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					Nutrition & Athletic Performance:
Gaining Good Weight – The Right Way!

         Cathedral Catholic High School
                 April 18, 2011

              Katie Clark, MPH, RD, CDE
                   Registered Dietitian
         University of San Diego High School ‘96
Overview

   Relationship between nutrition & performance
   Importance of carbohydrate & protein
   Pre-workout & recovery nutrition & snack ideas
   Dietary supplements: do’s & don’ts
   Hydration & sports drinks
Why Should Athletes Care
About Nutrition?
Food fuels your body
The better your fuel – the better your performance
Nutrition & Performance

Poor Nutrition:             Good Nutrition:

   Cramping                   Ideal Weight → Speed
   Undesired weight gain      Improved Endurance
   Undesired weight loss      Increased Strength
   Early fatigue              Reduced Fatigue
Carbohydrate

 Muscles store carbohydrates as
  glycogen
 Depleted glycogen stores →
  fatigue
 Carbohydrate in breads, fruits,
  milks, sugar & some vegetables
 An athlete’s meals should be
  MOSTLY carbs with a lesser
  amount of protein and fat
Carbohydrate: Starches
Food                Serving          Grams of Carb   Calories
Whole wheat bread   1 piece          18              90
Brown rice          1 cup cooked     45              215
Baked potato        1 large          50              220
Tortilla            1 10’ diameter   38              228
English muffin      1 muffin         25              120
Pasta               1 cup cooked     40              200
Pretzels            10 twists        25              110
Oatmeal             ½ cup dry        27              150
Raisin Bran         1 cup dry        45              190
Fiber
Choose High Fiber Whole Grain Breads & Starches
 Boys age 14-18 need 36 grams of dietary fiber per day
 Girls age 14-18 need 26 grams of dietary fiber per day
Choose breads, cereal, bars, pasta,
crackers, etc. with ≥ 3 g fiber/svg
Carbohydrate: Fruits & Vegetables
Fruit             Serving         Grams of Carb   Calories
Raisins           1/3 cup         40              150
Apple             1 medium        20              80
Banana            1 8’ banana     27              100
Orange            1 medium        18              70
Orange juice      1 cup (8 oz.)   25              100


Vegetable         Serving         Grams of Carb   Calories
Broccoli          ½ cup           5               20
Zucchini          ½ cup           2               10
Spaghetti sauce   ½ cup           22              120
Peas              ½ cup           10              60
Carbohydrate: Dairy & Misc.
Dairy Food         Serving        Grams of Carb   Calories
Nonfat milk        1 cup          12              80
Whole milk         1 cup          12              150
Lowfat yogurt      ¾ cup (6 oz)   34              200
Soy milk           1 cup          12              120
Cheese             1 slice        ½               100
Lowfat ice cream   ½ cup          20              120


Miscellaneous      Serving        Grams of Carb   Calories
Snickers bar       1              34              275
Powerbar           1              45              230
Carbohydrate Loading: Glycogen
 For every 1 oz glycogen,
  muscles store 3 oz of water
 Expect 2-4 pounds of
  water weight with carb
  loading
 Increasing carbohydrates in
  the DAYS and WEEKS
  preceding athletic events
  can ↑ glycogen stores
Protein
 Lifting weights builds muscles – eating protein does not
 Adequate (but not excessive) protein promotes helps support
  growth of muscles
    0.5-0.75 gram protein/pound body weight
    Example: 165 pound athlete = 83-124 grams per day

 Excessive protein and inadequate carbohydrate → :
    Protein used for fuel instead of carbohydrate
    Inadequate protein for muscle strength & building
Protein: Meat
Meat                    Serving       Pro (g)   Fat (g)   Calories
Chicken Breast          3 oz w/o skin 22        3         160
Ground beef (10% fat)   3 oz           24       10        200
Salmon                  3 oz           22       11        155
Tuna fish, in water     6 oz can       43       5         180
Sausage                 1 small item   6        12        130
Pepperoni               15 slices      6        12        135
Protein: Nuts, Beans, Eggs
Food             Serving            Pro (g)   Fat (g)   Calories
Almonds          ¼ cup              8         19        211
Lentils          2 cups             16        2         250
Black beans      ½ cup              8         2         120
Refried beans    ½ cup              7         10        120
Peanut butter    2 tbsp             8         16        188
Hummus           ½ cup              10        12        200
Egg              1 med. whole egg   6.5       5         78
Egg white        1 med. egg white   4         0         17
Egg substitute   ½ cup              15        4         105
Tofu             1 ½ inch cake      6         2         200
Soybeans         ½ cup w/o shell    11        6         125
Protein: Dairy
Dairy           Serving        Pro (g)   Fat (g)   Calories
Nonfat milk     1 cup          8         0         80
Whole milk      1 cup          8         8         150
Lowfat yogurt   ¾ cup (6 oz)   6.5       3         200
Nonfat yogurt   ¾ cup (6 oz)   6         0         140
Soy milk        1 cup          7         4         100
Cheese          1 slice        7         7         100
Meeting Needs: Sample Menu
Breakfast
1 cup raisin bran, 1 cup skim milk, 1 cup blueberries
Snack
2 slices whole wheat bread, 3 slices turkey, mustard, lettuce, tomato, 1 apple
Lunch
2 corn tortillas, 1 cup rice, ½ cup beans, ½ cup chopped chicken, salsa
Pre-Workout Snack
20 pretzels, 1 carton yogurt
Recovery Snack
2 graham crackers, 2 tablespoons peanut butter
Dinner
2 cups cooked pasta, ½ cup spaghetti sauce, 1 cup broccoli, 2 Tbs cheese, 1 c ice crm
Meeting Needs: Sample Menu




Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Pre-Workout Nutrition
 Focus is on carbohydrate
 Intake 1-2 hours prior to
  workout
 Avoid high fat and
  excessive protein before
  workouts
 Stick with familiar foods
 Breakfast is essential before
  morning workouts
Pre-Workout Snack Ideas
   Egg or bean burrito
   Fruit smoothie
   Fruit + granola + yogurt
   Banana, apple, orange, pears, etc.
   Cereal or oatmeal with milk, fruit & nuts
   Bagel with an egg or egg sandwich
   Banana with peanut or almond butter
   English muffin with peanut butter
   Bran muffin
   Graham crackers and milk
Recovery Nutrition
Post Workout Timing
 Eating within 30 minutes is good…15 minutes is better

Protein + Carbohydrate is Key
 Creates better muscle refueling & building
 Reduces cortisol – hormone that breaks down muscle
 4:1 ratio of carbohydrate : protein for optimal recovery
 Carb/Pro drinks are no better for recovery than carb/pro foods

Sodium, Potassium, Electrolytes & Fluid
 Soups, potatoes, yogurt, OJ, bananas, cheese, breads, pasta
 Water, sports drinks, high-water fruits (grapes, oranges, watermelon), fruit juices
 Green MS, Corona BT, Doyle JA, Ingalls CP. Carbohydrate-protein drinks do not enhance recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008;18(1):1-18.
Recovery Snacks

   Yogurt & fruit
   PB&J sandwich
   Turkey sandwich
   Cheese quesadilla
   Cereal & milk
   Pita & hummus
   Dried fruit & nuts
   High fiber granola bar & fruit
Recovery Snack Shake
Homemade Shake:
 1 cup 1% milk
 ¼ cup instant pudding
 ¼ cup powdered milk
 4-5 ice cubes
 ½-1 cup frozen fruit
   chunks
1 serving = 300 calories, 60 g
   carb, 15 g protein
What About Bars?

 Nothing magical about bars:
  focus on food first!
 All calories give you “energy”;
  200-300 calories pre-workout
 Bars are not “more digestible”
  than whole foods
 Important to ↑water if eating bars
Dietary Supplements: Steroids

 July 2009: two OTC supplements popular among high
  school football players contain steroids
 Tren Xtreme & Mass Xtreme marketed as “potent legal
  alternative to” steroids; found at Max Muscle retail
  stores
 Illegal steroids concerning for HS boys as artificially
  high levels of testosterone can stop bones from growing
 Short term effects: acne, breast development, irritability,
  aggression
 Longer term effects: liver failure, higher-than-normal
  hormone levels, CVD (including heart attacks in those
  under 30), ↑cholesterol, stroke, blood clots
Dietary Supplements: Cont.
 Food is sufficient for obtaining 100% of
  nutrients for most healthy adolescents &
  teenagers
 If you’re not getting all of your nutrients from
  food…you’re not trying hard enough!
 Those with an imbalanced diet may benefit
  from a standard, generic daily multi-vitamin
 Focus on modular proteins (whey) can
  displace other healthy food and lean protein
  food intake
 Dietary supplements are a highly unregulated,
  multi-billion dollar/yr industry
Dietary Supplements: Creatine
 One supplement that studies indicate
  intake can increase muscle mass, lean
  body mass, strength & total work
 Most useful in short-burst activities:
  sprint, Olympic weight lift
 2000 NCAA banned creatine for college
  player distribution from coaches but
  players can use
 Creatine has been associated with
  asthmatic symptoms, may experience GI
  upset and/or loss of appetite
Hydration
 Sports drinks only if exercising more
  than 1 hour
 Larger body mass = greater sweat
  losses
 Can lose up to 0.5 – 2.0 liters per
  hour
 Sweat = water loss = body’s
  evaporative cooling mechanism
 Monitoring color of urine is best
  indicator of hydration
Hydration Guidelines
Water
 Drink extra 4-8 cups of water the day before event
 Drink 2-3 cups of water two hours before the event
 Drink 1-2 cups of water 5-10 minutes before the event

Snacks
 If exercising 4-6 hours in the heat, consume salty foods
  (pretzels, chips, crackers)
Replenishing Fluids
 Weigh yourself before & after 1 hour of strenuous exercise
 For every 1 lb lost (16 oz.), replenish with 80-100% of that loss
 Spread needs out in 15 minute increments during exercise
Example
 If you lost 2 pounds (32 oz.) during 1 hr run, replenish that with
  2 X 16oz = 32 oz. over 1 hr of exercise
 Drink 8 ounces of water every 15 minutes during exercise (8
  ounces times 4 15-minute increments = 32 oz.)
Final Tips
 Never try an untested food close to performance time
 Craving sweets may indicate you are under-eating
 Small, frequent meals with pre & post workout snacks
 Milk is the closest thing to a super-food: protein +
  carbohydrate + calcium + hydration
 B Vitamins do not give you energy but insufficient B vitamin
  intake will lead to problems with energy metabolism
 You can and SHOULD be getting 100% of your nutrient
  needs from foods and not supplements
For More Information
   www.nutritiondata.com
   www.nutrihand.com
   www.fitday.com
   www.sparkpeople.com
   www.menshealth.com
   www.gssiweb.com
   www.scandpg.org
   www.eatright.org
   katie@katieclarkrd.com

				
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posted:7/5/2011
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