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The Age of Imperialism The Age of Imperialism

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					The Age of Imperialism
  What was the global impact of Imperialism
    in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?

                                 What is power?
                               How do we get it?
The Second Industrial Revolution
 Causes:
   New inventions create industrialized economies:
      Steel
      Electricity
      Internal-combustion Engine
      Discovery of Oil and Gasoline
   Watch video
The Second Industrial Revolution
 Some of the Effects:
   1. Globalization due to advanced transportation,
      trade, and investment abroad.
   2. Social Classes emerge due to unequal
      distribution of wealth (capitalism).
   3. Socialist Movement: Karl Marx, et al.
   4. Race for resources at home and abroad
      necessitates colonization = Age of Imperialism.
                                              Imperialism
 As Defined:
    The practice of one country extending its control over the territory,
     political system, economic and/or cultural life of another country in
     order to protect its hegemony.
 Causes:
    Nationalism: Intense European rivalries between Britain, France,
     Germany, and US to achieve global dominance.
    Economics: To open foreign markets and extract raw materials
     needed to maintain industrial superiority.
    Politics: To create political instability/reliability in resource rich areas.
    National Security: To control critical geographic locations in order to
     advance military objectives.
    White Man’s Burden: European sense of superiority that made them
     feel obligated to “civilize (and Christianize) the heathen savages”
     they encountered.
                     Take up the White Man's burden

White Man’s Burden   Send forth the best ye breed
                     Go, bind your sons to exile
By Rudyard Kipling   To serve your captives' need;
                     To wait, in heavy harness,
                     On fluttered folk and wild
                     Your new-caught sullen peoples,
                     Half devil and half child.
                     Take up the White Man's burden--
                     In patience to abide,
                     To veil the threat of terror
                     And check the show of pride;
                     By open speech and simple,
                     An hundred times made plain,
                     To seek another's profit
                     And work another's gain.
                     Take up the White Man's burden--
                     The savage wars of peace--
                     Fill full the mouth of Famine,
                     And bid the sickness cease;
                     And when your goal is nearest
                     (The end for others sought)
                     Watch sloth and heathen folly
                     Bring all your hope to nought.
White Man’s Burden continued
 Take up the White Man's burden--    Take up the White Man's burden--
 No iron rule of kings,              Ye dare not stoop to less--
 But toil of serf and sweeper--      Nor call too loud on Freedom
 The tale of common things.          To cloak your weariness.
 The ports ye shall not enter,       By all ye will or whisper,
 The roads ye shall not tread,       By all ye leave or do,
 Go, make them with your living      The silent sullen peoples
 And mark them with your dead.       Shall weigh your God and you.
 Take up the White Man's burden,     Take up the White Man's burden!
 And reap his old reward--           Have done with childish days--
 The blame of those ye better        The lightly-proffered laurel,
 The hate of those ye guard--        The easy ungrudged praise:
 The cry of hosts ye humour          Comes now, to search your manhood
 (Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--   Through all the thankless years,
 "Why brought ye us from bondage,    Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,
 Our loved Egyptian night?"          The judgment of your peers.

 How does this poem underscore the racism and ethnocentrism
                  inherent in New Imperialism?
 The Black Man’s Burden by E.D. Morel
    Edward Morel, a British journalist in the Belgian Congo, drew attention
    to the abuses of imperialism in 1903. The Congo was perhaps the most
    famously exploitative of the European colonies.

It is [the Africans] who carry the 'Black man's burden'. They have not withered away
before the white man's occupation. Indeed ... Africa has ultimately absorbed within
itself every Caucasian and, for that matter, every Semitic invader, too. In hewing out
for himself a fixed abode in Africa, the white man has massacred the African in
heaps. The African has survived, and it is well for the white settlers that he has....
What the partial occupation of his soil by the white man has failed to do; what the
mapping out of European political 'spheres of influence' has failed to do; what the
Maxim and the rifle, the slave gang, labour in the bowels of the earth and the lash,
have failed to do; what imported measles, smallpox and syphilis have failed to do;
whatever the overseas slave trade failed to do, the power of modern capitalistic
exploitation, assisted by modern engines of destruction, may yet succeed in
accomplishing.
 The Black Man’s Burden continued
For from the evils of the latter, scientifically applied and enforced, there is no escape
for the African. Its destructive effects are not spasmodic: they are permanent. In its
permanence resides its fatal consequences. It kills not the body merely, but the soul.
It breaks the spirit. It attacks the African at every turn, from every point of vantage. It
wrecks his polity, uproots him from the land, invades his family life, destroys his
natural pursuits and occupations, claims his whole time, enslaves him in his own
home....
. . . In Africa, especially in tropical Africa, which a capitalistic imperialism threatens
and has, in part, already devastated, man is incapable of reacting against unnatural
conditions. In those regions man is engaged in a perpetual struggle against disease
and an exhausting climate, which tells heavily upon child-bearing; and there is no
scientific machinery for salving the weaker members of the community. The African
of the tropics is capable of tremendous physical labours. But he cannot
accommodate himself to the European system of monotonous, uninterrupted labour,
with its long and regular hours, involving, moreover, as it frequently does, severance
from natural surroundings and nostalgia, the condition of melancholy resulting from
separation from home, a malady to which the African is specially prone. Climatic
conditions forbid it. When the system is forced upon him, the tropical African droops
and dies.
  The Black Man’s Burden continued
Nor is violent physical opposition to abuse and injustice henceforth possible for the
African in any part of Africa. His chances of effective resistance have been steadily
dwindling with the increasing perfectibility in the killing power of modern armament....
Thus the African is really helpless against the material gods of the white man, as
embodied in the trinity of imperialism, capitalistic exploitation, and militarism....
To reduce all the varied and picturesque and stimulating episodes in savage life to a
dull routine of endless toil for uncomprehended ends, to dislocate social ties and
disrupt social institutions; to stifle nascent desires and crush mental development; to
graft upon primitive passions the annihilating evils of scientific slavery, and the bestial
imaginings of civilized man, unrestrained by convention or law; in fine, to kill the soul
in a people-this is a crime which transcends physical murder.


From E. D. Morel, The Black Man's Burden, in Louis L. Snyder, The Imperialism Reader (Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1962),
pp.l63-l64. First published in 1920 in Great Britain.




                 How does this narrative differ from the former?
 Now Let’s Review
 As the Second Industrial Revolution unfolded, what
 factors contributed to imperialism in the late 19th and
                  early 20th centuries?
The European Scramble for Africa
          Wanna play a game?
Imperialism WebQuest
African Nationalism
Germany lost African colonies after WWI
  See map
Many Africans fought in WWI for colonial
 leaders.
  Developed nationalistic ideas.
  Began to advocate independence.
  Rise of Pan-Africanism
    Unity of all Africans worldwide.
Post-WWII “self-determination” doctrine
 established by UN charter challenged and
 helped end colonialism.
African Independence
 Gold Coast – first to gain sovereignty (1957)
 1960 – 17 new nations emerged
       See map
 Independence = economic prosperity
    Continued dependence on the export of one resource.
    Link between conflict and natural wealth.
       Read “Conflict Resources” handout.
       Not only diamonds are to blame!
    Myth: The existence of natural resources alone bring about
     armed conflict and civil war.
       Debunked: It is the lack of proper governance over countries
        that possess natural wealth that allows violence and civil war.
       Governments must properly run the economy:
          • Manage natural resources without falling to corruption
          • Diversify industry so natural wealth does not drive economy.
    Watch “Blood Diamond”
Africa In Depth: South Africa
 Read “Freedom in Our Lifetime – Part I: Colonization”
    Complete Study Guide
 Summer Reading Discussion
    Collect Projects
 Read “Freedom in Our Lifetime – Part II: Apartheid”
    Complete Study Guide
 1950’s Protest Poetry and the Anti-Apartheid Movement
 Choices Debate
 Read “Epilogue: Mandela and Reconciliation”
    Complete Study Guide
              Beyond Africa
It was said that the sun never set on the British Empire
The Imperial United States
 See North American Map
   Continental Conquest
      Florida
      Louisiana Purchase                 What of the
                                      original inhabitants
      Oregon                            that occupied
      Texas                               the land?
      Mexican Cession
   Transcontinental Conquest
      Alaska
      Hawaii
      Latin America
      Southeast Asia
      Africa?
   Read The Imperial United States
Word Splash
 Using the quotation handout, underline
  words that help you answer the following
  question:

          What is foreign policy?
Graffiti Questions
 What should the foreign policy goals of the
  United States be?
 Who makes/influences American foreign
  policy?
 What actions must the United States take to
  accomplish those goals?
 What happens when our foreign policy
  imperative contradicts our democratic values?
 Does the foreign policy end justify any means
  necessary?
The Spanish American War
 The United States extends its reach to Cuba, Puerto
  Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
The Filipino Insurrection
 Upon liberating the Filipinos
  from Spanish rule, the US
  made the Philippines a
  protectorate.
 Filipinos engaged US forces
  in guerilla war in order to
  obtain independence.
 Read The Filipino
  Insurrection
    Why did the US maintain
      control of the archipelago
      until 1946?
 Read poet Rubén Darío’s
  address to T. Roosevelt
 Read The Philippine-
  American War as a Race
  War. (advanced)
The US and Latin America
                           Click here for Latin American interventions
                      Click here for all American interventions (Flash)

   Roosevelt Corollary of Monroe Doctrine justified colonial
    dominance in western hemisphere. See handouts
The Home Front Debate
 What is the message of these two political cartoons?
 With which message do you most agree?
The Home Front Debate

   Imperialists                                          Anti-Imperialists

     • U.S. Mission to
                                            • Denying self-
       develop, educate,
                                              government to others
       and uplift the
                                              contrary to Declaration
       savages
                                 • Racism     of Independence
     • Military necessity
                                            • People in new colonies
     • Ideal location for U.S.                would undercut U.S.
       trade with East Asia                   labor




 What should the role of the United States be in the world?
Discussion Protocol
 Read assigned document:
   A. Senator Beveridge speech, “The March of the Flag,”
      which supported American imperialism and
      colonialism in the Philippines.
   B. 1899 Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist
      League which criticized American imperialism and
      colonialism in the Philippines.
 Be prepared to defend your point of view in a
  text-based discussion.
Imperialism Project
        See Project Assignment Sheet
Territorial
Expansion

				
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