Document Sample


ERIK H. ERIKSON                  JAMES E. MARCIA
• Born June 15, 1902             • Current Professor of
• Frankfurt , Germany              Psychology at Simon Fraser
• Mother raised him alone
  because of affair                University in Vancouver
• 1904: his mother marries       • Ph.D. at Ohio State
  again.                           University
• Both parents Jewish
• Becomes wandering artist
• 1927: teacher at Freudian
• Exiled to United States 1933
• Died 1994
                                                Erik Erikson
                       What’s in a Name?
                        ERIK ERIKSON
•   Erikson's interest in psychological identity may be traced to his early life. He was born as a
    result of his mother's extramarital affair and the circumstances of his birth were concealed
    from him in his childhood. His mother, Karla Abrahamsen came from a Jewish family in
    Copenhagen with German roots. Since Karla Abrahamsen was officially married to a Jewish
    stockbroker Waldemar Isidor Salomonsen at the time, her son, born in Germany, was
    registered as Erik Salomonsen.
•   There is no more information about his biological father, except that he was a Dane and his
    given name probably was Erik. Following her son's birth, Karla studied for a nurse, moved to
    Karlsruhe and in 1904 married a Jewish pediatrician Theodor Homburger. In 1909 Erik
    Salomonsen became Erik Homburger and in 1911 he was officially adopted by his stepfather.
    The development of Identity seems to have been one of his greatest concerns in Erikson's
    own life as well as in his theory. During his childhood and early adulthood he was known as
    Erik Homburger, and his parents kept the details of his birth a secret. He was a tall, blond,
    blue-eyed boy who was raised Jewish.
•   However, when he was forced out of Germany by increasingly hostile Nazi influences and
    moved to the United States, he changed his name to Erik, son of Erik: Erikson.
               Biography Cont.
• Erik Erikson, while still
  in Germany, studied
  psychoanalysis of
  children under Anna
  Freud and was even
  analyzed by her.
• Developed Stage Theory
  in 1950 with Childhood
  and Society.
               Epigenetic Principle
• Development, he says,
  functions by the epigenetic
  principle. It says that humans
  develop through a
  predetermined unfolding of
  personalities in eight stages.
  Our progress through each
  stage is in part determined by
  our success, or lack of success,
  in all the previous stages.
• Uses an analogy of fetal
  growth: “epigenetic
  development, the step-by-step
  growth of the fetal organs”
  (Erikson, Childhood and
  Society, pg. 65)
    Erikson’s Stage                              Freud’s Stage
        Theory                                      Theory
• Trust v Mistrust                         •   Oral: 0-1
• Autonomy v Shame & Doubt                 •   Anal: 1-3
• Initiative v Guilt                       •   Phallic: 3-6
• Industry v Inferiority                   •   Latent: 6-10
• IDENTITY v ROLE CONFUSION                •   Genital: 10-end of adolescence
Erikson then goes further than Freud
• Intimacy v Isolation (Young Adults)
• Generativity v Stagnation (Adults)
• Integrity v Despair (Elderly)

•   With every stage there is great
    vulnerability but also great
    potential for the individual to grow








Like Piaget, Erikson postulated that these stages were cross-cultural and that
in accordance to the epigenetic principle, one must go through the stages as
life progresses.
            Identity Achievement
• According to Erikson, children, approximately between the
  ages of 10-21, undergo an identity crisis.
• During this crisis, a youth begins to worry about their own
  place in society and begin to search for their meaning.
• This is largely an unconscious process
• You must create a “central perspective and direction, some
  working unity, out of the remnants of his childhood and the
  hopes of his anticipated adulthood” (Erikson, Identity and
  the Life Cycle, 1958, pg. 98)
• It is important to note: “Ego Identity, then, develops out of
  a gradual integration of all identifications, but here if
  anywhere the whole has a different quality than the sum of
  its parts” (Erikson, Identity and the Life Cycle, pg. 95)
                          Ego Identity cont.
•   Ego identity then, in its subjective aspect, is
    the awareness of the fact that there is a
    selfsameness and continuity to the ego’s
    synthesizing methods, the style of one’s
    individuality, and that this style coincides
    with the sameness and continuity of one’s
    meaning for significant others in the
    immediate community” (Erikson, 1968, pg
•   “The term identity…connotes both a
    persistent sameness within oneself (self-
    sameness) and a persistent sharing of some
    kind of essential character with others”
    (Erikson, 1956, pg. 57)
•   Throughout his writings Erikson proposed
    that the self-sameness and continuity is
    expressed through a “conscious sense of
    individual identity,” an unconscious striving
    for a “continuity of personal character,” a
    continuing process of “ego synthesis,” and an
    “inner solidarity” with a group’s “ideals and
    social identity.” (1957)
             Identity Moratorium
• Erikson briefly treats the
  subject of moratorium in his
• He describes the adolescent
  mind this way, saying that it
  is: “a psychosocial stage
  between childhood and
  adulthood and between the
  morality learned by the
  child and the ethics
  developed by the adult”
  (Erikson, Childhood and
  Society, pg 263)
                 Identity Diffusion
• Erikson continues his theory
  by describing the failure to
• Identity diffusion occurs
  when a youth is unable to
  “settle on an occupational
  identity which disturbs [the
  individual]. To keep
  themselves together, they
  temporarily over-identify, to
  the point of apparent loss of
  identity, with the heroes of
  cliques and crowds”             These Individuals dress the same way: and example
  (Erikson, Childhood and         of over-conforming, thus losing their sense of
  Society, pg. 262)               identity
                     James E. Marcia
• Published Article in 1966
• Development and validation of ego-
identity status in Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology
• This redefined and sharpened Erikson’s
Theory of Identity Achievement
• Defined the four sub-categories of
 Marcia’s Identity Achievement Statuses
                     Identity                                                Identity
                                       Foreclosure       Moratorium
                   Achievement                                               Diffusion

                                                                          May be Present
Exploration of
                    Completed             None            In Process      but may not be
                                                                              as well

Commitment              Yes                Yes         Vaguely Present         None

  Theorized that during Erikson’s Achievement Stage, these would be the different
  ways that a person could be. (Note: not one person is ever fully one or the other.
  People have all kinds of ideals that they hold and some might be under one
  status while other times they may be another.)
          Marcia’s Identity Statuses
             Diffusion                                Moratorium
When a Person is in diffusion, their    This status describes individuals who
 sense of identity is largely derived      are actively seeking out their own
  from those people around them.                  identity but have no real
   There is no commitment to this             commitment to who they are.
    identity but it is a temporary         They are aware however of the
   state that can be released and             alternatives and are exploring
    another sense can be just as                 them as possible choices.
           easily absorbed

           Achievement                               Foreclosure
  Under this status are individuals        Individuals who are foreclosed,
      who have explored the                    says Marcia, have simply
 alternatives to their life and have      accepted the norms and customs
 come to a conclusion of who they         of their parents (or government)
   are and what they should be.           and committed to remaining true
  They commit to this idea of the            to them. There has been no
                self .                        exploration of alternatives.
Identity Crisis

Case Study
  Political Identity
               Critical Questions
• Do public school children tend to have a higher incidence
  rate of Identity Achievement then Catholic School Children?
• Will attendance at a private school influence the children at
  Holy Family and affect their status of Identity?
• Will being at a public school influence the incidence of
                        Minor Questions
      How will divorce factor into the incidence of Identity
 Will the children with higher socio-economic backgrounds be
                      more or less achieved?
Holy Family of Nazareth School   Harrison Lane Elementary
• 6th graders                    • 6th Graders
• 2 boys                         • 2 boys
• 2 girls                        • 2 girls

• 4 Caucasian/White              • 1 Caucasian/White
                                 • 2 Hispanic
                                 • 1 Afro-American
• Opting for less subjects but more rich data, the
  method of collecting information was though
• No real names are used but ages and some
  details are retained.
• The interviews are recorded through video
• Questions are pre-set and do not change from
  interview to interview to maintain some level of
                           Interview Questions
•   Good Afternoon                            terms?                                      having one idea, but then a few
•   Well let’s get started.               •   What about your parents? Do they            months later adopting a different
•   What is your name?                        have any political preference?              one on the same issue?
•   How Old are you?                      •   Do they belong to any particular        •   Describe that please.
•   And what Grade are you in?                political party?                        •   Why did that happen?
•   How do you feel about living in       •   How important are political             •   Was there anyone or anything that
    Texas?                                    questions to your parents?                  may have influenced that change?
•   Do you live with both of your         •   (which ones?)                           •   How do you feel when you are
    Parents?                              •   Are there any political or social           engaged in political activities?
•   Do you live with both of your             issues that you feel strongly about? •      What do you parents think of your
    parents? (explain and expand upon)        (Yes or No)                                 own political ideas?
•   Did your Father go to College?        •   Can you name the top 2 please?          •   Are there any important
                                              What would you like to see done             differences?
•   What does he do for a living, I           about them?                             •   Do you think that your political
    mean, where does he work?             •   Have you ever done anything                 ideas will stay the same or do you
•   And your mother, did she also go to       political, like go to a rally or joined     think they will definitely change?
    College?                                  any groups or contacted politicians? •      How might they change?
•   Is she working outside your home •        (If so) How did you get involved?       •   What might cause that change?
    as well?                              •   (If none) Do you think that politics •
•   Do you have any brothers or sisters?                                                  Is this likely?
                                              is important to you right now or do •
    How many? Which ones are older            you see politics as not as important
    and which are younger?                    in your life?                           •   On a seven point scale tell me how
                                          •   How do you get your information to          important your political ideas are to
•   Do you have any Political                 make a decision?                            you and your life?
    Preference? Like do you think you •       How important is it for you to work •       1=nothing
    belong to a political party or do you     out these ideas?                        •   7=extremely important
    consider yourself liberal or          •   Was there ever a time that you
    conservative or moderate?                 found your political beliefs
•   How familiar are you with these           changing, When you found yourself
                                          •   Do you have any Political Preference? Like do you think you
                                              belong to a political party or do you consider yourself
                                              liberal or conservative or moderate?

Rubric                                    •

                                              What about your parents? Do they have any political
                                              How important are political questions to your parents?
Using the questions shown on the          •   Are there any political or social issues that you feel strongly
previous slide, certain questions were        about
pre-selected to be “weighted”             •   Which issues are important to your parents?
questions.                                •   Do you think that politics is important to you right now or
                                              do you see politics as not as important in your life?
Those questions had responses that        •   How do you get your information to make a decision?
would indicate the level of political     •   Have you ever been politically involved and how did you
achievement of the student.                   become involved?
                                          •   Was there ever a time that you found your political beliefs
                                              changing and if so, how?
The responses were then judged as         •   Who or what influenced you to do that?
indicating a particular status and then   •   How do you feel when you are engaged in political
they were averaged to a percentage.           activities?
Students having a higher degree of        •   What do you parents think of your own political ideas?
Foreclosure would by percentage have      •   Are there any important differences?
answered more questions with a            •   Will your beliefs change? And How so? What might cause
foreclosed answer.                            the change?
                                          •   How important is politics in you life?
                    Data Collection Tool
Name:               Achieved          Foreclosed      Moratorium        Diffused

Number answered:

Percent of total:

Sample Question: How do you get your information to make a decision?
        Achievement: I look it up myself in a news paper/online etc. and make up
                        my own mind about it.
        Foreclosure: My parents tell me about it.
        Moratorium: I look for it online but I do not really make any final decisions
        Diffusion: I do not/ My friends tell me.
•   While looking at a group of children
    who are at the early part of the
    Identity stage: specifically 6th graders
    from Holy Family and Harrison Lane
    Elementary School: the children from
    the public school will demonstrate a
    significantly higher rate of Identity
    achievement over those children at
    Holy Family.
•   Those of Higher socio-economic
    status will be less diffused than those
    of lower socio-economic families.
•   Those whose parents are divorced
    will show less achievement, less
    moratorium, less foreclosure and
    much more diffusion.
Results: Private School
Results: Public School
Results: Socio-Economic
Divorce: Results
A half of the number of students that I
interviewed were only living with one
parent . I wondered if this might affect
the results at all so it was included as a
minor question.
• My Hypothesis was incorrect
• Most of the Public school children were diffused at higher
  levels while the children in the private school were both
  diffused and foreclosed at about the same level.
• Private school children were much more foreclosed than
  the public school children.
• My minor hypothesis was correct: those with divorced
  parents were MUCH more diffused indicating a pretty
  strong positive correlation to divorce and diffusion.
• My other minor hypothesis was correct as it did show that
  those of lower socio-economic status did tend to be more
  diffuse as well.
         Limitations and Problems
• Cannot generalize: sample
  was too small however
  enlightening it was.
• Limited interview: only
  covered political
• Not enough racial diversity
  from HFNS
• Same with the socio-
  economic factor, too little
• Public school interviews
  were conducted in a loud
                      Final Thoughts
         Erik Erikson
Nature                                                                Nurture

-Children at such a young age can hardly be expected to be achieved in any
-It is in most cases that any kind of achievement occurs so early on.
-Lack of political knowledge indicated diffusion.
-According to numerous studies, those who are foreclosed tend to have
     conventional morality while those who are achieved will usually show
     more post-conventional moral thought.
-Interesting Side note: Erikson points out that those people living in
     totalitarian governments or households are much more likely to be
     foreclosed or diffused because of the environment.
              Special Thanks
• Dr. Amy Fisher-Smith for helping me with my
• Mrs. Khirallah- For putting up with my delays.

Shared By: