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Wetlands Conservation

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					                                                             By
           Wetlands                                   Randall Reynolds
          Conservation                            AP Environmental Science
                                                         Mrs. Ferrer




("Geoscape Canada / Géopanorama du Canada.“)
http://geoscape.nrcan.gc.ca/h2o/bowen/images/wetlands
_e.jpg
                                                                       1
        Wetlands Conservation
• It is the regulation of wetlands with the
  ultimate goal of filtering and sustaining
  wetlands for future generations
• Sustaining would be maintaining wetlands to
  help wetlands provide its natural services to
  present and future generations



                                                  2
Wetlands
•They are an area where
 water remains above the
 surface of the soil or
 saturated all year round.
•For example, pond,
 stream, bog, etc.
•They develop both
 aquatic and terrestrial
 life
•Endangered vegetation
 rely on them for an
 environment or habitat
 (e.g., Venus fly trap) (“What are Wetlands?”)
                          http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/wetlands/vital/what.html
                                                                       3
Wetlands
• Vary due to geography
• Exist everywhere
• Biodiversity- many
  different species of
  plants and animals
  existing together (in
  wetlands), also one of
  the four scientific
  principles of
  sustainability
• Many endangered
  species rely on          (“What are Wetlands?”)
  wetlands(e.g., Bog       http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/wetlands/vital/what.h
                               tml
  Turtle)                                                          4
      Wetlands Natural Services
• Improve water quality (filter pollutants)
  – Wetlands breakdown pollution with micro-
    organisms
  – Also, chemically broken down
• Flood and erosion control
• Trap heavy metals
• Create a special type of soil (hydric)


                                               5
                      Wetlands Past
• Montana lost 1/3 of
  its wetlands since
  settlement("Montan
  a DEQ…”)
• ½ of lower 48 states’
  wetlands
  destroyed("Our
  Land…”)
• CT has lots 70% of it
  wetlands ("Welcome
  to…”) including
  coastal wetlands
• Filled in for   “Riverwatch welcomes you."
  agriculture     http://crca.caloosahatchee.org/img/Wetlands_destruction_1.jpg
                                                                           6
Wetlands
Today
•Being destroyed
•Filled in for
 residential,
 commercial and
 industrial
 buildings and even
 communities
•Degraded for
 mosquito and         25 Aug. 2009
 flood control        http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2388/2461024063_d668f
                          b259a.jpg?v=0
•Agriculture
                                                                       7
                   Wetlands Today
• Becoming more           • Environmental
  isolated (not a           Degradation
  connected ecosystem) • Natural Resource
• Existing wetlands       • Provides Natural
  damaged                   Services such as
• Not functioning as well   nutrient cycling
  as they would
                          • Some form of input
• Smaller                   pollution control
• People pushing further    needed to conserve
  into wetlands territory   wetlands

                                                 8
                         New Orleans
• Wetlands reduce
  effects or absorb
  hurricane surge
• Flood control
• Levees destroy
  wetlands
   – Cut off supply of
     nutrients and soil

      ("Wade Rathke's Chief Organizer…”)
      http://chieforganizer.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/katrina-new-orleans-flooding4-2005.jpg
                                                                                                9
  Reasons to not build on Wetlands
• Flood basements
• Larger insurance bills
   – E.g., Flood insurance,
     replacement values, etc
• Flood easy
• Damage to foundation
  and building over time
  from water and
  wetlands
• Buildings damage
  wetlands soils "seattlepi.com Blogs."                                     10
                     http://blog.seattlepi.com/thebigblog/library/PBL_FLOOD_02.jpg
             Political Issues
• Who will maintain
  these preserved
  wetlands and create
  wetlands?




                    "CartoonStock - Cartoon Pictures, Political
                    Cartoons, Animations.."                     11
               Societal Issues
• How would the town or city
  feel about the wetlands
  being preserved?
• Make great recreation
  areas (e.g., swimming,
  fishing, etc)
• Would education about
  wetlands change peoples’
  minds about wetlands?        •59.5 Billion made each year
• Wetlands make good           from bird watching, hunting
  hunting grounds (ducks)      and fishing and photography
• Photography and bird         ("SERC." )
  watching are popular
                           http://serc.carleton.edu   12
               Economic Issues
• Contribute to economy
  (e.g., fishing)
• Building wetlands would
  be economically beneficial
• Preserving them cuts down
  on places to build
  residential, industrial, or
  commercial buildings
• Filling them in creates
  more agricultural land
• 15 billion is made from
  wetlands on average per
  year (fishing) ("Wetlands |
  US EPA.“)
                         "CartoonStock - Cartoon Pictures, Political
                         Cartoons, Animations.."                   13
             Economic issues
• Other products include: furs, blueberries,
  cranberries, shellfish, timber, rice, and
  medicines




                                               14
             Geographical Issues
• Exponential Growth
  of all living things
  leads to less space
  among all organisms
• New houses and
  housing complexes
  pushing closer to
  wetlands
• Also, industrial and
  Commercial
  buildings
              "Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society."
                                                                 15
              fieldclub.hants.org.uk
         Conservation: Federal
       What the Federal Government is doing to
              solve the wetlands crisis.
• North American
                          •National Resource
  Wetlands Conservation
  Act- grants equal to     Conservation Service-
  value of Wetlands        Federal Organization
  conserved                that conserve natural
• Clean Water Act,         resources
  Section 401- promotes   •National Fish and
  and regulates water      Wildlife Service
  purity
                                                   16
      Conservation: State/Local

• CT- Inland Wetlands •Local- Regulates
  and Watercourses      wetlands uses
  Act 1972- People     • Enforce the
  wanting to affect     regulations
  wetlands need to     •Municipal Wetlands
  obtain a permit from Commissions
  wetlands
  commission or DEP
  (state)                                    17
                   Organizational
• Conservation
  organizations such as the
  Haddam Land Trust
  accept donated land or
  development rights, or
  buy land with wetlands •All have the goal of
  on it                       preserving wetlands
• Examples- Haddam Land
  Trust, Conservation
  Commission, Audubon
  Society, and Ducks
                       "Haddam Land Trust Home Page."
  Unlimited            www.hltrust.org                  18
                    Timeline
• Flood Control Act of 1944 – destroyed wetlands by
  constructing dams to control flooding
• Small Reclamation Projects Acts of 1956 –destroyed
  wetlands by promoting federal building projects
• Federal Highway Act of 1968- destroyed wetlands
• Federal Water Pollution Control Act 1972– protects
  wetlands from pollution and from being filled in
• Endangered Species Act of 1973 – protected
  endangered species and habitats
• Water Resources Development Act of 1976, 1986,
  1988, 1990- protects against wetlands destruction
                                                       19
            Timeline Continued
• Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act 1977–
  regulated mining and protected wetlands
• December 13, 1989- North American Wetlands
  Conservation Act- grants, and USA, Mexico and Canada
• Surface Transportation Revenue Act of 1991 –
  destroyed wetlands, encouraged highways
• 1993- 29 states have legislation that protect wetlands
  (Votteler)
• December 2, 2002- President Bush signs bill extends a
  program under which the federal government matches
  donations from those who pledge to protect wetlands
                                                       20
                   Thesis
• Wetlands are needed to meet the demands of
  an environmentally sustainable society so they
  should be primarily preserved and secondarily
  created.
• An Environmentally Sustainable Society is a
  society that meets the natural resource needs
  of future and present generations



                                               21
      Haddam Wetlands Regulations:
              Verbatim
• “(1) Within one hundred (100) feet measured horizontally
  from all tidal wetlands, major watercourses, or wetlands
  contiguous to a major watercourse, all wetlands and
  watercourses in the Salmon River watershed and in Public
  Water Supply watersheds.
• (2) Within fifty (50) feet measured horizontally from the
  boundary of any other wetland or watercourse.
• (3) If the overall slope of the upland review area exceeds an
  average of a 10% grade and additional fifty (50) feet shall
  be added to the horizontal width of the upland review
  area.”

http://www.haddam.org/reg_iwwc.shtml

                                                              22
         No Encroaching on Wetlands
    Old                                 New Proposal
•   No residential of commercial    •    No residential or commercial
    building within 50-150 ft of         building within 150 ft of wetlands
    wetlands (Haddam) unless        •    If someone needs to build, they
    there is a permit                    must preserve or build 2 times as
•   Trade off land or creation of        the amount of wetlands they
    wetlands for wetlands                affect
•   Need to have practical steps,   •    Enforced by heavy fine if violated
    minimize wetlands impact and         (1/2 of the price of the wetlands
    supply compensation for any          affected)
    additional damage to            •    Urgent, affordable, not willing to
    wetlands                             comply, wards off manufacturing
•   Farmers and Secretary of army   •    Doesn’t affect existing buildings,
    excluded                             except they must be tested for
                                         pollution                      23
    No encroaching on Wetlands
• Only exceptions are a farmer who needs to fill
  in the land for agricultural use (Food Security
  Act) and the Secretary of the Army (has power
  to dispense permits, given Clean Water Act)
• Not popular, most people would not be able
  to create new wetlands, and urgent



                                                24
           Wetlands Conservation
• Preserve 60% of the natural
  wetlands in CT on residential   • Building in progress on
  property by 2035 by giving        wetlands will not be
  property tax breaks to those      stopped or penalized, but
  who preserve their wetlands
  and the property tax break        the wetlands will be
  would be proportional to the      subjected to Clean Water
  amount of wetlands owned.         Act standards
• Urgent because wetlands are
  vital to sustainable society       – The water will be tested to
                                       meet all standards and if
• Appropriate amount of time
  for paper work and for amount        there are any violations they
  of people                            will be subjected to pay the
• It can only help owners and          value of the wetlands it
  state                                damages
• The owners would be willing     • Not popular, realistic, and
  because of the tax break          urgent
                                                                       25
               Wetlands Creation
• State creates wetlands in     •   Creation will be subjected to
  right of way of limited           strict Clean Water Act
  access highways and around        standards as mentioned
  places such as airports           earlier
• Creates jobs, purifies water •    Also, they will be made by a
  around highway, expensive         private contractor as decided
• Tax on gas to pay for it, tax     by the Connecticut
  gas to $4.00 (levy) per           Department of Environmental
  gallon                            Protection
• Urgent, creating wetlands •       Unpopular, sufficient money
  helps environmentally             and time, creates jobs, and
  sustainable society               affordable

                                                                26
             Wetlands Creation
• Goal-
   – Create enough wetlands to fill 50% of useable area in
     rite of way of limited access highways by 2035
   – Create enough wetlands to surround areas like
     airports where possible
• Useable land is at least a quarter acre
• These wetlands will be used to filter runoff and
  promote biodiversity
• Unpopular, sufficient money and time, creates
  jobs, and affordable
                                                             27
               Overview:
        Environmental Worldviews
• The three mandates follow the Environmental
  Ethics of the Environmental Wisdom Worldview
  instead of the Stewardship or Planetary
  management Worldview because people need
  biodiversity and natural services to live
• They follow input pollution control rather than
  output pollution control
• Uses and Environmentalism and Environmental
  Science to solve wetlands problems
                                                    28
                 Overview
• Mandates have the goal of preserving the
  environment
• Used the Ecological relationship between
  humans and wetlands




                                             29
                      Bibliography
• "CartoonStock - Cartoon Pictures, Political Cartoons, Animations.."
  CartoonStock - Cartoon Pictures, Political Cartoons, Animations.. 26
  Aug. 2009 <http://www.cartoonstock.com>.
• "FOXNews.com - Bush Signs Bill to Preserve Wetlands - Politics |
  Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum." Breaking
  News | Latest News | Current News - FOXNews.com. 24 Aug. 2009
  <http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,71895,00.html>.
• "Geoscape Canada / Géopanorama du Canada." Geoscape Canada /
  Géopanorama du Canada. 20 Aug. 2009
  <http://geoscape.nrcan.gc.ca/>.
• "Haddam Land Trust Home Page." Haddam Land Trust Home Page.
  24 Aug. 2009 <http://www.hltrust.org>.
• "Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society." Hampshire Field
  Club & Archaeological Society. 27 Aug. 2009
  <http://fieldclub.hants.org.uk>.
• "Montana DEQ - Wetland Conservation Home Page." Montana
  Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Home Page. 18 Aug.
  2009 <http://www.deq.state.mt.us/wqinfo/wetlands/index.asp>.
                                                                    30
                      Bibliography
• "Montana DEQ - Wetland Conservation Home Page." Montana
  Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Home Page. 19 Aug.
  2009 <http://www.deq.state.mt.us/wqinfo/wetlands/index.asp>.
• "North American Wetlands Conservation Act." U.S. Fish and Wildlife
  Service Home. 19 Aug. 2009
  <http://www.fws.gov/birdhabitat/Grants/NAWCA/index.shtm>.
• "Our Land, Our Literature: Environment - Wetland Destruction." Ball
  State University - Home. 21 Aug. 2009
  <http://www.bsu.edu/ourlandourlit/environment/Issues/Wetland_
  destruction.html>.
• Reynolds, Daniel . Personal Interview. 17 Aug. 2009.
• Reynolds, Gail . Personal Interview. 17 Aug. 2009.
• “Riverwatch welcomes you." Riverwatch welcomes you. 18 Aug.
  2009 <http://crca.caloosahatchee.org>.
• "seattlepi.com Blogs." seattlepi.com Blogs. 26 Aug. 2009
  <http://blog.seattlepi.com>.
                                                                   31
                  Bibliography
• "SERC." SERC. 19 Aug. 2009 <http://serc.carleton.edu>.
• "Town of Haddam, Connecticut - Senior Center." Town
  of Haddam, Connecticut. 30 Aug. 2009
  <http://www.haddam.org/reg_iwwc.shtml>.
• Votteler, Todd H.. "Wetland Protection Legislation."
  USGS Water Resources of the United States. 22 Aug.
  2009
  <http://water.usgs.gov/nwsum/WSP2425/legislation.ht
  ml>.
• "WWA why save wetlands." Wisconsin Wetlands -
  Home. 25 Aug. 2009
  <http://www.wisconsinwetlands.org/save.htm>.

                                                       32
                     Bibliography
• "Wade Rathke's Chief Organizer Blog.Author of Citizen Wealth:
  Winning the Campaign to Save Working Families.." Wade Rathke's
  Chief Organizer Blog.Author of Citizen Wealth: Winning the
  Campaign to Save Working Families.. 18 Aug. 2009
  <http://chieforganizer.org>.
• "Welcome to the Town of Branford!." Welcome to the Town of
  Branford!. 19 Aug. 2009 <http://www.branford-ct.gov>.
• "Wetlands | US EPA." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 30
  Aug. 2009 <http://www.epa.gov/wetlands/>.
• "What are Wetlands? | Wetlands | US EPA ." U.S. Environmental
  Protection Agency. 20 Aug. 2009
  <http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/wetlands
• 25 Aug. 2009
  <http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2388/2461024063_d668fb259a.jpg?
  v=0>.

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