Cell Phone Addiction: How do cell phones affect peoples’ lives, a psychological study Course: Reading and Writing II Professor: Michael Chen Presentor: Bena Ho, 95101065 Introduction • My topic: about how “cell phone addiction” affects peoples’ lives • How is it related to audience? 1. As college students, almost every one of us possesses a cell phone. 2. Cell phone usage are common among our college students • 3. Have you ever felt that it’s a “must” to check your cell phone everyday, including text message, phone calls or voicemails? • 4. Dose using cell phone distract you from writing homework such as essays? RESEARCH QUESTION: I. What cell phone addiction symptoms do people have? II. How do people feel when they use their cell phones? Is there psychological and physical reasons which triggers these symptoms? First, what is cell phone addiction? • 1. Regarded as “Impulse Control Disorder” • 2. Cell Phone addiction symptoms check List: Do you have your cell phone with you constantly, even at home you have it in your pocket or right next to you? Do you find someone to call as soon as you leave the classroom? Do you always feel anxious about your cell phone, especially when you are unable to use it ? (e.x. in class) Do you take cell phone breaks while doing homework? Do you experience high levels of anxiety, stress, or insecurity whenever you are without your cell phone? Do you sometimes believe your phone is ringing, but when you answer it or listen longer you find it wasn't ringing at all (known as 'phantom ringing')? International Center for Media & the Public Affairs This chart shows the emotions and reactions of students in 10 countries who went without media for 24 hours. The numbers represent relative weights for each country. CELL PHONE ADDICTION • Cell phone addiction • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27KNuVY1N t0&feature=related • Texting addiction • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9umfbZTF iI&feature=related SURVEY founds that… • According to the survey conducted by the Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project: “(In the U.S.,)cell phone ownership is especially prominent among young adults, as 96% of 18-29 year olds now own a mobile phone.” (Aaron Smith) In Stanford’s study of Iphone Addiction: • College students: • TOTAL participants:200 • “75 percent confessed to sleeping with their iPhone next to them.” • “15 percent said the iPhone was turning them into a media addict” • “30 percent referred to their smartphone as a doorway into the world." • 41 percent felt it would be "a tragedy" to lose their iPhone.” How does cell phone addiction happen? Physically: • The Brain-wiring Center • a brain messenger (controls activities such as reward, feeling good) • Neurotransmitter • Dopamine • Feeling of Euphoria!! “Dopamine is responsible for the euphoria that addicts chase, …the addict becomes conditioned to compulsively seek, crave and recreate the sense of elation while off-line or off-drug.” • Dopamine transmits the feeling of euphoria for N times (repeat over and over again !) Brain‟s Pleasure Center Addiction! How does cell phone addiction happen? Psychologically: adolescence mind • According to Jessor (1977): • 1. gain admission to peer groups, demonstrate identification with a youth subculture • 2. confirm personal identity • 3. express opposition to adult authority and conventional society • 4. take control of their lives • 5. make a development transition into young adulthood • 6.Pleasure and fun-seeking Why “addict”? • After doing some search, I found that… • Cell phone over-use v.s CBT(cognitive behavioral therapy): • “Cognitive restructuring exercises are also introduced to help the person recognize why behavioural avoidance, reassurance-seeking behaviours and „safety‟ behaviours (e.g., the person experiencing panic who always carries a cell phone just in case he or she needs to call for help) are unhelpful long-term strategies. CBT has been found to be effective for all the anxiety disorders.” (Center of Addiction and Mental Health) Working as Slot machine--addictive • Brain trained to have associative learning: memory • Create an relationship between the feeling of winning to the act of gambling/addiction(cell phone overuse) • During the intermittent time: your brain springs up the craving of checking cell phones Therefore, conclusion: • Cell phone addiction is very likely arisen from: • 1. a kind of cognitive behavioral disorder (anxiety of insecurity) • 2. associative learning form (create associative memory, expect, and craving) • 3. For young adults: to gain admission to peer groups, express opposition to adult authority, and make a development transition into young adulthood THANK YOU Have you use your cell phone today?