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Module 1 - 08' - History of Cosmetology-Power Point

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									COSMETOLOGY:

THE HISTORY AND

OPPORTUNITIES
  What is a Cosmetologist?


In your group, list all of the qualities
    and skills that you believe are
     required of a cosmetologist.
 DID YOUR GROUP GUESS…
               Advise giver
Professional expert in practical skills areas
                  Artistic
                 Designer
                  Creator
               Trustworthy
       Businessperson
       Self-promoter
  Poised and well groomed
  Effective communicator
Being current with trends and
        technologies
       Good listener
In your group, list on flip chart paper all
of the occupations you believe are
included in the Cosmetology profession.

For some, you will need to think
“outside of the box”
          Add:
I am responsible for my own
         education
Cosmetology includes:
    * hairstyling
    * nail technology
    * esthetics

                        Curly-hairstyles.blogspot.com
                        Caofb.com/esthetics
                        Coolnaolsart.com/bubbles
Cosmetology:
  Greek word: kosmetikos
  Means: skilled in the use of cosmetics


     Barber:
     Latin word: barba
     Means: the beard or the hair of
             the beard.
                 Review
1. What services can a cosmetologist
     perform?
2. List four qualities a cosmetologist should
      have.
3. Explain the origin of the word
    cosmetology . (Include detail)
           Archeological studies:
Reveal that haircutting and hairstyling were
    practiced as early as the glacial age

               Implements Used:
 1. Sharpened flints
 2. Oyster shells
 3. Bone
 4. Animal sinew
 5. Strips of hide
       Color matter made from:

Berries                Bark of trees
Minerals               Insects

Nuts                                 Herbs
Leaves            And other materials

                        Danielmeissler.com
                        Takegreatpictures.com
     Ancient Egyptians:

•The first to cultivate beauty in an
extravagant fashion
***Barbers serviced the
    nobility and the
    priesthood over 6,000 years ago
Charismaallover.wordpress.com
Sheniquemag.blogspot.com
• first to use:
   * cosmetics as part of their
         personal beautification habits
   * in religious ceremonies
   * preparing the deceased for
        burial
3000 B.C.
    * minerals, insects, and berries to
        create makeup
    * henna to stain the hair and nails
          * first to use
                essential oils




                                 Mnsu.edu
                                 Womensnet.com/about hair history
                                 Americanaromatherapy.com
• created kohl makeup
    *mixture of ground galena (a black
        mineral)
    * sulfur
    * animal fat




                         Makeupweb.guide.com
     * used to heavily line the eyes
     * alleviate eye inflammations
     * protect the eyes from the glare
          of the sun
•In ancient Egypt and Rome, military
     commanders stained their nails
     and lips in matching colors
     before important battles
                    Chinese
•1600 B.C. aristocrats
     * rubbed tinted mixtures onto their nails
     * turned crimson or ebony
•1100 B.C.
     * gold and silver were royal colors
     * commoners caught wearing a royal nail
          color faced a punishment of death
***Egyptian and Roman women temporarily
     waved their hair by applying a mixture of
     soil and water (mud) to the hair and
     wrapping it around crudely made wooden
     rollers to bake in the sun

***In Africa, hair was groomed with
          intricately carved combs and
          adorned with beads, clay and colored
          bands
 FYI:
 **Prior to 3000 B.C. nail care is recorded in
      Egypt and China

• color of a persons nails was a sign of rank:
      *high social rank: red-orange henna

      *kings and queens: deep red
      *people of lower rank: pale colors

• in China, nails were painted red or black
          The Greeks       (500 B.C.)
• hairstyling-highly developed art
• used perfumes and cosmetics in religious
      rites, in grooming, and for medicinal
      purposes
• developed excellent method
      of dressing the hair and
      caring for the skin and nails


                                      Karenswhimsy.com
mangatutorials.com
Stcatherinesprimary.co.uk
Karenswhimsy.com
• used white lead on faces, kohl on eyes and
      vermillion on cheeks and lips               Margretshort.typepad.com




• vermillion
   •bright red pigment by grinding
      cinnabar
               ~ a mineral that is the chief source of
               mercury
•The fine powder was mixed with ointment or dusted on
      the skin in the same way as cosmetics are applied
      today
                 Romans (296 B.C.)
• facials of milk, bread and fine wine were
      popular
• mixture of chalk and lead used for facial
     cosmetic
• hairstyling services introduced; women used
      hair color to indicate class in society as
      follows:
- noblewomen: red hair
- middle-class women: blonde
- poor women: black
Julius Caesar 101-44 BC

• had his face tweezed everyday

• this started a trend among
      the men of that time




           www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/descent/p...
Explore-italian-culture.com
Roman-colosseum.info
Crystallyn.vox.vom
Digonsite.com
Eternallycool.net
                  Middle ages
• included towering headdresses, intricate
      hairstyles, and cosmetics
• around 1000 A.D. an alchemist refined the
     process of steam distillation which is still
     used to create essentials oils today
***Vocabulary word:
Alchemy-pre-scientific chemistry, usually with
fluids, juices and the elixir of longevity.
Usiweb.usi.edu
Edarlein.deviantart.com
Herstoria.com
                Renaissance
• transition from medieval to modern history
• shaved eyebrows and hairline-thought to
     give the women a look of greater
     intelligence
• highly colored cosmetics were
     discouraged.


                    Wholesale.garison.com
Press.princeton.edu
Abeautyglorious.blogspot.com
2.ivcc.rdu
            Barbering and Medicine

The Barber Pole-symbol of the barber-surgeon,
has its roots from the bloodletting procedure
that was once thought to strengthen the immune
system


 1. Pole = the staff; patients held a staff tightly
    in order for the veins in the arm to stand
    out.
 2. Bottom = basin; basin was the vessel that
    caught the blood.
Hillsdalebarnantiques.com
Azbarberboard.us
3. White bandages stop blood; the bandages used
  to stop the bleeding were hung on the staff to
  dry.
  The stained bandages would twist around the
  pole forming the red/white candy-cane
  pattern.
  Another interpretation is that the red
   represented the blood, blue the veins, and
   white the bandages.
  Barbers still use the symbol today.
                        Victorian Age
FYI: many changes in hair care

Add: Marcel Grateau invented the
    marcel iron
•1875; Frenchman, Marcel Grateau, developed
hot irons for waving and curling the hair.
Known today as marcel waving




                 Purespadirect.com
                 Jiunlimites.com
•1892; Frenchman, Alexander F.
     Godefroy, invented a
    hot-blast hair dryer

                    Probeautykit.com




•1890; First hairdressing academy
opening in Chicago by Frenchman,
Bribois and Federmeyer.
• to preserve the health and beauty of the
      skin, women used beauty masks
      made from natural ingredients
• pinched their cheeks and bit their lips
      to colorize rather than use
      cosmetics
              The Twentieth Century

• shift in American attitudes caused by the
      movie industry
• viewers wanted the flawless complexions,
      beautiful hairstyles, manicured nails,
      changing the standards of feminine
      beauty
• beauty began to follow trends
                                    Vivien Leigh 1940’s




Jean Harlow 1930’s




          Elizabeth Taylor 1950’s
                                                 Newhotstuff.net
1901-1910
•Max Factor began making and selling
    makeup to movie stars that would not
    cake or crack, even under the hot
    studio lights

              Rubylane.com
              Onlineauction.com
        History of Permanent Waving

•1905, Charles Nessler invented heavily wired
     machine that supplied electrical current to
     metal rods around which hair strands were
     wrapped
• units were heated
• kept away from the scalp by counterbalancing
     weights suspended from an overhead
     chandelier mounted to a stand
Internet source:
Two methods were used to wind hair strands
  around the metal units:
1. Spiral wrap: long hair was wound from
     scalp to ends
2. Croquignole wrap: for short hair, wound
     from ends to scalp.
Success story of the cosmetology industry

Madam C.J. Walker
 • daughter of a former slave
• born Sarah Breedlove in 1867

• during the 1890’s she suffered from a scalp
     condition and began to lose her hair.
• she experimented with store-bought
     products and home-made remedies
                                 Inventors.about.com
• invented hair grower scalp conditioner
• devised sophisticated sales and
      marketing strategies and traveled
      extensively giving product
      demonstrations
• built a factory, hair salon and training
      school
                                           1929
•by developing more products her
     empire grew                   www.scott.k12.va.us/rita/51757_2.JPG
• gave time and money to organizations like
     NAACP and the YMCA
• organized the first national meetings for
     businesswomen
• pioneer of the modern black hair care and
      cosmetic industry




                 Scribalterror.blogs.com
                 Urbanstages.org
1920’s
• cosmetic industry grew rapidly
• ad’s expenditures in radio alone went
      from $390,000.00 to $3.2 million by
      the end of the decade

                                     Digitalhistory.uh.edu
                                     Vintagepowderroom.com
•1931, preheat method was
     introduced-hair was wrapped in
     the croquinole method

• clamps heated by a separate electrical
      machine were place over the wound
      curls


               Dehaarsite.nl
•1932, a method that used external heat
     generated by chemical reaction was
     introduced
• small flexible pads containing a chemical
     mixture were wound around hair
     strands
• pads moistened with water released a
     chemical heat creating long-lasting curls
• machineless permanent wave was born
1932
•Revlon marketed the first nail polish
     (not stain) using formulas
     borrowed from the car paint
     industry
• dramatic shift in nail cosmetics
• array of nail lacquer colors available
• early screen stars started the trend of
      wearing these colors on their
      fingers and toes               Quirkyfinds.com
•1932-Clairol created permanent haircolor




          Library.duke.edu
          Ebay.com




•1938 the cold wave was invented that
     used no machine or heat
• considered to be the precursor to the
     modern perm
•1941, scientists developed waving lotion
     that did not require heat
     *called cold wave




                          Modernlab.com
• today, the term “texture service” is used to
describe the variety of permanent wave
services and straightening services available
for different hair types and conditions




                          Just-hairstyles.com
                          Hairstyles-pictures.com
1951-2000
• introduction of tube mascara,
      improved hair care,
        and nail products




    Southportbeautysalon.com
    Nailsupplywebsite.com
•boom and death of the
    weekly salon
                         Flickr.com


    appointment
•1960’s-Vidal Sassoon’s revolutionary
geometric haircuts




                     Discoveringhair.wordpress.com
                     Ladybear.gaia.com
                     Campuscircle.net
•1970’s highlighting techniques of
     “hair weaving” using aluminum
           foil




     Tpcs-auction.org
     Zebrahairandbeauty.com
•1980’s heavy use of eye make-up and
     blush…and really BIG HAIR, just
     ask Mrs. Kucas
***physical fitness, nutrition, day spas




                              Images.mix.com
                              Moviedearest.blogspot.com
•1990’s haircolor became gentler,
     allowing everyone to be able to color
     their hair without breakage




                 Hairsandiego.com
                 Pitchengine.com
                 Hairstyle-blog.com
1998-Creative Nail Design introduced
     the first spa pedicure




***nail art also entered the seen by the
    1990’s
             Yelp.com
             Looklocally.com
Nailartgallery.com
Breakforfunzarke.net
Kaskus.us
21st Century
• gentle-no fade hair colors
• estheticians rejuvenate the face and keep
      sunspots, and mild acne under control
• specialization became popular-hair
      colorist, hair cutting specialist, nail
      technician, etc, providing a full array
      of services
***haircoloring in the twentieth century has
    become a multibillion-dollar industry of
    professional products!!!!!!!

***the huge growth in day spas has also been a
     significant development

*** the domain of cosmetology has changed
     dramatically . All the new services and
     skills have transformed and expanded the
     role of cosmetologists, requiring them to
     know more than ever and to make
     continuing education a necessity
• men’s-only specialty shops and barber
     spas have gained popularity,
     providing new opportunities for
     men’s nail care specialists




                            Luxury-insider.com
                            Psfk.com
                            Reviewjournal.com
                            Career Opportunities

    •Haircolor specialist-perform color
    services. Work for a product
    manufacturer




Beautyschools.edu
Beautifulhairsandiego.com
Texture specialist

          ~ perming
          ~ straightening
          ~ training others
          ~ work for manufacturer
Ehow.com
Stylekandy.com
Easy-hairstyles.com
Cutting specialist-learning various cutting
styles and techniques
  •Perfect your own skills
  •Develop your own method of
    cutting hair
     (everyone develops their own way of cutting
           hair)
Plumstudiossalon.com
Guidespot.com
Salon trainer- train others
  •management and interpersonal
    relationship training
  •large organizations ( not limited to)
Distributor sales consultant-salon
•new products, new trends, and new
techniques
•excellent opportunity
•
 Cosmetology instructor


 Add: terms only-not definitions

***Salon stylist- performs all services
    offered in a salon. Could be asked
    to handle any number of tasks and
    duties in the salon
***Wig or extensions specialist-change the
    length , texture and color by adding
    extensions, through braiding, weaving,
    bonding, gluing, or sewing. Wigs,
    especially for people who experience
    hair loss. Or a men’s hair
    replacement specialist       Cambridge.gumtree.com
                                 Jamaica-newyork.olx.com
***Retail specialist

• handling merchandise and inventory




Thedressingroomsalon.com
divasalonspa,.com
***Skin Care Specialist/Esthetician-
•offers treatments
•makeup
•work with Dermatologists
Many will own their own business
Instituteofaesthetics.org
Designingbeautyacademy.com
Dominelli.com
***Makeup artist-
•able to blend, shade, and create any image
• work with a private clientele
•makeup director for a department store
•represent a line of cosmetics
• work in TV or film, fashion magazines,
     theater, independent freelancer
Centennialcollege.ca
Flickr.com
***Nail technician-provide clients with
manicures and pedicures, nail art, artificial
nail services


***Day Spa stylist or technician-all salon
    services plus treatments like body
    massage, body wraps, hydrotherapy.
    A day spa may be the ideal
    professional environment for you
Beautynewsnyc.com
Funandsun.com
***Salon manager-
• helps team members achieve their goals
• Job includes purchasing, personnel
development, advertising, sales, budgeting,
and people skills
***Salon owner-
•responsibilities and challenges
•Sets the standard for the quality of service
      in the workplace
• make the decisions of products and
services
•handle the business end, paying bills,
payroll, taxes, etc.
***Product educator
•Travel is a must
•Speak to groups of people




                             Lastheplace.com
***Cosmetic chemist-
•cosmetic manufacturers
•consultant for several companies
• be on a panel that studies products
•Further education may be required




                                Lsct.com
***Session stylist-stylist for models
    being photographed for magazines
    or books




     Rheeviews.com
     Hji.co.uk
Ftape.com
***Hairstylist for TV, movies, or theater
     work with celebrities.




        Mastionne.com
        Epicartistry.com
 ***Styles director/artistic director-works
      with videographers, fashion
      magazines, publishing companies


***Design team member-creates
    presentations for fashion shows,
    runway work, hair shows, etc. On
    the cutting edge of fashion and design
***Platform artist-on stage, performing for
    people, sharing knowledge and
    traveling. Demonstrates current
    trends and techniques. Salon
    experience is a must
                                 Arrojostudio.com
***Competition Champion- “the best” display
    their individual talents and techniques.
    Often establishes their own salon, works
    as trainers, and sets a high standard for
    pricing

***Educator-work as an educational
    consultant for a product manufacturer,
    educator in the private or technical
    sector, school director.
***Writer-for articles, books, brochures,
    produce videos. Work for a publishing
    company

***State board member-take a proactive role in
     the regulatory issues affecting the
     cosmetology industry. You could also
     become a state board examiner or a state
     board inspector
***Salon industry grosses about $50 billion
    a year in revenue
• no limit to your possibilities
•develop your skills
•most creative and unique career
           Salon Management

• management opportunities are diverse
     * inventory manager
     * department head
     * special events manager
     * assistant manager
     * general manager
Salon owner
     * enroll in business classes to
          learn about managing:
                 ~ products
                 ~ departments
                 ~ people
Reflectionssaloninc.com
Identity-uk.com
You must decide whether you want to work in:


•Specialty salon
•Full-service salon (hair, skin, and nail services)
•Day spa (skin, body, nail, and hair services that
emphasize beauty and wellness
•focus on your studies
• subscribe and read professional publications
• become a member in trade associations
•continue your education by attending
     workshops outside of school
•your personal dedication and passion will
     fuel your career
• be excited, you are on your way!!

								
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