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					Contemporary Clinical
     Psychology
        Third Edition
  Thomas Plante, Ph.D., ABPP
   Santa Clara University and
  Stanford University School of
            Medicine
      Chapter 1
What Is Contemporary
 Clinical Psychology?
Clinical Psychology
     Activities
       Research
      Assessment
       Treatment
       Teaching
      Consultation
     Administration
           Clinical Psychology
           Employment Settings
   Private and Group Practices
   Colleges and Universities
   Hospitals
   Medical Schools
   Outpatient Clinics
   Business and Industry
   Military
   Other Locations
Clinical Psychology Subspecialties
   Child Clinical Psychology
   Health Psychology
   Neuropsychology
   Forensic Psychology
   Geropsychology
Clinical Psychology Organizations

   American Psychological Association
   American Psychological Society
   State and County Psychological Associations
   National Register of Health Care Providers
   American Board of Professional Psychology
   Other Organizations
              Related Fields
   Counseling Psychology
   School Psychology
   Psychiatry
   Social Work
   Psychiatric Nursing
   Marriage and Family Counseling
   Other Counselors
   Other Psychologists
     Chapter 2

Foundations and
 Early History of
Clinical Psychology
    Early Conception of Mental Illness:
        Mind and Body Paradigms

   Greeks
   Middle Ages
   Renaissance
   19th Century
   Birth of Psychology
    The Founding of Clinical Psychology
   Lightmer Witmer
   Binet's Intelligence Test
   Mental Health and Child Guidance
    Movement
   Sigmund Freud in America
   The Influence of World War I
   Clinical Psychology Between World Wars I
    and II
     Significant events in the history of
             clinical psychology
   2,500–500 BC Supernatural, magic, herbs, and reason approaches to
                 illness
   470–322 BC Greeks use holistic approach
   130–200 AD Galen develops foundation of Western medicine
   500–1450     Middle Ages: supernatural forces influence health and
                 illness
   1225–1274    Saint Thomas Aquinas uses scientific thinking
   1490–1541    Paracelsus uses movements of the stars, moon, sun, and
                 planets to understand behavior
   1500–1700    Renaissance and scientific discoveries suggesting
                 biological factors influence health and illness
   1596–1650    René Descartes develops mind/body dualism
   1745–1826    Pinel developed humane moral therapy to treat mentally
                 ill
   1802–1887    Dorothea Dix advocates for humane treatment of
                 mentally ill
   1848         New Jersey becomes first state to build a hospital for
                 mentally ill
      Significant events, continued
   1879   Wundt develops first laboratory in psychology
   1879   William James develops first American psychology laboratory at Harvard
   1883   G. Stanley Hall develops second psychology laboratory at John Hopkins
   1888   James McKeen Cattell develops third American psychology laboratory
   1890   James publishes Principles of Psychology
   1890   James McKeen Cattell defines ―mental test‖
   1892   American Psychological Association founded
   1895   Breuer and Freud publish Studies on Hysteria
   1896   Witmer establishes first psychological clinic at U. Penn
   1900   Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams
   1904   Binet begins developing an intelligence test
   1905   Binet and Simon offer Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence
   1905   Jung creates a word association test
   1907   Psychological Clinic, first clinical journal published
   1908   Beers begins mental hygiene movement
   1909   Clinical psychology section formed at APA
   1909   Freud’s only visit to America at Clark University
      Significant events, continued
   1909 Healy develops child guidance clinic in Chicago
   1916 Terman develops Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
   1917 Clinicians of APA leave to form American Association of Clinical
         Psychologists (AACP)
   1917 Yerkes and committee develop Army Alpha test
   1919 AACP rejoins APA
   1921 James McKeen Cattell develops Psychological Corporation
   1921 Rorschach presents his inkblot test
   1924 Mary Cover Jones uses learning principles to treat children’s fears
   1935 APA Committee on Standards and Training define clinical psychology
   1935 Murray and Morgan publish the TAT
   1936 Louttit publishes first clinical psychology textbook
   1937 Clinicians leave APA again to form American Association of Applied
         Psychology (AAAP)
   1937 Journal of Consulting Psychology begins
   1939 The Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale is published
   1943 Hathaway publishes MMPI
   1945 AAAP rejoins APA
     Chapter 3

Recent History of
Clinical Psychology
                          Significant events:
                           1940s and 1950s
   1940s
   1945    AAAP rejoins APA
   1945    Connecticut passes first certification law for psychology
   1946    VA and NIMH fund clinical psychology training
   1947    ABEPP is founded to certify clinicians
   1949    Halstead presents neuropsychological testing battery
   1949    Boulder Conference defines scientist-practitioner model of training
   1950s
   1950    Dollard and Miller publish Personality and Psychotherapy: An Analysis in
            Terms of Learning, Thinking, and Culture
   1951    Rogers publishes Client-Centered Therapy
   1952    Eysenck publishes The Effects of Psychotherapy: An Evaluation
   1952    American Psychiatric Association publishes diagnostic categories in
            Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM - I )
   1953    APA publishes Ethical Standards
   1953    Skinner presents operant principles
   1955    Joint Commission on Mental Health and Illness founded
   1956    Stanford University training conference
   1958    Wolpe publishes Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition
   1958    Miami training conference
   1959    Mental Research Institute (MRI) founded
                      Significant events:
                       1960s and 1970s
   1960s
   1960 Eysenck publishes Handbook of Abnormal Psychology: An Experimental
          Approach
   1963 Congress passes legislation creating community mental health centers
   1965 Chicago training conference
   1965 Conference at Swampscott, MA, starts community psychology movement
   1967 Association for Advancement in Behavior Therapy founded
   1968 First PsyD program founded at the University of Illinois
   1969 First freestanding professional school of psychology founded at
          California School of Professional Psychology
   1970s
   1970 DSM II published
   1973 Vail training conference
   1976 National Council of Schools of Professional Psychology (NCSPP) founded
   1977 George Engel publishes paper in Science defining biopsychosocial model
   1977 Wachtel publishes Psychoanalysis and Behavior Therapy: Toward an
          Integration
                        Significant events:
                         1980s and 1990s
   1980s
   1980    DSM III published
   1981    APA ethical standards revised
   1982    Health psychology defined
   1986    NCSPP Mission Bay training conference
   1987    Salt Lake City training conference
   1987    DSM III-R published
   1988    American Psychological Society founded
   1989    NCSPP San Juan training conference
   1990s
   1990    NCSPP Gainesville training conference
   1991    NCSPP San Antonio training conference
   1992    Michigan Conference on postdoctoral training
   1994    DMS IV published
   1995    APA publishes a list of empirically validated treatments
   1998    International Society of Clinical Psychology founded in San Francisco
   1999    Guam authorizes psychologists to prescribe psychotropic medication
       Significant recent events in 2000s
   2001 APA alters mission statement to reflect psychology as a
         health care discipline
   2002 APA ethics code revised
   2002 New Mexico allows psychologists medication prescription
         authority
   2003 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
         (HIPAA) becomes law
   2004 Louisiana allows psychologists prescription authority
   2006 APA publishes findings from a Presidential Task Force on
         Evidence-Based Practice
   2008 The U.S. Congress passes the Paul Wellstone Mental Health
         and Addiction Equity Act of 2007 allowing mental health parity
         in health care
     Chapter 4

     Research:
Design and Outcome
    Research Methods and Designs
   Experiments
   Quasi-Experimental Designs
   Case Studies
   Correlational Methods
   Epidemiological Methods
   Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Designs
     Treatment Outcome Research
   Treatment Package Strategy
   Dismantling Treatment Strategies
   Constructive Treatment Strategies
   Parametric Treatment Strategy
   Comparative Treatment Strategy
   Client-Therapist Variation Strategy
   Process Research Strategy
        Examples of Threats to Internal
            and External Validity
   Threats to internal validity
   History
   Maturation
   Testing
   Instrumentation
   Statistical Regression
   Selection Bias
   Experimental Mortality
   Threats to external validity
   Testing
   Reactivity
   Multiple-Treatment Interference
   Interaction of Selection Biases
       Different Levels of Research
   Level 1   Basic laboratory research on factors
              associated with behavior change
   Level 2   Analogue treatment research to
              identify effective ingredients of
              therapeutic procedures under
              controlled laboratory conditions
   Level 3   Controlled clinical research with patient
              populations
   Level 4   Clinical practice. Therapists may
              measure outcome in case studies or
              clinical series.
Questions and Challenges Conducting
   Treatment Outcome Research
   Is the treatment provided in a research program similar to
         the treatment provided in actual clinical practice?
   Are the patients and therapists used in a research study
         typical of patients and therapists in actual practice?
   How and when is treatment outcome measured?
   Statistical versus clinical significance.
   How can treatment outcome decisions be made when some
         studies might conclude one thing and other studies
         conclude something different?
   What is a program of research and how is it conducted?
         Contemporary Issues in
      Clinical Psychology Treatment
            Outcome Research
   Biopsychosocial approaches to psychopathology
    research
   Meta-analysis
   Empirically supported treatments
   Comprehensive and collaborative multi-site
    clinical trial research projects
   Community-wide interventions
   Ethical issues
   Multicultural issues
         Chapter 5

The Major Theoretical Models:
      Psychodynamic,
    Cognitive-Behavioral,
      Humanistic, and
      Family Systems
      The Four Major Theoretical
     Models in Clinical Psychology

   Psychodynamic Approach
   Cognitive-Behavioral Approach
   Humanistic Approach
   Family Systems Approach
            Alternatives to the
        Psychodynamic Approach
   Behavioral Approach
   Cognitive Approach
   Humanistic Approach
   Family Systems Approach
   Psychotropic Medication
   Community Mental Health Movement
   Integrative Approaches
   Biopsychosocial Approach
The Psychodynamic Approaches

 Freud’s Psychoanalytic
  Perspective
 The Revisionist or Neo-Freudian

  Perspective
 The Object Relations Perspective
    The Behavioral and Cognitive-
       Behavioral Approaches
 The Classical Conditioning
  Perspective
 The Operant Perspective

 The Social Learning Perspective

 The Cognitive Perspective: Beliefs,

  Appraisals, and Attributions
    The Humanistic Approach

 The Client-Centered Perspective
 Maslow’s Humanistic Perspective

 The Gestalt Perspective
    The Family Systems Approach

 The Communication Approach
 The Structural Approach

 The Milan Approach

 The Strategic Approach

 The Narrative Approach
      Chapter 6

  Integrative and
   Biopsychosocial
   Approaches in
Contemporary Clinical
     Psychology
        A Call to Integration

   Commonalities among
    Approaches
   Efforts toward Integration
   Eclectism
   Beyond Psychological Models
     Biopsychosocial Factors
 Diathesis-stress perspective
 Reciprocal-gene-environment
  perspective
 Psychosocial factors influencing
  biology
 Development of the biopsychosocial
  perspective
    Biopsychosocial Applications

 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
 Anxiety and Panic

 Cardiovascular Disease

 Cancer
        Chapter 7

Contemporary Psychological
        Assessment I:
Interviewing and Observing
          Behavior
                Interviewing
   Rapport
   Effective Listening Skills
   Effective Communication
   Observation of Behavior
   Asking the Right Questions
            Types of Interviews
   Initial Intake or Admissions Interview
   Mental Status Interview
   Crisis Interview
   Diagnostic Interview
   Structured Interviews
   Computer-Assisted Interviews
   Exit or Termination Interviews
         Standard Clinical Interview
   Identifying Information
   Referral Source
   Chief Complaint or Presenting Problems
   Family Background
   Health Background
   Educational Background
   Employment Background
   Developmental History
   Sexual History
   Previous Medical Treatment
   Previous Psychiatric Treatment
   History of Traumas
   Current Treatment Goals
        Chapter 8

Contemporary Psychological
      Assessment II:
 Cognitive and Personality
        Assessment
    Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological
               Test Battery
   Category Test
   Tactual Performance Test
   Rhythm Test
   Speech Sounds Perception Test
   Finger Oscillation Test
   Trail Making Test
   Strength of Grip Test
   Sensory-Perceptual Examination
   Tactile Perception
   Modified Halstead-Wepman Aphasia Screening Test
   Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—IV (WAIS-IV)
   Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2 (MMPI-2)
                     MMPI-2 Scales
   Validity Scales
   ?     (Cannot Say)
   L     (Lie)
   F     (Validity)
   K     (Correction)
   Clinical Scales
   1     Hypochondriasis          (Hs)
   2     Depression               (D)
   3     Conversion Hysteria      (Hy)
   4     Psychopathic Deviate     (Pd)
   5     Masculinity-Femininity   (Mf)
   6     Paranoia                 (Pa)
   7     Psychasthenia            (Pt)
   8     Schizophrenia            (Sc)
   9     Hypomania                (Ma)
   0     Social Introversion      (Si)
                         MCMI-III Scales
   Clinical Personality Patterns Scales
   Scale 1             Schizoid
   Scale 2A            Avoidant
   Scale 2B            Depressive
   Scale 3             Dependent
   Scale 4             Histrionic
   Scale 5             Narcissistic
   Scale 6A            Antisocial
   Scale 6B            Aggressive (Sadistic)
   Scale 7             Compulsive
   Scale 8A            Passive-Aggressive (Negativistic)
   Scale 8B            Self-Defeating
   Clinical Syndrome Scales
   Scale A             Anxiety
   Scale H             Somatoform
   Scale N             Bipolar: Manic
   Scale D             Dysthymia
   Scale B             Alcohol Dependence
   Scale T             Drug Dependence
   Scale R             Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
      MCMI-III Scales, continued
   Severe Syndrome Scales
   Scale SS Thought Disorder
   Scale CC Major Depression
   Scale PP Delusional Disorder
   Severe Personality Pathology Scales
   Scale S    Schizotypal
   Scale C    Borderline
   Scale P    Paranoid
   Modifying Indexes (Correction Scales)
   Scale X    Disclosure
   Scale Y    Desirability
   Scale Z    Debasement
               16PF (Fifth Edition)
   A    Warmth
   B    Reasoning
   C    Emotional Stability
   E    Dominance
   F    Liveliness
   G    Rule Consciousness
   H    Social Boldness
   I    Sensitivity
   L    Vigilance
   M    Abstractedness
   N    Privateness
   O    Apprehension
   Q1   Openness to Change
   Q2   Self-Reliance
   Q3   Perfectionism
   Q4   Tension
Rorschach Sample
Rorschach Sample
     Chapter 9

Psychotherapeutic
   Interventions
           Common Denominators
             in Psychotherapy
   Professional Person
   Professional Manner
   Professional Setting
   Duration of Sessions
   Frequency of Sessions
        Stages of Psychotherapy
   Initial Consultation
   Assessment
   Development of Treatment Goals
   Implementation of Treatment
   Evaluation of Treatment
   Termination
   Follow-Up
    Modes of Psychotherapy

 Individual Treatment
 Group Psychotherapy

 Couples Psychotherapy

 Family Therapy
     Chapter 10

Psychotherapeutic
      Issues
      Ten Issues about Psychotherapy

   Does Psychotherapy Work?
   Long-Term Therapy versus Short-Term Treatment
   Psychotherapy Dropouts
   Is One Type of Therapy Better than Another?
   Enduring Psychotherapy Effects
   Common Factors Associated with Positive Psychotherapy
    Outcome
   Change Is Challenging
   Level of Training for Psychotherapists
   Health Care Costs and Psychotherapy
   Psychotherapy Harm
       Chapter 11

Areas of Specialization
   in Contemporary
 Clinical Psychology
      Clinical Health Psychology
   Smoking
   Obesity
   Alcohol Consumption
   Stress Management
   Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    (AIDS)
   Chronic Pain
        Child Clinical Psychology
   Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    (ADHD)
   Learning Disorders
   Child Abuse and Neglect
   Anorexia Nervosa
        Clinical Neuropsychology
   Epilepsy
   Brain Injuries
   Degenerative Diseases
          Forensic Psychology
   Involuntary Commitment
   Insanity Defense
   Child Custody
   Jury Selection
              Geropsychology
   Degenerative Diseases
   Vascular Diseases
   Parkinson’s Disease
   Psychiatric Issues (Anxiety, Depression,
    Substance Abuse)
       Chapter 12

Consultative, Teaching,
  and Administrative
Roles in Contemporary
 Clinical Psychology
               Consultation
   Consultation Defined
   Consultation Roles
   Types of Consultation
   Stages of Consultation
   To Whom Do Clinical Psychologists Offer
    Consultation?
   Effective Consultation
   Problems in Consultation
                  Teaching
   Teaching in Academic Settings
   1. Psychology Departments
   2. Medical Schools and Hospitals
   Teaching in Nonacademic Settings
   1. Clinics
   2. Workshops
   3. Business and Industry
   4. General Public
    Chapter 13

Ethical Standards
 in Contemporary
Clinical Psychology
             Ethical Principles
   Competence
   Integrity
   Professional and Scientific Responsibility
   Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity
   Concern for Others’ Welfare
   Social Responsibility
             Ethical Standards
   Advertising and Other Public Statements
   Therapy
   Teaching, Training, Supervision, Research,
    and Publishing
   Forensic Activities
      Chapter 14

 Current and Future
Trends and Challenges
  in Contemporary
 Clinical Psychology
            Trends in Society
   Contemporary Changes in the American
    Family
   Multicultural and Diversity Issues
   Advances in Science, Technology, and
    Medicine
   Money
   Gender Shifts in Professions
     Research and Practice Issues
   Managed Health Care
   Prescription Privileges
   Medical Staff Privileges
   Private Practice
   Specialization
   Empirically Supported Treatments
   Reaching Beyond Mental Health in
    Contemporary Clinical Psychology
   Training Issues
    Chapter 15

Becoming a Clinical
   Psychologist:
   A Road Map
      Ten Important Goals During the
            College Experience
   High Grade Point Average
   High Graduate Record Examination Scores
   Quality Research Experience
   Quality Clinical Experience
   Excellent Verbal Skills
   Excellent Interpersonal Skills
   Reliability and Dependability
   Excellent Productivity
   Excellent Letters of Recommendation
   High Motivation
Applying to Graduate Programs
    in Clinical Psychology
   PhD versus PsyD versus MA
   University versus Freestanding Professional
    School
   Accreditation
   Training Curriculum and Emphasis
         After Graduate School
   Clinical Internship
   Postdoctoral Fellowship
   Specialization
   Certification and/or Licensure
   Employment

				
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