TREATMENT BASED ON THE BEHAVIOURAL MODEL

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					TREATMENT BASED ON THE
  BEHAVIOURAL MODEL
           PSYA2
   INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
        TYPES OF BEHAVIOURAL
             TREATMENT
•   These include:
•   Aversion therapy
•   Systematic desensitisation
•   Token economy
•   Behaviour modification
      AVERSION THERAPY
• Classical conditioning is used so that
  patients learn to associate the conditioned
  stimulus with and aversive stimulus.
• For example, alcoholics are given a drug
  which causes nausea if alcohol is consumed.
• So they learn to associate alcohol with
  nausea
     SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION

•  This is a form of behaviour therapy
•  Together, the client and therapist:
a. Construct a fear hierarchy
b. Client learns relaxation techniques
c. Therapist asks them to imagine a low fear
   stimulus (at the bottom of the hierarchy) whilst
   deeply relaxed.
d. The client and therapist work up the hierarchy
   until the client can confront the feared object
   whilst remaining relaxed
         TOKEN ECONOMY
• This is a behaviour modification technique
• It is a straightforward way of rewarding desirable
  behaviours.
• It is used in psychiatric hospitals where tokens are
  given as rewards for good behaviour
• The tokens can be exchanged for sweets,
  cigarettes, cinema tickets
• It has been useful with anorexics, who are
  rewarded for eating, by being allowed visitors or
  to leave the hospital grounds
BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION
• This is based on operant conditioning. It attempts
  to modify a person’s voluntary behaviour by
  reinforcing desirable responses in patients, such as
  good hygiene, and removing anti-social or harmful
  behaviours by not reinforcing them
• However this does not address the symptoms but
  may help the patient to be more receptive to other
  therapy
 EVALUATION OF BEHAVIOURAL
        TREATMENTS
• The focus is on a patient’s behaviour in the
  present rather than past experiences
• It is successful with behaviour problems
• It is more applicable to specific behaviours, such
  as phobias, which can be targeted directly
• It exaggerates the role of learning and past
  reinforcement history
• It minimises biological factors and does not
  adequately explain disorders such as
  Schizophrenia
TREATMENT BASED ON THE
   COGNITIVE MODEL
    COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR
          THERAPY
COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY

• This therapy is usually combined with
  behavioural concepts and is delivered in the
  form of cognitive-behaviour therapy
• So the client learns to change both
  cognitions and behaviour
• The first process is called cognitive re-
  structuring. The therapist challenges the
  client’s irrational and distorted thinking
   EFFECTIVENESS OF CBT
• BUTLER took the findings of 16 studies on
  CBT based on 10,000 patients
• It was found to be successful with major
  depressive disorder, anxiety and panic
  disorder, and social phobia
      EVALUATION OF CBT
1. Over the past 20 years CBT has established itself
   as the most common and most effective therapy
   for several disorders
2. It is broader and more effective than past therapies
   because it combines changes of thinking with
   changes in behaviour
3. It can be successfully used to treat depression,
   anxiety, panic disorder and post traumatic stress
   disorder.
4. If it is effective for treating Schizophrenia, the
   effects are more long lasting than drug therapy
LIMITATIONS OF CBT
• It is less effective for Schizophrenia
  than family therapy or drug therapy
• It exaggerates cognitive processes, so that a client
  may change their thinking patterns but this has no
  impact on their maladaptive behaviour
• It de-emphasises biological factors, and traumatic
  childhood experiences are not explored