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					   The
Middle Ages
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          The Middle Ages
  INTRODUCTION
• Cause: Began
   with the collapse
   of Roman
   civilization in W.
   Europe by A.D.
   476.
• Effect: With the
   Dark Ages (Early
   Middle Ages)
   came a loss of
   literacy & a
   common
   language
   throughout the
   west. Cities &
   towns declined,
   trade collapsed
   & people
   returned to a
   rural way of life.
       The Middle Ages
   Role of Christianity
• The Catholic Church was
  the only lasting Roman
  institution. It had great
  power as a spiritual
  empire and acted as the
  strongest civilizing force
  in the west.
• It began taking on more
  political and social tasks.
  High church officials
  became land owners
  which boosted its wealth
  & political power but
  often undermined its          Europe in A.D. 500
  spiritual aspects.
       The Middle Ages
• The Pope
  became the
  strongest                                  Pope Benedict XVI,
                                             the current Pope.
  political
  leader in W.
  Europe &
  claimed
  spiritual
  authority over
                    Simon Peter, the first
  all Christians.         Pope.
    The Middle Ages
• Monasteries
  remained the only
  institution
  upholding learning
  & an orderly way of
  life. Monks
  became
  missionaries &
  converted most of
  W. Europe to
  Catholicism by
  A.D. 1000.
       The Middle Ages
                THE FRANKS
•   See The Franks and Charlemagne Reading.
        The Middle Ages
                       Feudalism (A.D. 1000)
• While internal feuding weakened kingdoms, invasions by Muslims,
  Magyars, Slavs & Vikings nearly destroyed them. Fear of these
  invasions resulted in Feudalism.
     The Middle Ages
 The feudal system
  (political) &
  manorial system
  (economic) were
  based on the
  exchange of land
  grants for loyalty
  between monarchs
  and lesser nobles
  designed to
  promote local
  protection, local
  government and
  local self-
  sufficiency.
        The Middle Ages
• The system was based
  on the king giving a fief
  (land grant) to a vassal
  (nobleman) in exchange
  for their loyalty and
  military aid. With the
  land came serfs
  (peasant slaves) who
  farmed it.
• In theory, feudal
  relationships were like a
  pyramid with the king at
  the top, various ranks of
  vassals called lords
  (knights) in the middle &
  the serfs/free peasants
  at the bottom.
        The Middle Ages
•   Feudalism decline
    as kings realized
    they were losing
    land & power to the
    nobles.
•   By 1100, many
    European monarchs
    began to build
    strong states & rid
    themselves of feudal
    ties. Though some
    feudal ties remained   William the Conqueror:
    in some areas of        A case study in why
    Europe until the        feudalism declined.
    1800’s.
The Middle Ages
 The East-West
  Schism took place
  within the original
  church. In AD 1054,
  the church split
  into the Roman
  Catholic Church
  headed by the
  Pope in the west &
  the Eastern
  Orthodox Church
  led by the Patriarch
  in the East.
      The Middle Ages
Life During the Middle Ages:
•    See Reading.
      The Middle Ages
• Medieval city of Carcassonne .
               The Middle Ages
                    The Late Middle Ages
• By 1100, some monarchs began ridding themselves of feudal ties
  to build strong central gov’ts. Better farming methods led to
  larger crop yields & a growth in population, resulting in the growth
  of towns & trade. This transformation began with the Crusades.




             Europe in A.D. 1092
       The Middle Ages
                       THE CRUSADES
• In the 1100s, W. Europeans began the Crusades, a series of
  religious wars to win back the Holy Land from the Muslims.
       The Middle Ages
• Though Christians won
  control of this territory
  at times temporarily,
  they failed to regain
  the Holy Land
  permanently.
• DO NOT COPY: The
  film Kingdom of
  Heaven is about the
  first crusaders losing
  the Kingdom of
  Jerusalem.
            The Middle Ages
    EFFECTS OF CRUSADES
•   Stimulated trade with Asia,
    strengthening the merchant
    class.
•   Enhanced the status of noble
    women managing castles &
    manors while their husbands
    were at war.
•   Weakened the nobility
    because many knights &
    lords were killed, captured, or
    lost.
•   Europeans acquired Asian
    inventions (gunpowder,
    crossbow, compass, & Arabic
    numerals).
•   It also resulted in the
    animosity that still exists
    between Muslims & the West.
        The Middle Ages
   The Black Death
• The Black Death, or
  Bubonic Plague,
  started in China in
  the 1330s &
  eventually spread
  to Europe.
• It is a bacteria
  disease spread by
  small animals (rats)
  & their fleas.
            The Middle Ages
• It is a bacteria disease spread by small animals (rats) & their
  fleas. It kills about 2 out of 3 infected people in 2–6 days.
           The Middle Ages
                 Effects of the Black Death

• Population: 25 million (1/3 of the pop.) died from 1347-1352. It
  took 400 years to recover the population loss.
• Economy: serfs abandoned farms; food production & skilled
  workers & laborers decreased; wages, prices & lawlessness
  increased.
• The Church: Its influence declined & people began turning away
  from the church because it had promised cures, treatment & an
  explanation for the plague, which they could not provide. Some of
  the clergy had abandoned their duties & fled. Doctors & priests had
  the highest mortality rates.
• Do Not Copy: Good website - http://www.insecta-
  inspecta.com/fleas/bdeath/Europe.html
         The Middle Ages
      The Renaissance
• As a result of the
  Crusades in part, the M.
  Ages ended & the
  Renaissance began. The
  start of this new era varied
  from place to place
  starting in Italian city-
  states in the AD 1300s.
• It was characterized by a
  renewed interest in
  classical (Greek/Roman)
  ideas & for great works of
  art in painting, sculpting,
  music & literature.
The End

				
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