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					Policies for a Sustainable Use of the
            Soil Resource
            Luca Montanarella



                                   1
                         Main functions of soils:
• Food and other biomass production
   – Agriculture

• Storage, filtering, and transformation
   – Water protection

• Habitat and gene pool
   – Nature protection
• Physical and cultural environment for mankind
   – Archeology and cultural heritage

• Source of raw materials
   – Peat, Sand, Clay,etc….                         2
                                     The impact of human activities on soil



                      Diffuse input of contaminants as                                      Manures and
                                 particulates                               Acids           fertilisers
                                                                                                        Sewage
                                       Persistent substances                   Pesticides &             sludge
                                                                                 herbicides


                                                                                                          Gravel
                           Gradual
                                                                               Accumulation/              extraction
                           disappearance                                       Contamination
                           of farms                          Compaction                      Release of toxic
                                            Distruction              Salinisation              substances
      Sealing                                of humus          Acidification
Blocking of soil           Gradual          Changes in the     Contamination of soils and ground water with   Destruction of
functions important to     destruction of   structure of       applied agrochemicals and atmospheric          soil
the ecology of the         soils            soils              pollutants
landscape
                           Reduction in     Reduction in       Changes in soil composition
Destruction of soil        soil fertility   soil fertility
                                                               Adverse impacts on living organisms in the
                                                               soil




                                                                                                                      3
              Policy relevant features of soils:
           SOIL               SOIL POLICY
         FEATURES             REQUIRES…
SOIL IS A VARIABLE
                                LOCAL
MEDIUM
                             PERSPECTIVE
SOIL IS A NON-RENEWABLE
                           PREVENTION AND
RESOURCE
                             PRECAUTION
SOIL IS A STORAGE/BUFFER
MEDIUM                       ANTICIPATION

SOIL IS A SOURCE OF
BIODIVERSITY                 PROTECTION

SOIL IS A SUBJECT OF       ENVIRONMENTAL
PROPERTY                      LIABILITY
                                             4
 Policies for a Sustainable Use of
         the Soil Resource
• National
  – USA, Germany, United Kingdom, etc….
• Trans-national (regional)
  – EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection
• Global
  – UN MEA’s: UNFCCC, UNCBD, UNCCD


                                               5
                       Bruxelles, le 16.4.2002
                       COM(2002) 179 final

   COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE
 EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND
                THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS


      Towards a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/agriculture/soil_protection.htm




                                                                    6
 Main elements of the proposed strategy
• Soils are multi-functional (horizontal policy
  area):
  –   Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
  –   Water Policy (WFD)
  –   Waste Policy
  –   ………………..
• Knowledge based
  – European Soil Information System
  – Soil Monitoring Directive

                                                  7
Threats to soil as identified in COM(2002) 179
      •   Erosion
      •   Decline in organic matter
      •   Soil contamination
      •   Soil sealing
      •   Soil compaction
      •   Decline in soil biodiversity
      •   Salinisation
      •   Floods and landslides
                                          8
Opinions of EU Institutions

 Council        June 2002

 EESC           September 2002

 CoR            February 2003

 EP             May 2003



                                 9
       Participatory approach

Soil mailbox:    env-soil@cec.eu.int


Soil internet site:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/
       policies: Soil



Soil electronic library and discussion site: CIRCA   (june 03)



                                                                 10
         Soil Policy Development Organisational Set-up

ISWG = Interservice Working
Group
                                                            Stakeholders meetings
TWG = Technical Working Group
                                                                       Chair DG ENV


         Commission                                        Advisory Forum
                                                                   Chair DG ENV
           ISWG
               Chair DG ENV



                       Technical co-ordination group and secretariat
                                          Chair DG ENV




 TWG 1                  TWG 2            TWG 3                TWG 4                    TWG5
Monitoring              Erosion       Organic matter       Contamination              Research
Germany/JRC           Spain/Belgium          France           Austria/NL          W. Blum/ RTD
 Co-chair UK           Co-chair EEB   Co-chair IUSS/FEAD     Co-chair EEA         Co-chair ELO




                                                                                           11
COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No. 1782/2003 of 29 September 2003




                                                         12
                  Brussels, 23.7.2004
                  COM(2004) 516 final
                   2004/0175 (COD)
                            .
                     Proposal for a
DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF
                 THE COUNCIL
establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in
              the Community (INSPIRE)



                                                     13
                                                                                                              Thematic
                     COGI                                          INSPIRE Expert Group                       Components
                 Chair: ESTAT                                        Chair : DG ENV & ESTAT
                                                                                                              Phase 1:
                                                                                                              Environmental
                                  Technical Co-ordination & Secretariat                                       Sector
                                JRC Ispra - Institute for Environment and Sustainability              …..              urban
                                                                                                   biodiversity     noise
Common Reference
                                                                                                soils             forest
 Data & Metadata                                                Environmental                 seveso            water
  Chair : ESTAT                    Inter-sectoral
                                                                   thematic
                                   co-ordination                                                 Environmental
                                    Chair: ESTAT
                                                                 co-ordination
   Architecture                                                    Chair: EEA
                                                                                                  components
   & Standards
 Chair : JRC Ispra


  Legal Aspects                                                    Agricultural
  & Data Policy                                                     thematic
                                                                                                   Agricultural
    Chair : UK                                                    co-ordination
                                                                                                   components
                                                                      Chair:
   Funding &
 Implementation                                                     Transport
   structures                                                       thematic
    Chair : SE                                                                                      Transport
                                                                  co-ordination                    components
                                                                      Chair:
    Impact
    Analysis
    Chair : NL                                                        Other
                                                                    thematic
                                                                                                     Other
Horizontal                                                        co-ordination
                                                                      Chair:                       components
Components
                       INSPIRE                                                                Phase 2: other sectors
                                                                                                                       14
  INSPIRE Implementation




http://eu-geoportal.jrc.it/   15
            EUROPEAN SOIL BUREAU NETWORK


        #



                                                                                                    Soil data
                                                                                    #
                                            NJOS                #
                                                                                                                #
                                                #                                       #

                                                                                        #
                     #
                                                                                    #
                #                                       #
                                                                                                #
            #

                         #        ALTERRA                                   #
                    SSLRC               #           #
                                       #        BGR                                                             #
                                                                #
                                                                                                            #
                                                                            #
                              #                                     #           #
                             INRA           #                                                       #
                                                                    #   #
                                                                CSES
                                                $
                                                                                #       #
                                                                                                        #
                                                            #
                                                                                            #
            #                                                                       #
                                                                                                                #
#       CSIC
                                                                                                #



    #                              #                #



                                                                                                                    16
European Soil Database:
  WRB classification




     http://eusoils.jrc.it   17
Planned extension of the European Soil Database




                                                  18
 National Snow and Ice Data Center            19
http://nsidc.org/fgdc/maps/circumpolar.html
http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/wrb/wrbmaps/htm/soilres.htm   20
            Decline in organic matter



• UNFCCC
 – Major terrestrial carbon
   pool
• UNCBD
 – Major gene pool
• UNCCD
 – Major consequence of
   desertification

                                        21
Soils are a source and sink for atmospheric CO2




                                                  22
M. Robert, 2004




                  23
                     Organic Carbon Content (30cm)


Organic Carbon (%)
        No Data                                           TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FOR OC
        0-1                                                             Ceoffi ci ent for tem perature vari ati on
        1-2
                                                                              (> 3 ground measurem ents)
        2-5
                                                 2
        5 - 10
        10 - 25
        25 - 35
        > 35
                                        1.5




                             Correction Factor
                                                 1




                                        0.5




                                                 0
                                                     0   1000     2000       3000    4000    5000    6000    7000     8000
                                                                    T em perature Range (AAAT deg. C)

                                                         Semi-natural        Cultivated        Avg. Ground Data   Model




                                                 TEMP  f * cost AAAT   c
                                                                                                n
                                                    cor

                                          Within belts of uniform moisture
                                          conditions and comparable
                                          vegetation, the average total
                                          content of organic matter in soils
                                          increases by 2x to 3x for each
                                          10 deg C fall in mean temperature.                                        24
         Declining soil organic matter in S. Europe




74% of the land in southern Europe has a surface soil horizon
(0-30cm) that on average contains less than 2% OC (3.4% OM)


                                                                25
26
     Global soil protection policies:
Synergies between the 3 Rio Conventions
                UNFCCC




                 Soil




        UNCCD            UNCBD
                                          27

				
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