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					    The Korean Journal of the Learning Sciences
    2008. Vol. , No. . pp.

                                     IMPAIRED STUDENTS

                                    Priscilla Mubanga (Ministry Teacher Educator, Zambia)
                                                    * Milee Ahn (Hanyang University, Korea)
                                                    Yunja Hwang (Hanyang University, Korea)

              UNAIDS (2003) article emphasis children’s right on education regardless
          of gender, physical impairment, nor parent’s economic status. All children
          have     right     to   equal   access   to   education   with   no    segregation   or
          discrimination. This includes access to and learning with ICT. Children learn
          about the world and life at different culture and technologies using ICT. This
          study attempted to learn how blind pupils learn by using ICT, and possible
          use of ICT for visually impared students. How do vidually impaired students
          access information with ICT materials, what are the benefits, and issues.
          Specific objectives of the study were: (1) how blind pupils learn with ICT
          material, (2) what different materials could the blind students use to learn,
          (3) how they access the ICT materials, (5) what are the benefits of ICT use
          for the blinds.
              To gather data, researcher interviewed a teacher teaching blind students at
          a public school for special education in Seoul. The results of the study
          shows that for those students using ICT benefits and it empowers the
          students to be self-reliant. The study recommends that educational planners
          and NGO work together to enable blind students to learn with ICT. The
          implication of this study supports that teachers should use ICT to teach
          visually impaired students, and should provide access to ICT in this world of
          Keywords: ICT, blind students, Special education, Zambia

     Priscilla Mubanga, Ministry Teacher Educator, Zambia

    * Milee Ahn, Professor Hanyang Univ. Korea / mlahn@hanyang.ac.kr: corresponding author

      yunja Hwang, Doctoral student, Hanyang Univ. Korea / yjhwang@hanyang.ac.kr

                                                    Priscilla Mubanga, Milee Ahn, Yunja Hwang (2008)

                                              Ⅰ. Overview of the Research

          1. Introduction

           Every person would like to be recognized in society and recognition comes in when we see

    ones participation in society and ones achievements in life. However, people who are not seen to

    be     contributing           to    society’s        development              in       any       way      are    therefore          neglected        and     ignored.

    Disabled        people        are    part       of   this    ignored          group.         Thomas          (1995:       266)       indicates       that    disabled

    people are ignored and treated unfairly in societies in many ways due to people’s wrong attitude

    towards        the     disabled.           Macha       (2001)           states         that       people        with     impairments               everywhere      are

    confronted with physical, cultural and social barriers, to a great extent which constrain their lives

    and     limit     their       opportunities           in    societies         hence         developing           low     self-esteem         and     lack     of   self


          UNESCO           (2004)       estimates         that    there          about      500           million    persons       with     impairments           in   the

    world       and      issues    of       discrimination        and           stigma      are       reported       everywhere           varying       from      cultural

    backgrounds           and     different         perspectives.           However,            in    1948       UN    adopted          universal       declaration     of

    human rights.

          Nowadays          disabled          students          are        taught      in        schools         academically            and      social       with    less

    discrimination and in this world of                           globalization Velleman (2005) stipulates                                  that it is important

    for    people     to    learn       to    use    technology            to    continue            to   play   a   part     in    society.      UNESCO           (2004)

    reports       that     ICT     integration           helps        in    poverty         reduction         in     rural    areas       and     it    also    improves

    sustainable live hood. In addition Howell (1998: 23) indicates through ICT, blind people will be

    self-reliant and they will be empowered to live independent lives. However, in most undeveloped

    countries       blind     students         are Vulnerable               and      ignored.         Phang      (1998:       39)       contends       that     the blind

    are neglected and they lag behind and people think that disabled students can not be education

    like    normal         students          and     minorities            who       are    educated          are     jobless       due     to    stigma.        Socially,

    speaking Valentine (2001) notes that ICT stigma and discrimination can be eradicated.

          For   effective ICT integration,                  the government                  and stake holders                 should ensure             that there are

    certain     majors       put       in    place.      These    include            policy       formation,         infrastructure,        accessibility,        human

    resource, and utilization of ICTs. ICTs involve a lot of money and in addition Moses of Malaysia

    in his paper stipulates that most ICT materials are expensive.

          Blind     children       do        not     access      information               by     using       the     sight     like      their    normal         fellows.

    wikiemedia (2004) states that usually the blind learn things by heart. They totally depend much

    on audio and feelings                    things      in order          to get      learning           materials.       However,        people       with     different

    disabilities for example like the deaf and the physically disabled use their sight hence access ICT

    easily.     Most      facilities     for    the      disabled          to   be    used       are      very   expensive         to    acquire       and     hence   the


    blind     are    usually       left    out      unlike     the     normal       people.         Integration       for    the   blind       students    is

    important        in    this   world        of   globalization       this    study      will    discuss    the    importance         and    further    on

    discuss how blind pupils benefit from ICT integration if any.

          Some disabled students in Zambian schools for example the deaf at Munali Secondary school

    are exposed to ICT materials. However, blind students in Zambia are not exposed to using ICTs

    like special computers for the blind.

         In addition, there are some issues which are culturally inclined and such issues are claimed to

    be taboo like sex which is not easily discussed. Bauer and Shea (1993) point out that education

    represents the best opportunity for delivering information on HIV/AIDS. For example the hearing

    impaired pupils          learn through ICTs                 and other        medium like wall                posters,    fliers silent adverts        on

    television and so on.                  The blind are less            privileged learning information                    relating to sex and in

    this world of HIV/AIDS pandemic information is vital. In Zambia blind pupils are how ever left

    out with no or with less information only printed in Braille.

         More       over    Gearheart          (1997:        27)    indicates     that     academically           Children     who       are    blind     get

    information at a slow rate than the normal children and it has been noticed that in most cases

    these     Children       with      special      needs      are     neglected      in    many      other        ways     affecting    them      socially,

    emotionally and academically.

         This   study       brings        to   light    globalization         integration     of     ICT     for    blind    students      and    explains

    how blind students benefit from ICT, so that the Government particularly Ministry of Education,

    Curriculum Development Center (CDC), and Non Governmental organization (NGOs) may know

    ICT significance and know how the blind benefit from ICT to improve their daily lives removing

    discrimination          and        stigma        barriers        leading     to      disabled          high     self-esteem         and     self-reliant

    academically and socially. The study was to find out different types ICT used for blind students

    in   class,     and     their      benefits        of   using      ICT.    In     specific,     the     study     focuses      on    three    research


         (1) How can lack of ICT affect blind students in schools? (academically, socially, emotionally)

         (2) how do blind students utilize ICT?

         (3) What are the benefits blind students experience from learning with ICT?

                                       Ⅱ. FIRST PHASE: Literature Review

         1. Background on special Education
         In   the    process      of      building      the    background        of    this       study,    on     integration     of    ICT     for    blind

    students      and      ICT     benefits.        This     section    will    focuses     on     what      other    scholars     have       studied    and

    reported on the same issue from different perspectives.

         According to UNAIDS(2000)                          learning is said to be a process of gaining knowledge necessary

                                                Priscilla Mubanga, Milee Ahn, Yunja Hwang (2008)

    to    be    used    in    every    days     life.    This       learning    can    either     be   formal       or    informal.    At        a    learning

    institute like a school, educators may use different teaching/learning methods and strategies to en

    sure learning have taken place(Child, 1998).

         However,          Education       is     one     of    the     human         rights    stipulated       in       article    26     of       universal

    declaration        for    human      rights    of    1948(USAID,             2002).    The     article     clearly     states    that       every    child

    has the right to Education regardless of the Childs healthy, condition or parent’s status (poor or

    rich). In addition MOE(1996:66) stipulate that the Ministry of Education up holds the principle

    that every individual has the right to educational opportunity regardless of personal circumstance

    or capacity.        So every child            should be given equal                Educational       opportunities         regardless        of    child’s

    health condition and not treated unfairly.

         Thanks       to     UN human           rights    universal       declarations,        because   for    a     long    time    disabled         people

    were confronted            with physical,           cultural     and social       barriers.    According to UN it’s estimated that

    there are about 500 million disabled people in the world hence discrimination and stigma varies

    from       cultural      backgrounds          and    different        perspectives     which       are     now       looked     into    as       universal

    (Macha, 2001).

         Scholars have described that disabled people were treated unfairly maybe because in the past,

    disabilities      were     strange     and     people       did    not     understand       there    causes,      preventions         and        remedies.

    People also associated             disabilities       with      bad    omen in societies           and     this      led to discrimination            and

    stigma towards the disabled.                   For example in Africa, a child born disabled was left in the thick

    forest to die. Superstition and witchcraft practices dominated the interpretation of impairment and

    the    affected        were    given    all    kinds       of    names      and     images(Macha,          2001).        Disabled       people       were

    isolated and put in camps but later they proved that they could learn and achieve high in life

    like any other normal person and wrong attitude towards disabled changed.

         There are many notable disabled people in history that succeeded in life and helped the way

    people started viewing the disabled people in the past to date. According                                                  to wikiemedia(2002)

    Some of these notable disabled people were Juliet Gordon founder of scouts in America, painter

    Granville,        Cliff    Bastin      footballer,         French        inventor      Thomas        Edison,          British    engineer           Oliver

    Heaviside a mathematician and physicist, French Louis braille inventor of braille and so on many

    but    a    few    to     mention.     In     addition       around      18th      century     there     was      an    out     break       of    spiritual

    sensitization       and       many     people       started       treating    the     disabled      well    and       disabled    were           gradually

    being accepted by society

         2. Special Education in Korea

         Gradually,         disabled   people       were       being      accepted      and    were     slowly      being     taught       in    residential

    Special schools. It was discovered that they were doing fine. After so many researches on Special


    Education, it was then discovered that isolating the disabled when learning was not good. Then

    inclusive       learning       was     introduced.             This        is   where        children       with           special     needs       learn     in    an

    integrated       system       to   date.     Integration            is    the    system       were        the    disabled       Children         learn      together

    with the normal children in the regular classrooms.

         Special     education is approved in Korea and the system which been approved by Government

    is    called    inclusive      learning.      This          inclusive       system      is   found        in     both       metropolitan           cities    and    in

    Villages.      Inclusive      learning       is    where       disabled         children      are      integrated           in normal        classes     and      they

    are taught together with normal children. All Children are given equal opportunities in education

    and     all    children      benefit    from the            Governments             policies      regardless          of    condition,        family     economic

    status or area location(MOE, 2007).

         Lim and Lee(2007) indicate that the Government looked at accessibility, capacity building and

    utilization seriously and Moon(2003:4) says that the Governments laws and policies also included

    development            and    diffusion      of        ICTs        in    education.      According              to    MOE           (2001),    Korea         ICT    is

    defined        as"an    instructional        media            to    deliver      effective        class    activities         using       various      application

    software and methods through integration of ICT in curriculum based on information technology

    and     communication              technology"              Many         Scholars    have         also     said       that     ICT        integration        change

    classrooms forever and they say that ICT improve educational quality(Ahn 2007).

           Myeong (2007) stipulate that, in Korea ICT is integrated in education in the normal classes.

    Therefore,       the     scenario      found           in    normal        schools      was       also     the        same     scenario       seen     in    special

    schools.        Infrastructure and access to ICT was the same regardless pupil’s condition and location

    in Korea. The government’s same effort on normal children and ICT integration in Education is

    the same effort which is taken concerning children with special needs (Moon 2003).

         However,         for National       Policies           to be implemented                effectively teachers and parents                        must work

    together. Parents are equally interested in their children’s welfare hence they help in one way or

    the     other.     Parents         support        is    very        crucial      and     important              for    they     support                financially,

    emotionally,          spiritually      and    socially.        This        parental     involvement              is    equally       important         concerning

    children with special need.

         3. ICT Integration for the blind students

         Disabilities      are    classified      in       four    different        categories        as     mental,        physical,         visual    and      hearing

    impairments. In this study blindness is the main focus. Glarross(1998:                                                        321) defines Blindness as

    a condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors.

         Therefore,        when a child is born with any condition he or she needs special                                                        needs, the child

    will    need     to    be    taught     special         skills      to    cope    with       in   life    and        this    will    be    achieved         by   both

    parents       and teachers         Snelson(2007).             However,           Mash    and Wolf(2002)                     indicates     that     scholars      have

                                                    Priscilla Mubanga, Milee Ahn, Yunja Hwang (2008)

    come       up with           teaching       strategies       on how these               children          can be taught            in      classroom situations.

    The main objectives for these teaching strategies are to meet the needs for children with special

    needs by special assistance.

          These Children’s needs are met by special assistance we call Special Education.                                                                   Children are

    integrated in normal classes. Also teaching these children is according to the need of a particular

    condition.           For     example        a    child      with     hearing           impairments            will     need      to     learn          and       use    sigh

    language         to       communicate           in    their       learning      process,          while     the       child    who         is    visually         impaired

    (blind)     will      learn       and     use   Braille      as    a medium of               communication               during their             learning process.

    However, Snelson(2003) describes Special Education as a vehicle which takes children with special

    needs      to        there      destiny     with      the     help        of    modified           and     adaptive          curriculum           during          learning


          In    addition            Gearheart(1997:125)                indicates         that    children       with       special     needs,          experience           slow

    rate at capturing, processing and interpreting information during their learning process. Therefore,

    Bauer      and        Shea(1993)          notes      that     among        the       methods         of    teaching         children        with       special        needs,

    research        has       proved     an     individual        education          program(IEP)              me     to     be    effective         and        it   is   highly

    recommended                when     teaching         children       with       special       needs.       However           when   teaching            children         with

    special needs the ordinary curriculum is modified to suit the learner at the particular time.

         1) ICT Facilities for blind Students

         For    a    blind          student     mobility         and     Braille         will    be     part    of    curriculum            to       be    modified          and

    adopted.         For       example         the       blind     student          will        use     Braille      when         learning.          wikiemedia(2008)

    stipulates       that       the blind        do      not    use    sight       for    reading,       writing      and        doing      other         things,         instead

    they use the sense of touch and audio in their learning.

         Braille     is    the system the             blind       use    to    read       and     write       and    it    is   read   by        using      the sense          of

    touch.      It       was        devised    in     1821       by     Frenchman               Louis     Braille.        According         to       wikiemedia(2008)

    ‘Braille    character or cell is made up of six dot positions, arranged in a rectangle containing two

    columns of three dots each. A dot may be raised at any of the six positions to form sixty-four

    (26) permutations, including the arrangement in which no dots are raised. For reference purposes,

    a    particular        permutation          may       be     described         by     naming         the    positions         where     dots          are    raised,     the

    positions being universally numbered 1 to 3, from top to bottom, on the left, and 4 to 6, from

    top to bottom, on the right.

         Children          with       special       needs       will    need        to     use        materials       like      tape      recorders             and       special

    computers            ’which       have been modified to suit the blind students. (Barrett 2004) however, the use

    of    ICT       as    a    tool    of     Education         transmitting             information          and     knowledge           is        very   important           in

    blind students as well.

         Therefore,            in    this     world       of     globalization            blind        students       use        ICT      integration                effectively


    academically        and       socially.     Aringo(2005)          describes          two      ways      in   which        the       blind      are    able    to   use

    ICT.     Everything           that       appears     on   the     screen      also        appears       on    the       screen       for       the    blind     called

    Braille    display.      On     this      display    the     blind      can     touch         and    read     (feel)     then also          every       thing      that

    appears on the screen is being read (vocally reproduced). So by hearing and feeling the blind can

    use ICT in various ways like e-mail, cyber learning, games, shopping and entertainment.

          2) Benefits for ICT Usage

          Musker      2000        and    Younie,       2002     as    cited    in      Ahn(2003)            states     that     students           should    not       only

    be     taught     how     to    use       the     ICT,    they    should        be      using       ICT      to    learn.     In     the       same     way     blind

    students     use ICT as a tool                  for learning.        In this world of globalization it is therefore important

    that    the blind learn how to use technology                              in order           to participate fully in society.                        In addition

    Snetselaar(2005:1),                 indicates       that,    the     ability         to    participate            in    cyber        community           gives      an

    individual        the   skill       to    enter    the    world      of    digital        information             supply      like,       on    -line    shopping,

    internet banking, on-line voting and to communicate with the rest of the world.

          Economically,       ICT enables              the blind       student         to     get    formal      employment              as    a    result   of     being

    exposed to ICT. Velleman(2005) stresses the benefit of ICT, for it empowers the blind people to

    be considered           for    the same         job as      other    people        and also to be afforded the same opportunities

    for    promotions.            ICT    also       makes     the     blind       to     use      same      opportunities               for    communication             as

    sighted     people,       such       as     e-mail    and     pursue       same           hobbies.       UNESCO(2003)                     indicates      that      ICT

    improves        sustainable          live    hood        among      the     blind         people        and       the     skill      they       get     from       ICT

    empower them and there after life is made simple by ICT. By using ICT the blind will learn to

    be     independent        and       be    self-reliant      and    do     things        on      their   own,       after      all    they      also     need    some

    privacy at one time. For example the blind are always escorted even when the matter is private.

    Like Voting and checking money at bank.

          Socially,   Aringo(2005)              says   that     further       more,         the     disabled      are      able     to    interact        with     others

    with similar interests using ICT and it has been seen that ICT plays a role in social relationship

    hence breaking old barriers and erecting new barriers through ICT. Furthermore Velleman(2005)

    indicates that ICT should not be a pure technical event but also intercultural and technical event

    for a group of people put at disadvantage.

          Macha(2001) strongly notes that if you want to make a difference to the lives of disabled

    people, you must change the society treats people with impairments with all fairness regardless

    of disabilities. All in all, Masakhwe(2005) strongly question everyone.                                                  That nowonder the former

    UN Secretary- General Peres De Cuer, describes                                     ‘disability      as a silent emergency in our time.’ A

    ticking time bomb so to speak. His idea was that we should treat disability and the concerns of

    disabled people with the urgency and seriousness that they deserve. Are we doing that?

                                          Priscilla Mubanga, Milee Ahn, Yunja Hwang (2008)

                                         Ⅲ. Research Methodology

        1. Research Site

        The    study     was    conducted     in   Seoul,   Korea    where    the   researcher    observed    and      came   face   to

    face with one interview.

        2. Procedure

        The researcher interviewed one teacher, teaching children with special needs at Seoul National

    School     for the blind. Data and information collected was                    analyzed manually and all information

    is based on the interview with the teacher teaching blind students. The teacher teaches 50 blind

    students found at Seoul National School for the blind.

                                                   <Table 1> Interview topics

         Number           Table showing topics during interview

              1           Types of ICT facilities used by blind students/Teachers

              2           What capacity is used for ICT

              3           ICT accessibility

              4           Teachers benefits using ICT

              5           Students benefit using ICT

        3. Data analysis

        The    researcher       employed     qualitative    design   and    Data    was    be   collected   by    observations     and

    Semi-      Structured       interview.   Interview      data    were    transcribed    and    contents    were      analyzed     to

    identify      key   terms    for   research    questions.   Collected    data   from    the   interview      was   analyzed    and

    discussed in a meaningful manner.

        1) General Information

    Ÿ    Male Teacher aged 36

    Ÿ    School now teaching: Seoul National School for Blinds

    Ÿ    Qualification: Special Education


    Ÿ     Specialty: Orientation and Mobility

    Ÿ     Number of students you teach: 50 students

    Ÿ     Duration in the teaching profession: 6 years

        2) Interview Questions

        Q1. What types of ICT do you use for teaching blind students?
        The        most   commonly            used      software    would      be    a   software        programme           called   ‘Screen      reader’.

    The    programme            is    entitled    to     read    out    what    shows     up      on    the    screen      and   it   helps   the    blind

    students to understand what is on the screen better. The use of computers is very common even

    for the blind students, with such special programme for blinds installed within the computer; the

    students        are   not        excluded     from      the    opportunities         to    use      the    ICT    including       the     computers,

    printers and other facilities.

        Q2. For what purposes do students use these ICT? e.g. Homework, internet
        The        students   use      the      ICT for     various     purposes.        They     use    it   to    search    data    and    information

    for their homework and even for the preparation for the class lessons using the internet.

        The computers                are used     by     students      in classes      where      the   lesson      is purposely      to give       lessons

    on computer training as well.

        Q3. What ICT is used by students?
        As     mentioned             earlier,    the     students       use    computers          for    various       purposes       including          their

    homework and preparation for the classes. However, during the class when it comes to the note

    taking and storing there is a separate hardware called                                  ‘Braillelite’.      It is like a small laptop with

    the      all     necessary        software         installed       and    specially       designed         to    help      the    blind       students

    understanding          better.       It     costs    about      4-5      million     won      for    each       machine      however,         they    are

    provided by the government, especially from the Ministry of Information and Communication.

        Q4. The accessibility of students to the computers
        There       are   three       computer       labs   at    the   school      where     I   teach       and   each     computer       lab    contains

    10 computers. The students have the free accessibility to these computers in their free times.

        Q5. How many students share a computer? (Theratio of the number of students to the
    number of computers)
    Ÿ     Number of computers in computer labs: 30

    Ÿ     Number of computers in classrooms: 30

    Ÿ     Number of students: 250

                                                      Priscilla Mubanga, Milee Ahn, Yunja Hwang (2008)

        Q6. How effective are the uses of ICT in terms of teaching?
        It    is    a    matter       of    fact      that    the    use       of    ICT     plays     a    huge        role   in    terms          of       teaching.      The

     dependence level             on use of             computers         in the school           environment             is relatively high.                  One of        the

     very basic assumptions                   one can give is that the teachers use computers to find information and

     resources       to    prepare         the    class      and    students         nowadays        do     their       homework           using         the    computers.

     For such reasons, it is undoubtedly effective to use ICT as a teaching material. However, I am

     not quite sure whether it would be appropriate to measure the effectiveness of uses of ICT as a

     learning       material      for       all   students.         In   other       words,      computers          are    maybe          used          by    some     of    the

     students       as     a   tool    for      the     educational           purposes     and     others         but    there      is    no    guarantee            that    all

     students        are       happy       to     use      computers           for   their      work        due     to    the       lack       of       experience          with

     computers           and    skills.      To     conclude,        the       use   of    ICT    is       very    effective        and    is       a    useful    tool      for

     teachers but there are some restrictions in measuring the effectiveness of uses of ICT for students

     as a learning tool.

        Q7. What difficulties are encountered when using ICT in terms of teaching?
        One of the main difficulties would be to reach the point where everyone in the class would

     be happy. For the school I am at currently, Seoul National                                                   School for Blinds, we do not have

     official      computer           training          classes     in        the    primary      school.          However,              some       students           already

     experience          computers         and      practice       the use of         it   via    after     schooling          programmes                and    etc.    These

     results       the    different        levels     of   ability       to    use   the     computers           and     those      who        lack      the     experience

     tend to fin the lessons using ICT more difficult.

        Q8. What are the benefits of the use of ICT as a teacher?
        One of the biggest benefits would be that it saves a lot of my time in terms searching for

     lesion     resources        or    data       using       the    internet        web-browser            and     in    other      documentation                work        as


        Q9. What are the benefits of the use of ICT for students?
        One of the main benefits that students gain by using computers in the lesson is that it saves

     a lot of time. As I mentioned earlier our students use a programme called "Screen reader"and it

     saves     the time for           students          in regards of           reading lesson materials                  than when             the students have

     to do it manually using their                           fingers.     It also reduces the chances of misunderstanding the data

     and prevents the miscommunication that may occur between the students and teachers

        Another           benefit     that        the   use    of    ICT       creates,    is    that      the    students       with       computer             skills     and

     being able to use the computers widens the opportunities                                               of employment and it is a matter of

     fact students with the ICT skills have more job options that they could choose from.


       Q10. What do students think about using ICT integration in classrooms?
       Surely        the     students    find    the    use    of    ICT    very    helpful    and   satisfying     as   a   learning      tool,    not

     only   the      computers        but    other     facilities    as   well.    However      as   mentioned      earlier    this   is   only     the

     case for the students who are aware of the computer using skills and techniques. Those who had

     never experienced the use of computers tend to avoid the usages of ICTs for their homework or

     any other extra work given to them.

       Q11. What is your opinion on ICT using for blind students?
       It     is    surely    very    convenient        to    have    ICT    facilities    equipped     for   blind      students     in   terms     of

     teaching them, however, there are still some educational purposes to be improved and developed.

     For example blind students can not see nor indicate a symbol, and that is where the use of ICT

     reaches its top level of use. The teachers then convert the symbol drawing into 3- Dimensional

     work so that students can feel and indicate the symbols.

       4. Research Results

       1) Types of ICT Facilities Used

       Information from the interview on ICT facilities was that since blind students do not use the

     sense of sight to read and write. They use Braille and it was said that students use computers,

     Perkin        Gradually,        disabled        people    were       being     accepted     and    were       slowly     being     taught       in

     residential Special schools. It was discovered that they were doing fine. After so many researches

     on Special       Education,        it   was     then     discovered     that    isolating   the disabled when            learning      was     not

     good. Then inclusive learning was introduced. This is where children with special needs learn in

     an integrated system to date. Integration is the system were the disabled Children learn together

     with the normal children in the regular classrooms.

       brailler,      ADP,      printer        and    photo    copier      machines.      It   was   said   that   all   these    machines         have

     been modified so that they can be used by blind students. It was said that for example a blind

     student       and Teachers         will    use the same computer                used by ordinary people.             However,         the blind

     student will have to memorize the letters on the key board, everything that’s displayed on the

     screen    is    said    vocally    so     that    the    student      can    hear    audibly.   Aringo(2005)         gives     two    ways     by

     which blind students usually learn and he says they computer displays every thing on the screen

     and while its doing that all that’s on the screen is being produced vocally for blind students to

     hear. Then another way is the blind masters the key board and uses tactile to feel while reading

     and writing on the computer.

                                           Priscilla Mubanga, Milee Ahn, Yunja Hwang (2008)

       2) Capacity Used for ICT

       The       Teacher   mentioned       that     ICT   plays   an   important       role    in    Education.     He    said    that    it   is

     used   as    a    teaching   tool     for    teaching.   The     teacher    use    it    in    his    lesson   to   make      sure    that

     knowledge is passed on from the teacher to blind students. And vise-versa ICT like internet are

     used by students to access in formation on curriculum and socially he said that ICT is used for

     interaction where students communicate with others. To support this point on the importance of

     ICT. Ahn(2007) indicates that ICT integration has changed classrooms forever and it is said that

     also ICT has        improved     educational      quality.   Therefore      it’s advised        that    teachers    should    be using


       3) ICT Accessibility

       The Teacher said that every child has the opportunity                           to use the computer               for example and

     the teacher       said that special         computers    are very expensive,        but       the Korean Government             provide

     student     with    these    ICT.     Students    are    also    given    free    software      for    educational     purpose.       The

     teacher also said that computers are very easy to access and he says that the ratio for computer

     access is 1 to 5. MOE (2007) states that the Governments policy on ICT is to ensure that all

     Children     in    Korea     freely    access    ICT.    The      Government        also       achieved    this     master     plan       by

     providing all Schools with computers and Teachers were also trained across the board concerning

     ICT Education.

       4) Teachers benefits while using ICT

       The       teacher   said   that     Teachers    benefits      greatly    by    using    ICT,       and   among      other    benefits,

     teachers using a computer as a teaching material was mentioned and appreciated by the Teacher.

     He also said that Teachers work is made easy and Teachers adequately research on what type of

     work to be taught in classroom using computers. Teachers are also competent on what is taught

     and this helps the easy and Teacher. By using ICT Teachers are also helped in the preparation

     of the lesson, and computers make Teachers work in most cases the quality of work is also very

     high. Teachers are motivated and quality of Education is usually high. Velleman(2005) stipulates

     that   ICT integration plays          a major     role on the part         of Teachers          for it also makes the Teacher

     to be competence with what he/she is teaching due to adequate vast research found on internet

     relevant to teaching area.

       5) Students benefits in ICT integration


          The     Teacher        indicated          that       Students          are      helped        academically,             socially           and     economically.           He

     said    that    Students           develop          helpful        skills      for        daily    use    like    shopping,               banking,           communicating

     with     friends      and    above        all       he    mentioned            that        Students       time       is   saved           by     using       computers.         He

     said that Students hear correct information which is verbally produced on their special computers

     and     this    helps      in      misunderstanding                    Data.      According          UNESCO(2003)                         its    mentioned           that       ICT

     skills also helps           an individual                to be self-reliant                for    they will          be empowered with different skills

     which        will   enable         blind       Students           to     look        for     employment              and        in    addition           ICTs       also     helps

     poverty reduction in developing countries.

          6) Challenges of ICT usage

          The     Teacher        said        that    the       problem           they          encounter       is    student’s            different          ICT       background.

     Some Students come to School with ICT experiences                                                   while others come to School with none or

     no     experience       and        Teachers           finds       it     hard        to    start    teaching           the      Students             with     different         ICT

     experiences.        The      cause        of    this      problem             was     because        at       primary        level        there        is    no     compulsory

     computer        training           in    Schools.         Another             problem            teacher’s       face      is     to       reproduce          learning          and

     teaching material from the web for it is prohibited                                                to get Data from the web. However                                         many

     Scholars       have    argued           that    teaching          is     an    art    so     Teachers          should        not      be        confined      to     computers

     and click and click way of teaching. Aringo(2005)notes that ICT should used as a tool.

                                 Ⅳ. Conclusion and Recommendations

          1. Conclusion

          The     major     findings          of    this      research        supports           integration         of     ICT        for     blind        students       in    Korea

     and     it   indicates      that        blind       pupils     benefit         greatly        in   ICT        integration            in    all       areas   of    life    in   this

     globalize world. Students are prepared to face the world of ICT, regardless of student disability

     or severity through Governments                              policy.          ICT integration offers                   blind         students          with       direct    access

     to facilities,      compasation               for    difficulties         in disabilities,          develop skills                and concepts               useful       in ones

     daily    activities,       access        to     information              and      curriculum             at    hand,       communicate                  with        others      and

     facilitate     independence.             However,            it    was      also      discovered          that    students            experience             on ICTs         varies

     due     to    student’s         background               and      this    was        the     major       challenge           to      Teachers          use     ICT        facilities

     with Students different experience variations.

          UNESCO(2004) supports this conclusion. It indicates that ICT above all ICT helps to improve

     ones     quality      of    life    through           sustainable             live    hood        and     this    is      described             to    be     very    important

                                                   Priscilla Mubanga, Milee Ahn, Yunja Hwang (2008)

     because ones empowerment academically, socially or economically leads to ones independence.

           2. Recommendations

           The following recommendations and suggestions have been made by the researcher.

           It was discovered that teachers teaching blind students modify the curriculum to suit children

     needs       with   no   sight      and    to     come       up    with        learning       and     teaching          aids    is   a     real      challenge     to

     teachers teaching blind students. It was seen that on web materials which are there not allowed

     to be copied, hence it is appropriate that Teachers must The Government should come up with

     a free web where Educational materials should be accessed and copied freely with no prohibits.

           Children     come       to    Seoul       National         for    the        blind     with    different         variety       of     ICT       experience.

     However some children are not exposed to ICT at an early age making it difficult for teachers

     to    cope    up with      ICT integration              when       these          students    come      to school.            However          it   is    necessary

     for    the Government              to come       up with         a policy of            compulsory         training       on computers                   in schools

     for    blind    students      at    an    early       age   in    primary           school    to    cast     a    balance       in       learning        and,    this

     should be done before Students go to secondary School.

           The    Government         should         also   encourage             inclusive      learning     at    high      School           levels     where       blind

     students       freely   mix        with       normal    students             in    regular       classes     to   encourage              blind      students      to

     interact freely building up high self- esteem hence developing acceptancein all areas.

           3. Recommendation for further research

           The    problem     of    difference         ability    to    using          ICT      can    not   be       solved       by    one        single     solution.

     Many        factors   contribute.        It    was    beyond       the        scope     of   this    research      project          to    look      at    all   these

     factors.     Therefore     further        research      could          be    done     to     investigate         the    reasons          for   example          blind

     students come to high Schools with little or more knowledge on ICT facilities despite computer


           Further investigation could be carried                           out to find out why Special Education Teachers in the

     country are not producing teaching/learning materials to be used by blind students which can be

     easily be found on web with no prohibits.

           4. Implications for Zambia


          The major findings of this research on ICT integration and ICT benefits in Korea can be also

     be   applied     to   Zambia.     Firstly,         the    Government         policy    in    Korea      which   enables      all   teachers     and

     students to freely access ICT facilities. Secondly, capacity building, where all teachers are trained

     to be competent and knowledgeable on computers to teach effectively in ICT integrated.                                                         This

     policy can also be applied in Zambia, where the Government and NGOs can help financially to

     carter   for   ICT    accessibility.         For    example       it   was   learnt    that     blind     students     in   Korea     are   given

     these expensive Braille computers by the Government to be used while learning.                                                ICT helps and

     equip    blind    students       to     be    self-reliant        in   Korea    and     its    working      well.      The     same    principle

     working in Korea can also work in Zambia .It has been seen that                                            ICT integration offers a lot

     to blind       students in many areas of every days life activities and it offers pupils with hope like

     direct access to facilities, compasation for difficulties in disabilities For example blind students use

     these    computers        to   take    notes       in    class   and   ICT    are     very    useful.     ICT   also   develop        skills    and

     students   stand      a    chance      of     being       employed      later   in    life    and    in   addition     ICT     develops        some

     useful   concepts     in ones         daily   activities,        ICT also access        to information          and    curriculum at        hand,

     communicate with others and facilitate independence.


     Ahn, M, L. (2003). Elementary School Stakeholders Understanding of ICT integration and their role

     Ahn, M, L. (2007). Issues concerning Student Teachers perception of ICT Education

     Bauer, A. M.& Shea, T. M. (1993).             Learning with Disabilities. New York: Benchmark publishers.

     Gearheart, J. M. (1997). Abnormal Childs psychology. California: Congress library cataloging.

     Glassross,   P.   J.   (1998).   Teaching   Strategies   for   Children   with   Special   needs.   St   Pauls:   West   Publishing


     Howell, T. E. (1998). Disabled People and discrimination.

     Macha, E. (2001). What you need to know.www.wcc-coe.org.

     Masakhwe, D. M. (2005). Un day for the disabled.

     MOE. (1996). Educating our Future.Lusaka: Government Printers

     MOE. (2007). Education in Korea.

     Moon, C. C. (2003). Information on positive aspects on ICT in Korea.

     Myeong, L. (2007). Use of ICT bridging Digital Opportunities.

     Snelson, P. (2007). Strategies for teaching children with special needs. New York: colson publishers.

     Snetsnelaar, D. M. (2005). Picture of ICT for blind students.

     Thomas, B. (1995). National center for Technology in Education.

     UNESCO. (2004). educating the blind.www.unescobkk,org.

     Valentine, G. (2001). Get the picture of ICT for blind people.

     USAID. (2000). Where there is a will there is a way. Geneva:WHO                       publication.

     Wikiemedia. (2004). www.wikiemedia.org.

                    시각장애 학생을 위한 ICT활용의 혜택

                                    Priscilla MUBANGA (Ministry Teacher Educator, 잠비아)
                                                                   * 안미리 (한양대학교)
                                                                     황윤자 (한양대학교)

                                                         <요 약>
                  국제사회에서는 세계 모든 어린이들이 부모의 경제적 차이, 성별 혹은 신체적인
              차이에 상관없이 균등한 교육의 기회를 보장받아야 한다고 강조하고 있다(UNAIDS,
              2003). 모든 어린이는 교육받을 기회를 가질 권리가 있으며 어떠한 이유도 차별받거
              나 다른 수준의 교육을 제공하는 등의 차별은 있을 수 없다. 그렇다면 ICT를 활용한
              교육도 예외가 아니다. 이는 ICT를 접한다는 사실만이 아니라 ICT를 통한 세계에 대
              한 이해, 기술문명에 대한 이해 등 더 넓은 의미의 세상을 볼 수 있기 때문이다. 본
              연구는 시각장애를 가진 학생들이 ICT를 활용해 학습하는 과정에서 어떻게 ICT가 학
              습에 도움을 주는지 연구 하였다. 구체적으로는 시각장애학생들이 어떻게 ICT를 활
              용하는지, 어떤 정보에 접근이 가능한지, 어떻게 ICT활용이 학습에 도움을 주는지,
              그리고 ICT활용의 혜택은 무엇인지 살펴보았다.
                  연구방법으로는 문헌조사와 장애학교에서 시각장애인을 가르치는 교사를 인터뷰하
              였으며, 연구결과 시각장애학생들이 ICT를 활용할 경우 학생들의 학습 효과만이 아
              니라 자신감 외에 학생들의 삶에 대한 긍정적인 힘을 경험하였다. 본 연구결과는 한
              국과 잠비아 교육 정책자와 NGO 리더들이 시각장애 학생들에게도 ICT를 활용할 수
              있는 접근의 기회를 확대해 주도록 정책입안 혹은 다각적인 노력을 요구한다. 이는
              시각장애학생들이 ICT를 통해 자신의 삶과 세계화 추세에 맞는 인간의 모습을 영위
              할 수 있도록 ICT는 중요한 안내와 힘을 줄 것으로 기대한다.

              주요어: ICT, 시작장애학생, 특수교육

         안미리 한양대학교 교수                                     교신저자
         Priscilla MUBANGA, Ministry Teacher Educator,

         황윤자 한양대학교 박사과정
     *        ,                   / mlahn@hanyang.ac.kr:

              ,                       / yjhwang@hanyang.ac.kr


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