Introduction-to-Cloud-Computing by wuyunyi


									   What is cloud computing
   Cloud computing discriminate
   Cloud computing technology
   Cloud computing products and market
   Cloud computing, at backside of this buzzword, is a concept like the flower
    in the glass. Every enterprise and person, want to explain this concept by
    their own benefits. But, if give a neutral definition to it, begin it here.

   Cloud computing is a resource delivery and usage model, it
    means get resource (Hardware, software)via network. The
    network of providing resource is called ‘Cloud’. The hardware
    resource in the ‘Cloud’ seems scalable infinitely and can be
    used whenever.

   New advances in processors, virtualization technology, distributed storage,
    broadband Internet access , automated management and fast, inexpensive
    servers have all combined to make cloud computing a compelling
    paradigm.This vast process power is usually got with a distributed, large-
    scale server cluster and server virtualization software.

   As a result, cloud computing has the potential to upend the software
    industry entirely, as applications are purchased, licensed and run over the
    network instead of a user's desktop. This shift will put data centers and their
    administrators at the center of the distributed network, as processing power,
    electricity, bandwidth and storage are all managed remotely. It affects not
    only business models, but the underlying architecture of how we develop,
    deploy, run and deliver applications.

   What is cloud computing
   Cloud computing discriminate
   Cloud computing technology
   Cloud computing products and market
   Cloud computing is becoming one of the next industry buzz words. And it
    has more or less relation with these words: grid computing, utility
    computing, virtualization, server cluster, Dedicated server, Colocation.
    Cloud computing infrastructure usually use virtualization technology, and is
    built based on a server cluster, have nature relation to grid computing and
    utility computing, and is use to compete with Dedicated server and

   Utility computing is a business model of providing computing resource, user get and use the
    computing resource from service provider and pay for practically used resource. To say it simply,
    it is a price model based on resource usage quantity. The main benefit of utility computing is
    better economics. Corporate data centers are notoriously underutilized, with resources such as
    servers often idle 85 percent of the time. This is due to overprovisioning — buying more
    hardware than is needed on average in order to handle peaks (such as the opening of the Wall
    Street trading day or the holiday shopping season), to handle expected future loads and to
    prepare for unanticipated surges in demand. Utility computing allows companies to only pay
    for the computing resources they need, when they need them.

   Utility computing is a business model, it is a type of price model to deliver
    application infrastructure resource. Cloud computing is a computing model, relates
    to the way we design, build, deploy and run applications that operate in a sharing
    resources and boasting the ability to dynamically grow, shrink and self-heal. Utility
    computing is often need a cloud computing infrastructure, but not must need.
    Sameness, above the cloud computing, we can adopt utility computing, and, we can
    adopt other price model.

                         Cloud computing

                              Utility computing
   Distributed computing deals with hardware and software systems containing more
    than one processing element or storage element, concurrent processes, or multiple
    programs, running under a loosely or tightly controlled regime.In distributed
    computing, a program is split up into parts that run simultaneously on multiple
    computers communicating over a network. Distributed computing is a form of
    parallel computing, but parallel computing is most commonly used to describe
    program parts running simultaneously on multiple processors in the same computer.
    Both types of processing require dividing a program into parts that can run
    simultaneously, but distributed programs often must deal with heterogeneous
    environments, network links of varying latencies, and unpredictable failures in the
    network or the computers.

   Grid computing is a term for either of two broad subcategories of distributed computing: 1
    Online computation or storage offered as a service supported by a pool of distributed
    computing resources, also known as utility computing, on-demand computing, or cloud
    computing. Data grids provide controlled sharing and management of large amounts of
    distributed data, often used in combination with computational grids. 2 The creation of a
    "virtual supercomputer" composed of a network of loosely-coupled computers, acting in
    concert to perform very large tasks. This technology has been applied to computationally-
    intensive scientific, mathematical, and academic problems through volunteer computing, and
    it is used in commercial enterprises for such diverse applications as drug discovery, economic
    forecasting, seismic analysis, and back-office data processing in support of e-commerce and
    web services.

   Grid computing emphasizes on resource sharing, every grid node can apply
    for resource from other nodes, and every node should contribute resource
    to the grid. The focus of grid computing is on the ability of moving a
    workload to the location of the needed computing resources, which are
    mostly remote and are readily available for use. Grids also require
    applications to conform to the grid software interfaces.
   Cloud computing emphasize on proprietary, every user out of the cloud can
    get it’s own private resource from the cloud, and the cloud resource are
    provided by the specific service provider, the user need not contribute its
    resource. In a cloud environment, computing resources, such as servers, can
    be dynamically shaped or carved out from its underlying hardware
    infrastructure and made available to a workload. In addition, while a cloud
    does support grid, a cloud can also support nongrid environments, such as a
    three-tier Web architecture running traditional or Web 2.0 applications.
   Grid computing emphasizes on computing sensitive task, and is difficult to
    automated scale. Cloud computing emphasizes on transactional application,
    a great amount of separate request, and can scale automatically or

 A computer cluster is a group of coupled
  computers that work together closely so
  that in many respects they can be viewed
  as though they are a single computer. The
  components of a cluster are commonly,
  but not always, connected to each other
  through fast local area networks. Clusters
  are usually deployed to improve
  performance and/or availability over that
  provided by a single computer, while
  typically being much more cost-effective
  than single computers of comparable
  speed or availability.[1]
 Grids tend to be more loosely coupled,
  heterogeneous,       and    geographically
  dispersed, grid computers do not fully
  trust each other.
   Virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of computer
    resources. Virtualization hides the physical characteristics of computing
    resources from their users, be they applications, or end users.[1] This
    includes making a single physical resource (such as a server, an operating
    system, an application, or storage device) appear to function as multiple
    virtual resources; it can also include making multiple physical resources
    (such as storage devices or servers) appear as a single virtual resource.[2]
   Virtualization technology is a aggregative term of technical means and
    methods to implement virtualization. It can be divided to many types
    based on objects: storage virtualization, computing virtualization,
    network virtualization. Computing virtualization include:OS level
    virtualization, application level virtualization, hyper visor. Hypervisor
    include: host vm and guest vm.

 Compared to its brother buzzwords, cloud computing is just beginning. Trends in
  usage of the terms from Google searches shows Cloud Computing is a relatively new
  term introduced in the past year. There has also been a decline in general interest of
  Grid, Utility and Distributed computing.
 Cloud Computing and Virtualization are the next hot hosting platforms; the
  Dedicated server term is slowly starting to lose ground vs. Virtualization and Cloud

   What is cloud computing
   Cloud computing discriminate
   Cloud computing technology
   Cloud computing products and market
   Fast Provision
   Reduce servers scale
   Increase resource utilization rate
   Improve management efficiency
   Lower maintenance cost
   Location of infrastructure in areas with lower costs of
     real estate and electricity
   Provide business continuity service
   Improve management efficiency
   Improve service levels
   Complex architecture
   Change of business model and faith
   Lower client workload
   Lower Total Cost Ownership
   Separation of infrastructure maintenance duties from
    domain-specific application development
   Separation of application code from physical resources
   Not have to purchase assets for one-time or infrequent
    intensive computing tasks
   Expand resource on-demand
   Make the application have high availability
   Quickly deploy application
   Pay per use
   Self-healing
   Multi-tenancy
   Virtualized
   Linearly Scalable
   Resource Monitor and measure
   Resource registration and discovery
   The physical hardware layer is
    virtualized to provide a flexible
    adaptive platform to improve
    resource utilization.
   The keys to new enterprise data
    center infrastructure services
    are the next two layers, the
    virtualization environment and
    management layer.
   The combination of these two
    layers ensure that resources in a
    data center are efficiently
    managed        and    can     be
    provisioned, deployed, and
    configured rapidly.
 Continuous high availability
 Cosistency
 Interoperability and standarlization
 Scalability of all components
 Data secrecy
 Legal and political problem of data store and
  translation across regions
 Performance issue
 Difficulty customizing
 Organizational obstacle
   Privileged user access.
   Regulatory compliance.
   Data location.
   Data segregation.
   Recovery.
   Investigative support.
   Long-term viability.
   What is cloud computing
   Cloud computing discriminate
   Cloud computing technology
   Cloud computing products and market
   The NY Times
    Amazon EC2
   Nasdaq
    Amazon S3
   Major League Baseball
   ESPN
    Rightscale using Amazon EC2
   Hasbro
    Amazon EC2
   British Telecom
   Taylor Woodrow
    Google Apps
   CSS
    Amazon EC2
   Activision
    Amazon EC2
   Business Objects (A SAP Company)
    Rightscale using Amazon EC2
Software as a service         Everything is a service

               Platform as a service

             Infrastructure as a service

             Cloud technology enabler

                Hardware provider
   3Tera - AppLogic grid OS used as cloud computing platform by service providers
    and enterprises
   Appistry - Cloud computing middleware - Enables easily scalable cloud
    computing in the enterprise.
   Cassatt - Cassatt Active Response platform enables administrators to set policies
    to power physical and virtual servers safely on and off and pool their computing
   CloudHan - Cloud tech and infrastructure consultant, in China.
   CloudScale Networks - Cloud enabler. Currently in private ALPHA only
   Enomaly Inc - Service Provider & Cloud Enabler - Developer of the Enomalism
    Elastic Computing Platform & Elastic Drive
   Q-layer - provides software for data centers that enables cloud computing,
    support VSAN, VLAN, VPDC, currently support VMware ESX.
   Skytap - IaaS service optimized for QA, Training, Demo, and Ops
    Testing. Supports VMware, Xen hypervisors & Windows, Linux & Solaris OS
   Agathon Group - Cloud provider. Services include highly available VPS, virtual
    private datacenters and ready-to-use LAMP stacks. Self-service ordering. Custom
    development and managed services available.
   Amazon Web Services - Amazon EC2/S3 (Hardware-a-a-S & Cloud Storage)
   CohesiveFT - CohesiveFT Elastic Server On-Demand
   ElasticHosts - UK-based instant, on-demand servers in the cloud
   Flexiscale - Another instant provisioner of web servers with some advanced
    features like auto-scaling coming soon.
   GoGrid - instant, on-demand servers offering "control in the cloud". Deploy
    Windows/Linux servers via web-interface in minutes
   GridLayer - Cloud Provider. A service by Layered Technologies that delivers
    Virtual Private Datacenters and virtual private servers from grids of commodity
   LayeredTechnologies - Cloud Provider. provider of on-demand hosting and cloud
    and utility computing solutions through its brand GridLayer
   Mosso - Rackspace's cloud hosting service
   Newservers - Instant provisioning of web servers either Windows or Linux
   Bungee Connect - Provides end to end tools and systems required to
    develop, deploy and host web applications (Platform as a Service)
   Coherence - Oracle Coherence Data Grid for EC2 and other cloud
 -'s application development platform (PaaS)
   GigaSpaces - middleware for the cloud, "cloudware"
   Google AppEngine - (PaaS)Now support python
   Heroku - Ruby on Rails in their Cloud
   Qrimp - An AJAX based PaaS
   RightScale - RightScale provides a platform and expertise that enable
    companies to create scalable web applications running on Amazon’s Web
    Services that are reliable, easy to manage, and cost less
 CAM Solutions - SaaS Provider. Cloud Event
  Management, Autonomics and Monitoring-as-a-Service(TM)
 CloudStatus- CloudEnabler. Real-time performance trending
  of cloud infrastructure (currently AWS).
 Kaavo's IMOD is an easy to use online application. Cloud
  Computing Made Easy.
 Microsoft Mesh
 Nasstar - SaaS provider. Business grade Hosted Desktop
  service, UK market leaders.
 Nirvanix - Cloud Storage
 TrustSaaS - uptime monitoring and alerting service ('SaaS
  Weather Report') for Software as a Service (SaaS) run by an
  independent third party
Infrastructure management projects :
  Enomalism, convirt, redhat genome,
  hyperVM, lxlabs, LN, OpenNEbula, reservoir-
  fp7, scalr,eucalyptus,ganeti,gplhost,ovirt

Useful open source projects to build cloud
 platform :
 Kenso, hyperic, virt-P2V。
 to build cloud
 platform :
 Kenso, hyperic, virt-P2V。

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