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IT IS OF HOPE

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					        Hope and Optimism:
      Seeing the Tree in the Seed




  2008 Spring Training Institute
Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse

          May 14, 2008
      Osage Beach, Missouri


  Mark Carey, The Carey Group
      Phone: 651-226-4755
  Email: mcarey.tcg@charter.net
         Hope never stops?
   Or is it a fleeting thing?


Hope is a thing with feathers;
That perches in the soul;
And sings the tune;
Without the words;
And never stops at all.

Emily Dickinson
  Background: Mark Carey




•Residential treatment counselor
•Probation/parole officer
•Director of four county Corrections agencies
•Deputy Commissioner, MN DOC
•Warden, women’s prison
•Consultant/trainer
    My Journey. Your Journey??
If you are a…….   It applies

US Citizen        -World events shape us
                  -Terrorism, economy, divisive election

Administrator     -Budget
                  -Do more with less

Parent            -Give your child the skills and attitude to
                  succeed

Individual        -Affects our health, outlook, quality of life,
                  social relations, and performance

Counselor/case    -Increased rates of depression

manager
                          Russ Fry:
  Author of The Accidental Criminal

“(Human Service Professionals) enter
neighborhoods and buildings that average
citizens do not even like to look at and sit in
kitchens where there is more despair than
food.”
Seeing the Tree in the Seed :
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     HOPE: MAIN POINTS


• What is it?
• Why is it important to understand?
• How can you draw it out?
  – In yourself
  – In those you work with
                   Definition


• The belief that something positive, which
  does not presently apply to one’s life, could
  still materialize, and so we yearn for it.
  (Richard S. Lazarus)


• The confident expectation of good to come
                   (author unknown)
              DEFINITION

• It contains these characteristics:
  –    active         - opportunistic
  –   empowering      - stubborn
  –   constructive    - learning
  –   utilitarian
            WHAT IT ISN’T

•   Foolish
•   Blind
•   Unrealistic
•   Forced
•   Inactive
•   A form of denial
•   Anti-realism
Apathy

• WWII Concentration
  Camp
  – Auschwitz
• Apathy blunts emotions
• Second stage of prisoner
  psychological reaction
• Made him insensitive to
  daily and hourly beatings
                           Why apathy?

• Apathy and cynicism are defenses against
  hope
• People are afraid to hope
• It opens up disappointment
• You cannot feel hope and remain idle
  Three sources of hope


Body


                      Spirit
       Mind
        Body, mind, spirit contains:


        Body            Mind                Spirit

Physical health   Mental health      Emotions

Genetic make-up   Cognitive patterns Spirituality

Brain             Beliefs/worldview Social interaction
Three sources of hope



Body       Spirit



    Mind
                    Hope math
Body + Mind + Spirit = Health

    • 0 + 0 + 0 = (10)

    • 1+0+0=1

    • 1+1+0=5

    • 1 + 1 + 1 = 10
   Hope can be a delicate thing…

                • One the one hand:
                    – It is part of our survival
                      make-up, will to live
                • On the other hand:
                    – We possess human tendencies
                      that threaten hope



                            Research
• Potential losses are given greater weight than potential gains

• One negative personal characteristic influences people’s feelings
about an individual more than a host of positive characteristics
     HOPE: MAIN POINTS


• What is it?
• Why is it important to understand?
• How can you draw it out?
  – In yourself
  – In those you work with
                                                    100%
       18-Month Felony and Misdemeanor Recidivism
                                                              Protective Factor: Positive
                                                    90%
                                                           Plans/Aspirations for the Future
                                                    80%

                                                    70%                                                  69%
                                                                        No Positive Plan/Aspirations
                                                    60%                 for the Future
                                                                                   53%                    58%
                                                    50%

                                                    40%       38%                              Positive Plan/Aspirations
                                                                                    40%        for the Future
                                                    30%

                                                    20%        27%

                                                    10%

                                                     0%
                                                             Low Risk          Moderate Risk           High Risk

Barnoski 2001 WSIPP
HOPE (OR OPTIMISM) IS THE:

• Enemy of despair

• Grand motivator

• Fuel of heroes
                “When the going gets tough,
                    the tough break down”
• They failed in school
• They failed in relationships
• They failed in crime
• Their gangs let them down
• They never learned to fight through
  adversity
• They have a nasty secret
    – They expect things to go wrong
    – Something always goes wrong
    – And, they get scared if and when
      things might be going right
  Research Study (drug court training)


  Psychiatrists who are enthusiastic about the
  effectiveness of a prescribed course of
  treatment and communicate this to client
  obtain significantly higher success rates
  (77% compared to 10%)

* Suggests linkage between outcomes and self
   efficacy
    WHY IS UNDERSTANDING HOPE
  IMPORTANT TO HUMAN SERVICES?

• Research shows that those with high levels
  of hope are more likely to:
  – Take action to get out of current predicament
  – Self fulfilling prophecy (spiral upward)
  – Take just the right amount of responsibility for
    bad events
  – Be healthier, live longer
  – Experience greater levels of social engagement
                                    Example

• Senior Block Warden confided
  – I had a strange dream
  – Wish for anything; answer any question
  – When will war be over (March 30)
• March 31st he died, allegedly of typhus



• Have you ever held off cold?
       SIX SOURCES FOR
      GOOD HOPE HEALTH

Body……………………Mind/Spirit

   Brain            Cognitive

  Physical          Spiritual

  Genetic        Social-emotional
     Hope (or the absence of it)
        affects your health

• Negative thought rumination leads to a
  “slumping” of the body, mind, and spirit
• This depressed state changes brain hormones
• Which creates a chain of biochemical events
  that make your immune system less active and
  effective
         Psychoneuroimmunology
            Dr. Robert Ader, 1975

Psycho       neuro         immun          ology

 mind    nervous system   immune system   study of
                      Research examples
• Women who underwent group therapy survived
  breast cancer twice as long as those who didn’t
• HIV infected men who received guidance in
  relaxation and other therapeutic techniques
  showed a delayed onset of AIDS related
  symptoms
• Sheldon Cohen (1991): during stressful exam
  time, medical students showed decline in activity
  of cells that fight off tumors and viral infections
                               Techniques

•   Guided imagery
•   Bio feedback
•   Hypnosis
•   Meditation
•   Use of circadian rhythms
The failure of human services to help clients find
  hope means that the client is more likely to:



   • Give up, not try
   • Resort to what is known and comfortable
     (and harmful)
   • Fail at things that could help turn around
     harmful lifestyle
   • Act helpless
   Study by Dr. Martin Seligman
             (Berkeley swim team)


• First, timed swimmers. Each well aware of their
  time
• Then, gave each a setback (gave them all a time
  slower than their real time)
• On the next heat
   – One group swam faster
   – One group swam slower
• What was the difference between group one and
  two?
 Three features that make up success

• Aptitude

• Motivation

• Optimism
       Learned Optimism
     Dr. Martin Seligman



  Example:
teaching dogs
    to be
   helpless
                  Example: Met Life
                 Year One   Year Two

Optimist              8%        31%

Pessimist             ___        ___



Optimist with         21%       57%
low aptitude
Pessimist with        ___        ___
high aptitude
        Those with hope (optimism):
   When bad things happen:      When good things happen:
   Do not:      Instead they:     Do not:      Instead they:
Catastrophize Minimize          Dismiss        Amplify


Blame self     Find external    Externalize    Take credit
               reasons
    The road to hopelessness…….
   Event


                  Explanatory style

                                      Pessimistic view
Optimistic view

                                             Rumination

    -Brief reaction

    -Taking action
                                            Loss of Hope
      Test Results (one of two slides)

• Total up points in       • Total up points in
  Column I, D, and F         Columns H, E, and B
• This is your pessimism   • This is your optimism
  score when bad events      score when good
  happen                     events happen

  – 0-6 optimistic           – 10-15 optimistic
  – 7 average                – 8-9 average
  – 8-14 pessimistic         – 0-7 pessimistic
       Test Results (two of two slides)
          Optimism
           Score               • Total up the points in
           Box 2
                                 Columns F and I
          Minus
                               • This is your hope score
                               and constitutes how
          Pessimism
            Score
                               hopeful you are when
            Box 1              negative events strike:

• This is your total           • This is your hope
  optimism score:                score:
   – 4 and above- optimistic      – 0-4 - hopeful
   – 2-3 average                  – 5 - average
   – 1 or below- pessimistic      – 6-10 - hopeless
    There is value in pessimism

  • See reality more clearly
  • Are “wiser”
  • May have been largely
    responsible for humankind
    survival
   The key is balance and selection
(flexible optimism: optimism with its eyes open)
     HOPE: MAIN POINTS


• What is it?
• Why is it important to understand?
• How can you draw it out?
  – In yourself
  – In those you work with
       SIX SOURCES FOR
      GOOD HOPE HEALTH

Body……………………Mind/Spirit

   Brain            Cognitive

  Physical          Spiritual

  Genetic        Social-emotional
   HOW TO DRAW HOPE OUT…

   1. COGNITIVE                 (avoiding wet weather in
        your soul)


Choose to focus on thoughts, events
 and interpretations that induce
       joy, encouragement,
     learning, pleasure, and
       constructive activity.
         COGNITIVE TIPS
1.   Train your brain (the word in your heart)
2.   Question everything
3.   Be for things, not against things
4.   Get off your rear end
5.   Take a chance
             Optimism and Hope Matrix
                  Good Event     Bad Event

Axis One        Credit         Blame

Axis Two        Exaggeration   Minimization

Axis Three      Permanence     Changeability

Total Score
            EVENT OCCURS

                 Pessimist         Optimist

Cognition        “It is useless”   Too bad, but I
                                   can change this
Initial emotion Sadness, listless, Disappointment,
                 helplessness      resolution
Response         Do nothing, lash Take action,
                 out, extend to    learn from it
                 other situations
Eventually leads Depression,       Reframing and
to…..            generalization    increased effort
   The PO Test           (Pessimistic/Optimistic)
      Pessimist      Event example           Optimist
I have no self      Fail to exercise    I didn’t plan my
discipline                              week well
I’ll never amount   Get poor job        I didn’t focus this
to anything         performance         year. I’ll do better
                                        next
I was just lucky     Receive            Thank you
                     compliment
I never get a break. Buying a lottery   It is my turn to win
What’s the use?      ticket
Why bother? They Your employer          This is my chance
never listen or      asks for input     to make a
follow through                          difference
         COGNITIVE TIPS
1.   Train your brain
2.   Question everything
3.   Be for things, not against things
4.   Get off your rear end
5.   Take a chance
        Question everything

• Read the book:

“Sacred Cows Make the Best Burgers”
         COGNITIVE TIPS
1.   Train your brain
2.   Question everything
3.   Be for things, not against things
4.   Get off your rear end
5.   Take a chance
  Be For Something…..

• Restate what you oppose
  in positive terms
You are what you focus on
• Can determine a person’s heart by
  looking at their checkbook and
  calendar
• Where spend time and money
         COGNITIVE TIPS
1.   Train your brain
2.   Question everything
3.   Be for things, not against things
4.   Get off your rear end
5.   Take a chance
         MOVE versus BROOD



• Taking action, even if it is not
  likely going to improve the
  outcome, helps your mindset
         COGNITIVE TIPS
1.   Train your brain
2.   Question everything
3.   Be for things, not against things
4.   Get off your rear end
5.   Take a chance
     Take a chance
“Never be afraid to try
something new. Remember:
amateurs built the ark;
professionals built the
Titanic.”
          Author unknown
          Take a chance
• “The way to succeed is to
  double your failure rate.”

Thomas Watson, founder of computer giant IBM
     Elderly survey:
What would you “do-over?”
• Wouldn’t have sweat the “small stuff”
• Would have been more people oriented
• Would have aimed higher, taken more
  risks
• Would have pursued their dream and
  been less persuaded by what others
  thought
   HOW TO PULL HOPE OUT…

  2. SPIRITUAL

•A belief in a higher power

• Being a part of something that is bigger than
  yourself

•Something that captures the essence of who
 you are and inspires you
                                Hope Tip

• “He who has a why to live for can bear with
  almost any how.” Nietzsche
                                    Suffering

• When one finds that it is his or her destiny
  to suffer, or that it serves a larger purpose,
  he accepts his suffering as his or her task
                       Passing the Torch
                                Exercise

1. What is it that you feel hopeless about?
   (eg, there are no good leaders anymore)
2. Think of a person who fulfilled this hope
   (dead or alive)
3. Imagine that person standing before you
   passing a torch and asking you to pick up
   where he/she left off
     Spiritual concepts

            Joy




Afterlife

                  Courage
        Religious sayings

•   One with God is a majority
•   If God is for us, who can be against us?
•   With God, all things are possible
•   God will never leave you nor forsake you
       SPIRITUAL TIPS

1. Find your spiritual home (or dwelling,
   cave, sauna, nest……) and spend time
   there
2. Get a purpose in life
           Wild at Heart
by author John Eldredge


  • “Don’t ask yourself what the world needs.
    Ask yourself what makes you come alive,
    and go do that, because what the world
    needs is people who have come alive.”
 In those we work with, recognize and
   reinforce resiliency when you see it

ASK:
• Why are you still alive?
• Why haven’t you given up?
• What keeps you hanging on?
• What is it that you are looking forward to?
• What makes you think that can happen?
HOW TO PULL HOPE OUT…

3. SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL
SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL TIPS


1. Fill in your whine cellar with $1 bills
2. Yuk it up
3. Pick new friends
Make a pact with someone



    Whining
SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL TIPS


1. Fill in your whine cellar with $1 bills
2. Yuk it up
3. Pick new friends
SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL TIPS


1. Fill in your whine cellar with $1 bills
2. Yuk it up
3. Pick new friends
       Comic Strip: Charlie Brown

• Charlie Brown says:
“These are the hands which may someday
  accomplish great things. These are hands
  which may someday do marvelous works!
  They may build mighty bridges, or heal the
  sick, or hit home runs, or write soul-stirring
  novels! These are the hands which may
  someday change the course of destiny!”
         To which replies Lucy……

• “Yeah, They’ve got jelly on them.”
       Pick new friends
• Optimists surround selves with those who fuel
  us as opposed to those who drain us.

• Those who say “Why Not?” Instead of why it
  can’t be done.

• Those who inspire, support and assist instead
  of discourage, distract, and undermine.
      SIZE DOES MATTER!!
How big is your…..?

• Rolodex?
• Hope chest?
• Support group?

Hope comes from inner strength, higher power, and others
             Two things that can
               change your life
FINDING:

• YOUR YOUTH
  – REDISCOVERING YOUR LOST DREAMS


• YOUR INDIVIDUALITY
  – PAINTING YOUR OWN MONA LISA
 1. SIXTY BY SIXTY LIST

* List the sixty things you would like to do by
  the time you reach the age of sixty.

* Might range from mundane but never done
  (eg, shave head or grocery conveyer belt) to
  the exotic or difficult (such as live on ocean,
  skydive, write a book, or go to Mecca)

				
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