Cognitive Development

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					Cognitive Development

    Middle Childhood
• Concrete Operations
  – Mental representation is used to solve
    concrete problems
  – Advances
    • Space-children at this age can find their way to
      and from school
    • Measurement skills
    • Causality- children understand how physical
      attributes effect an object. Number of objects on a
– Categorization- seriation- ordering objects
   • Transitive inference-understanding the relationship of two
     objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object
       – A child is shown three sticks. One green, one yellow and one
       – She is shown that the yellow stick is longer than the green one
         and the green one is longer than the blue one. She knows
         without comparing them that the yellow one is longer than the
         blue one.
   • Class inclusion-understanding relation between whole and its
       – A child understands that when shown a bunch of flowers-10, 7
         roses and 3 carnations- and asked which is more the roses or
         the flowers, they understand that roses are part of the
         subcategory of flower.
• Inductive and Deductive reasoning
  – Inductive-Jere is a dog. My dog barks. So does your
    dog. All dogs must bark. The problem is that they
    may run into an exception.
  – Deductive- All dogs bark. Spot is a dog. Spot barks.
    Begin with class and then move to a specific.
• Conservation-
  – Reversibility
  – Centration
              IQ Testing
• Developed by Alfred Binet
• Mental age divided by chronological age
  multiplied by 100.
• 7 mentally, 6 chronologically=1.17
  *100=117 IQ
• 70 or <
• 130 or >
        Multiple Intelligences
• No two children are alike
• No two children learn in the identical way
• An enriched environment for one student is
  not necessarily enriched for another
• In the classroom we should teach children to
  think for themselves

                        Marion Diamonds (2002)
Your brain is like a chandelier with ten different light
             bulbs of different intensities.
(Word Smart)
Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence
      (Music Smart)
Logical/Mathematical Intelligence
        (Math Smart)
Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence
     (Body Smart)
Visual/Spatial Intelligence
   (Spatial Smart)
Naturalist Intelligence
(Nature Smart)
Interpersonal Intelligence
     (people smart)
  (self smart)
Existential Intelligence
 (Wondering Smart)
• A second grade teacher has children read
  a section of the story about a child who
  lives on a farm. In this section, fall and the
  harvest are described. After the children
  have read part of the story, the teacher
  asks comprehension questions: What did
  the boy do when his father scolded him for
  playing and not working? How did he feel?
  What did he do next?