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					                           FACULTY OF BUSINESS STUDIES
                                         Jordan Branch

                                         TMA COVER FORM

      Course # B202                   Course name: UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS FUNCTIONS
      TMA No: III                             Mark Allocated to TMA ………………

Part (I): STUDENT INFORMATION (to be completed by student)
1. Name: Nada karam                             2. Registration #: 050915
3. Section #:1             4. Tel. :0777 600 203             5. E-mail: hca@rj.com
 I confirm that the work presented here is my own and is not copied from any source.
Student's signature: Nada Karam

Part (II): TUTOR'S REMARKS (to be completed by tutor)
Tutor name:                                       Signature:
Date TMA received:                                Date returned:
TUTOR'S REMARKS:

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                                                    1
1. Student name: Nada Karam                             2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202                4. TMA#: III            5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name:Dr.Walid F.Saleh                             Date returned: 20/11/2008




     INTRODUCTION:

     In this TMA I will discuss the following points:




                                   Market –led &
                                   Product-led

                                                                      Direct &
                        Statistic about cell phones                   indirect effects
                                                                      of cell phones

                Innovations                Inventions




                                               2
Assignment A:




                                             Q1



           Read the case study on Intel Corp (attached) & answer the following
           question. (400 words only) (20 marks)
           What is meant by market-led & product-led new product
           development?
           Show which of the following strategies has been adopted by Intel: (i)
           market-led; (ii) product-led; (iii) a combined “market-led & product-led”
           approach. Explain Intel strategy (approach) & give one example. (20
           marks)




                                  3
1. Student name: Nada Karam                         2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202               4. TMA#: III         5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                        Date returned: 20/11/2008



     Market led is a:

     Business approach where customers' needs and wants are identified through
     market research before designing or offering a good or service

     Product led is a:

     Business strategy in which a product or service is developed before the firm
     can reasonably determine its market. Used for entirely new product categories
     (such as TV, pocket calculator, desktop computer) it is like of making keys
     first and then looking for locks to open

     Business dictionary2008,http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/market-
     led.html


     Both approaches are important, right from its early days, Intel realized the
     importance of combining product led & market led innovation with a market
     focused approach




     The UK on line market place,2008,http://www.thetimes100.co.uk



                                                4
1. Student name: Nada Karam                        2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202               4. TMA#: III        5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                       Date returned: 20/11/2008


     Intel focuses on mixing R&D with manufacturing, it responds to customer
     needs, through research and development, it study how people use
     technology in their lives and only chose the best ideas and convert them into
     a commercial, new and better products which meet these uses and needs,
     And it based the design to answer these key questions:
     What? How? When? Where? Whom?




     The UK on line market place,2008,http://www.thetimes100.co.uk
     Intel does not outsource any of it is work for researches, development or
     manufacturing, Intel does all three process itself, it spends good money on
     building large plants close to skilled labor, its market and to customer and
     believes that this investment is worthwhile to ensure quality, protect ideas and
     meet the time scale, and at the same time these plants meet environmental
     and employees needs




                                              5
1. Student name: Nada Karam                        2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202               4. TMA#: III        5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                       Date returned: 20/11/2008


     Intel gets it is competitive advantages through providing computer chips for
     many different users, for example lap top, kids can use it to play games and at
     the same time the most sophisticated people can use it to generate money
     and accomplish business
     Intel Research's involves designing new ideas to solve a problem or to create
     an opportunity


     For example:
     The development of a new microprocessor for a mobile phone to give it
     access to the internet, nowadays all head of departments for example in our
     company have blue berry that is connected to our server so the minute you
     send an e-mail he/she can receive it immediately and act upon it, years and
     moths ago this was not possible and time was wasted just waiting for that
     person to check his/her e-mail, now since time means money this issue is no
     longer a problem and problem was solved with the new microprocessor from
     Intel


     So as a result I see that Intel combine both approaches, market-led and
     product led by responding to both customer demands, around the word, and
     product innovation to ensure the latest development in highest standards,
     high-quality clean production that contribute in improving people's lives, work
     and leisure.




                                              6
1. Student name: Nada Karam                             2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202                   4. TMA#: III         5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                            Date returned: 20/11/2008


     Assignment B:



                      Answer the following THREE questions. (Number of
                      words in this assignment should be not less than 1200
                      and not more than 1500) (Total: 60 marks).




                                                  Q1: Provide statistics about cell
                Q2: Discuss the direct &             phones in your country: e.g.,
                indirect effects of cell phones      growth of demand for cell
                on cell phone users & give           phones, number of cell phones
                examples. (20 marks)                 per 1000 population etc.
                                                     Compare the results with those
                                                     of another Arab country. {you
                                                     may check UNDP reports
                Q3 :Discuss the differences          (United Nations Development
                between inventions &                 Reports)}. (20 marks)
                innovations as related to cell
                phones & give examples
                20 marks




                                                  7
1. Student name: Nada Karam                                    2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202                    4. TMA#: III               5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                                   Date returned: 20/11/2008

           Q1: Provide statistics about cell phones in your country: e.g., growth of demand
           for cell phones, number of cell phones per 1000 population etc. Compare the
           results with those of another Arab country. {You may check UNDP reports
           (United Nations Development Reports)}. (20 marks)

             Growth of demand for cell phones in Arabic countries for the past
                                                     10years

     country        year               Population:        Use of cell phone per
                                                          1000 population
     U.A.E         1998                857,824            512.58
     U.A.E         2002                1,358,785          638
     U.A.E         2005                1,975,676          896.542
     U.A.E         2008                2,369,153          1000



     country        year               Population:        Use of cell phone per
                                                          1000 population
     Yemen         1998                9,857,256          .5
     Yemen         2002                11,853,189         2.589
     Yemen         2005                15,876,924         5.8
     Yemen         2008                17,479,206         8.25



     country            year           Population:        Use of cell phone per
                                                          1000 population
     West Bank          1998           1,726,231          28.258
     West Bank          2002           1,893,146          41.02
     West Bank          2005           1,989,596          76
     West Bank          2008           2,020,298          95.729



     country        year               Population:      Use of cell phone per
                                                        1000 population
     Jordan         1998               3,000,158        55.238
     Jordan         2002               3,932,785        109.276
     Jordan         2005               4,655,358        403.58
     Jordan         2008               5,685,925        865,285
     The united nation development programs, 2008, http://www.undp.org/
     Jordan,telecommunication,industy,2008,http://www.businessmonitor.com/telecommunications/jordan.h
     tml
     Major country statistic, 2008, http://www.waltm.net/country6.htm
     United Nations MillenniumDevelopmentGoals,2008,http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/


                                                      8
1. Student name: Nada Karam                                        2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202                            4. TMA#: III           5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                                       Date returned: 20/11/2008



                               growth of demand for cell phones for 2008
                                     in:UAE,Yemen,W.B &Jordan

                      20,000,000

                      15,000,000
         population




                                                                                     Series1
                      10,000,000                                                     Series2
                                                                                     Series3
                       5,000,000

                                0
                                        1          2           3        4
                                               cell phones/1000


     Going back 10years and compare
                                     Growth of demand for cell phones for 1998 in:
                                            U.A.E. Yemen, W.B. & Jordan

        12,000,000

        10,000,000

          8,000,000
                                                                                     Series1
          6,000,000                                                                  Series2
                                                                                     Series3
          4,000,000

          2,000,000

                           0
                                    1          2           3           4


     We realize that growth of demand for Jordan comparing to some other Arabic
     countries is different For example in Jordan we have more growth of demand
     than Yemen, of course since Jordan has more technology and it is more open
     minded and open for the other world, and since




                                                           9
1. Student name: Nada Karam                         2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202               4. TMA#: III         5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                        Date returned: 20/11/2008


     mobiles are considered part of technology and globalization has affect us
     more than Yemen so we find that the growth of demand for cell phone in
     Jordan is bigger than the one in Yemen, even though population in Yemen is
     much bigger than Jordan
     At the same time comparing ours elf to UAE of course the growth of demand
     is higher for them than us cause globalization for them has bigger affects and
     technology is wider than us even though population is less than us
     At the same time comparing us to West Bank we have more use of
     technology because the political environment influence the ability for
     technology for them
     So in conclusion I believe that many factors influence the growth of
     technology, for example here the cell phones, STEP and SWOT factors
     influence the growth.

         Q2: Discuss the direct & indirect effects of cell phones on cell phone users
         & give examples. (20 marks)

     Like every thing human innovate & invent cell phone has advantages (direct
     effects) and disadvantages (indirect effects) for it is users, some of these
     advantages (direct effects) are:
          Cellular telephony as a quick and inexpensive way of increasing telecom
            penetration, now for example with ZAIN I have an offer to chose any 3
            numbers and talk to them all day and night 24/7 for free, all what I have
            to pay is one j.d. a month.
          The investment in mobile phone and its infrastructure and derived
            services provide significant benefits to the economy which leads to
            Economic growth, for example: if I need to make a decision about
            investing I don’t have to wait a second to make it I only pick up my
            cellular call a number and can make deal on the spot
          Investing in telecommunication technology is continued to be the best
            hope for developing countries to accelerate their development proces


                                              10
1. Student name: Nada Karam                          2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202                 4. TMA#: III        5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                         Date returned: 20/11/2008



                Most infrastructure investments can favorably affect the economy in
                 several ways. It can increase employment
             For example in Jordan we have four companies that provide this
             service, it means more than one thousands citizen have found jobs and
             able to open a house and feed his family and take care of their needs


            Increases in purchasing power, for example: in Jordan you look at a

             normal person to find him carrying minimum 2cell phones, and at every
             corner you find a series of shops just for mobiles and mobiles cards
             and accessories



          Cell phones make our life easier and communication channels more
             open al the time, for example: I can check on my family overseas every
             day with one message or call at any convenient time, I can be standing
             at the supermarket cashier and use my time in calling my family &
             make sure they are fine.




         BUT:
     We have a fear that cell phones might have some disadvantages (indirect
     effects) for it is users:
     Such as: They emit microwaves & hold the source of the emission against
     your brain The concern is that the cell phone and it's antenna (the source of
     the radiation) are held close against the head which may cause brain tumor




                                                11
1. Student name: Nada Karam                         2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202                4. TMA#: III        5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                        Date returned: 20/11/2008




     cell phone / mobile phones, cancer and braintumors, 2008, http:// www.ehso.com
     /ehshome/cellphonecancer.php
     The investment in mobile phone, 2008,
     Http: //www.ertra.com/2006/ghirmaikefela_mar6.htm

         There are claims that people have had brain tumors in the exact size,
         shape and position as the antenna on their cell phone. But is that real?

     A recent report from the General Accounting Office found that federal
     agencies do not always provide the latest information and research on cell
     phone radiation to consumers, and often the information they do provide is too
     technical for the average consumer to fully understand. Dr. Ted Schwartz, a
     neurosurgeon from New York Presbyterian Hospital, speaks to the popular
     concern about the possible connection between cell phones and brain tumors.
     So does cell phone cause brain tumors? No one have clear answer yet...


     Another disadvantage might be said about the use of cell phone is that it
     causes Cancer, in December 5, 2006 - Scientists in Denmark tracked over
     420,000 cell phone users over the course of 21 years in an attempt to
     determine if cell phone use causes cancer. The conclusion was:



                                               12
1. Student name: Nada Karam                         2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202               4. TMA#: III         5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                        Date returned: 20/11/2008


      'As the body of evidence accumulates, people can become more reassured
     that these devices are safe, but the final word is not there yet,'
     cellphone/mobilephones,cancerandbraintumors,208,http://www.ehso.com/ehshome/c
     ellphonecancer.php
     So we are not sure if cell phone can cause cancer or not!
     One more thing from my personal experience about cell phone and I believe
     that I can consider it as disadvantages:
     It keeps interrelations at the lowest level, people don’t visit each others any
     more, they use the time while driving or waiting on line to call each others and
     consider it as a visit
     Also cell phones are causing many car accidents, me for example, I drive and
     talk and worse I type messages and many times I found myself in the middle
     of the street seconds away from an accidents, so I am jeopardizing my life
     and other's
     But:
     Is anyone seriously concerned about possible risks from cellular phone?

     Not really, we find people using them 24/7 and as I mentioned before many
     people have more than one and they use them at the same time, Cell phones
     and cancer are in the news all the time now it seems. But almost everyone
     uses cell phones. All over the world, tens of millions of people are pressing
     them against their heads for hours every day. In Jordan it is estimated that
     there were at least 55.238/1000 cell phone users, as of early 1998, and that
     number has continued to climb to 865,285/1000 in 2008, so are we really
     worried about brain tumours, cancers, relations… Not really

         Q3: Discuss the differences between inventions & innovations as related
         to cell phones & give examples. (20 marks)


     Invention is: the use of new knowledge to create something new
      Invention can be in:
          Process
          Product
          Service


                                              13
1. Student name: Nada Karam                        2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202               4. TMA#: III        5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                       Date returned: 20/11/2008


  Advantages for invention              Disadvantages for invention

  Inventions can only confer benefits   Inventions can have negative effects (e.g.
  it they are useful in helping         pollution as a result of emission from motor
  individuals & organizations to        cars, use of technology may result in job
  achieve purposes and objectives       less)
  (reduce cost, increase the
  effectiveness of product, introduce
  new product...)


     Example for invention:
     Means of communication:




                                              14
1. Student name: Nada Karam                          2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202                4. TMA#: III         5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                         Date returned: 20/11/2008


     Innovation is:

     The benefits that derived from applications of new market or technological
     knowledge

     It is invention coupled with commercialization. It put new knowledge to
     productive use

     Innovation can be in:
          Process
          Product

         And it can be:

               Radical; make new product to serve new markets and enable an
                 organization to expand it 's markets benefits , ex: electrical
                 typewriter it totally replaced the old manual typewriter

     Incremental: has a small effect on production or distribution, add new features
     for the products ex: Application for the Means of communication: such as, cell
     phones, every new version we find more technological ideas added to the
     mobile, for example:
     Nokia:




     Nokia.uk,2008,http://www.phoneslimited.co.uk/Nokia/N79.html




     I remember the          3410 mobile phone 6years ago was simple phone, back
     & white, mainly to send and receive calls with messages




                                               15
1. Student name: Nada Karam                             2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202                 4. TMA#: III           5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                            Date returned: 20/11/2008


     Than every few months we start noticing new mobiles at the markets, Nokia's
     series:
                1209, 1650, 3410 6301...
                E-series: E66, E90...
                N-series: N78,N79,N,82, N85,N,95, N96,


     Until we reach a point were the mobile became communicator:




                    Nokia.uk,2008,http://www.ave99.com/Nokia%2BCommunicator/

         Now the mobile that was only few years ago used to send & receive calls
         with some words, nowadays it is:

         P.C., organizer, camera, video, voice records, note book, fax, internet...

         Now we reach a point that we have our office between our hands
         wherever we are, with the new blackberry & blueberry:




      Blackberry 8700       Blackberry 7130c          Blackberry           AT&T Wireless
                                                      7130C Baby          Blackberry Curve
                                                                          8310 Quad Band...



         Blackberryseriesdeataies,2008,http://www.lowpriceshopper.com/electronics/search__k
         eyword--blackberry+telephone__rf--mpt__sfsk--1.html




                                                16
1. Student name: Nada Karam                        2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202               4. TMA#: III        5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                       Date returned: 20/11/2008

         Now we can check our e-mail, send & receive every thing has to do with
         work, 24/7, without even stepping inside our office.

         We can even connect our mobile to our car, if we have new car, and we
         have many choices to talk: either by using the Bluetooth, or the build in
         microphone inside the car, I had a Mercedes C200 in the USA, that I use
         to say the number loudly and it will automatically call the number without
         the need for me to touch any button

     So in developing the cell phones company's are adopting both: Market
     led & Product led strategies and so far it going with prosperity & success.




                                              17
1. Student name: Nada Karam                             2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202                  4. TMA#: III          5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                            Date returned: 20/11/2008



                                          Attachment (2)
     Business graduate        How much did        Self-assessment of      State the actions
     skills outcomes          the assignment      your current level of   you think if taken
                              contributed to my   Knowledge & skill-      by the tutor/faculty
                              Knowledge &         high/medium/low**       will improve your
                              skills                                      skills.
                              development?*
     Searching for &          1 2 3 4 5           1       2       3       I have to manage
     selecting information,                                               which helped me to
     using (online) library                                               have more
     services & other                                                     confidence in
     information sources,                                                 managing my work
     developing                                                           and my tutor is
     confidence in                                                        doing excellent job
     managing                                                             in explaining the
     information.                                                         material all what I
                                                                          have to do is to
                                                                          concentrate
     Learn from non-text      1   2   3   4   5   1       2       3       I have learned how
     as well as text-based                                                to search and use
     materials, & enhance                                                 less time to gather
     your general study                                                   information. (Such
     skills.                                                              as scanning while I
                                                                          read) and this is
                                                                          what the tutor
                                                                          showed me

     Gather & evaluate        1   2   3   4   5   1       2       3       It helped me to
     information about                                                    develop my skills in
     organizations from a                                                 using deferent
     variety of sources.                                                  variety of sources
                                                                          to gather and
                                                                          evaluate
                                                                          information. And
                                                                          also this was
                                                                          explained to me by
                                                                          my tutor
     Research a given         1   2   3   4   5   1       2       3       Each time I learn a
     topic using the                                                      new method to
     internet                                                             search on the net
                                                                          for enhancing my
                                                                          study and work.
     * Use 5-point scale: 1=very small contribution, 2=small contribution, 3=average
     contribution, 4=big contribution, 5=very big contribution.
     ** Use 3=point scale: 1= low, 2=medium, 3=high


                                                  18
1. Student name: Nada Karam                              2. Registration #: 050915
3. Course #:B202                  4. TMA#: III           5. Date TMA received: Oct 2008
Tutor name: Dr.Walid F.Saleh                             Date returned: 20/11/2008



     Conclusion:
     We live in a digital word, every thing is going fast, it is our decision how do we
     want to interact with this word and how much we will let it influence us.



     References:

     Blackberry series details, 2008,
     http://www.lowpriceshopper.com/electronics/search__keyword--blackberry+telephone__rf--
     mpt__sfsk--1.html Date accessed 22/11/08

     Business dictionary2008,http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/market-led.html Date
     accessed 11/11/08

     Cell phone / mobile phones , cancer and brain tumors, 2008,
     http://www.ehso.com/ehshome/cellphonecancer.php Date accessed 14/11/08

     Thei nvestment in mobilephone,2008,http://www.ertra.com/2006/ghirmaikefela_mar6.htm
     Date accessed 13/11/08

     Jordan,telecommunication,industy,2008,http://www.businessmonitor.com/telecommunications
     /jordan.html Date accessed 11/11/08..

     Major country statistic, 2008, http://www.waltm.net/country6.htm Date accessed 11/11/08

     Nokia.uk,2008,http://www.phoneslimited.co.uk/Nokia/N79.html Date accessed 22/11/08

     United Nations MillenniumDevelopmentGoals,2008,http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/ Date
     accessed 11/11/08.

     The UK on line market place,2008,http://www.thetimes100.co.uk Date accessed 11/11/08.

     The united nation development programs, 2008, http://www.undp.org/ Date accessed
     11/11/08.




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