (mmmm, donuts) Wafers make from ground grain (mmm, wheat thins) The Birth of Modern Diplomacy ► Modern Diplomacy is a product of Renaissance Italy ► Changing concept of the ambassador Resident ambassadors Agents of the territorial state Machiavelli and the New Statecraft ► Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince Acquisition, maintenance and expansion of political power Art in the Early Renaissance ► Emphasized individual *Tempera paint (water talent in painting, color) dried too quickly, sculpture, architecture, but oil water colors literature and music allowed artists to ► Architecture returned correct mistakes to the domes and because of its slow columns of ancient drying time. Greece and Rome *The new techniques include using oil paints to paint on fresh plaster, creating, a new unique type of fresco Old Art Compared to New Art ► The medieval artists often painted bland two dimensional pictures (top). ► The Renaissance artists painted luscious three dimensional pictures (bottom). Giotto ► Represented the spirit of the beginning of the Renaissance ► Frescoes Masaccio ► Realisticportrayal of cripples and beggars was revolutionary in his time ► Followed the stylized sculptures of Donatello ► Great ability to express emotion Masaccio ► Frescoes-Santa Maria Novella ► Trinity> Paolo Uccello Antonio Polliauolo Sandro Botticelli ► Discovered by Lorenzo de Medici ► Developed a new kind of art Fantasy and Desire Botticelli’s Primavera (1480) Botticelli’s Birth of Venus Botticelli’s Venus and Mars Donatello ► One of the most famous sculptors from the Renaissance ► David-Originally considered an outrage ► St. John the Baptist San Lorenzo ► Parish church of the Medici family ► Donatello pulpits ► The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence Medici Chapel Leonardo da Vinci ► Accomplished in arts and sciences ► Ultimate Renaissance Man Da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man Vitruvian Man ► a palm is the width of four fingers ► a foot is the width of four palms ► a cubit is the width of six palms ► a man's height is four cubits (and thus 24 palms) ► a pace is four cubits ► the length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height ► the distance from the hairline to the bottom of the chin is one-tenth of a man's height ► the distance from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin is one-eighth of a man's height ► the maximum width of the shoulders is a quarter of a man's height ► the distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is one-fifth of a man's height ► the distance from the elbow to the armpit is one-eight of a man's height ► the length of the hand is one-tenth of a man's height ► the distance from the bottom of the chin to the nose is one-third of the length of the face ► the distance from the hairline to the eyebrows is one-third of the length of the face ► the length of the ear is one-third of the length of the face The Virgin of the Rocks Lady with an Ermine Raphael ► Influenced by da Vinci and Michelangelo ► Often painted Madonna and Jesus ► Most well known painting School of Athens Raphael’s School of Athens Michelangelo Buonarroti ► Musician, Poet, Painter, Sculptor ► Age 29-sculpted David ► Pieta-Only signed work ► Sistine Chapel Despised the task, which was ordered by Pope Julius II Considered by many to be his greatest accomplishment Pieta David Sistine Chapel The Last Judgement Sistine Chapel ► TheCeiling of the Sistine Chapel -40x133 feet ceiling -68 feet high scaffolding -Four years to complete -He almost went blind and ruined his health Giovanni Bellini-Venetian Titian ► Venetian artist ► Studied under the tutelage of Giovanni Bellini ► World-renowned> Assumption of the Madonna ► Women tended to have auburn-colored hair in his paintings Titian Vittore Carpaccio Jan van Eyck ► Flemish painter ► Wanted to paint the world realistically ► Achieved new and remarkable effects using oil paints. ► Most well known piece of art Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride ► The placement of the two figures suggests conventional gender roles – the woman stands near the bed and well into the room, symbolic of her role as the caretaker, whereas the man stands near the open window, symbolic of the outside world. Giovanni looks directly out at the viewer, his wife gazes obediently at her husband. ► The oranges on the chest below the window may refer to fertility and symbolize the purity and innocence that reigned in the Garden of Eden before the Fall of Man. They are also a token of prosperity, since these fruits could be afforded only by the wealthy few. ► The cast-aside clogs are possibly a gesture of respect for the wedding ceremony and also indicate that this event is taking place on holy ground. Husbands traditionally presented brides with clogs. ► The little dog symbolizes fidelity. ► The green of the woman’s dress symbolises hope, possibly the hope of becoming a mother and her white cap signifies purity. ► Behind the pair, the curtains of the marriage bed have been opened, depicting that the couple have been visited and blessed by the Trinity. The red curtains allude to the physical act of love, the carnal union of the married couple. ► The contrast between red and green, which appear side by side in the painting, suggest the coming together of opposites. ► The single candle in the left rear holder of the ornate seven-branched chandelier, is possibly the candle that the bride gave to the groom. This was a traditional Flemish marriage custom. Oddly lit in broad daylight, the candle alludes to the ever-present light of God. ► On the bedpost is a tiny ornament of the statue of Saint Margaret, patron saint of childbirth, and from that hangs a brush which symbolic of domestic care. Furthermore, the brush and the rosary (a popular wedding gift) appearing together on either side of the mirror may also allude to the dual Christian injunctions ora et labora (pray and work). ► The inscription above the mirror announces that Johannes de Eyck fuit hic (Jan van Eyck was here), that he was there to capture the wedding. The artist signature is lettered in flourished script normally used for legal documents. The picture’s purpose, then, seems to have been to record and sanctify this marriage and thus acting as a marriage certificate. ► The small medallions set into the mirror frame show tiny scenes from the Passion of Christ and represent God’s promise of salvation for the figures reflected on the mirror’s convex surface, which in turn, represent the eye of the Christian God observing the vows of the wedding. ► A spotless mirror was itself an established symbol of Mary, referring to the Holy Virgin’s immaculate conception and purity. Pieter Bruegel ► Flemish painter ► Inspired by everyday scenes of country landscapes and peasants Albrecht Durer Durer-Adoration of the Magi Hans Holbein the Younger Modern Renaissance Humanism ► You are to draw a picture of your own humanistic traits, beliefs, ideas, etc. ► You are to draw the picture in the style of Renaissance artists ► No stick figures! ► Must be in color! ► Must be appropriate-No nude pictures ► Include on the back a paragraph describing how the picture is a representation of your present humanism! The Da Vinci Code ► Bestselling novel written by Dan Brown ► Why is it so controversial Brown’s novel raises many troubling questions about the people and events involved in the possible birth of Jesus’ own child to the church and it’s role in a possible cover up. Did the ancient church conspire to transform the man Jesus into a deity? Did Constantine promote Christ’s divinity by selecting certain gospels for the New Testament canon? Was Mary Magdalene Jesus’ wife and the mother of his child? Has the church suppressed evidence of their relationship down through the centuries?