Genetics Quiz III Review: Punnett Squares and Heredity Name_________________ Date________ Period____ Standards: BI2. c. Students know how random chromosome segregation explains the probability that a particular allele will be in a gamete. BI2. g. Students know how to predict possible combinations of alleles in a zygote from the genetic makeup of the parents. BI3. a. Students know how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive). BI3. b. Students know the genetic basis for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment. Directions: Using your coursework and online resources complete the review sheet below. Part I. Vocabulary-Matching the terms to their correct definition. Term: Definition Homozygote a.) likelihood that a particular event will happen. Heterozygote b.) allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism’s genotype Dominant c.) specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein Recessive d.) characteristic that is inherited Allele e.) parental generation Genes f.) offspring of the parental generation Trait g.) father of genetics Offspring h.) TT Gregor Mendel i.) chromosomes that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism Homozygous dominant j.) forms haploid gametes Homozygous recessive k.) the passing of genetic information from generation to generation Meiosis l.) the study of heredity patterns and variation of organisms Genotype m.) offspring of the F1 generation Phenotype n.) physical traits determined by an organism’s genotype Probability o.) different forms of a gene Inherit p.) allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism’s genotype. Genetics q.) allele combination that codes for traits. Reproductive cells r.) the product of a cross or mating Zygote s.) fertilized egg Law of Independent Assortment t.) tt Law of Segregation u.) Mendel’s 2nd law, stating that allele pairs separate from one another during gamete formation v.) sperm and eggs w.) having two different alleles x.) having two of the same alleles y. Mendel’s 1st law, stating that organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parents, and organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation. Part II. Answer the following questions below using section 6.2-6.6. 1. One human parent is homozygous dominant for a trait (TT) while the other parent is homozygous recessive for the same trait (tt). Which of the following BEST explains why all of the offspring of these parents are heterozygous for the trait (Tt)? A. The strongest genetic traits are selected for the offspring. B. Each parent contributes one gamete to the zygote. C. Genetic information from the parents is combined in a unique way. D. The genetic material from each parent has a 50% chance of being in the zygote. 2. A man is heterozygous (Cc) for a recessive trait that causes complete color blindness. In order for ANY of this man’s offspring to inherit this trait, the female parent MUST have which of the following? A. at least one gene for color blindness B. one gene for color blindness on a Y chromosome C. at least two genes for color blindness D. one gene for color blindness on an X chromosome 3.) Explain Mendel’s two laws in your own words. 4.) What is the probability of producing a male during fertilization? (Think-Meiosis) 5.) What is the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes?
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