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					                  RACCOON
• Black-brown coat; bushy,
  ringed tail; black facial
  mask
• Dunk food in water before
  eating
• Omnivores – berries,
  insects, eggs, etc.
• Acute sense of touch on
  their feet
• Great climbers; come
  down at night for food
• Emerge to find food in
  winter
                  BLACK BEAR
• Largest animal hunted in Pa
• 140-400 lbs (typically)
• Glossy black coat, tan muzzle,
  may have white “V” on chest
• Good sense of smell; poor
  vision
• Find food mainly by scent
• Largely vegetarian; will eat
  most anything
• Of greatest danger are those
  accustomed to humans
• Fatten in fall; hibernate in
  winter
                      BAT
• Only flying mammals
• 9 species of bats in PA
• Most common type in PA:
  Little Brown Bat
• Insect eaters
• Feed over water
• Use echolocation
• Fly mostly at night
• Hibernate
                    WOODCHUCK
                         (groundhog)
• One of PA’s most common
  mammals
• Closely related to rodents such
  as squirrels and chipmunks
• Dig burrows which are often
  seen as a nuisance or danger
• 5-10 lbs; bristly 6” tail
• Brown fur (no commercial value)
• Dark brown or black feet
• Food: vegetation
• Sensory areas all near top of
  “chuck’s” head so it can stick just
  top of head out of burrow to
  check surroundings
• Most time spent underground in
  burrows near edges of fields
• Hibernate
                   SQUIRRELS
• Gray squirrel – most
  familiar
• Rodents
• Tail used for balance
• Food: nuts, berries, buds
• Most heavily harvested
  small game species
• Others: red squirrel,
  flying squirrel, fox squirrel
                  CHIPMUNK
• Sm. Rodent
• 8-10” / 2-4 oz.
• Striped
• Internal cheek pouches
• Omnivores (bird eggs,
  nuts, seeds, worms, etc.
• Store food in
  underground burrows
• Young – blind & naked
• Habitat: woods with
  stumps and logs
             MICE & VOLES
• Small creatures
• Base of food chain
• Prefer vegetation, will
  eat eggs, insects,
  snails, etc.
• Feed at night, active     Deer Mouse

  yr. round
Deer Mouse
              Red Backed Vole




Meadow Vole
Meadow Vole
                  WOODRAT
                  “pack rat”
• Lives in remote, rocky
  habitats
• Grayish-brown coat
  above, white below
• Round ears, long
  whiskers, bulging eyes
• Stockpile food &
  “treasures” (skulls,
  feathers, bottle caps,
  coins, rags, etc.)
                               SHREW
•   Food: mainly insects (“Insectivore”)
•   Usually less than 5”
•   Light brown or gray coat
•   Look like mice BUT – shrews have 5
    toes/foot and mice have 4 toes/foot
    (front)
•   Sharp, pointed dark stained teeth
•   Beadier eyes and pointier noses
    than mice
•   One species has poisonous saliva
•   Many species in PA - hard to tell
    apart
•   Very rapid metabolism (1,200
    beats/min.) so starve to death easily
        RED & GRAY FOXES
• Same family as dogs,
  coyotes and wolves
• Sharp senses of sight,
  smell, hearing
• Full, thick coat & bushy
  tails
• Lighter underside
• Gray fox only member of
  canine family that can
  climb trees
• Food: small mammals &
  birds
• Also scavengers
          EASTERN COYOTE
• 45-55 lbs.
• Blond, reddish-blond,
  black, dark brown
• Yellow eyes
• Yip, bark & howl
• Nocturnal, but often hunt
  in a.m.
• Food: deer, rabbits,
  woodchuck & birds
• Most common in northern
  ½ of state
       COTTONTAIL RABBIT
• Long-eared mammal
• Brown above, white
  below
• 2” white tail
• Like to live in abandoned
  woodchuck burrows
• Herbivores
• Zigzag pattern used to
  avoid predators
• Major source of food for
  other wildlife
• Prefer brush piles and
  shrubs for cover
              VARYING HARE
             (snowshoe rabbit)
• Varying refers to changes
  in pelt color
• Not a true rabbit
• Longer ears and larger
  furry, feet than a rabbit
• Brown in summer
• Light affects color change
  (glands)
• Circles like a cottontail
  when chased
• PA southernmost state
  for showshoes
                          BOBCAT
•   Elusive
•   Also known as “lynx” or “wildcat”
•   Only feline predator in PA
•   Fierce fighter
•   Gray-brown fur with spots and
    bars
•   Lips, chin, belly are white
•   Fur extends out, downward from
    ears
•   “bobs” due to longer back legs
•   Strong swimmer and excellent
    climber
•   Food: small animals, injured
    deer
•   Live in mountains, deep forests
    and swamps
           WHITE-TAILED DEER
•   Holds white tail erect when
    running
•   Reddish or grayish brown
•   Fawns are spotted
•   Scent producing glands used to
    convey excitement, fear or mark
    territory
•   Color-blind
•   Bleat, grunt & whine
•   Males grow, shed antlers each
    year
•   Antler growth = food conditions
•   Covered in velvet in spring,
    summer
•   herbivores
•   Easily overpopulate; must be
    managed
                             ELK
• Lg. population in PA in early
  1800’s
• Member of deer family
• Large, strong, muscular
  animals
• Tawny brown or brownish-gray
  coat with darker neck, chest
  and legs
• Whitish rump
• Jump and swim well
• Distinct bellowing mating call
• Large antlers
• Food: primarily graze
• Only approx. 500 in PA
                      OPOSSUM
• Only marsupial on the
  continent
• Name derived from word
  meaning “white animal”
• Long snout, many sharp teeth,
  dark eyes, bare ears
• Naked, tapering, scaly tail like
  a rats
• Light gray coat with dark brown
  or black legs and feet
• Great climbers (tails for
  gripping and balancing)
• May fake death for minutes or
  hours
• Food: omnivores (eat
  whatever they can find)
                            BEAVER
•   Largest rodent in N. America
•   Valuable pelt
•   Build dams along waterways
•   Shy, nocturnal
•   40-60 lbs.
•   Lg. tail with scaly, leather-like
    covering used as propeller or
    rudder
•   Slap tail to warn others of
    danger
•   Front teeth never stop growing
•   Eat bark and vegetation
•   Build dams and lodges
                  PORCUPINE
• 2nd largest rodent to
  beaver
• Food: tree bark (CRAVE
  salt)
• Bright orange teeth!
• Quills (specialized air-
  filled hairs) are yellow or
  white-tipped
• Quill shafts rise when
  threatened
• Dislodge quills on contact
  (cannot throw them)
• Eat plant material
                      WEASELS
• Mustelid family (with skunks,
  otters, minks, etc.)
• Long, slim bodies with short
  legs and 5 clawed toes on
  each foot
• Long necks, small heads, low
  ears
• Good hunters – like to eat
  small rodents
• Fast metabolism – must eat a
  lot
• Some change from brown to
  white in winter
• Ermine = short-tailed weasel
                RIVER OTTER
• Aquatic mammal (great
  swimmer –swift & agile)
• Weasel family
• Layer of fat to insulate
• Streamlined body & long
  tail
• Dark brown fur
• Webbed feet
• Food: fish, turtles, snails,
  crayfish, etc.
• Playful with other otters
                     FISHER
• Swift, elegant, tree-
  climber
• Related to weasels,
  otters, skunks, etc.
• Long body, short legs
• Long fur, appears to be
  glossy black
• Fishers seldom hunt for
  fish!
• Food: mice, shrews,
  squirrels, etc.
               STRIPED SKUNK
• Mustelid – related to
  weasels, otters, mink, etc.
• Walk on all fours, flat-footed
  like bears and raccoons
• Long, sharp claws for
  digging
• Black with white forehead,
  shoulders (“V”), back and
  tail (partially)
• Large, potent scent glands
  for defense with nozzles on
  either side of the rectum
• Can shoot “musk” about 12’
• Food: omnivores (eat
  whatever is available – feed
  heavily on insects)
• Great horned owl is
  greatest predator
                      MUSKRATS
• Found in wetland habitats
• Dark brown or black coat
• “musk” refers to strong-
  smell released from glands
  that attracts mates
• “rat” refers to its relation to
  mice, rats, beavers and
  other rodents
• Look like small beavers
  with long, rat-like tails
• Nation’s most abundant fur
  bearer                            Muskrat
• Food: roots and stems of
  aquatic plants and small
  aquatic animals
                             MINK
• Mink is main predator of the
  muskrat
• Short legs; long, bushy tail; long
  neck; short head
• Thick, soft chocolate-brown coat
• Swim and dive with ease (webbed
  hairs on feet help)
• Fierce killers
• Food: muskrats, mice, fish, frogs,
  crayfish, etc.
• Generally feed on any prey
                                       Mink
  available in water
• Very valuable pelt

				
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posted:7/5/2011
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