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Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorders Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                             4/7/2011




                                                        Psychology 101.002




Psychological Disorders
       Defining psychological disorders
           must be
               ○ deviant
               ○ distressful to the patient
               ○ dysfunctional
           persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and behaviors



PSYC 101.002   VILLADO




Psychological Disorders
       Models of psychological disorders
           medical model
               ○ psychological disorders are mental illnesses
               ○ mental illnesses need to be diagnosed
               ○ mental illnesses are cured through treatment
           biopsychosocial model
               ○ psychological disorders are influenced by
                   genetic factors
                   physiological states
                   physiological dynamics
                   social and cultural circumstances


PSYC 101.002   VILLADO




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Psychological Disorders
       Diagnosing psychological disorders
           DSM–IV–TR
               ○ medical model (not biopsychosocial model)
               ○ defines a diagnostic process
               ○ 16 clinical syndromes
               ○ organized into a multiaxial system




PSYC 101.002    VILLADO




Psychological Disorders
           DSM–IV axes
               ○ axis I: clinical disorders
                   e.g., dementia, schizophrenia, eating and sleeping disorders
               ○ axis II: personality disorders and mental retardation
                   e.g., antisocial, paranoid, narcissistic personality disorders
               ○ axis III: general medical conditions
                   e.g., diseases of the nervous system
               ○ axis IV: psychosocial and environmental problems
                   e.g., social environment, occupational, educational
               ○ axis V: global assessment and functioning

PSYC 101.002    VILLADO




Psychological Disorders
       Anxiety disorders
           generalized anxiety disorder
           panic disorder
           agoraphobia
           social phobia
           specific phobias
           obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)
           post–traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
           acute stress disorder

PSYC 101.002    VILLADO




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Psychological Disorders
       Dissociative disorders
           depersonalization disorder
           dissociative amnesia
           dissociative fugue
           dissociative identity disorder
           dissociative disorder not otherwise specified



PSYC 101.002    VILLADO




Psychological Disorders
       Mood disorders
           depressive disorders
               ○ major depressive disorder
               ○ dysthymic disorder
           bipolar disorders
               ○ biploar I
               ○ bipolar II
               ○ cyclothymic disorder

PSYC 101.002    VILLADO




Psychological Disorders
       Schizophrenia
           schizophrenia
               ○   paranoid
               ○   disorganized
               ○   catatonic
               ○   unidentified
               ○   residual
           schizophreniform disorder
           schizoaffective disorder
           delusional disorder
           brief psychotic disorder
           shared psychotic disorder
PSYC 101.002    VILLADO




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Psychological Disorders
       Personality disorders
           paranoid
           schizoid
           schizotypal
           antisocial
           borderline
           histrionic
           narcissistic
           avoidant
           dependent
           obsessive–compulsive

PSYC 101.002    VILLADO




Psychological Disorders
       Rates of psychological disorders
           1 in 7 people have experienced a psychological disorder during
           the prior year
           psychological disorders usually appear by early adulthood
               ○ 75% show first symptoms before age 24
           poverty predicts mental disorder
               ○ stress
               ○ demoralization
               ○ depression (women)
               ○ alcoholism (men)

PSYC 101.002    VILLADO




Therapy
       Effectiveness of psychotherapies
           subjective evaluations are biased
               ○ client perspective
               ○ therapist perspective
           objective outcome studies are critical
               ○ primary studies and meta–analysis
                   the untreated improve
                   people who seek psychotherapy are more likely to improve
                   when people seek psychological treatment, their search for other
                   medical treatment declines

PSYC 101.002    VILLADO




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