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2008 Kidnap RiskBrief Clayton Consultants

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					2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF   CCPPT001-0719
Global Market Share of Kidnappings

Nearly half of the world’s reported kidnappings occur in Latin America, with Mexico
as the leader followed by Venezuela and Brazil.




Other kidnap hotspots include Afghanistan, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, the
Philippines, Russia and Yemen. Kidnapping occurs on a limited basis in most countries,
including the United States.

2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                                                 CCPPT001-0719
Kidnap Victims’ Market Share

Family members’ children comprise the largest share of kidnap victims. Kidnap gangs
don’t focus exclusively on wealthy individuals and business executives.




Kidnap victims include government officials, mid-level managers, aid workers,
corporate employees and journalists.

2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                                               CCPPT001-0719
Kidnap Outcomes

Most kidnap victims are released unharmed. About 10 percent of all kidnap victims die
in captivity. The period of captivity varies greatly.




Seventy-five percent last up to 50 days. Only a small number last more than 100 days.


2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                                                 CCPPT001-0719
Africa Nigeria

Expats and oil workers at risk
Nigeria leads Africa in the number of kidnapped expats. At
least 172 foreigners were kidnapped in Nigeria in 2007,
according to local media reports. In the latest trend, kidnappers
are targeting the children of high-ranking Nigerians who work
for oil companies.

MEND targets oil workers
Abductions are conducted primarily by MEND (Movement for
the Emancipation of the Niger Delta) and other militant
organizations. Militant groups say their kidnappings are part of
an attempt to exert pressure on federal and state governments
and oil companies for political and financial gain. Some
kidnappings are for propaganda and no ransoms are paid.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                             CCPPT001-0719
Africa Nigeria
Abduction phase is risky
The abduction phase is very dangerous. At least eight expats
kidnapped in 2007 were killed or died from injuries sustained
during their abduction.

Niger Delta
Kidnappings are focused on the Niger Delta region where many
oil companies operate.

Lagos
Criminally motivated kidnaps are on the rise in Lagos and other
urban centers.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                           CCPPT001-0719
Africa Sub-Sahara

Security escorts are recommended
Many countries in the Sub-Sahara are politically unstable
and dangerous due to poverty, corruption and lack of
law enforcement. Foreigners are advised to have escorts
and security plans in place.

Angola
Cabinda Province, an area where FLEC (Liberation Front
for the State of Cabinda) conducts kidnappings, is a
hotspot.

Darfur
Non-governmental organizations are kidnapping
targets in East Darfur by the SLA (Sudan Liberation
Army).




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                     CCPPT001-0719
Africa Sub-Sahara

Kenya
Bombings by al Qaeda in Mombassa, Kenya, have
targeted foreigners.

Somalia
Piracy is prevalent along the Somali coast.

South Africa
Street crime in Johannesburg, South Africa, is rampant.

Zimbabwe
Wrongful detentions are a problem in Zimbabwe.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                   CCPPT001-0719
Americas Argentina

Buenos Aires
The highest risk of a kidnapping is in the greater Buenos
Aires area. Since the 2001 economic crisis, there has been
a significant increase in kidnappings for ransom and
express kidnappings.

300+ kidnappings each year
Over 300 kidnappings for ransom are estimated to occur
each year. The majority of kidnappings are conducted by
financially motivated criminals.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                      CCPPT001-0719
Americas Brazil

Sao Paulo
Kidnaps were traditionally concentrated in Rio de Janeiro,
but are now shifting to Sao Paulo and surrounding areas.

Kidnappers target middle class
Kidnappers have shifted their targets from the wealthy to
the middle class and demand lower ransoms that can be
paid more quickly. Express kidnaps remain a significant
problem.

Police response
Police generally focus on the kidnap investigation and not
the safe-and-quick release of the victim.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                      CCPPT001-0719
Americas Colombia

Kidnappings continue to decline
Extortive kidnappings in Colombia have declined by 79 percent
in the last three years. Colombia previously had the highest
number of kidnappings in the world, averaging 3,000
kidnappings per year between 1996 and 2003.

Foreign companies’ employees are targets
Kidnappers target wealthy locals and multinational companies’
employees and contractors.

Hostages held for years
Kidnap victims are often held in remote mountain camps for extended periods of time, even years, by
the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia).

Kidnapping market is mature
Many professional kidnappers have years of experience and, frequently, protracted negotiations are
required to secure a hostage’s release.


2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                                                         CCPPT001-0719
Americas Ecuador
Abductions spike
Kidnappings have increased during the past five years. The
increase is attributed to the involvement of Colombian kidnap
gangs crossing the border. Domestic revolutionary groups are
also involved in kidnappings.

Gangs and guerrillas
Kidnappings conducted by criminal gangs proliferate in city
and urban areas. Gangs tend to target high-profile families
and businesses. Business personnel, tourists and foreign
company employees are also targeted. Colombian guerrillas
conduct kidnappings in rural areas along the Ecuador-
Colombia border.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                         CCPPT001-0719
Americas El Salvador

San Salvador
El Salvador has experienced an overall decrease in the
number of kidnappings since 2001, but kidnapping is still
prevalent in and near San Salvador. There is an increased
connection with MS-13 (Mara Salvatrucha) gangs.

Kidnap targets
The wealthy middle class is targeted, especially those with a
business interest in deprived areas. Only five percent of
known cases have targeted foreign nationals. Kidnappings
in El Salvador have a higher propensity for violence
compared to neighboring countries.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                         CCPPT001-0719
Americas Guatemala

Guatemala City
Guatemala City remains a kidnapping hotspot, where an
estimated 100 kidnaps occur each year.

Politically motivated kidnappings decline
Politically motivated kidnappings have decreased while
kidnappings motivated by criminal opportunism have
increased. More former militia and guerrilla members are
involved in criminal activity.

Punishment is severe
Government authorities are attempting to clamp down on
kidnappings through heavy prison sentences and the use of
the death penalty.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                     CCPPT001-0719
Americas Honduras

Few kidnappers face the law
Kidnappings have a very low detection-and-conviction rate
(1.53 percent) by local law enforcement.

Express kidnappings increase
Honduras has experienced an increase in kidnappings,
especially express kidnappings. Kidnappers have links to
groups operating in Guatemala and El Salvador. Kidnappers
may include former police and military personnel. Many
kidnap incidents indicate a high degree of professionalism.

Who is targeted?
The business community, dependants of the wealthy and
Hondurans of Arab descent are common targets.

Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa is a kidnapping hotspot


2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                       CCPPT001-0719
Americas Mexico
Kidnapping of foreigners increases
Foreigners are increasingly targeted for assault and
kidnapping

Kidnap capital of Latin America
Mexico has eclipsed Colombia as the kidnap capital of Latin
America. More than 3,000 kidnappings occurred in Mexico in
2007. Recent spikes in kidnapping are tied to drug cartel
members’ increased involvement in abductions.

Annual ransom market exceeds $100 million                      Hotspots
Mexico’s ransom market is estimated to exceed $100 million     Mexico City and the border cities of
a year. Kidnappings are conducted by professional gangs,       Tijuana and Laredo are the most active
common criminals and drug cartels. The business community      kidnapping spots. Kidnappings have
and their dependants are the primary targets of kidnappings.   also increased in Guadalajara, Tampico
Kidnappers have started targeting middle- and low-income       and various Gulf of Mexico cities.
groups.


2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                                                      CCPPT001-0719
Americas Nicaragua

Express kidnappings occur in Managua
Nicaragua is not a traditional Central American hotspot
for kidnappings. There are less than 100 kidnaps per year.
There are a higher rate of kidnappings in the mountain areas
of Matagalpa, Jinotega, Zelaya and Rio San Juan. Express
kidnappings in Managua are the main concern.

Ransoms may be small
Nicaragua has smaller ransom amounts (at times as little as
$500) than the rest of Central America.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                        CCPPT001-0719
Americas Venezuela

Maracaibo
Kidnap and extortion are prevalent along the Colombian-
Venezuelan border, particularly in Maracaibo. Kidnap
victims tend to remain in captivity longer than is the norm in
Latin American countries.

Caracas
Express kidnappings, which last from a few hours to a few
days, are the main threat in Caracas.

Kidnappings increase
Kidnappings have increased in recent years to more than
1,000 annually. Venezuelans are the primary targets.
Kidnappers include criminal gangs and politically motivated
groups. The most common kidnap victims are ranchers and
other business personnel. Foreign nationals, wealthy locals
and dependants are also kidnapped.


2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                          CCPPT001-0719
Asia/Pacific China

Small ransom payments are common
Kidnappings are not prolonged and often involve small
ransom payments.

Wealthy locals are targets
The disparity between the social classes in China is
becoming even greater as the country’s economy grows.
Kidnapping targets include locals perceived to have money,
such as physicians. If reported, the Chinese police get very
involved in the negotiation and investigation of a
kidnapping. Kidnappers are prosecuted by the government
with kidnapping of foreigners carrying longer sentences.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                        CCPPT001-0719
Asia/Pacific India

Hotspots
The state of Bihar and the cities of Mumbai and New Delhi
are kidnapping hotspots. Kashmir continues to be
dangerous for all travel.

Various motives spur kidnappings
Kidnappings are conducted for political reasons, ransom,
sibling rivalry, human trafficking and “marriage.” Kidnap for
ransom accounts for about 20 percent of India’s total
kidnapping incidents.

700+ kidnap gangs
India has over 700 kidnap gangs that have more than 4,000
gang members. Kidnapping targets include the wealthy,
politicians, businessmen, Hollywood movie stars and
dependents.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                         CCPPT001-0719
Asia/Pacific Indonesia

Strait of Malacca
The Strait of Malacca continues to be a hotbed for piracy
and kidnapping.

25 percent of victims are foreigners
Kidnapping for ransom is a long-standing problem. Twenty-
five percent of kidnapping incidents involve foreign
nationals, mainly tourists and journalists. Al Qaeda affiliate
Jemaah Islamiah has threatened to launch Iraqi-style
kidnappings of foreign nationals and government officials.

Law enforcement is typically ineffective
Many kidnapping incidents are unreported; Indonesia’s
socioeconomic and political climate makes effective law
enforcement almost impossible. Kidnappers come from
three main groups: criminal gangs, separatists and the
armed forces.


2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                          CCPPT001-0719
Asia/Pacific Pakistan
Hotspots
Karachi and the North West Frontier Province are kidnapping
hotspots. In addition, Westerners and non-governmental
organizations’ employees face a high risk of kidnapping in
the disputed region of Kashmir.

Expats are targets of attacks
Extremist groups in Pakistan continue to target Americans
and other Westerners. There have also been several attacks
on Chinese workers. Official statistics estimate that more
than 9,000 people are kidnapped a year, but most are not
kidnaps for ransom.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                       CCPPT001-0719
Asia/Pacific Philippines

Hotspots
Kidnapping for ransom is prevalent, especially in Manila,
Davao City and Mindanao.

Locals are targets
The majority of kidnap victims are members of the local
business community, although in 2000 and 2001, there were
multiple kidnaps of foreigners from holiday resorts.

Criminals conduct most kidnappings
The majority of kidnaps are conducted by criminal gangs who
are motivated by financial gain. Some kidnapping groups are
considerably sophisticated; others are inexperienced and
dangerous. Terrorist groups who carry out kidnappings
include The New Peoples Army, The Mindanao Islamic
Liberation Front (MILF) and the Abu Sayeef Group (ASG). The
New Peoples Army is based in Luzon Island. MILF and ASG
are based in Mindanao.

2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                       CCPPT001-0719
Caribbean Haiti
Port-au-Prince
Most kidnaps occur in Port-au-Prince and on the road linking
the capital to the main airport. Some kidnap victims have
been executed.

Foreigners are increasingly at risk
Haiti is a kidnap hotspot due to a weak government.
Kidnappings are politically and criminally motivated with
Haitian-on-Haitian kidnaps the most common. Foreigners,
especially Americans, are increasingly targeted for
kidnappings. In 2005, 40 American citizens were kidnapped in
Haiti and three more Americans were killed in kidnaps that
went bad. In July 2006, 29 Westerners were abducted, a third
of them American citizens. Anti-kidnapping operations by the
9,000-strong United Nations peacekeeping force have
improved but not eliminated the threat.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                        CCPPT001-0719
Caribbean Trinidad and Tobago

Violent crime increases
Trinidad and Tobago has experienced a recent spike in all forms
of violent crime, including kidnap for ransom. In 2004, Trinidad
and Tobago averaged three kidnaps a week. Following the
reorganization of the police and establishment of an anti-
kidnap task force, kidnaps are now averaging about one per
month. The Indian business community (about 40 percent of
the 1.6 million population) is the hardest hit by kidnappings,
which are characterized by good planning and execution.

Kidnappers include government officials
Police and Army personnel have been involved in some
kidnappings. The Jamaat al Muslimeen terrorist group that
emerged in the 1990s has evolved into a criminal group and is
responsible for many kidnappings.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                            CCPPT001-0719
Europe Georgia

Most victims are locals
An estimated 200 kidnaps occur each year in Georgia, which
has a poor economic and security situation that is exacerbated
by “spill over” from neighboring Chechnya. The majority of
kidnaps involve local victims, although kidnaps of foreign
nationals are growing.

Kidnappers
Criminals and rebels carry out kidnappings. Most abductions
are politically motivated.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                          CCPPT001-0719
Europe Russian Federation

Moscow and North Caucasus
A kidnapping threat exists in Moscow and North Caucasus.
Moscow criminal gangs mainly target Russian business
executives. In North Caucasus, the majority of kidnap victims
are Russian, although there is a high threat to foreign
journalists and aid workers.

Chechnya averages one kidnap per day
In Chechnya, about one kidnapping for ransom is carried out
each day. Kidnapping is spreading into neighboring Dagestan,
Ingushetia and North Ossetia. Criminal gangs and Russian
security forces have been involved in kidnappings.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                         CCPPT001-0719
Middle East Afghanistan

Kabul
Kidnappings began as part of a political and religious
movement, but are now primarily motivated by criminals’
financial gain. Criminally motivated kidnappings are focused
around the Kabul area. Kidnaps in Kandahar are typically
conducted for political and religious reasons.

Foreign aid workers are targets
Foreign aid workers and missionaries are most vulnerable
to kidnappings due to lack of security, which makes them an
easier target. Local nationals tied to non-governmental
organizations are also becoming an attractive target. Foreign
travelers, business people, military personnel and contractors
are high-price targets. Security planning and protective
services are highly recommended for foreigners.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                          CCPPT001-0719
Middle East Iraq

Baghdad
About 70 kidnap groups in Baghdad are responsible for the
majority of kidnappings, but a kidnapping threat is present
throughout Iraq.

Kidnapped foreigners face extreme danger
Since April 2004, more than 400 foreigners have been
kidnapped in Iraq. Most foreign kidnap victims are from
countries such as Jordan, Lebanon or Turkey. Foreigners who
are kidnapped are at extreme risk of being killed.

Most victims are locals
The majority of kidnap victims are Iraqis. Some criminal
groups will sell victims to extremists if demands are not met
quickly. Extremists’ kidnappings are clustered in the Sunni
Triangle and Sadr City.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                         CCPPT001-0719
Middle East Israel and Palestinian Territories

NGO workers and journalists face risk in Gaza
The main kidnap threat exists in the Palestine administered
areas, mainly Gaza, targeting foreign aid workers and
journalists. A high threat of kidnap in the Sinai Peninsular
also exists.

Captivity tends to be short
Kidnappings tend to be politically motivated or aimed at
airing local grievances. Most kidnappings of foreigners have
tended to be of short duration. However, Alan Johnston, a
BBC journalist, was kidnapped in March 2007 and released
after 114 days in captivity.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                        CCPPT001-0719
Middle East Yemen

Kidnapping problem persists
Yemen continues to suffer from a serious kidnapping
problem, usually centered on tribal groups and local disputes.

Abductions are politically motivated
Kidnappings tend not to be driven by direct financial gain,
but a desire to put pressure on the Yemeni government to
spend funds on local infrastructure or release fellow
tribesmen.

Hotspots
Kidnappings tend to take place in the mountainous areas of
Eastern Yemen, the area close to the Saudi border and along
the Sana’a to Aden highway.




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                                          CCPPT001-0719
Recent Clayton Cases (Consultant Dispatched)




2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                        CCPPT001-0719
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2008 KIDNAP- RISK BRIEF                            CCPPT001-0719

				
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