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Module 1 - 08' - History of Cosmetology-Power Point

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  What is a Cosmetologist?

In your group, list all of the qualities
    and skills that you believe are
     required of a cosmetologist.
               Advise giver
Professional expert in practical skills areas
  Poised and well groomed
  Effective communicator
Being current with trends and
       Good listener
In your group, list on flip chart paper all
of the occupations you believe are
included in the Cosmetology profession.

For some, you will need to think
“outside of the box”
I am responsible for my own
Cosmetology includes:
    * hairstyling
    * nail technology
    * esthetics

  Greek word: kosmetikos
  Means: skilled in the use of cosmetics

     Latin word: barba
     Means: the beard or the hair of
             the beard.
1. What services can a cosmetologist
2. List four qualities a cosmetologist should
3. Explain the origin of the word
    cosmetology . (Include detail)
           Archeological studies:
Reveal that haircutting and hairstyling were
    practiced as early as the glacial age

               Implements Used:
 1. Sharpened flints
 2. Oyster shells
 3. Bone
 4. Animal sinew
 5. Strips of hide
       Color matter made from:

Berries                Bark of trees
Minerals               Insects

Nuts                                 Herbs
Leaves            And other materials

     Ancient Egyptians:

•The first to cultivate beauty in an
extravagant fashion
***Barbers serviced the
    nobility and the
    priesthood over 6,000 years ago
• first to use:
   * cosmetics as part of their
         personal beautification habits
   * in religious ceremonies
   * preparing the deceased for
3000 B.C.
    * minerals, insects, and berries to
        create makeup
    * henna to stain the hair and nails
          * first to use
                essential oils

                        hair history
• created kohl makeup
    *mixture of ground galena (a black
    * sulfur
    * animal fat

     * used to heavily line the eyes
     * alleviate eye inflammations
     * protect the eyes from the glare
          of the sun
•In ancient Egypt and Rome, military
     commanders stained their nails
     and lips in matching colors
     before important battles
•1600 B.C. aristocrats
     * rubbed tinted mixtures onto their nails
     * turned crimson or ebony
•1100 B.C.
     * gold and silver were royal colors
     * commoners caught wearing a royal nail
          color faced a punishment of death
***Egyptian and Roman women temporarily
     waved their hair by applying a mixture of
     soil and water (mud) to the hair and
     wrapping it around crudely made wooden
     rollers to bake in the sun

***In Africa, hair was groomed with
          intricately carved combs and
          adorned with beads, clay and colored
 **Prior to 3000 B.C. nail care is recorded in
      Egypt and China

• color of a persons nails was a sign of rank:
      *high social rank: red-orange henna

      *kings and queens: deep red
      *people of lower rank: pale colors

• in China, nails were painted red or black
          The Greeks       (500 B.C.)
• hairstyling-highly developed art
• used perfumes and cosmetics in religious
      rites, in grooming, and for medicinal
• developed excellent method
      of dressing the hair and
      caring for the skin and nails

• used white lead on faces, kohl on eyes and
      vermillion on cheeks and lips     

• vermillion
   •bright red pigment by grinding
               ~ a mineral that is the chief source of
•The fine powder was mixed with ointment or dusted on
      the skin in the same way as cosmetics are applied
                 Romans (296 B.C.)
• facials of milk, bread and fine wine were
• mixture of chalk and lead used for facial
• hairstyling services introduced; women used
      hair color to indicate class in society as
- noblewomen: red hair
- middle-class women: blonde
- poor women: black
Julius Caesar 101-44 BC

• had his face tweezed everyday

• this started a trend among
      the men of that time

                  Middle ages
• included towering headdresses, intricate
      hairstyles, and cosmetics
• around 1000 A.D. an alchemist refined the
     process of steam distillation which is still
     used to create essentials oils today
***Vocabulary word:
Alchemy-pre-scientific chemistry, usually with
fluids, juices and the elixir of longevity.
• transition from medieval to modern history
• shaved eyebrows and hairline-thought to
     give the women a look of greater
• highly colored cosmetics were

            Barbering and Medicine

The Barber Pole-symbol of the barber-surgeon,
has its roots from the bloodletting procedure
that was once thought to strengthen the immune

 1. Pole = the staff; patients held a staff tightly
    in order for the veins in the arm to stand
 2. Bottom = basin; basin was the vessel that
    caught the blood.
3. White bandages stop blood; the bandages used
  to stop the bleeding were hung on the staff to
  The stained bandages would twist around the
  pole forming the red/white candy-cane
  Another interpretation is that the red
   represented the blood, blue the veins, and
   white the bandages.
  Barbers still use the symbol today.
                        Victorian Age
FYI: many changes in hair care

Add: Marcel Grateau invented the
    marcel iron
•1875; Frenchman, Marcel Grateau, developed
hot irons for waving and curling the hair.
Known today as marcel waving

•1892; Frenchman, Alexander F.
     Godefroy, invented a
    hot-blast hair dryer


•1890; First hairdressing academy
opening in Chicago by Frenchman,
Bribois and Federmeyer.
• to preserve the health and beauty of the
      skin, women used beauty masks
      made from natural ingredients
• pinched their cheeks and bit their lips
      to colorize rather than use
              The Twentieth Century

• shift in American attitudes caused by the
      movie industry
• viewers wanted the flawless complexions,
      beautiful hairstyles, manicured nails,
      changing the standards of feminine
• beauty began to follow trends
                                    Vivien Leigh 1940’s

Jean Harlow 1930’s

          Elizabeth Taylor 1950’s
•Max Factor began making and selling
    makeup to movie stars that would not
    cake or crack, even under the hot
    studio lights

        History of Permanent Waving

•1905, Charles Nessler invented heavily wired
     machine that supplied electrical current to
     metal rods around which hair strands were
• units were heated
• kept away from the scalp by counterbalancing
     weights suspended from an overhead
     chandelier mounted to a stand
Internet source:
Two methods were used to wind hair strands
  around the metal units:
1. Spiral wrap: long hair was wound from
     scalp to ends
2. Croquignole wrap: for short hair, wound
     from ends to scalp.
Success story of the cosmetology industry

Madam C.J. Walker
 • daughter of a former slave
• born Sarah Breedlove in 1867

• during the 1890’s she suffered from a scalp
     condition and began to lose her hair.
• she experimented with store-bought
     products and home-made remedies
• invented hair grower scalp conditioner
• devised sophisticated sales and
      marketing strategies and traveled
      extensively giving product
• built a factory, hair salon and training
•by developing more products her
     empire grew         
• gave time and money to organizations like
     NAACP and the YMCA
• organized the first national meetings for
• pioneer of the modern black hair care and
      cosmetic industry

• cosmetic industry grew rapidly
• ad’s expenditures in radio alone went
      from $390,000.00 to $3.2 million by
      the end of the decade

•1931, preheat method was
     introduced-hair was wrapped in
     the croquinole method

• clamps heated by a separate electrical
      machine were place over the wound

•1932, a method that used external heat
     generated by chemical reaction was
• small flexible pads containing a chemical
     mixture were wound around hair
• pads moistened with water released a
     chemical heat creating long-lasting curls
• machineless permanent wave was born
•Revlon marketed the first nail polish
     (not stain) using formulas
     borrowed from the car paint
• dramatic shift in nail cosmetics
• array of nail lacquer colors available
• early screen stars started the trend of
      wearing these colors on their
      fingers and toes     
•1932-Clairol created permanent haircolor

•1938 the cold wave was invented that
     used no machine or heat
• considered to be the precursor to the
     modern perm
•1941, scientists developed waving lotion
     that did not require heat
     *called cold wave

• today, the term “texture service” is used to
describe the variety of permanent wave
services and straightening services available
for different hair types and conditions

• introduction of tube mascara,
      improved hair care,
        and nail products
•boom and death of the
    weekly salon

•1960’s-Vidal Sassoon’s revolutionary
geometric haircuts

•1970’s highlighting techniques of
     “hair weaving” using aluminum
•1980’s heavy use of eye make-up and
     blush…and really BIG HAIR, just
     ask Mrs. Kucas
***physical fitness, nutrition, day spas

•1990’s haircolor became gentler,
     allowing everyone to be able to color
     their hair without breakage

1998-Creative Nail Design introduced
     the first spa pedicure

***nail art also entered the seen by the
21st Century
• gentle-no fade hair colors
• estheticians rejuvenate the face and keep
      sunspots, and mild acne under control
• specialization became popular-hair
      colorist, hair cutting specialist, nail
      technician, etc, providing a full array
      of services
***haircoloring in the twentieth century has
    become a multibillion-dollar industry of
    professional products!!!!!!!

***the huge growth in day spas has also been a
     significant development

*** the domain of cosmetology has changed
     dramatically . All the new services and
     skills have transformed and expanded the
     role of cosmetologists, requiring them to
     know more than ever and to make
     continuing education a necessity
• men’s-only specialty shops and barber
     spas have gained popularity,
     providing new opportunities for
     men’s nail care specialists

                            Career Opportunities

    •Haircolor specialist-perform color
    services. Work for a product
Texture specialist

          ~ perming
          ~ straightening
          ~ training others
          ~ work for manufacturer
Cutting specialist-learning various cutting
styles and techniques
  •Perfect your own skills
  •Develop your own method of
    cutting hair
     (everyone develops their own way of cutting
Salon trainer- train others
  •management and interpersonal
    relationship training
  •large organizations ( not limited to)
Distributor sales consultant-salon
•new products, new trends, and new
•excellent opportunity
 Cosmetology instructor

 Add: terms only-not definitions

***Salon stylist- performs all services
    offered in a salon. Could be asked
    to handle any number of tasks and
    duties in the salon
***Wig or extensions specialist-change the
    length , texture and color by adding
    extensions, through braiding, weaving,
    bonding, gluing, or sewing. Wigs,
    especially for people who experience
    hair loss. Or a men’s hair
    replacement specialist
***Retail specialist

• handling merchandise and inventory
***Skin Care Specialist/Esthetician-
•offers treatments
•work with Dermatologists
Many will own their own business
***Makeup artist-
•able to blend, shade, and create any image
• work with a private clientele
•makeup director for a department store
•represent a line of cosmetics
• work in TV or film, fashion magazines,
     theater, independent freelancer
***Nail technician-provide clients with
manicures and pedicures, nail art, artificial
nail services

***Day Spa stylist or technician-all salon
    services plus treatments like body
    massage, body wraps, hydrotherapy.
    A day spa may be the ideal
    professional environment for you
***Salon manager-
• helps team members achieve their goals
• Job includes purchasing, personnel
development, advertising, sales, budgeting,
and people skills
***Salon owner-
•responsibilities and challenges
•Sets the standard for the quality of service
      in the workplace
• make the decisions of products and
•handle the business end, paying bills,
payroll, taxes, etc.
***Product educator
•Travel is a must
•Speak to groups of people

***Cosmetic chemist-
•cosmetic manufacturers
•consultant for several companies
• be on a panel that studies products
•Further education may be required

***Session stylist-stylist for models
    being photographed for magazines
    or books
***Hairstylist for TV, movies, or theater
     work with celebrities.

 ***Styles director/artistic director-works
      with videographers, fashion
      magazines, publishing companies

***Design team member-creates
    presentations for fashion shows,
    runway work, hair shows, etc. On
    the cutting edge of fashion and design
***Platform artist-on stage, performing for
    people, sharing knowledge and
    traveling. Demonstrates current
    trends and techniques. Salon
    experience is a must
***Competition Champion- “the best” display
    their individual talents and techniques.
    Often establishes their own salon, works
    as trainers, and sets a high standard for

***Educator-work as an educational
    consultant for a product manufacturer,
    educator in the private or technical
    sector, school director.
***Writer-for articles, books, brochures,
    produce videos. Work for a publishing

***State board member-take a proactive role in
     the regulatory issues affecting the
     cosmetology industry. You could also
     become a state board examiner or a state
     board inspector
***Salon industry grosses about $50 billion
    a year in revenue
• no limit to your possibilities
•develop your skills
•most creative and unique career
           Salon Management

• management opportunities are diverse
     * inventory manager
     * department head
     * special events manager
     * assistant manager
     * general manager
Salon owner
     * enroll in business classes to
          learn about managing:
                 ~ products
                 ~ departments
                 ~ people
You must decide whether you want to work in:

•Specialty salon
•Full-service salon (hair, skin, and nail services)
•Day spa (skin, body, nail, and hair services that
emphasize beauty and wellness
•focus on your studies
• subscribe and read professional publications
• become a member in trade associations
•continue your education by attending
     workshops outside of school
•your personal dedication and passion will
     fuel your career
• be excited, you are on your way!!

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