Slide 1 - West Morris Regional High School District

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					 Meaning and Characteristics of the
       Italian Renaissance
► Renaissance=Rebirth
► Jacob   Burkhardt
   Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860)

► Ageof Recovery
► Emphasis on individual ability
 The Making of Renaissance Society

► Economic   Recovery
   Manufacturing
    ►Textiles,   printing, mining and metallurgy
► Banking
   Florence and the Medici
      The Italian Renaissance
► Many   people believed they were living in
  the second coming of Classical Society
► Other people believed they were entering
  into a completely new era
► Almost everyone believed that they were
  leaving an old “dark” time period
Greco/Roman-Middle Ages-Renaissance
        What brought about the
► Venice  became very rich from the Crusades,
  particularly the 4th Crusade and riches of
► Italian states benefited from trade with the
  Middle East
► Better ships were built that could carry
  more cargo, easier
The Italian States in the Renaissance
► Five   Major Powers
     Milan
     Venice
     Florence
     The Papal States
     Kingdom of Naples
► Independent    City-States
   Mantua
   Ferrera
   Urbino
What are they looking at?
          A Renaissance Banquet
► First   Course:
     Pieces of marzipan and marzipan balls
     Neapolitan spice cakes
     Malaga wine and Pisan biscuits
     Fresh grapes
     Prosciutto cooked in wine, served w/ capers
     Salted pork tongues, cooked in wine sliced
     Spit-roasted songbirds, cold with their tongues
      sliced over them
          A Renaissance Banquet
► Second    Course:
     Fried veal sweetbreads (throat, stomach) and liver
     Spit-roasted skylarks with lemon sauce
     Spit-roasted quails with sliced eggplants
     Stuffed spit-roasted pigeons with capers
     Spit-roasted rabbits, with sauce and crushed pine nuts
     Partridges larded and spit-roasted served w lemon
     Heavily seasoned poultry w lemon slices
     Slices of veal, spit-roasted (Au jus sauce)
     Leg of goat, spit-roasted (Au jus sauce)
     Soup of Almond paste, with the flesh of three pigeons
      to each serving
           A Renaissance Banquet
► Third   Course:
   Stuffed fat geese, boiled Lombard style (w/ pork
    sausage) and covered w/ sliced almonds
   Stuffed breast of veal, boiled
   Very young calf, boiled
   Almonds in garlic sauce
   Turkish-style rice with milk, sprinkled with cinnamon
   Stewed pigeons with mortadella sausage and whole
   Cabbage soup with sausages
   Poultry pie, two chickens to each pie
   Fricasseed breast of goat dressed with fried onions
   Pies filled with custard cream
   Boiled calves’ feet with cheese and egg
           A Renaissance Banquet
► 4th   Course
     Bean tarts
     Quince pastries (Like apples/pears)
     Pear tarts, the pears wrapped in marzipan
     Parmesan cheese and Riviera cheese
     Fresh almonds on vine leaves
     Chestnuts (Roasted, salt and pepper)
     Milk curds
     Ring shaped cakes (mmmm, donuts)
     Wafers make from ground grain (mmm, wheat
 The Birth of Modern Diplomacy
► Modern Diplomacy is a product of
  Renaissance Italy
► Changing concept of the ambassador
   Resident ambassadors
   Agents of the territorial state
 Machiavelli and the New Statecraft

► Niccolo   Machiavelli (1469-1527)
   The Prince
   Acquisition, maintenance and expansion of
    political power
    Art in the Early Renaissance
► Emphasized individual      *Tempera paint (water
  talent in painting,          color) dried too quickly,
  sculpture, architecture,     but oil water colors
  literature and music         allowed artists to
► Architecture returned        correct mistakes
  to the domes and             because of its slow
  columns of ancient           drying time.
  Greece and Rome            *The new techniques
                               include using oil paints
                               to paint on fresh
                               plaster, creating, a new
                               unique type of fresco
   Old Art Compared to New Art
► The  medieval artists
  often painted bland
  two dimensional
  pictures (top).
► The Renaissance
  artists painted
  luscious three
  pictures (bottom).
► Represented  the spirit
  of the beginning of the
► Frescoes
► Realisticportrayal of
  cripples and beggars
  was revolutionary in
  his time
► Followed the stylized
  sculptures of Donatello
► Great ability to express
► Frescoes-Santa Maria   Novella
► Trinity>
Paolo Uccello
Antonio Polliauolo
               Sandro Botticelli
► Discovered   by Lorenzo
  de Medici
► Developed a new kind
  of art
   Fantasy and Desire
Botticelli’s Primavera (1480)
Botticelli’s Birth of Venus
Botticelli’s Venus and Mars
► One  of the most
  famous sculptors from
  the Renaissance
► David-Originally
  considered an outrage
► St. John
  the Baptist
               San Lorenzo
► Parish church of the
  Medici family
► Donatello pulpits
► The Martyrdom of St.
Medici Chapel
             Leonardo da Vinci
► Accomplished in arts and
► Ultimate Renaissance Man
Da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man
                           Vitruvian Man
►   a palm is the width of four fingers
►   a foot is the width of four palms
►   a cubit is the width of six palms
►   a man's height is four cubits (and thus 24 palms)
►   a pace is four cubits
►   the length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height
►   the distance from the hairline to the bottom of the chin is one-tenth of a man's height
►   the distance from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin is one-eighth of a man's
►   the maximum width of the shoulders is a quarter of a man's height
►   the distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is one-fifth of a man's height
►   the distance from the elbow to the armpit is one-eight of a man's height
►   the length of the hand is one-tenth of a man's height
►   the distance from the bottom of the chin to the nose is one-third of the length of the
►   the distance from the hairline to the eyebrows is one-third of the length of the face
►   the length of the ear is one-third of the length of the face
The Virgin of the Rocks
Lady with an Ermine
► Influenced by da Vinci
  and Michelangelo
► Often painted
  Madonna and Jesus
► Most well known
   School of Athens
Raphael’s School of Athens
       Michelangelo Buonarroti
► Musician, Poet,
  Painter, Sculptor
► Age 29-sculpted David
► Pieta-Only signed work
► Sistine Chapel
   Despised the task,
    which was ordered by
    Pope Julius II
   Considered by many to
    be his greatest
Sistine Chapel
The Last Judgement
             Sistine Chapel
► TheCeiling of the Sistine
 -40x133 feet ceiling
 -68 feet high
 -Four years to
 -He almost went blind
   and ruined his health
Giovanni Bellini-Venetian
► Venetian artist
► Studied under the
  tutelage of Giovanni
► World-renowned>
   Assumption of the
► Women    tended to
  have auburn-colored
  hair in his paintings
Vittore Carpaccio
               Jan van Eyck
► Flemish  painter
► Wanted to paint the world realistically
► Achieved new and remarkable effects using
  oil paints.
► Most well known piece of art
   Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
►   The placement of the two figures suggests conventional gender roles – the woman stands near the
    bed and well into the room, symbolic of her role as the caretaker, whereas the man stands near the
    open window, symbolic of the outside world. Giovanni looks directly out at the viewer, his wife gazes
    obediently at her husband.
►   The oranges on the chest below the window may refer to fertility and symbolize the purity and
    innocence that reigned in the Garden of Eden before the Fall of Man. They are also a token of
    prosperity, since these fruits could be afforded only by the wealthy few.
►   The cast-aside clogs are possibly a gesture of respect for the wedding ceremony and also indicate
    that this event is taking place on holy ground. Husbands traditionally presented brides with clogs.
►   The little dog symbolizes fidelity.
►   The green of the woman’s dress symbolises hope, possibly the hope of becoming a mother and her
    white cap signifies purity.
►   Behind the pair, the curtains of the marriage bed have been opened, depicting that the couple have
    been visited and blessed by the Trinity. The red curtains allude to the physical act of love, the carnal
    union of the married couple.
►   The contrast between red and green, which appear side by side in the painting, suggest the coming
    together of opposites.
►   The single candle in the left rear holder of the ornate seven-branched chandelier, is possibly the
    candle that the bride gave to the groom. This was a traditional Flemish marriage custom. Oddly lit in
    broad daylight, the candle alludes to the ever-present light of God.
►   On the bedpost is a tiny ornament of the statue of Saint Margaret, patron saint of childbirth, and from
    that hangs a brush which symbolic of domestic care. Furthermore, the brush and the rosary (a
    popular wedding gift) appearing together on either side of the mirror may also allude to the dual
    Christian injunctions ora et labora (pray and work).
►   The inscription above the mirror announces that Johannes de Eyck fuit hic (Jan van Eyck was here),
    that he was there to capture the wedding. The artist signature is lettered in flourished script normally
    used for legal documents. The picture’s purpose, then, seems to have been to record and sanctify
    this marriage and thus acting as a marriage certificate.
►   The small medallions set into the mirror frame show tiny scenes from the Passion of Christ and
    represent God’s promise of salvation for the figures reflected on the mirror’s convex surface, which in
    turn, represent the eye of the Christian God observing the vows of the wedding.
►   A spotless mirror was itself an established symbol of Mary, referring to the Holy Virgin’s immaculate
    conception and purity.
              Pieter Bruegel
► Flemish painter
► Inspired by everyday
  scenes of country
  landscapes and
Albrecht Durer
Durer-Adoration of the Magi
Hans Holbein the Younger
 Modern Renaissance Humanism
► You   are to draw a picture of your own humanistic
  traits, beliefs, ideas, etc.
► You are to draw the picture in the style of
  Renaissance artists
► No stick figures!
► Must be in color!
► Must be appropriate-No nude pictures
► Include on the back a paragraph describing how
  the picture is a representation of your present
              The Da Vinci Code
► Bestselling novel written by Dan Brown
► Why is it so controversial
    Brown’s novel raises many troubling questions about
     the people and events involved in the possible birth of
     Jesus’ own child to the church and it’s role in a possible
     cover up.
    Did the ancient church conspire to transform the man
     Jesus into a deity?
    Did Constantine promote Christ’s divinity by selecting
     certain gospels for the New Testament canon?
    Was Mary Magdalene Jesus’ wife and the mother of his
    Has the church suppressed evidence of their
     relationship down through the centuries?