Temecula Valley Young Marines
P.O. Box 892466
Temecula, Ca 02589
23 Feb 06
Terminal Learning Objective: In a classroom setting provided a test or written assignment complete all
questions in a timely manner.
Enabling Learning Objectives:
(1) Without the use of your guide book, Describe in writing “What are designer drugs?”
(2)Without the use of your guide book, Describe in writing “What are some of the side effects and
toxicity of these drugs?”
(3) Without the use of your guidebook, Describe in writing, “How many types of fentanyls are there?”
(4) Without the use of your guidebook, Describe in writing, “What are fentanyls?”
(5) Without the use of your guidebook, Describe in writing, “What are designer hallucinogenic drugs?”
(6) Without the use of your guidebook, Describe in writing, “What is GHB?”
Designer drugs are synthetic (man-made), illegal drugs produced in underground labs and sold on the street. Many
of these drugs are used by youth and young adults at dance parties and clubs, and are also known as “club drugs.”
Although users may think these drugs are harmless, they can be dangerous. It is impossible to know exactly what
chemicals were used to produce them, and they are often used in combination with other drugs or alcohol with
unpredictable and dangerous results.
DESIGNER DRUGS: THE ANALOG GAME
The term “designer drugs” was originally coined in the laboratory of Dr. Gary Henderson at the University of California at Davis. It was
originally meant to refer to the increasing sophistication of chemists in illicit laboratories who are able to produce drugs designed to fit the
tastes of individual clients. Designer drugs are beginning to play a more prominent role in the drug marketplace. The aim of these
chemists is to manufacture compounds that produce the “high” or euphoria of controlled substances (such as narcotics, depressants,
stimulants, or hallucinogens), but that are chemically different and thus are not subject to the provisions of the Controlled Substances Act.
By selling these chemical variants (analogs), the clandestine manufacturer can profit from the distribution of dangerous
compounds that can be abused, while avoiding the penalties that would be levied against those illegally trafficking a controlled
HISTORY OF DRUG History (continued from column 1 - this page)
The term “designer drugs” was originally Several of these analogs were produced
ARE DRUGS OF CHOICE
coined in the laboratory of Dr. Gary in clandestine laboratories. Many of the
Henderson at the University of California at analogs mimic the qualitative actions of
1) Economic and social costs must be
Davis. It was originally meant to refer to the original compound, but may vary in
considered an important part of all dis-
the increasing sophistication of cussions regarding synthetic drugs, es- potency (the dose required to produce
chemists in illicit laboratories who are pecially because of drugs which can maximal effects) and/or duration of ac-
able to produce drugs designed to fit the cause neurodegenerative diseases. tion.
tastes of individual clients. The use of
chemical analogs for the purpose of 2) The training needs for law enforce- Designer drugs are beginning to play a
avoiding the laws regulating controlled ment, and the treatment network, must be more prominent role in the drug addicts’
substances was first noticed in the 1960’s addressed immediately. Without
marketplace. Such drugs as fentanyl
appropriate training these institutions
with the synthesis and sale of the am-
cannot mitigate this emerging problem. analogs are being sold as “China White”
phetamine analogs of mescaline. or “Synthetic Heroin,” etc., and are being
3) The domestic production of new, potent, asked for by addicts on the street. Avail-
The concept of designing pharmacologi- synthetic drugs will be the major drug ability and price are attractive to the user.
cally active, chemically related sub- abuse problem in the future. As efforts to Some users feel that the designer drugs
stances referred to as analogs, is neither control natural products be- come more may contain less adulterants than the
new nor restricted to clandestine labora- successful, there will be more incentive to
parent illicit drug.
illicitly synthesize drugs.
tories. In fact, many controlled sub-
stance analogs were not designed by 4) New synthetic drugs will appear which SIDE EFFECTS & TOXICITY
clandestine chemists, but are substances will be more potent and more se- lective in OF DESIGNER DRUGS
that were developed by legitimate phar- their action.
maceutical chemists and published in the Respiratory depression is the most
scientific literature. In the quest for better 5) Smoking and “snorting” these drugs
(routes of administration difficult to de- significant acute toxic effect of the
medicinal agents, pharmaceutical com- designer drugs.
tect) will become more popular.
panies will synthesize and test numerous Bradycardia - Some of the designer
analogs of a parent compound. Example, 6) The low risk of detection will stimu- late drugs decrease the heart rate up to
1-Phenyl Cyclohexyl Piperidine (PCP) their use in populations such as prisoners, 25% with a parallel drop in blood
was developed by Parke Davis Pharma- parolees, and military person- nel. pressure of up to 20 %.
ceutical Company along with at least 34 Addiction liability - Many of the
other analogs which were published in designer drugs produce both toler-
the open literature. ance and physiologic dependence
(Continued column 3 - this page)
following repeated administration.
SYNTHETIC NARCOTICS PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
FENTANYLS FENTANYL DERIVATIVES OF “CHINA WHITE”
HISTORY OF DRUG Fentanyl derivatives used in human The fentanyls are cut (diluted) with
The fentanyls are a class of very potent and veterinary medicine: large amounts of lactose or sucrose
narcotic-analgesics synthesized by the (powdered sugar) before they are
Janssen Pharmaceutical Company of Fentanyl - was introduced into the sold on the street so the amount of
Belgium. Although the chemical struc- United States in 1968 as an intra- active drug present is exceedingly
tures of these drugs are quite different venous analgesic-anesthetic. Fen- small, less than 1 percent. These
from the opiates and opioids, the tanyl now occupies a major place in amounts are so small they con-
therapeutics as a pre-anesthetic tribute nothing to the color, odor, or
derivatives are pharmacologically and
medication. Fentanyl is very potent
toxicologically similar to the opium- taste of the sample.
(approximately 100 times as potent
based narcotics such as morphine. Fen-
as morphine) and short acting
tanyl, the parent drug, is used exten- Color - The color of the street drug
(duration of action is approximately
sively in clinical medicine as an intra- 30 minutes). It is probably used in has ranged from pure white (sold as
venous analgesic-anesthetic under the over 70 percent of all surgeries in Persian White), to light tan (sold as
trade name Sublimaze. It is a well the United States Synthetic Heroin), to a light brown
respected drug. Sufentanyl - is an extraordinarily (sold as Mexican Brown). The
potent derivative (2000-4000 times brown color comes from the lactose
Beginning in 1979, illicitly synthe- stronger than morphine) used as an which has been heated and has
sized derivatives of fentanyl began ap- anesthetic-analgesic agent for car- caramelized slightly.
pearing on the streets as drugs of abuse diac surgery.
under the name of “China White,” the Alfentanyl - is a very short acting Texture - The texture of the street
name usually associated with the very (15 minute), slightly less potent samples has ranged from light and
pure Southeast Asian heroin. Soon derivative (20 to 30 times stronger finely powdered to somewhat
thereafter a series of deaths occurred in than morphine) currently in clinical coarse, cake-like, and crumbly,
Southern California which looked like trials as an ultra-short acting anal- somewhat resembling powdered
typical heroin overdose deaths, except gesic to be used in diagnostic, den- milk.
that toxicological analysis failed to de- tal, and minor surgical procedures.
tect any narcotic. Over 100 deaths were Lofentanyl - is extremely potent Odor - Occasional samples will
reported. (6000 times stronger than mor- have a medicinal or chemical odor,
phine), and very long acting and is but this is not characteristic.
being evaluated for use when pro-
longed analgesia and respiratory Packaging - Samples are sold like
depression are required, such as in heroin. Many times it is found in
tetanus and multiple trauma.
small zip-lock plastic bags and
Because of these deaths, through par- The Illicit Analogs - very little is
tial support by the California State known about the biological effects.
In summary, the fentanyls appear in
Department of Alcohol and Drug Pro- all the various forms that heroin
Alpha-methyl Fentanyl - was the first
grams, a more sensitive analytical does, and there is nothing charac-
illicit fentanyl derivative to ap- pear
method of detection has been devel- teristic about the appearance of any
on the streets. It is a very simple
oped. The laboratories, using these sample that will identify it as fen-
modification of the fentanyl structure,
new methods, have now confirmed the and is about 200 times as potent as
detection of various fentanyl deriva- morphine. PHARMACOLOGICAL
tives in body fluids of overdose vic- Benzyl Fentanyl - has recently ap-
tims. In addition, they have detected
EFFECTS OF FENTANYL
peared mixed with other fentanyl
the fentanyls in the urine of a signifi- derivatives in street samples. It is The euphoria or “rush” from the
cant number of individuals enrolled in possibly an unwanted synthetic by- fentanyls is qualitatively similar to
various Methadone and other drug product, or an intermediate used in that of heroin, and the intensity of
treatment programs throughout Cali- the synthesis of other fentanyl the effect would depend upon the
fornia. derivatives. It has no narcotic ef- dose and the particular derivative
fect. used. It should also be remembered
To date they have identified ten differ- 3-Methyl Fentanyl - is the latest that although the fentanyls are
ent fentanyl derivatives in samples be- derivative to be introduced onto the chemically quite distinct from other
ing sold illicitly under a variety of streets and it is certainly one of most narcotics, they are pharmacologi-
names such as “China White”, Syn- potent of the fentanyls (3000 times as cally equivalent.
thetic Heroin” and “Fentanyl.” potent as morphine).
DESIGNER DRUGS METHODS OF USE - History of Drug ) GHB is an
HALLUCINOGENIC HALLUCINOGENIC anesthetic (sleep inducer), without
AMPHETAMINES AMPHETAMINES analgesic (pain relieving) properties,
that has been found naturally
HISTORY OF DRUG occurring in minute quantities in brain
MDA is usually found in powder form
This family o f drugs are amphetamine and other tissues in the human body.
and is sold on the street as the Love Drug or
analogues of the psychedelic drug, Psychedelic Speed. MDMA is found in
mescaline (methoxylated phenylethy- GHB has no nutritional value. Typical
tablet, capsule, and powder form.
lamine.) This group contains more than a side effects from ingested doses include
MDMA is sold as ecstasy. XTC, ADAM,
thousand different but related chemi- cal nausea, coma (sometimes abrupt and
essence, cocaine or MDA. The average
substances. These drugs have a high profound), uncontrollable seizures and
dose is between 50 and 150 milligrams.
potential for abuse and have no redeem- respiratory depression. During the last
The popular way of taking the
ing therapeutic value. Among those few months law enforcement has expe-
drug is though oral ingestion.
known to us are methylenedioxyam- rienced an increased presence in driv-
However, some have found
phetamine (MDA) - psychedelic speed ing under the influence, sexual assault
injection to get a
and 3,4 methylenedioxyamphetamine cases, and with overdose incidents, es-
quicker effect. The duration of a
(MDMA) - Ecstasy. pecially at “RAVE” type parties. GHB
trip is approximately eight to
is a central nervous system depressant
twelve hours. Sometimes the
The description of these analogues that was originally
effects of a high dose can last so long,
sound like the fulfillment of a abused by body- builders who believed
ebbing and returning, that the user may
psychedelic user’s fantasy. Users have think that they will never end.
it would stimulate the
reported the onset as a warm glow body’s production of
spreading through their bodies, fol- growth hormone.
As to psychological toxicity - some peo-
lowed by a sense of physical and mental ple can suffer panic reactions or“bad trips,”
well being that gradually but steadily as with other psychedelic drugs. Some METHODS OF USE - “GHB”
intensifies. Some have described a sense of users mistake the increased heart rate for GHB, in its pure form, can be found in
increased coordination and ability to do a heart attack, thus developing cardiac powder. However, GHB encountered
things they couldn’t ordinarily do. anxiety, which increases the panic on the street, is illicitly produced and is
reaction. primarily distributed as a clear liquid.
There has been some reporting of a
The street sales and use of these ana- bitter taste associated with the drug.
logues are promoted through the distri- However, in most cases the drug is
bution of pamphlets and circulars enti- taken with alcohol and can cover up
tled “Ecstasy, Everything Looks Wonder- the taste.
ful When You’re Young and on Drugs,”
“Flight Instructions for a Friend Using
BAD EFFECTS OF “GHB” USE
XTC,” “Ecstasy,” 21st Century En-
Unlike most stimulants, however, these theogen,” “How to Prepare for an Ec-
analogues do not increase motor activ- In June 1996, in Los Angeles, Califor-
stasy Experience,” and “Reflections on nia, four males between the ages of 16
ity, but in fact suppresses it. Thus, con- the Nature and Use of XTC.”
sumers can sometimes sit in meditation, and 20 were found unconscious on a
or do yoga and related activities, for public street after consuming GHB.
DESIGNER DRUG - GAMMA The young men were in various stages
long periods of time. Some of these
HYDROXY BUTYRATE (GHB) of respiratory arrest and at least two
analogues have shown through research
that they work as an appetite depres- had to be resuscitated.
HISTORY OF DRUG
sant. Others have reported these Gamma Hydroxy Butyrate (GHB) is
analogues produce feelings of aesthetic The 16-year-old later stated that he
classified as a depressant and a hypnotic had consumed 12 beers, several dex-
delight, empathy, serenity, joy, insight, type drug. When GHB is used in con-
and self- awareness, without perceptual atrim (diet pills), and then took two
junction with alcohol or other drugs, “swigs” of GHB which was offered to
changes, loss of control, or detrimental effects occur in increasing
depersonalization; and seems to the large party group in a gallon water
numbers. It is difficult to isolate the jug. He stated that the substance tasted
eliminate anxiety and de- fensiveness. impact of GHB ingestion since it is so
The user feels himself to be a child and like “cow manure” and that he recalls
typically taken with an ever-changing nothing from that moment until he
relives childhood experi- ences in full array of other drugs.
immediacy, while simulta- neously woke in a hospital bed, grateful to be
remaining aware of his present self and alive.
During this period of instruction you have learned
a. What are designer drugs?
b. What are some of the side effects and toxicity of these drugs?
c. How many types of fentanyls are there?
d. What are fentanyls?
e. What are designer hallucinogenic drugs?
f. What is GHB?
California Narcotics Association