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COSMETOLOGY: THE HISTORY AND OPPORTUNITIES What is a Cosmetologist? In your group, list all of the qualities and skills that you believe are required of a cosmetologist. DID YOUR GROUP GUESS… Advise giver Professional expert in practical skills areas Artistic Designer Creator Trustworthy Businessperson Self-promoter Poised and well groomed Effective communicator Being current with trends and technologies Good listener In your group, list on flip chart paper all of the occupations you believe are included in the Cosmetology profession. For some, you will need to think “outside of the box” Add: I am responsible for my own education Cosmetology includes: * hairstyling * nail technology * esthetics Curly-hairstyles.blogspot.com Caofb.com/esthetics Coolnaolsart.com/bubbles Cosmetology: Greek word: kosmetikos Means: skilled in the use of cosmetics Barber: Latin word: barba Means: the beard or the hair of the beard. Review 1. What services can a cosmetologist perform? 2. List four qualities a cosmetologist should have. 3. Explain the origin of the word cosmetology . (Include detail) Archeological studies: Reveal that haircutting and hairstyling were practiced as early as the glacial age Implements Used: 1. Sharpened flints 2. Oyster shells 3. Bone 4. Animal sinew 5. Strips of hide Color matter made from: Berries Bark of trees Minerals Insects Nuts Herbs Leaves And other materials Danielmeissler.com Takegreatpictures.com Ancient Egyptians: •The first to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion ***Barbers serviced the nobility and the priesthood over 6,000 years ago Charismaallover.wordpress.com Sheniquemag.blogspot.com • first to use: * cosmetics as part of their personal beautification habits * in religious ceremonies * preparing the deceased for burial 3000 B.C. * minerals, insects, and berries to create makeup * henna to stain the hair and nails * first to use essential oils Mnsu.edu Womensnet.com/about hair history Americanaromatherapy.com • created kohl makeup *mixture of ground galena (a black mineral) * sulfur * animal fat Makeupweb.guide.com * used to heavily line the eyes * alleviate eye inflammations * protect the eyes from the glare of the sun •In ancient Egypt and Rome, military commanders stained their nails and lips in matching colors before important battles Chinese •1600 B.C. aristocrats * rubbed tinted mixtures onto their nails * turned crimson or ebony •1100 B.C. * gold and silver were royal colors * commoners caught wearing a royal nail color faced a punishment of death ***Egyptian and Roman women temporarily waved their hair by applying a mixture of soil and water (mud) to the hair and wrapping it around crudely made wooden rollers to bake in the sun ***In Africa, hair was groomed with intricately carved combs and adorned with beads, clay and colored bands FYI: **Prior to 3000 B.C. nail care is recorded in Egypt and China • color of a persons nails was a sign of rank: *high social rank: red-orange henna *kings and queens: deep red *people of lower rank: pale colors • in China, nails were painted red or black The Greeks (500 B.C.) • hairstyling-highly developed art • used perfumes and cosmetics in religious rites, in grooming, and for medicinal purposes • developed excellent method of dressing the hair and caring for the skin and nails Karenswhimsy.com mangatutorials.com Stcatherinesprimary.co.uk Karenswhimsy.com • used white lead on faces, kohl on eyes and vermillion on cheeks and lips Margretshort.typepad.com • vermillion •bright red pigment by grinding cinnabar ~ a mineral that is the chief source of mercury •The fine powder was mixed with ointment or dusted on the skin in the same way as cosmetics are applied today Romans (296 B.C.) • facials of milk, bread and fine wine were popular • mixture of chalk and lead used for facial cosmetic • hairstyling services introduced; women used hair color to indicate class in society as follows: - noblewomen: red hair - middle-class women: blonde - poor women: black Julius Caesar 101-44 BC • had his face tweezed everyday • this started a trend among the men of that time www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/descent/p... Explore-italian-culture.com Roman-colosseum.info Crystallyn.vox.vom Digonsite.com Eternallycool.net Middle ages • included towering headdresses, intricate hairstyles, and cosmetics • around 1000 A.D. an alchemist refined the process of steam distillation which is still used to create essentials oils today ***Vocabulary word: Alchemy-pre-scientific chemistry, usually with fluids, juices and the elixir of longevity. Usiweb.usi.edu Edarlein.deviantart.com Herstoria.com Renaissance • transition from medieval to modern history • shaved eyebrows and hairline-thought to give the women a look of greater intelligence • highly colored cosmetics were discouraged. Wholesale.garison.com Press.princeton.edu Abeautyglorious.blogspot.com 2.ivcc.rdu Barbering and Medicine The Barber Pole-symbol of the barber-surgeon, has its roots from the bloodletting procedure that was once thought to strengthen the immune system 1. Pole = the staff; patients held a staff tightly in order for the veins in the arm to stand out. 2. Bottom = basin; basin was the vessel that caught the blood. Hillsdalebarnantiques.com Azbarberboard.us 3. White bandages stop blood; the bandages used to stop the bleeding were hung on the staff to dry. The stained bandages would twist around the pole forming the red/white candy-cane pattern. Another interpretation is that the red represented the blood, blue the veins, and white the bandages. Barbers still use the symbol today. Victorian Age FYI: many changes in hair care Add: Marcel Grateau invented the marcel iron •1875; Frenchman, Marcel Grateau, developed hot irons for waving and curling the hair. Known today as marcel waving Purespadirect.com Jiunlimites.com •1892; Frenchman, Alexander F. Godefroy, invented a hot-blast hair dryer Probeautykit.com •1890; First hairdressing academy opening in Chicago by Frenchman, Bribois and Federmeyer. • to preserve the health and beauty of the skin, women used beauty masks made from natural ingredients • pinched their cheeks and bit their lips to colorize rather than use cosmetics The Twentieth Century • shift in American attitudes caused by the movie industry • viewers wanted the flawless complexions, beautiful hairstyles, manicured nails, changing the standards of feminine beauty • beauty began to follow trends Vivien Leigh 1940’s Jean Harlow 1930’s Elizabeth Taylor 1950’s Newhotstuff.net 1901-1910 •Max Factor began making and selling makeup to movie stars that would not cake or crack, even under the hot studio lights Rubylane.com Onlineauction.com History of Permanent Waving •1905, Charles Nessler invented heavily wired machine that supplied electrical current to metal rods around which hair strands were wrapped • units were heated • kept away from the scalp by counterbalancing weights suspended from an overhead chandelier mounted to a stand Internet source: Two methods were used to wind hair strands around the metal units: 1. Spiral wrap: long hair was wound from scalp to ends 2. Croquignole wrap: for short hair, wound from ends to scalp. Success story of the cosmetology industry Madam C.J. Walker • daughter of a former slave • born Sarah Breedlove in 1867 • during the 1890’s she suffered from a scalp condition and began to lose her hair. • she experimented with store-bought products and home-made remedies Inventors.about.com • invented hair grower scalp conditioner • devised sophisticated sales and marketing strategies and traveled extensively giving product demonstrations • built a factory, hair salon and training school 1929 •by developing more products her empire grew www.scott.k12.va.us/rita/51757_2.JPG • gave time and money to organizations like NAACP and the YMCA • organized the first national meetings for businesswomen • pioneer of the modern black hair care and cosmetic industry Scribalterror.blogs.com Urbanstages.org 1920’s • cosmetic industry grew rapidly • ad’s expenditures in radio alone went from $390,000.00 to $3.2 million by the end of the decade Digitalhistory.uh.edu Vintagepowderroom.com •1931, preheat method was introduced-hair was wrapped in the croquinole method • clamps heated by a separate electrical machine were place over the wound curls Dehaarsite.nl •1932, a method that used external heat generated by chemical reaction was introduced • small flexible pads containing a chemical mixture were wound around hair strands • pads moistened with water released a chemical heat creating long-lasting curls • machineless permanent wave was born 1932 •Revlon marketed the first nail polish (not stain) using formulas borrowed from the car paint industry • dramatic shift in nail cosmetics • array of nail lacquer colors available • early screen stars started the trend of wearing these colors on their fingers and toes Quirkyfinds.com •1932-Clairol created permanent haircolor Library.duke.edu Ebay.com •1938 the cold wave was invented that used no machine or heat • considered to be the precursor to the modern perm •1941, scientists developed waving lotion that did not require heat *called cold wave Modernlab.com • today, the term “texture service” is used to describe the variety of permanent wave services and straightening services available for different hair types and conditions Just-hairstyles.com Hairstyles-pictures.com 1951-2000 • introduction of tube mascara, improved hair care, and nail products Southportbeautysalon.com Nailsupplywebsite.com •boom and death of the weekly salon Flickr.com appointment •1960’s-Vidal Sassoon’s revolutionary geometric haircuts Discoveringhair.wordpress.com Ladybear.gaia.com Campuscircle.net •1970’s highlighting techniques of “hair weaving” using aluminum foil Tpcs-auction.org Zebrahairandbeauty.com •1980’s heavy use of eye make-up and blush…and really BIG HAIR, just ask Mrs. Kucas ***physical fitness, nutrition, day spas Images.mix.com Moviedearest.blogspot.com •1990’s haircolor became gentler, allowing everyone to be able to color their hair without breakage Hairsandiego.com Pitchengine.com Hairstyle-blog.com 1998-Creative Nail Design introduced the first spa pedicure ***nail art also entered the seen by the 1990’s Yelp.com Looklocally.com Nailartgallery.com Breakforfunzarke.net Kaskus.us 21st Century • gentle-no fade hair colors • estheticians rejuvenate the face and keep sunspots, and mild acne under control • specialization became popular-hair colorist, hair cutting specialist, nail technician, etc, providing a full array of services ***haircoloring in the twentieth century has become a multibillion-dollar industry of professional products!!!!!!! ***the huge growth in day spas has also been a significant development *** the domain of cosmetology has changed dramatically . All the new services and skills have transformed and expanded the role of cosmetologists, requiring them to know more than ever and to make continuing education a necessity • men’s-only specialty shops and barber spas have gained popularity, providing new opportunities for men’s nail care specialists Luxury-insider.com Psfk.com Reviewjournal.com Career Opportunities •Haircolor specialist-perform color services. Work for a product manufacturer Beautyschools.edu Beautifulhairsandiego.com Texture specialist ~ perming ~ straightening ~ training others ~ work for manufacturer Ehow.com Stylekandy.com Easy-hairstyles.com Cutting specialist-learning various cutting styles and techniques •Perfect your own skills •Develop your own method of cutting hair (everyone develops their own way of cutting hair) Plumstudiossalon.com Guidespot.com Salon trainer- train others •management and interpersonal relationship training •large organizations ( not limited to) Distributor sales consultant-salon •new products, new trends, and new techniques •excellent opportunity • Cosmetology instructor Add: terms only-not definitions ***Salon stylist- performs all services offered in a salon. Could be asked to handle any number of tasks and duties in the salon ***Wig or extensions specialist-change the length , texture and color by adding extensions, through braiding, weaving, bonding, gluing, or sewing. Wigs, especially for people who experience hair loss. Or a men’s hair replacement specialist Cambridge.gumtree.com Jamaica-newyork.olx.com ***Retail specialist • handling merchandise and inventory Thedressingroomsalon.com divasalonspa,.com ***Skin Care Specialist/Esthetician- •offers treatments •makeup •work with Dermatologists Many will own their own business Instituteofaesthetics.org Designingbeautyacademy.com Dominelli.com ***Makeup artist- •able to blend, shade, and create any image • work with a private clientele •makeup director for a department store •represent a line of cosmetics • work in TV or film, fashion magazines, theater, independent freelancer Centennialcollege.ca Flickr.com ***Nail technician-provide clients with manicures and pedicures, nail art, artificial nail services ***Day Spa stylist or technician-all salon services plus treatments like body massage, body wraps, hydrotherapy. A day spa may be the ideal professional environment for you Beautynewsnyc.com Funandsun.com ***Salon manager- • helps team members achieve their goals • Job includes purchasing, personnel development, advertising, sales, budgeting, and people skills ***Salon owner- •responsibilities and challenges •Sets the standard for the quality of service in the workplace • make the decisions of products and services •handle the business end, paying bills, payroll, taxes, etc. ***Product educator •Travel is a must •Speak to groups of people Lastheplace.com ***Cosmetic chemist- •cosmetic manufacturers •consultant for several companies • be on a panel that studies products •Further education may be required Lsct.com ***Session stylist-stylist for models being photographed for magazines or books Rheeviews.com Hji.co.uk Ftape.com ***Hairstylist for TV, movies, or theater work with celebrities. Mastionne.com Epicartistry.com ***Styles director/artistic director-works with videographers, fashion magazines, publishing companies ***Design team member-creates presentations for fashion shows, runway work, hair shows, etc. On the cutting edge of fashion and design ***Platform artist-on stage, performing for people, sharing knowledge and traveling. Demonstrates current trends and techniques. Salon experience is a must Arrojostudio.com ***Competition Champion- “the best” display their individual talents and techniques. Often establishes their own salon, works as trainers, and sets a high standard for pricing ***Educator-work as an educational consultant for a product manufacturer, educator in the private or technical sector, school director. ***Writer-for articles, books, brochures, produce videos. Work for a publishing company ***State board member-take a proactive role in the regulatory issues affecting the cosmetology industry. You could also become a state board examiner or a state board inspector ***Salon industry grosses about $50 billion a year in revenue • no limit to your possibilities •develop your skills •most creative and unique career Salon Management • management opportunities are diverse * inventory manager * department head * special events manager * assistant manager * general manager Salon owner * enroll in business classes to learn about managing: ~ products ~ departments ~ people Reflectionssaloninc.com Identity-uk.com You must decide whether you want to work in: •Specialty salon •Full-service salon (hair, skin, and nail services) •Day spa (skin, body, nail, and hair services that emphasize beauty and wellness •focus on your studies • subscribe and read professional publications • become a member in trade associations •continue your education by attending workshops outside of school •your personal dedication and passion will fuel your career • be excited, you are on your way!!
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