# Pivot Table

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```					V O L U M E      3

Microsoft Excel
Pivot Tables
For

DASH DESIGNS
PC Training and Consulting Services
Microsoft Excel Pivot Table Topics For The Haas School, UC Berkeley — Dash Designs Training
Microsoft Excel Pivot Tables
For
University of California

Revised: January 29, 2006

© 2006, Dash Designs, Jerry Maletsky
San Rafael, CA 94903
email: jdashm@comcast.net • fax (415) 491-1490

Dash Designs gives permission to the Haas School of Business of
the University of California at Berkeley to reprint this training
manual for internal use only. No re-sale of this material or
renunciation of copyrights are granted by this author.

Any mention or use of Microsoft®, University of California, or any
third party products is hereby acknowledged by Dash Designs to
be for the sole purpose of editorial and educational use of this
training manual and for the benefit of the mentioned parties.

Microsoft Excel Pivot Table Topics For The Haas School, UC Berkeley — Dash Designs Training
Chapter 1: Working With Data ........ 2
Reference Workbook: Data Analysis.xls
Sorting_Filtering Worksheet
Sub-Totals Worksheet
Auto Outline Worksheet
Group Manually Worksheet

♦     Overview of Excel Lists ...................... 2-3
♦     Sorting Data .................................... 4-7
♦     Filtering Data ..................................8-13
♦     Grouping Data............................... 14-17
♦     SubTotaling Data ........................... 18-19

Chapter 2:Creating Pivot Tables .... 20
Reference Workbook: Data Analysis.xls
Source Data Worksheet

♦     Creating Pivot Tables ..................... 20-28
♦     Re-Arranging Pivot Fields .....................29
♦     Updating Pivot Table Data............... 30-31
♦     Changing Data Field Functionality .... 32-33
♦     Changing Relationship Of Data ....... 34-37
♦     Filtering Pivot Table Data ................ 38-41
♦     Sorting Pivot Table Data ................. 42-43
♦     Grouping Pivot Table Data .............. 44-47
♦     Drilling Down Into Data .................. 48-53
♦     Charting Pivot Table Data ............... 54-55
♦     Auto Formatting Pivot Tables........... 56-60

Chapter 3: More Pivot Info ...... 61-75
Microsoft Excel Intermediate Topics For The Haas School, UC Berkeley — Dash Designs Training
CHAPTER
1

Microsoft
Excel Pivot Table
Training For

Jerry Maletsky
Dash Designs
Training And Consulting

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1          Reference Workbook: Data Analysis.xls
Sorting_Filtering Worksheet

Overview of Excel Lists
An Excel list (also known as a database or flat-file) is organized into
of labels on the top row(s) and labels in the first column with
numerical values in the intersection of each label. A list in Excel
consists of a contiguous range of cells (no blank rows or
columns) in which only the top row of the data contain the
labels describing the information in the column below
(fields). Every other row is considered a record of information
describing that item.

In Excel (and similar spreadsheet programs), they are called flat-
files. Relational databases (i.e. Microsoft Access) allow the data to
be organized into separate smaller lists (tables) and then, when
required, allow the user to combine that data into one report. Flat-
file programs require all the data to be in one contiguous range of
cells on the same worksheet for the user to be able to work with
that data together.

Labels

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Working With Flat-Files

Example of a Flat-File List

Labels (Only in the first row)

Field Names

Record

Field

Great Tip!         It is very important that when adding new records that they
be added in the next available row (i.e., A23) or in an
inserted row somewhere between the first and last record.
Otherwise, new data will not be considered part of the list.

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1          Reference Workbook: Data Analysis.xls
Sorting_Filtering Worksheet

Sorting Data
Sorting data is the process of rearranging data in a list or spreadsheet in
particular order. A list is considered a contiguous range of cells in which
the top row are the column headings (field names) and every other row in
the range is considered a record. The list is separated from other data in
the worksheet by at least one blank row or column.

Data can be sorted one column at a time or up to three columns within
one sort.

Data in a list can be sorted in ascending or descending order. In an
ascending sort, Excel uses the following order. (In a descending sort, this
sort order is reversed except for blank cells, which are always placed
last.)

Numbers              Numbers are sorted from the smallest negative number
to the largest positive number.

Dates                Dates are sorted from the earliest date to the latest date.

Alphanumeric When you sort alphanumeric text, Excel sorts left to right,
character by character. For example, if a cell contains the
text "A100," Excel places the cell after a cell that contains
the entry "A1" and before a cell that contains the entry
"A11."

Text and text with numbers are sorted in the following order:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (space) ! " # \$ % & ( ) * , . / : ; ? @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | }
~+<=>ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

Apostrophes (') and hyphens (-) are ignored, with one exception: If two
text strings are the same except for a hyphen, the text with the hyphen is
sorted last.

Logical values          In logical values, FALSE is placed before TRUE.
Error values             All error values are equal.
Blanks                   Blanks are always placed last.

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Sorting Data

Sorting on one column

Steps:
⇒ Click into a cell within the column the sort will be based
⇒ Click the Sort Ascending                               button or Descending
button

Sorting
Ascending

Sorting
Descending

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Sorting Data on Multiple Columns
Excel allows any one sort to include up to 3 fields at a time. The
sorting toolbar buttons cannot sort on more than 1 field at a time.
However, the Data menu: Sort command can sort data up to 3
fields.

If more than 3 fields are necessary to sort, Sort the fields in groups
of 3, using the least important fields first. Then sort the most
important field last.

For example, suppose a list containing First Name, Last Name,
Department, and Region information needed to be sorted so that all
the departments were organized by name and then region. The
user would sort by Last Name, First Name, and then Region using
the Data menu: Sort command. Lastly the user would sort by
Department using the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending toolbar
button.

Steps:
⇒ Click anywhere in the contiguous cell range of the list
⇒ Click Data menu: Sort command
⇒ In the Sort By box, select the primary field to sort and
whether ascending or descending
⇒ In the Then By box, select the second field to sort and
whether ascending or descending
⇒ In the next Then By box, select the third field to sort
and whether ascending or descending
⇒ Click OK

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Sorting Data on Multiple Columns

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1          Reference Workbook: Data Analysis.xls
Sorting_Filtering Worksheet

Filtering Data
Filtering data provides a way to display only the preferred data
while hiding the remainder of that data list. For example, in a list of
hundreds of product sales containing product names, regional
locations, dates, dollar amounts, etc., a user can just display only
the records for a particular product or region.

Autofilter is a process that allows the user to choose from a list of
items in that column and hide all data except the chosen option.
When activated, AutoFilter places drop-down lists at the head of
each column. The user simply opens the list of the preferred data
column and selects the item. In addition, a user can specify a
range of values such as the Top 10 or Bottom 5% of records
using the (Top 10…) option in AutoFilter. There is also a
(Custom…) option in which a user can set a range of values (i.e. a
field containing values from 0 to 100,000) between 5,000 and
10,000.
Steps:
TO   ACTIVATE        AUTOFILTER
⇒ Click in any cell within the list
⇒ Click Data menu: Filter: AutoFilter command
⇒ Click a list button in a column heading
⇒ Select the preferred item on which to filter
TO   RETURN ALL RECORDS TO VIEW

⇒ Click that same list (blue) button and select (All)
TO   TURN OFF        AUTOFILTER
⇒ Click Data menu: Filter: AutoFilter command

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Filtering Data

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Filtering Data Using The Top 10 Option
Using the AutoFilter’s Top 10 feature allows the user to display a
range of records in which its values are at the top or bottom range
of that field. For example, a user could filter for only the records
that contain the top 15% of sales.

Steps:
⇒ Click in any cell within the list
⇒ Click Data menu: Filter: AutoFilter command
⇒ Click a list button in a column heading
⇒ Select the (Top 10…) option
⇒ In the dialog box, choose the following options:
in the left-side box, select Top or Bottom
In the center box, enter a value
In the right-side box, select Percent or Items
⇒ Click OK
TO   RETURN ALL RECORDS TO VIEW

⇒ Click that same list (blue) button and select (All)

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Filtering Data

Records Filtered on top Total Sales field

Note: when percent is selected the number of records that
will be displayed will be equal to that percentage of the
total records.

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Filtering Data Using The Custom Criteria
Using the AutoFilter’s Custom feature allows the user to display
records in which its values fall into a range of values for that field.
For example, a user could filter for only the records that contain the
quantities sold between 25 and 50.

Steps:
⇒ Click in any cell within the list
⇒ Click Data menu: Filter: AutoFilter command
⇒ Click a list button in a column heading
⇒ Select the (Custom…) option
⇒ In the dialog box, choose the following options:
in the top left-side box, select a comparison operator
In the top right-side box, type or select a value in that field
In the bottom left-side box, select a comparison
operator (if required)
In the bottom left-side box, type or select a value in that
field
⇒ Click OK
TO   RETURN ALL RECORDS TO VIEW

⇒ Click that same list (blue) button and select (All)

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Filtering Data Using The Custom Criteria

Records Filtered on top Total Sales field

Records Filtered on custom criteria

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1           Reference Workbook: Data Analysis.xls
Auto Outline Worksheet

Grouping Data
Grouping data in a worksheet allows you to hide or display the
detail but leave the calculated areas of your worksheet visible. This
is particularly useful in a large itemized worksheet. For example, in
a worksheet displaying monthly sales figures with quarterly
subtotals, a user can hide the monthly detail and just display the
quarterly subtotals along with the grand total.

Data can be grouped automatically or manually.

Grouping Data Automatically
Steps:
⇒ Click anywhere in the worksheet
⇒ Click Data menu: Group and Outline: Auto Outline

Un-Grouping Data Automatically
Steps:
⇒ Click anywhere in the worksheet
⇒ Click Data menu: Group and Outline: Clear Outline

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Grouping Data

Worksheet with AutoOutline Activated

Worksheet with AutoOutline Collapsed

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1          Reference Workbook: Data Analysis.xls
Group Manually Worksheet

Grouping Data

Grouping Data Manually
Steps:
⇒ Select the Row or Columns to group
⇒ Click Data menu: Group and Outline: Group

Un-Grouping Data Manually
Steps:
⇒ Select the Row or Columns to group
⇒ Click Data menu: Group and Outline: UnGroup

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Grouping Data
Worksheet with Columns Grouped

Worksheet with Column Group Collapsed

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1            Reference Workbook: Data Analysis.xls
Subtotals Worksheet

Subtotaling Data
Excel provides a method to subtotal your data in a list automatically
without interrupting the “contiguous” flow of the records in the list.
The Subtotal command groups your data based on the field you
choose and calculates a subtotal based on the function you choose
(i.e. Sum Average, Count, etc.) and the field you choose to
calculate.

Great Tip! IMPORTANT: THE LIST MUST BE SORTED BY THE FIELD YOU WILL BE
GROUPING ON PRIOR TO ACTIVATING THE SUBTOTAL COMMAND.

Subtotaling Data
Steps:
⇒ Click into the list
⇒ Set the field you want to group on in the
“At Each Change In” box
⇒ Set the function you want to
use to calculate in the
“Use Function” box
⇒ Check the field(s) you want
to calculate in the
⇒ Click OK

Note:
To remove the Subtotals, click
the Remove All button

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Subtotaling Data

Worksheet With Data: Subtotals Activated

Note:
Excel provides Grouping buttons
to hide or display levels of data

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CHAPTER
2       Creating Pivot Tables
Reference Workbook: Data Analysis.xls
Source Data Worksheet

Creating Pivot Tables

A Pivot Table report is an interactive table that quickly combines
and compares large amounts of data. You can rotate its rows and
columns to see different summaries of the source data and you can
display the details for areas of interest.

Use a Pivot Table report when you want to analyze related totals,
especially when you have a long list of figures to sum and you want
to compare several facts about each figure. In the report illustrated
above, you can easily see how the third-quarter golf sales in cell F3
stack up against sales for another sport or quarter, or the total
sales. Because a Pivot Table report is interactive, you can change
the view of the data to see more details or calculate different
summaries, such as counts or averages.

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Creating Pivot Tables

There are Four (4) types of fields in a Pivot Table:

♦    Row
♦    Column
♦    Data
♦    Page
In a Pivot Table report, each column or field in your source data
becomes a Pivot Table field that summarizes multiple rows of
information. In the example on the previous page, the Sport
column becomes the Sport field and each record for Golf is
summarized in a single Golf item.

A Row field is designated as the labels for each row. A Column
field is designated as the labels for each column. In choosing
which field(s) will be designated as Row or Column remember that
Excel is limited to 256 columns across the worksheet which may
influence the decision.

A Data field, such as Sum of Sales, provides the values to be
summarized. Cell F3 in the report above contains the sum of the
Sales value from every row in the source data for which the Sport
column contains Golf and the Quarter column contains Qtr3.

A Page field is designated if the user wants to filter the Pivot Table
for a particular item in that Page field.

To create a Pivot Table report, you run the Pivot Table and Pivot
Chart Wizard. In the wizard, you select the source data you want
from your worksheet list or external database. The wizard then
provides you with a worksheet area for the report and a list of the
available fields. As you drag the fields from the list window to the
outlined areas, Microsoft Excel summarizes and calculates the
report for you automatically.

After you create a Pivot Table report, you can customize it to focus
on the information you want: change the layout, change the
format, or drill down to display more detailed data.

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Creating Pivot Tables
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Creating Pivot Tables

Excel Data List

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Creating Pivot Tables

Pivot Table Summarizing Data From Excel List

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Creating Pivot Tables

Create a Pivot Table (3-Step Wizard process)

Steps:
⇒ Click anywhere in the contiguous area that makes up your list
⇒ Click Data menu: Pivot Table and Pivot Chart Report command
⇒ In Step 1 of the Pivot Table Wizard, select the source for the
Pivot Table
(An Excel list or Database) and click Next
⇒ In Step 2, confirm the list range and click Next
⇒ In Step 3, Select the location (New Worksheet or Existing
Worksheet) and click Finish

Pivot Table Wizard - Step 1

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Creating Pivot Tables

Pivot Table Wizard - Step 2

Note: Above data range of source data is based on records added within the contiguous range of
records on that worksheet. Therefore, it is important to add future new records by inserting
new rows within the contiguous range of the list (see previous information on Page 2).

Pivot Table Wizard - Step 3

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Creating Pivot Tables

Now you are ready to create the Pivot Table.

Just drag the fields from the Pivot Table Field List box into the
area of the Pivot Table you want to populate.

Great Tip! Note: Drag the Data Field item last as that will make it harder to
add the Row or Column field after that.

Empty Pivot Table Layout

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Creating Pivot Tables

Populated Pivot Table

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Pivot Table Toolbar
Always            Show Field
Pivot Table Menu Button                 Format                                             Display             List
Refresh Data                Items
Report

Hide Detail
Include         Field Settings
Hidden
Show Detail                      Items
Pivot
Chart

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ReArranging Pivot Table Fields
Pivot Tables are extremely flexible. After placing the initial fields to
be viewed in the Pivot Table, they can be resituated to another
position in that Pivot Table or removed from the Pivot Table.
Additional fields can also be added to a Row, Column, Data, or Page
field area.

Steps:
Re-Arranging Pivot Table Fields
⇒ Point over the Pivot Table field heading
⇒ Drag field to another field area in that Pivot Table
(i.e. Row to Column area)
Removing Pivot Table Fields
⇒ Point over the Pivot Table field heading
⇒ Drag field back out of the Pivot Table area
⇒ Click on the Pivot Table toolbar Show Field List button
(if necessary)
⇒ Select field and drag into the preferred Pivot Table area
(i.e. Row to Column area)

Moving Pivot Table Fields - Before

Moving Pivot Table Fields - After

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Updating Pivot Tables

By default, Pivot Tables do not update as data changes in the
underlying list. If you want to make sure the Pivot Table displays
the latest data from the source flat-file list, manually update the
Pivot Table.

Manually Update a Pivot Table

Steps:
⇒ Click into the Pivot Table
⇒ Click the Refresh button on the Pivot Table toolbar

Note: Pivot Table toolbar is only visible when the user has activated the
Pivot Table by clicking into it. If the toolbar is still not visible after
clicking into the table it can be opened using the View menu:
Toolbars command.

Great Tip!   New data added to the bottom of the list will not be included in the Pivot
Table. To avoid having to reset the original cell range the Pivot Table is

Not Included In Pivot Table
based on, insert a row within the original cell range to add the new record(s).
You can then sort the list to re-order the data.

Add New Records Within Original Data Source Range

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Pivot Table Options Button

The Pivot Table Options dialog box allows the user to set controls
on the Pivot Table. These include setting refresh options, turning
off Grand Totals, Preserving formatting, and how to display empty
cells and error values.

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Changing The Functionality of A Data Field
By default, Data Fields summarize their data using the Sum
function. Excel allows Data Fields to be summarized with a group
of other functions such as Average, Count, Min, Max, and
StdDev.

The Field Settings dialog box contains the function options. In
addition to the function, this dialog box allows the user to rename
the field, format field values, and change the relationship of
summarized data to the other data in that field.

Steps:
⇒ Click a value in the data field
⇒ Click the Pivot Table button on the Pivot Table toolbar
⇒ Click Field Settings command
⇒ Select a different function, if necessary
⇒ Click into the Name box and rename data field, if necessary
⇒ Click on the Number button and format field, if necessary
⇒ Click OK

Field Settings
Dialog Box

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Changing The Functionality of A Data Field

Changing The Functionality Of The Data Field

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Changing The Relationship Of Summarized Data

As mentioned previously, the Field Settings dialog box contains the
function options. In addition to the function, this dialog box allows
the user to change the relationship of summarized data to the other
data in that field. By default, the values in the Data Field display as
they are. Specifically, a value of 100 displays as 100, independent
of any other values.

By clicking the Options button in the Field Settings box and
changing the Show Data As option, the data can be viewed as it
relates to other values. For example, the value can be displayed as
the Difference From a selected value in that Data Field. Other
options include showing data as a percentage to the row field or the
column field or total.

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Changing The Relationship Of Summarized Data

Pivot Table With Data Field Displaying Percentage of Row Item

Great Tip! Note: Zero Values are hidden in this example. The command to hide zero
values is the Tools menu: Options command. On the View tab, uncheck
Zero Values option.

(See next 2 pages for breakdown of data field options)

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Changing The Relationship Of Summarized Data

Function                     Result

Difference From              Displays all the data in the data area as the
difference from the value for the specified
Base field and Base item. The base field and
base item provide the data used in the
custom calculation.
% Of                         Displays all the data in the data area as a
percentage of the value for the specified
Base field and Base item. The base field and
base item provide the data used in the
custom calculation.
% Difference                 Displays all the data in the data area as the
From                         difference from the value for the specified
Base field and Base item, but displays the
difference as a percentage of the base data.
The base field and base item provide the
data used in the custom calculation.

Running Total In Displays the data for successive items as a
running total. You must select the field for
which you want to show the items in a
running total.

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Changing The Relationship Of Summarized Data

Function                        Result

% of row                        In a Pivot Table report, displays the data in
each row as a percentage of the total for
each row. In a Pivot Chart report, displays
the data as a percentage of the total for the
category.
% of column                     In a Pivot Table report, displays all the data
in each column as a percentage of the total
for each column. In a Pivot Chart report,
displays the data as a percentage of the
total for the series.
% of total                      In a Pivot Table report, displays the data in
the data area as a percentage of the grand
total of all the data in the report. In a Pivot
Chart report, displays the data as a
percentage of the total of all data points.
Index                           Displays the data by using the following
calculation:
((value in cell) x (Grand Total of Grand
Totals)) / ((Grand Row Total) x (Grand
Column Total))

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Filtering Data In Pivot Tables

The Pivot Table displays all items in the field that is placed in the
table. The data in the Pivot Table can be filtered to display only the
required items in that field. Data can be filtered by hiding items in
a row or column field. In addition, data can be filtered by placing a
field in the Page Field area and selecting an item in that field to
display. All other items in that Page Field will be hidden.

Filtering Data In A Row/Column Field

Steps:
Filtering Data In A Row/Column Field
⇒ Click on the list button on the field name
⇒ Uncheck any field to be hidden
⇒ Click OK
Redisplaying Data In A Row/Column Field
⇒ Click on the list button on the field name
⇒ Check (Show All)
⇒ Click OK

Filtering Data In A Page Field
⇒ If necessary, drag a field from the field
list to the Page Field area
⇒ Click the list button on the field name
⇒ Select the item to be displayed
⇒ The Pivot Table will now display only
those records from that item

Redisplaying Data In A Page Field
⇒ Click the list button on the field name in the Page Field area
⇒ Check (All)
⇒ Click OK

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Filtering Data In Pivot Tables

Filtered Data - Before

Filtered Data - After

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Filtering Data In Pivot Tables With Page Fields
Page fields allow you to filter the entire Pivot Table report to display
data for a single item or all the items. More than one field can be
displayed as a page field.

Steps:
⇒ Drag the field from the field list to the Page Field Area of the
Pivot Table
To Filter a Pivot Table with a Page Field
⇒ Open the Filter button in the Page Field
⇒ Select an entry to act as criteria

Page Field                                             Page Field List Button

Page Field List

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Filtering Data In Pivot Tables With Page Fields

Page Field Filtered Data - Before

Page Field Filtered Data - After

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Sorting Data In Pivot Tables
Data in a Pivot Table displays in the order that data appears in the
source flat-file list. However, data can be sorted automatically or
manually at any time after the Pivot Table is created.

Steps:
To Automatically Sort Data In A Row/Column Field
⇒ Click on an item in the required row or column field
⇒ Click Sort Ascending or Sort Descending buttons

To Manually Sort Data In A Row/Column Field
⇒ Click on an item in the required row or column field
⇒ Drag to the required position
⇒ Repeat for each item as necessary

Sorting Data Before

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Sorting Data In Pivot Tables

Sorting Data After

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Grouping Data In Pivot Tables

Items in a Row or Column field can be grouped in order to view and
analyze data in a higher level summary format. Groups of data can
be collapsed to view the data as a set of data not available from the
source flat-file list.

Steps:
To Group Selected Items In A Row/Column Field
⇒ If necessary, sort the items in the field in the preferred order
⇒ Select the items needed to create the first group
⇒ Click the Pivot Table button on the Pivot Table toolbar
⇒ Click Group And Show Detail, Group command
⇒ Repeat the above 3 steps as needed

To UnGroup Selected Items In A Row/Column Field
⇒ Select the items needed to un-group
⇒ Click the Pivot Table button on the Pivot Table toolbar
⇒ Click Group And Show Detail,
UnGroup command
⇒ Repeat the above 3 steps as
needed

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Grouping Data In Pivot Tables

Grouping Data Before

Grouping Data After

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Creating Pivot Tables
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Renaming Groups In Pivot Tables

The names of the groups can be customized to reflect the data. In
addition, the label for the group field can be customized.

Steps:
To Rename Groups In A Row/Column Field
⇒ Click on the name of the group (i.e. Group1)
⇒ Type a new name

To Rename The Group Field In A Row/Column Field
⇒ Click on the name of the group label (i.e. Line No2)
⇒ Type a new name

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Renaming Groups In Pivot Tables

Naming Groups

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Creating Pivot Tables
CHAPTER
2
Drilling Down On Data In Pivot Tables
Groups of data can be collapsed to show just the totals for that
group and then expanded to display the detail data again.

Steps:
To Drill Down In A Row/Column Field
⇒ Double-Click on the name of the group (i.e. Northern)
-- OR --
⇒ Click on the name of the group
⇒ Click the Hide Detail button on the Pivot Table toolbar
⇒ The group data will collapse to show summary data for group

To Expand Data In A Row/Column Field
⇒ Double-Click on the name of the group (i.e. 300 Series)
-- OR --
⇒ Click on the name of the group
⇒ Click the Show Detail button on the Pivot Table toolbar
⇒ The group data will expand to show detail for group

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Drilling Down On Data In Pivot Tables

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Breaking Down Data Fields

Pivot Tables summarize data in the Data Field. A value in the Data
Field can represent hundreds of records in the underlying data list.
You can view the detail of the summarized data in the Data Field by
double-clicking a value. Excel will create a new worksheet with a
list of the records that make up that summarized value.

To Build Reports Based On Data Fields

Steps:
⇒ Click into the Pivot Table
⇒ Double-Click on a Data Field
(A new worksheet will appear with the detail records that
make up that data field value)

Double-Click

Creates New Worksheet

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Breaking Down Data Fields

Build Reports Based On Data Fields - Before

Build Reports Based On Data Fields - After

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Creating Pivot Tables
CHAPTER
2
Building Pivot Tables Based From Page Fields

You can build new Pivot Table reports based on Page Fields. These
new reports create new worksheets containing Pivot Tables
displaying data from each of the items in that Page Field.

To Build Reports Based On Page Fields

Steps:
⇒ Click into the Pivot Table
⇒ Click the Pivot Table toolbar button
⇒ Select Show Pages
⇒ Click OK

Note: Choose the
preferred page field (there
could be several) and click
OK.

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Building Pivot Tables Based From Page Fields

New Pivot Table As A Result Of Show Pages Command

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Creating Pivot Tables
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Charting Pivot Tables

Pivot Tables can be charted at the same time as they are created or
any time after. The default chart type is a Stacked Column. This is
a very efficient way to display the chart as many times the data in a
Pivot Table is not consistent (there might not be any). There may
be many values in the Data Field. Typical column or line charts do
not display large amounts of data well.

The chart is linked to the Pivot Table. Pivot charts contain row,
column, data, and page field areas just as in the table.

Any changes to fields in the Pivot Table effect the chart. As well,
any changes to the fields in the chart effect the Pivot Table. Pivot
Table charts can be formatted just as any chart created in Excel.
That includes chart type, chart options, formatting series, legends,
and data labels.

To Chart Pivot Tables

Steps:
⇒ Click into the Pivot Table
⇒ Click the Pivot Table button on the toolbar
⇒ Select Pivot Chart command
⇒ Edit the chart as necessary

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Charting Pivot Tables

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AutoFormat Pivot Tables

Pivot Tables can be formatted just like data in any worksheet.
areas of the Pivot Table. The Pivot Table Options dialog box
contains an option to Preserve formatting that will retain user-
added formatting when the table data is refreshed.

Format Report command in the Pivot Table toolbar button. The
formatting is organized by Report-types and Table-types of
formatting. It is important to note that the Report-type formatting
will change the orientation of the Pivot Table. They move the
column fields into the row field area creating a vertical orientation.
Table-type formatting will retain the vertical/horizontal orientation
of the existing Pivot Table.

To AutoFormat Pivot Tables

Steps:
⇒ Click into the Pivot Table
⇒ Click the Pivot Table button on the toolbar
⇒ Select Format Report
⇒ Choose a layout from the Report-types or the Table-types
⇒ Click OK

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AutoFormat Pivot Tables

AutoFormatting With Report-type Formats

Pivot Table Vertical Orientation With Report Format

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AutoFormat Pivot Tables

AutoFormatting With Table-type Formats

Pivot Table Horizontal/Vertical Orientation With Table Format

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Notes

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CHAPTER

Creating Multiple Pivot Tables From Same Source
Each time you create a new Pivot Table or Pivot Chart report,
Microsoft Excel stores a copy of the data for the report in memory
and saves this storage area as part of the workbook file. Thus each
new report requires additional memory and disk space. However,
when you use an existing Pivot Table report as the source for a new
report in the same workbook, both reports share the same copy of
the data. Because you reuse the same storage area, the size of the
workbook file is reduced and less data is kept in memory.

Location requirements        To use a Pivot Table report as the
source for another report, both reports must be in the same
workbook. If the source Pivot Table report is in a different
workbook, copy the source report to the workbook where you want
the new report to appear. Pivot Table and Pivot Chart reports in
different workbooks are separate, each with their own copy of the
data in memory and in the workbook files.

Page field settings The source Pivot Table report cannot contain
any page fields that are set to query for external data as you select
each item. Reports with this setting don't appear in step 2 of the
wizard. To check the setting, double-click each page field, click
Advanced, and make sure Retrieve external data for all page
field items is selected.

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Creating Multiple Pivot Tables From Same Source

Changes affect both reports When you refresh the data in the
new report, Excel also updates the data in the source report, and
vice versa. When you group or ungroup items in one report, both
are affected. When you create calculated fields or calculated items
in one report, both reports are affected.

Pivot Chart reports       You can base a new Pivot Table or Pivot
Chart report on another Pivot Table report, but not directly on
another Pivot Chart report. However, Excel creates an associated
Pivot Table report from the same data whenever you create a Pivot
Chart report, so you can base a new report on the associated
report.

Changes to a Pivot Chart report affect the associated Pivot Table
report, and vice versa. If you want to be able to change the layout
or display different data without these changes affecting both
reports, create a new Pivot Table report based on the same source
data as the Pivot Chart report rather than basing it on the
associated Pivot Table report.

Pivot Table lists from Web pages You can export a Pivot Table
Pivot Table report. The new Pivot Table report and the Pivot Table
list both use the same source data but no link is maintained
between the list and the report.

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Source Data Terminology
Term                                                                       Description

AutoFilter                                        Process of hiding records in a list that do not
match the selected item.

Flat-File                                         A list of information in a contiguous range of
cells. The top row is called the Header Row
which contains the column headings. Each
row below is considered a record.

Data Validation                                   Properties assigned to cells which limit what
data can be entered into those cells. They
can be displayed as drop-down lists
containing the possible entries.

Pivot Table                                       An interactive cross-tabulated report that
summarizes and analyzes records in Excel
lists or external databases.

Pivot Table Fields                                A Pivot Table consists of fields.
Row Fields                    Labels that describe each row.
Column fields                 Labels that describe each column.
Data field                    Values that are being summarized.
Page Field                    Fields that act as filters in a Pivot Table.

consists of cells that are organized into
columns and rows; a worksheet is always
stored in a workbook.),

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Pivot Table Terminology
Source data

Pivot Table Terminology content was taken from Microsoft ® and edited and re-formatted.
The underlying rows or database
records that provide the data for
a Pivot Table report. You can
create a Pivot Table report from
a Microsoft Excel list, an external
database,     multiple       Excel
worksheets, or another Pivot
Table report.

Source data for the illustrations
in this topic.

Field

A category of data that's derived
from a field in the source list or
database. The Sport field, for
example, might come from a
column in the source list that's
labeled Sport and contains the
names of various sports (Golf,
Region, Sum of Sales, Quarter, and
Tennis) for which the source list
Sport are fields.         has sales figures.

Item
A subcategory, or member, of a
field. Items represent the unique
entries from the field in the
source data. For example, the
item Golf represents all rows of
data in the source list for which
the Sport field contains the entry
Golf.

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Pivot Table Terminology
Row field

A Pivot Table report that has
more than one row field has one
inner row field (Sport, in the
example below), the one closest
to the data area. Any other row
fields are outer row fields
(Region, in the example below).
Items in the outermost row field
The Sport field is a row field.               are displayed only once, but
items in the rest of the row fields
are repeated as needed.

Region is an outer row field;
Sport is an inner row field.

Column field
Field labels at the top of each
column in a Pivot Table. Just as
in a row field, there can be more
than one column field.

The Quarter field is a column field

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Pivot Table Terminology
Page field

Pivot Table Terminology content was taken from Microsoft ® and edited and re-formatted.
Page fields allow you to filter
the entire Pivot Table report to
display data for a single item or
all the items.

The Region field is a page field.

Data field                                           Data fields provide the data values
to be summarized. Usually data
fields contain numbers, which are
combined with the Sum summary
function, but data fields can also
contain text, in which case the
Pivot Table report uses the Count
summary function.

If a report has more than one
data field, a single field button
The Sum of Sales field is a data
named Data appears in the report

Summary function

The type of calculation used to
combine values in a data field.
Pivot Table reports usually use
Sum for data fields that contain
numbers and Count for data
fields that contain text. You can
Data field is using the Sum function.          functions such as Average, Min,
Max, and Product.

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Pivot Table Terminology
Drop areas

The blue outlined regions you
see when you finish the steps of
the Pivot Table and Pivot Chart
wizard. To lay out a Pivot Table
report, you drag fields from the
field list window and drop them
onto the drop areas.

Field list

A window that lists all of the
fields available from the source
data for use in the Pivot Table
report. If a field is organized in
levels of detail, you can click or
to show or hide the lower
levels. To display the data from a
field in the Pivot Table report,
drag the field from the field list
to one of the drop areas.
Field drop-down list

A list of the items available for
display in a field. If the field is
organized in levels of detail, you
can click     or    to see which
lower-level items are selected for
display. A double check mark
means that some or all of the
lower-level items are displayed.

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Pivot Table Terminology
Data area

The part of a Pivot Table report

Pivot Table Terminology content was taken from Microsoft ® and edited and re-formatted.
that contains summary data for
the row and column fields. For
example, cell B5 contains a
summary of all of the sales
amounts for Golf in Qtr1.

The values under qtr1 and qtr 2 are
in the data area.

Classic format                                       Indented format

In a Pivot Table report in
indented format, the data for
each row field is indented. The
summarized figures for each
data field appear in a single
column.
Refresh                                              To update a Pivot Table report with
the most recent data from the
source list or database. For
example, if a Pivot Table report is
based on data from a database,
refreshing the report runs the query
that retrieves data for the report.
For reports based on worksheet
data, when you change the
worksheet data, you can click a
button to refresh the report with the
changes.

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About calculations and formulas in Pivot Tables

Pivot Table and Pivot Chart reports provide several types of calcula-
tions. Data fields use summary functions to combine values from
the underlying source data. You can also use custom calculations to
of the report or other worksheet data.
How PivotTables Summarize Data

Source data

The values in the data area summarize the underlying source data
in the report.

Pivot Table report made from the above source data

The Month column field provides items March and April. The Re-
gion row field provides items North, South, East, and West. The
value at the intersection of the April column and the North row is
the total sales revenue from the records in the source data that
have Month values of April and Region values of North.

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About calculations and formulas in Pivot Tables

How the type of source data affects calculations

Pivot Table Calculation content was taken from Microsoft ® and edited and re-formatted.
Calculations and options available in a report depend on whether the
source data came from an OLAP1 database or another type of database.

OLAP source data For reports that are created from OLAP cubes2, the
summarized values are pre-calculated on the OLAP server before Microsoft
Excel displays the results. Therefore, you cannot change how these values
are calculated from within the report. You cannot change the summary
function used to calculate data fields or subtotals, or add calculated fields
or calculated items. If the OLAP server provides calculated fields, known as
calculated members, you'll see these fields in the PivotTable field list. You'll
also see any calculated fields and calculated items that are created by
macros that were written in Visual Basic for Applications and stored in your
workbook, but you won't be able to change these fields or items. If you

Other types of source data               In reports based on other types of
external data or on worksheet data, Microsoft Excel uses the Sum
summary function to calculate data fields that contain numeric data, and
the Count summary function to calculate data fields that contain text. You
can choose a different summary function— such as Average, Max, or Min—
to further analyze and customize your data. You can also create your own
formulas that use elements of the report or other worksheet data, by
creating a calculated field or a calculated item within a field.

Hidden items in totals         For OLAP source data, you can include or
exclude the values for hidden items when calculating subtotals and grand
totals. For other types of source data, values for hidden items are
excluded by default, but you can optionally include the hidden items from
page fields.

1
OLAP: A database technology that has been optimized for querying and
reporting, instead of processing transactions. OLAP data is organized hierar-
chically and stored in cubes instead of tables.

2
CUBE: An OLAP data structure. A cube contains dimensions, like Country/
Region/City, and data fields, like Sales Amount. Dimensions organize types
of data into hierarchies with levels of detail, and data fields measure quanti-
ties.

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Custom Formula Syntax In Pivot Tables

You can create formulas only in reports that are not based on OLAP source
data.
Formulas are available in PivotChart reports and use the same syntax as
those in PivotTable reports. For best results when working in a PivotChart
report, create and edit formulas in the associated PivotTable report, where
you can see the individual values that make up your data, and then view
the results in the PivotChart report.
Formula elements In formulas you create for calculated fields and cal-
culated items, you can use operators and expressions as you do in other
worksheet formulas. You can use constants and refer to data from the re-
port, but you cannot use cell references or defined names. You cannot use
worksheet functions that require cell references or defined names as argu-
ments, and you cannot use array functions.
Names in reports       Microsoft Excel provides names to identify the ele-
ments of a report in your formulas. The names are composed of the field
and item names. In the following example, the data in range C3:C9 is
named Dairy.

In a PivotChart report, the field names are displayed in the field buttons,
and item names can be seen in each field drop-down list. Don't confuse
these names with those you see in chart tips, which reflect series and data
Examples A calculated field named Forecast could forecast future orders
with a formula such as the following:
=Sales * 1.2
A calculated item in the Type field that estimates sales for a new product
based on Dairy sales could use a formula such as the following:
=Dairy * 115%

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About calculations and formulas in Pivot Tables
Formulas operate on sum totals, not individual records Formulas
for calculated fields operate on the sum of the underlying data for any
fields in the formula. For example, the formula =Sales * 1.2 multiplies the

Pivot Table Calculation content was taken from Microsoft ® and edited and re-formatted.
sum of the sales for each type and region by 1.2; it does not multiply each
individual sale by 1.2 and then sum the multiplied amounts. Formulas for
calculated items, however, operate on the individual records; the calcu-
lated item formula =Dairy *115% multiplies each individual sale of Dairy
times 115%, after which the multiplied amounts are summarized together
in the data area.
Spaces, numbers, and symbols in names In a name that includes
more than one field, the fields can be in any order. In the example above,
cells C6:D6 can be 'April North' or 'North April'. Use single quotation
marks around names that are more than one word or include numbers or
symbols.
Totals Formulas cannot refer to totals (such as March Total, April Total,
and Grand Total in the example).
Field names in item references You can include the field name in a
reference to an item. The item name must be in square brackets— for ex-
ample, Region[North]. Use this format to avoid #NAME? errors when two
items in two different fields in a report have the same name. For example,
if a report has an item named Meat in the Type field and another item
named Meat in the Category field, you can prevent #NAME? errors by re-
ferring to the items as Type[Meat] and Category[Meat].
Referring to items by position You can refer to an item by its posi-
tion in the report as currently sorted and displayed. Type[1] is Dairy, and
Type[2] is Seafood. The item referred to in this way can change whenever
the positions of items change or different items are displayed or hidden.
Hidden items are not counted in this index.
You can use relative positions to refer to items. The positions are deter-
mined relative to the calculated item that contains the formula. If South is
the current region, Region[-1] is North; if North is the current region, Re-
gion[+1] is South. For example, a calculated item could use the formula
=Region[-1] * 3%. If the position you give is before the first item or after
the last item in the field, the formula results in a #REF! error.
In calculated item formulas, if you refer to items by their position or rela-
tive position, any options you have set under Top 10 AutoShow and
AutoSort options in the PivotTable Sort and Top 10 or PivotTable
Field Advanced Options dialog boxes are reset to Off or Manual, and
the options become unavailable.

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Create Calculated Item In A Pivot Table Or Pivot Chart

Steps:
⇒ If items in the field to which you want to add the calculated item are
grouped, ungroup them.
⇒ Select the field or an item in the field to which you want to add the calcu-
lated item.
⇒ On the PivotTable toolbar, click PivotTable or PivotChart, point to For-
mulas, and then click Calculated Item.
⇒ In the Name box, type a name for the calculated item.
⇒ In the Formula box, type the formula for the item.
⇒ To use data from an item in the formula, click the field in the Fields box,
click the item in the Items list, and then click Insert Item.
Note: You can include only items from the same field in which you are
creating the calculated item.
⇒ Click Add, and then click OK.
Note: If the items were originally grouped and you ungrouped them in
step 1, you can group them again or create new groups that in-
clude the new calculated item, if you want.

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Notes

Be careful that the Grand Totals do not include both the data items and the new                       Great Tip!
calculated item(s) in its total (unless preferred so). If so, then remove the Grand
Totals (see Pivot Table options box) and replace with another calculated item for the
Grand Totals.

You cannot change the summary function for fields that contain calculated items.

When a cell in the data area is the intersection of a calculated item and a calculated
field, the formula for the calculated field overrides the calculated item formula.

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Create Calculated Field In A Pivot Table Or Pivot Chart

Steps:
⇒ Click a cell in the PivotTable report, or click the PivotChart report
⇒ On the PivotTable toolbar, click PivotTable or PivotChart, point to
Formulas, and then click Calculated Field
⇒ In the Name box, type a name for the calculated field
⇒ In the Formula box, type the formula for the field
⇒ To use the data from a field in the formula, click the field in the
Fields box, and then click Insert Field
⇒ Click Add, and then click OK
⇒ If necessary, position calculated field where you want it in the report

Note: Formulas for calculated fields always operate on all the available
data; you cannot narrow their scope by specifying a particular part
of the data in the formula.

When you create a calculated field in a PivotChart report, the
formula and its results are reflected in the associated PivotTable
report, and vice versa. If you are working with a PivotChart report
and plan to create complex formulas, it is recommended that you
create the formulas in the associated PivotTable report, where you
can see the individual values that make up your data, and then
view the results that are plotted in the PivotChart report.

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Create Calculated Field In A Pivot Table Or Pivot Chart

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