Guide to Programs

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					                                                                                      Preface




                                  Preface
In order to implement the overall strategy of enhancing the national capability of
indigenous innovation and building China into an innovative country, the State Council
promulgated the Regulations on the National Natural Science Fund (hereinafter
abbreviated as the Regulations), which streamlines the management of the National
Natural Science Fund (hereinafter referred to as the Science Fund). Full implementation
of the Regulations plays a key role in further streamlining the management of the Science
Fund, improving its efficiency, creating a harmonious environment for indigenous
innovation, promoting the healthy development of basic research in China, and fully
carrying out the National Guidelines for Medium and Long term Plans for Science and
Technology Development (2006-2020) (hereinafter abbreviated as the Guidelines).

Excellent management of the Science Fund constitutes an essential part of the full
implementation of the Regulations. The management of the Science Fund has now come
to a crucial phase of making further progress from a new starting point. As far as
self-development is concerned, the Science Fund has, after more than 20 years of practice,
established a coordinated management system consisting of advisory, decision-making,
execution and supervision. It has clarified its strategic position in the national innovation
system and has set up its working principles for the new period. It has built up a funding
structure including such programs series as “Research Program”, “Talent-training
Program” and “Environment Construction Program”. As far as the external environment
is concerned, the government is now paying great attention to basic research. Along with
the implementation of the Guidelines, the governmental investment in the Science Fund is
further increased, creating a new era for the development of the Science Fund. On the one
hand, increased budget has enabled the Science Fund to play a better role in the national
innovation system; on the other hand, it poses higher requirements and greater
responsibilities for the management of the Science Fund. While summarizing the
experience of successful management of the Science Fund in the past, the Regulations
sets higher standards for its management in the future, constituting the significant legal
basis for further development and improvement of the science funding system. As
management personnel of the Science Fund, we should nurture a working style of
performing by laws and regulations and work in accordance with the roles and procedures
defined by the Regulations; we should develop a working style of probity and
self-discipline and act in light of the Regulations; we should advocate a working style of
serving all scientists wholeheartedly and strive to improve the quality of our service. By
earnest implementation of the funding principles featuring openness, fairness and justness
and by exact adherence to the working guidelines of “respecting science, developing
democracy, advocating competition, enhancing cooperation, encouraging innovation and

                                              I
Preface

guiding the future”, we endeavor to promote excellent management with a view to
spurring faster and better development of the Science Fund at a new historic starting
point.

Full implementation of the Regulations entails that we need to bring into full play the key
roles of the home institutions of applicants. Out of a high sense of responsibility, most
home institutions have long been making significant contributions to the development of
the Science Fund. By defining the rights and responsibilities of the home institutions, the
Regulations functions as an important document that guides and standardizes the home
institutions‟ management of the Science Fund and brings the roles of the home institutions
into full play. In order to provide the home institutions with macro-guidance of the
management of Science Fund, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)
recently published the Suggestions on Strengthening the Management of Projects Funded
by the National Natural Science Fund in Applicants’ Home Institutions and the
Provisional Guidelines on the Management of the Registration of Applicants’ Home
Institutions. In the process of carrying out the Regulations, the home institutions should
firstly be performers of proper management. The Regulations comprises 43 clauses and
17 of them are related to the home institutions, with specific requirements pertaining to
such key steps as organization, planning, application, evaluation, funding and supervision
in the course of the home institutions‟ management of the Science Fund. This mirrors the
constructive part that the home institutions play in the legal management of the Science
Fund. Secondly, the home institutions should function as practitioners of innovative
management. As a legal system for scientific management of the Science Fund, the
Regulations provides not only unified criteria for the management of the Science Fund,
but also new requirements for the development and improvement of the whole science
funding system. This requires that all home institutions strictly follow the criteria outlined
by the Regulations on the one hand, and, based on the reality and unique features of each
institution, interpret new meanings from the principles defined in the Regulations and
apply them to the status quo on the other hand, exploring effective manners of
management that are favorable for facilitating prolific research achievements and
fostering talents at the same time. Thirdly, the home institutions should be supervisors of
research integrity. The home institutions are the first “fire wall” against academic fraud.
In implementing the Regulations, the home institutions should conduct education of
research ethics among researchers; especially, they should inculcate young researchers
and graduate students who apply, undertake or participate in those projects funded by the
Science Fund with a sense of academic mores and criteria, in the hope of eliminating
academic impetuousness in research by way of positive guidance and strong
encouragement of standard research practice. Rigorous observance of the punishment
rules in the Regulations on academic misconducts is indispensable for maintaining the
authority and solemnity of the Regulations. The establishment and maintenance of good
reputation of the home institutions are based on the research integrity of each applicant,
principal investigator and participant. Fourthly, the home institutions should be builders

                                              II
                                                                                  Preface

of innovative environment. As arenas for creative talents to explore their imagination and
wisdom, the home institutions should create a favorable environment for scientific
research, which will exert a more direct and vital bearing on promoting indigenous
innovations of researchers. In managing projects funded by the Science Fund, they should,
according to the Regulations, provide support for research through creating an academic
atmosphere that encourages initiative exploration and tolerates drawbacks on the road of
innovation. Means should be created to encourage active expressions, exchanges and
communications of different academic ideas.

In the Report to the Seventeenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, it is
fixed as the goal for the Party and the whole society to enhance the capability of
indigenous innovation and build China into an innovative country. Firmly strengthening
basic research brings about important strategic guarantee for boosting indigenous
innovation in China. In the same way, the science funding system, as a fundamental
system, provides an effective approach to the steady and sustained development of basic
research. Holding high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics and
following the guidance of Deng Xiaoping‟s Theory and the important thought of “Three
Represents”, we shall thoroughly apply the scientific outlook on development, promote
excellent management by conscientiously carrying out the Regulations, and make due
contributions to lifting the overall quality of basic research and strengthening China‟s
scientific competitiveness by further improving and developing the science funding
system.




                                                                  Zhu Daoben
                                                                 November 28, 2007




                                           III
Foreword




                              Foreword
As a primary channel for funding basic research in China, the National Natural Science
Fund mainly supports scientists from universities and research institutions that enjoy fine
research facilities for and capabilities of conducting innovative research. Since the
Regulations came into force on April 1st, 2007, NSFC has been following the spirit of the
Regulations conscientiously in every respect of its work and has been unremittingly
implementing the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for the Development of the National Natural
Science Fund. Based on the accurate understanding of the strategic position of the Science
Fund, NSFC spares no effort to create a harmonic environment favorable for innovation,
so as to lift the overall quality of basic research in China and strengthen the national
capabilities of indigenous innovation.

Following the development trend of basic research and the overall layout in the Eleventh
Five-Year Plan for the Development of the National Natural Science Fund, NSFC has
made necessary adjustments on its funding structure. Starting from 2008, the Free
Application Projects, Young Scientists Fund and Fund for Less Developed Regions, three
sub-categories of General Program in the past, are redefined as three program categories.
Free Application Projects are now categorized as General Program, still belonging to
Research Program. The funding rate of General Program will be controlled and the
average amount of funding per project will be gradually increased, so as to increase the
support for innovative research projects. Young Scientists Fund and Fund for Less
Developed Regions are now classified into the Talent-Training Program, and their funding
scope will be increased and the average amount of funding per project will be decreased
so as to play the role in fostering young talents and maintaining research teams in less
developed regions.

After the adjustment, the program structure of NSFC now consists of three main systems,
namely, Research Program, Talent-Training Program and Environment Construction
Program. Research Program comprises such categories as General Program, Key Program,
Major Program, Major Research Plan, Substantial International Cooperation Program, etc.
Talent-Training Program is constituted by the National Science Fund for Distinguished
Young Scholars (including those with foreign citizenship), Young Scientists Fund,
Science Fund for Less Developed Regions, Fund for Creative Research Groups, Joint
Research Fund for Overseas Chinese Young Scholars, Joint Research Fund for Hong
Kong and Macao Young Scholars, National Fund for Fostering Talents in Basic Research,
etc. The Environment Construction Program is composed of Tianyuan Fund for
Mathematics, Special Fund for Basic Research on Scientific Instruments, Research Fund
for Outstanding National Key Labs, Fund for Public Understanding of Science, Special

                                            IV
                                                                                   Foreword

Grant for Key Academic Journals, Joint Funds, Fund for International Cooperation and
Exchange, etc. Research Program is mainly aimed at acquiring innovative research results
and fostering S&T talents through innovative scientific research, consequently grinding
the academic edge of the whole army of basic research. Research Program forms the part
and parcel of the National Natural Science Fund, accounting for over 80% of the total
budget. Taking the future competitiveness and long-term development into consideration,
Talent-Training Program focuses on fostering a talent reserve in basic research, on
supporting young researchers in their early academic carrier, on stabilizing the research
teams in less developed regions, and on fostering academic leaders and their research
groups. Environment Construction Program is mainly intended to support the
improvement of research environment, to attract social investment in basic research, and
to promote public understanding of science and basic research. With respective
preferential focuses, the three main systems are complementary to each other, forming the
integrated funding system of the National Natural Science Fund.

In order to help scientists better understand its funding policies, NSFC, following the
principle of openness, fairness and justness, released the Guide to Programs of the
National Natural Science Found: 2008 (hereinafter abbreviated as the Guide to
Programs), which would extend guidance to all applicants in their selection of the proper
categories of programs, research areas and orientations of investigation when applying for
the Science Fund with research topics proposed on their own initiative.

Applications for projects of most program categories are accepted by NSFC during the
concentrated application period every year. By an increase rate of 11.12%, a total of
70,372 applications of various types were received during the concentrated application
period in 2007, which means an increase of 7,042 applications in comparison with the
same period in 2006. Applications for Young Scientists Fund grew by 26.75%, exhibiting
the biggest surge. After preliminary review, 67,164 applications were accepted, and 3,208
rejected. For information of the distinct funding intensities and funding rates displayed by
different program categories, readers are referred to relevant sections in the Guide to
Programs.

The Guide to Programs presents an introduction of various types of programs, of which
applications will be accepted during the concentrated application period in 2008. Notes on
application and regulations on the limits on the total number of applications one applicant
may submit are listed in great detail after the part of Foreword and are worth due attention
from applicants. The overall funding facts of the General Program in each scientific
department are orderly introduced, and concrete funding scopes in diverse disciplines and
related requirements are introduced by respective divisions of scientific departments.
Funding scopes and special requirements of Young Scientists Fund, Fund for Less
Developed Regions and Key Program are comprehensively introduced by scientific
departments. Other types of projects are introduced in general terms. Special requirements

                                             V
Foreword

of certain types of projects for applicants are introduced seriatim in the main text of the
Guide to Programs.

Applications for projects that are not listed in the Guide to Programs will not be accepted
during the concentrated application period, and calls for applications for those projects
and related guiding information will be announced at NSFC‟s website
(http://www.nsfc.gov.cn) or by other media. Applicants are advised to pay due attention to
the updating of related information.

In the consecutive procedures of application acceptance, assessment and program
management, NSFC will, strictly abiding by the Regulations and the principle of
“macro-guidance, independent application, equal competition, peer review and support
for the best”, strongly encourage fountainhead innovation, emphasize research merits,
support disciplinary intercrossing and tolerance of different academic ideas, strictly
observe pertinent regulations on the conflict of interests and confidentiality, and sincerely
cherish the supervision from the scientific community and the general public. All
scientists are welcome to submit high-caliber applications for the National Natural
Science Fund.

                                                          Editorial Board of the Guide to
                                    Programs of the National Natural Science Fund: 2008

                                                                        November 30, 2007




                                             VI
                                        Table of Contents



         Table of Contents

General Program
  Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences………
      Division of Mathematics…………………………………
      Division of Mechanics……………………………………………
      Division of Astronomy……………………………………………
      Division I of Physics………………………………………………
      Division II of Physics……………………………………………
  Department of Chemical Sciences……………………………………
      Division I of Chemistry……………………………………………
      Division II of Chemistry…………………………………………
      Division III of Chemistry…………………………………………
      Division IV of Chemistry…………………………………………
      Division V of Chemistry……………………………………………
  Department of Life Sciences………………………
      Division I of Life Science…………………………………………
      Division II of Life Science…………………………………………
      Division III of Life Science………………………………………
      Division IV of Life Science………………………………………
      Division V of Life Science…………………………………………
      Division VI of Life Science………………………………………
      Division VII of Life Science………………………………………
      Division VIII of Life Science……………………………………
      Division IX of Life Science………………………………………
      Division X of Life Science…………………………………………
  Department of Earth Sciences…………………………………
      Division I of Earth Science…………………………………………
      Division II of Earth Science………………………………………
      Division III of Earth Science……………………………………
      Division IV of Earth Science………………………………………
                         1
Table of Contents

        Division V of Earth Science………………………………………
    Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences…………
        Division I of Materials Science……………………………………
        Division II of Materials Science…………………………………
        Division I of Engineering Science…………………………
        Division II of Engineering Science…………………………
        Division III of Engineering Science………………………………
        Division IV of Engineering Science………………………………
        Division V of Engineering Science………………………………
    Department of Information Sciences…………………………………
        Division I of Information Science…………………………………
        Division II of Information Science…………………………………
        Division III of Information Science……………………………
        Division IV of Information Science………………………………
    Department of Managment Sciences…………………………………
        Division I of Management Science………………………………
        Division II of Management Science………………………………
        Division III of Management Science……………………………

Key Program
    Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences…………
    Department of Chemical Sciences…………………………………
    Department of Life Sciences………………………………………
    Department of Earth Sciences……………………………………
    Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences…………
    Department of Information Sciences………………………………
    Department of Managment Sciences………………………………

Major Program
    Key Mathematical Problems in Information Processing……
    Research on Biochemical Analytic Integrated System Controlled by
    Micro-nanofluidics ……
    Polymorphic Studies on Genome of Several Chinese Population
    Groups………
    Functional Mechanism of Metabolic Nuclear Acceptor in Glycolipid
                                 2
                                                     Table of Contents

   Metabolic Regulations………
   Studies on the Growth Ring of Trees in China and Climate Change in
   the Millennium………………
   Basic Research on Inorganic/Organic Composite Semiconductor
   Materials…………………
   Basic Theory and Key Technologies of Multi-dimensional Microwave
   Imaging …………
   Major Basic Problems and Key Technologies in Emerging
   E-commerce…………………

Major Research Plan
   Key Basic Science Problems in Near Space Aircraft…………
   Studies on the Signal Transmission Based on Small Chemical
   Molecular Probes ……
   Damage of the North China Craton ………………………………
   Molecular Mechanism of Plant Hormone…………

Funds for Talented Professionals
   National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars……
   National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (with foreign
   citizenship)……
   Young Scientists Fund
         Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences……………
         Department of Chemical Sciences……………………
         Department of Life Sciences……………………
         Department of Earth Sciences………………………………
         Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences………………
         Department of Information Sciences……………………
         Department of Management Sciences ……………………………
   Fund for Less Developed Regions
         Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences………………
         Department of Chemical Sciences…………………………………
         Department of Life Sciences……………………
         Department of Earth Sciences………………………………………
         Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences………………
                                  3
Table of Contents

         Department of Information Sciences…………………………
         Department of Management Sciences……………………………
    Science Fund for Creative Research Groups…………………………
    Joint Research Fund for Overseas, Hong Kong and Macao Scholars…
    National Science Fund for Talent Training in Basic Science……………

International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange
    Project Categories……………
        Joint Research Projects……………………………………………
        Major Joint Research Projects ……………………………………
        International Conferences…………………………………………
        Special Fund for Chinese Scholars Abroad Returning for
        Short-period of Work or Lecture in China…………………
    International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange with Different
    Countries and Regions……………………
        Asia, Africa and International Organizations……………………
        America, Oceania and East Europe…………………………………
        West Europe…………………………………………………………
        Hong Kong and Macao SARs and Taiwan Region……………
        Sino-German Center for Research Promotion……………………

Joint Funds
    NSAF Joint Fund……………………………………………………
    Joint Fund of Astronomy …………………………………………
    Joint Fund of Petrochemical Engineering………………………
    Joint Fund of Iron and Steel Research…………………………
    Joint Fund of Civil Aviation…………………………………
    NSFC-Guangdong Joint Fund ………………………………………
    Jointly Funded Projects of Railway…………………………
    Jointly Funded Projects with Microsoft Research Institute
    Asia …………………
    Jointly Funded Project for Less Developed Regions…………

Special Funds
    Tianyuan Fund for Mathematics………………………………………
                                 4
                                                 Table of Contents

  Special Fund for Basic Research on Scientific Instruments……………
  Special Fund for Key Academic Journals…………………

Appendix
  Telephone Directory of NSFC………………………………




                               5
                                                                        General Program



                  General Program
General Program is the main part of the National Natural Science Fund. It is to balance the
general funding layout, and it aims at frontier of science, promotes disciplinary development
and stimulates original innovation.

General program supports researchers doing basic research on free selected topics within
the funding scope of NSFC to conduct innovative research and obtain new discoveries or
make important progress through research. It encourages foresighted novel and
exploratory research, protects controversial projects and supports risky but innovative
research.

In 2007, 7,713 projects of General Program were supported with a funding of 2.27475
billion yuan, accounting for about 45.39% of NSFC total budget, and 66.66% of its
Research Program budget. In 2007, the average funding was 294,900 yuan per project,
which is 20,700 yuan more than that in the previous year, and the average funding rate
was 17.13%, which is 0.21% lower. In 2008, General Program will continue to limit its
funding scale and increase its funding intensity, and to give greater support to researches
with innovative ideas.

Applicants should have the eligibility set in the Regulations, and know well the relevant
research status in China and the world, can lead a group to conduct innovative research, and
the home institutions should have necessary experimental research conditions. The proposed
research should have important academic meaning and research merits, and have enough
theoretical basis, new academic ideas, clear research objectives, specific research contents
and feasible research schemes. The research period is 3 years in general. Each scientific
department introduces its funding policies for the General Program, and at the same time,
describes the general situation of the department.




                                              1
General Program

                      Funding of General Program Projects in 2007
                                                                             Unit: 10,000 yuan

                                                       Approved
                                                                                         Success
                       No. of
    Department                                                              Average      rate
                      proposals    No. of                  Percentage of
                                             Funding                        funding      (%)
                                  projects                 the total (%)
                                                                           per project
       Total           45,020      7,713     227,457              100        29.49         17.13

 Mathematical and
                        3,054       851      26,732           11.75          31.41         27.87
 Physical Sciences

 Chemical Sciences      4,111       901      25,426           11.18          28.22         21.92

   Life Sciences       19,183      2,890     80,464           35.38          27.84         15.07

  Earth Sciences        3,287       799      31,202           13.72          39.05         24.31

 Engineering and
                        7,730      1,118     35,568           15.64          31.81         14.46
 Materials Sciences
    Information
                        4,644       792      20,817               9.15       26.28         17.05
     Sciences
   Management
                        3,011       362       7,248               3.19       20.02         12.02
     Sciences




                                             2
                                                                       General Program

Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
Mathematical and physical sciences are basic disciplines of natural science, and the
precursor and basis for the development of contemporary science. Disciplines in
mathematical and physical science have clear characteristics, such as big differences
between disciplines, strong independence, and pure theoretical research (such as
mathematics and theoretical physics, etc.) and experimental studies. Many disciplines
belong to “mega-science”, such as high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astronomical
physics, high temperature plasma physics, etc. They are very theoretical in studying deep
level structures of matter and involving many frontier disciplines. The development of
mathematical and physical sciences also supplies theories, methods and means to the
development of other disciplines. Research finding in mathematics and physics plays a key
role in promoting the progress of both basic and applied scientific disciplines.

Mathematical and physical sciences have extensive interactions with other sciences, such
as, mathematics with information science, life science and management science, physics
with materials science, life science, information science and chemistry, astronomy with
earth science, and mechanics with engineering science and earth science. As a result of
extensive interactions with other disciplines, a series of interdisciplinary and
cross-boundary disciplines and new research areas have emerged, and at the same time
research objects and areas in mathematical and physical sciences are also expanding.

Therefore, the Department has always paid great attention to basic research, and will
continue to increase its support to basic research that takes as its primary goals advancing
the disciplinary development, promoting originality and meeting the needs of national
long-term development and training talented researchers, as well as interdisciplinary
research within the Department and across the departments.

International cooperation and exchange play an important role in promoting the
development of mathematical and physical sciences. The Department will continue to
support a number of high level international cooperative projects in 2008, including major
joint research projects, so as to further promote international cooperation and exchange in
mathematical and physical sciences, and encourage researchers in mathematical and
physical sciences to participate actively in international competition. It is hoped that
scientists with cooperation background and qualification submit proposals in time
according to the requirements.

In accordance with the strategic needs of the development of mathematical and physical
sciences and the overall plan of project funding, the Department has taken some measures
in project funding and has strengthened macro guidance in recent years. In 2008, the
Department will continue to pay attention to the following aspects:
1. To increase the support on fostering outstanding young talents. In 2007, the percentage
                                             3
General Program
of principal investigators under the age of 40 in General Program projects reached 31.96%.
In the future, we shall strengthen funding young researchers. The scope of funding to
young scientists in 2008 will continue to be expanded in General Program so as to allow
more young scientists get funding to conduct independent research.

2. More emphasis will be given to creative research and disciplinary development.
Multi-level funding to suit the needs of research will be adopted. The priorities will be
given to studies on developing experimental methods and techniques that promote original
innovation and have innovative ideas. The funding will be allocated according to the actual
needs, which can be up to 500,000 or 600,000 yuan per project. Applicants should pay
attention to this policy.

3. To strengthen the macro planning and adjustment and give preferential support to
special areas so as to promote sustainable development in these areas. In 2008, preferential
supports will be given to the following areas:
1) Physical problems in new energy;
2) Application of mathematics in other disciplines and interdisciplinary problems related to
information science;
3) Research and development of experimental methods and techniques with novel research
ideas;
4) Pre-research on scientific goals of large-scale national engineering projects;
5) Synchronized radiation methods and technology;
6) Radiation protection and radiation physics;
7) Integration and standardization of computational mechanics software;
8) Projects needed by disciplinary development or layout, mainly to support important
research areas where research basis is still weak in China or that have prospect of
development but the research basis is weak in China, or those disciplines or areas that are
weak but are still needed due to the national needs in the long run.

The above areas will be given preferential support in 2008. Meanwhile, according to the
results of investigation, the Department will increase its support on some other areas.




                                             4
                                                                                                        General Program

                  Funding for Free Application Projects in the Recent Two Years
                                                                                                           Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                                    2006                                     2007

                                                                                 Success                                  Success
             Scientific division               Projects                                    Projects
                                                                  Funding        rate++                    Funding        rate++
                                               granted                                     granted
                                                                                  (%)                                      (%)
                     Basic mathematics         102+10      *
                                                                   2,459          32.84    107+10   *
                                                                                                             2,761         33.14

                     Applied math. and
 Mathematics
                     computational             92+10*              2,159          30.63    102+9*            2,472         31.81
                     math.

                     General mechanics          26+2*               852           23.73      33              1,039         25.78

                     Solid mechanics            90+6   *
                                                                   3,034          24.81      91              3,228         22.92
 Mechanics
                     Fluid mechanics            32+2*              1,109          22.08      41              1,392         21.93

                     Interdisciplinary          36+3*              1,258          27.46      40              1,417         27.40
                     mechanics
                     Astrophysics               23+3   *
                                                                    943           36.11      26              1,016         38.23

                     Astronomical
 Astronomy
                     measurements and            10                 383           28.57       7               252          26.92
                     celestial mechanics

                     Condensed        matter
                                                92+5*              3,123          25.46      110             3,899         25.00
                     physics

 Physics I           Atomic and
                                                23+3*               781           28.57      24               829          27.91
                     molecular physics
                     Optics                     38+3*              1,325          24.85      43              1,529         22.40
                                                       *
                     Acoustics                  19+2                649           26.58      21               774          25.93
                     Basic physics and            4
                                                                   1,325          29.81     47+2*            1,403         33.79
                     particle physics           5+3*
                     Nuclear physics
                     and nuclear
                                                65+7*              2,336          34.45     64+1*            2,164         33.16
                     technology and
   Physics II        application
                     Particle physics
                     and experimental
                                                22+2*               824           26.09      37              1,352         33.33
                     facilities for
                     nuclear physics

                     Plasma physics             28+3*              1,017          31.63      36              1,205         32.43
                                                           *                                        *
                   Total                       743+64              23,577         28.05    829+22           26,732         27.87

     Average funding per project                               29.22 (30.22**)                          31.41 (31.81**)

Notes: * Projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
         **
              Not including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
         ++
              Including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
                                                                     5
General Program
In 2008, the Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences and the Department of
Information Sciences will continue to fund interdisciplinary research proposed from the
fields of mathematics and information. Areas to be supported include mathematical
methods in modern computer sciences and mathematical methods in information security,
information system and advanced control theories. Applicants should mark
“interdisciplinary research between mathematics and information” in the application form.
Please see details in the sections in the Department of Information Sciences.


Division of Mathematics

Modern mathematics tends to develop towards internal unity among its various branches,
and has more and more important potentials of application in various other research areas.
According to the characteristics and trend of development of modern mathematics, the
Division encourages original research in important issues and open problems in
mathematics, and the development of new mathematical methods, models and theories.
Interdisciplinary research among different branches of mathematics and application of
mathematics in other disciplines are encouraged. This requires that applicants and their
research teams have sound basis and capability of research. Research plan should be based
on deep understanding of the status in research, main problems and relevant research
methods and available means. Through funding of projects, outstanding talents are to be
fostered and research adjusted to the international trend, so as to lay a solid foundation for
reaching the international level in mathematical research. Application by a single
investigator or separated applications in the same research direction from the same
research unit are not encouraged. In order to attain a reasonable distribution of projects and
appropriate funding scope, we shall strictly control proposals from applicants having
on-going NSFC projects.

For basic mathematics, the funding is aimed at maintaining research directions where
China is advanced and research areas where China has comparatively large-scale research,
promoting the development of research areas that are within the mainstream of
international mathematical research but are still relatively weak in China, and encouraging
interdisciplinary research among branches of mathematics.

The funding for applied mathematics and computational mathematics encourages topics
having strong practical background and application. Applicants should pay attention to the
development in life science, information science, environmental science, energy science
and other disciplines closely related to the economic and social development, have a good
understanding of important scientific issues in these areas, and actively find cutting points
intercrossing with these areas so as to promote the development of applied mathematics.


Division of Mechanics

                                              6
                                                                       General Program
The Division mainly supports research on basic problems and methods in mechanics,
dynamics and control, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, biomechanics, explosion and
impact dynamics. The Division supports, on the one hand, basic research projects that are
on the frontiers of international research and have creative academic ideas, and on the
other hand, those applied basic research projects that are closely related to sustained
development of national economy and society and national security and that promote the
development of engineering and technology. The Division encourages experimental
research using experimental facilities and key labs in China and advocates interdisciplinary
research conducted by scientists from relevant disciplines.

Research on basic problems and methods in mechanics should focus on theoretical studies
on mathematical methods, rational mechanics and physical mechanics, and strengthen the
intercrossing with mathematics and physics.

Research in dynamics and control should pay attention to the theory and methods of
nonlinear dynamics and dynamical modeling and theoretical analysis of problems
involving the coupling of solid, flexible, fluid and control problems, and reverse problems
in dynamics and dynamical problems of micro and nano scale systems. The Division
encourages studies on key issues of dynamics and control problems in major engineering
projects.

Applications in the area of solid mechanics should give more considerations on
intercrossing with physics, materials science, information and biological sciences, and
should be able to propose research topics in engineering application, expand basic theory
of continuum mechanics, promote development of micro and nano mechanics and multi
field coupled mechanics, strengthen research on constitutive theory of materials at macro,
meso and micro scales, damage evolution process and failure mechanism, mechanical
behavior of new materials and performance control, structural optimization, endurance
analysis and safety evaluations, damage of rock and soil materials, prevention of
geological disasters, etc

Applications in fluid mechanics should pay attention to studies on the laws and
mechanisms governing complex flows (including non-steady flow, turbulence and multi
phase flow problems). The Division will continue to support studies on fluid mechanical
problems in aerospace and aviation, ship and marine engineering, civil and hydrological
engineering, and chemical engineering, and strengthen studies on fluid mechanical issues
in energy, environment and other high-tech and advanced technology areas.

Applications for biomechanics projects should pay attention to mechanical problems
related to human health and medical science, pay attention to the intercrossing with life
sciences and clinical research, and strengthen studies on new technologies and methods in
biomechanics.

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General Program
Applications for explosive and impact dynamics projects should be closely focused on the
safety issues of relevant engineering projects, pay attention to frontier areas, major
national needs and interdisciplinary studies, and strengthen studies on dynamic constitutive
theory and failure mechanism.

The Division strongly supports studies on instruments, new experimental methods and
technique that have innovative ideas, and has special budget for them. Applicants should
mark “experimental instruments” or “experimental techniques” in the application form. In
order to bring into play the role of computational mechanics software in mechanical
studies and engineering problems, the Division will, starting from 2008, support the
development of computational mechanics software in the General Program, and focus on
supporting the integration and standardization research on independently developed
computational mechanics software. Applicants should mark “computational mechanics
software” in the application form.

Division of Astronomy

The Division of Astronomy mainly supports research in astrophysics, basic astronomy and
astronomical instruments and technology. In accordance with the trend of astronomical
development in the world and the present situation in China, the Division supports
research proposals with emphasis on the development of technology and instrumentation.
Studies based on existing observation apparatus or facilities to be built soon in China will
be encouraged. The Division promotes the combination of innovative ideas, observation
and theories, and studies on new technologies and methodologies used in astronomy,
especially studies which are closely related to the large sky area multi-objects fiber
spectrographic telescope (LAMOST), a mega-science project under construction in China.
Interdisciplinary research is strongly encouraged so that research groups having special
features and influence in international scientific communities can be gradually established.
International cooperation and exchange, particularly those using large and advanced
facilities abroad for observation and research, will be given great attention and financial
support.

Of the General Program projects funded in recent years, studies in astrophysics become the
mainstream. In 2007, projects for galaxies and cosmology, stellar physics, solar physics,
astrometry and celestial mechanics and astronomical technology and methods (including
the history of astronomy) represented 39.4%, 33.3%, 6.1% and 21.2% of the total projects,
respectively. Projects funded in astrophysics accounted for 78.79% of the total. Young
researchers have become the main force in astronomical research and about 50% of the
total researchers are young people under the age of 40.

In 2008, in addition to continuously strengthening support on projects integrating theory
and observation and young scientists, emphasis will be given to interdisciplinary research

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                                                                       General Program
with physics, space science, etc. Compared with the development in the world, research on
planetary physics is rather weak in China, and should therefore be enhanced immediately.
On the basis of funding the best, the Division encourages research on particle cosmology,
celestial bodies in the solar system, and planetary systems in other galaxies, structure and
dynamics of ordinary galaxies, infrared astronomy, space astronomical measurement, and
astronomical research that addresses the national needs. Priority support will be given
continuously to researches in astrometry, celestial mechanics, astronomical technology and
methods, and small astronomical research units.

In the next few years, the Division plans to give special support to pre-research around the
scientific objectives of LAMOST, and conceptual studies on new technologies that are
urgently needed for large-scale telescope and space exploration. In 2008, LAMOST will
enter the test observation stage. Its effective diameter will be increased to 4 meters
gradually, and the number of optical fibers expands from 250 to 4,000. Preferentially
supported research areas related to the scientific goals of LAMOST will include limited
observation in the test stage, such as neighboring galaxies, star clusters and search of
special celestial bodies. Preparatory studies for large scale observation of LAMOST will
include the design of outer galaxy observation, observation strategy and sampling methods,
dark matter, dark energy, formation and evolution of galaxies, structure and evolution of
the Galaxy, distribution and evolution of poor metal stars, etc.

Division I of Physics

The Division supports research on condensed matter physics, atomic and molecular
physics, optics and acoustics, and new research areas formed by the intercrossing between
these four disciplines and other disciplines. Support on new interdisciplinary areas
emphasizes more on exploratory and basic studies on physical properties.

In order to change the long time dependence on importing advanced research instruments
and special software in physics studies, the Division will give priority to support research
projects on the preparation of advanced materials, new technologies and methods for
experimental measurements in physics research, and the development of new
computational methods and software. Starting from this year, more attention will be paid
to studies on physical problems in new energy, so as to promote the exploration and
development of China in new energy filed.

In the area of condensed matter physics, the Division pays attention to singular quantum
phenomenon in electron related systems, quantum phenomena and quantum effects in
various low dimensional and small-scale systems or devices that break the classical
physical limit, and physical theory and experimental methods related to life science.
Encouraged areas of research include basic physical problems in soft matters, structural
and physical properties of surface, interface and membrane, physical properties of nano

                                             9
General Program
systems, advanced technologies and methods of device physics and nano structures,
physical problems in the formation and preparation of new functional materials, and
interdisciplinary problems related to condensed matter physics. Emphasis is given to
fundamental physical problems urgently needed to be solved in the development of
technologies serving major national needs.

Following the development of cold atom, cold molecule and ion catching technology, and
the generation of ultra-short pulse light source, atomic physics is now facing challenges of
many newly formed research topics. While continuously selecting the best to support in
the areas of atomic, molecular and cluster structures and dynamical process, the Division
encourages research in cold atomic and molecular physics and application, complex
interactions of atomic and molecular systems, principles and key technologies of atomic
and molecular precision spectra and precision measurement, and computer simulation of
atomic and molecular plasma in materials, energy, life, environment and space sciences.

Studies on optical physics are focused on the basic properties of optical radiation, basic
laws of light propagation, interaction of light and matter, etc. The Division encourages
studies on physical problems in ultra fast and extremely strong light conditions, micro and
nano optics, new quantum frequency markers, optical frequency markers and quantum
information, propagation process of light in new media and its characteristics, high
resolution, high sensitivity and high precision laser spectrum and its application, and
optical process in energy, information, life and space sciences. In addition, optical
electronics as well as physical issues in optical electronics are also important research
areas. We encourage proposals that closely combine optics with atomic and molecular
physics so as to learn from each other.

Much of the research in China is in application field, so the basic aspect should be
strengthened. Therefore, the Division encourages fundamental acoustic research related to
major needs of the national development. It is hoped that more projects with innovative
ideas will appear in areas of hydro-acoustics and marine acoustics, ultrasonic and acoustic
effect, structural acoustics and vibrations, acoustic materials, acoustic information
processing, noise and control, acoustic problems in information technology, etc.

Division II of Physics

The Division mainly supports research topics in fundamental physics, particle physics,
nuclear physics, nuclear technology and application, accelerator physics and detectors,
plasma physics and synchronized radiation methods.

The focus of support in fundamental physics is on original studies in theoretical physics
and interdisciplinary research between theoretical physics and other disciplines. Stress
should be given to current research frontiers, especially important theoretical physical

                                            10
                                                                        General Program
problems that are closely related to experimental studies and raised from scientific
experiments and from interdisciplinary considerations.

In the areas of particle physics and nuclear physics, the Division will focus its support on
the research of physics issues related to large-scale experimental facilities that are in
operation or those to be completed soon, and in particular, the combination of theoretical
and experimental studies. In the next few years, a number of large-scale experimental
facilities of international cooperation will be in operation successively. In conjunction with
international cooperative projects centered on large-scale equipment, the Division will
select some proposals of physics in relation to this and give preferential support. The
funding will be used to guide research towards the understanding of important physical
rules related to the latest experimental results, such as the theory and experiments of
phenomenology in particle physics and interdisciplinary research of nuclear physics under
extreme conditions with nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines.

For the development of nuclear technology, accelerator and detector, low-temperature
plasma and synchronized radiation, it is hoped that fundamental problems can be drawn
from the disciplinary development, national demands and through intercrossing with other
disciplines, which can facilitate a deeper understanding of the physical laws underlying the
development of the discipline and at the same time have important prospects of application.
Special emphasis is laid on key technologies and innovative ideas in methodology and
intercrossing with other disciplines. In addition, the exploration of mechanisms and rules
governing the interaction of matter with instantaneous, high energy, high power and strong
field radiation (ion, neutron and electromagnetic fields) may become hotspots in this area.
In accordance with this, in accelerator and detector and plasma research, nanometer
micro-beam, high power ion beam, strong current accelerators, plasma radiation source
and all other advanced radiation sources of nuclear technology will receive more attention.

Concerning applications in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, more attention should be
paid to the exploration of new diagnostic means related to large facilities which are in
operation at present or will be built soon. In particular, basic research on advanced
magnetic confinement fusion and new approaches to inertial confinement fusion and
related fundamental physical problems, and key physical problems in fusion studies and
computer simulation of various kinds of plasma will be stressed.

In order to ensure a more efficient use of limited funds and research in each field in a
benign cycle of sustainable development, the Division encourages researchers all over
China using large national facilities to conduct research, encourages studies of independent
innovative methods of high resolution diagnosis and detection and important experimental
studies for the development of accelerators and detectors, including the development of
experimental facilities, and detection and diagnosis devices. The Division will increase the
amount of funding according to the actual needs, and give funding priority to projects
having more young scientists in the research team.
                                              11
General Program

                Department of Chemical Sciences
The Department of Chemical Sciences covers two first-grade disciplines (chemistry and
chemical engineering) and is divided into five divisions (including seven disciplines):
Division I for inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry, Division II for organic
chemistry, Division III for physical chemistry, Division IV for polymer science and
environmental chemistry and Division V for chemical engineering. Chemical sciences is to
study the change of matters and chemical reactions, and it is a core science which not only
maintains close ties with but also intercrosses and permeates into other disciplines, such as
information science, life science, materials science, environmental science, energy science,
earth science, space science and nuclear science. Chemical engineering is to accomplish
the transfer and conversion of matters and energy by making use of the principles of basic
disciplines, and to solve scientific problems in achieving large-scaled production of
chemical materials and products.

The mission of the Department is to promote the development of chemistry and chemical
engineering, to strengthen original innovation in basic research so as to bring into full play
its roles as core science in multidisciplinary research, to improve the overall quality and
international status of chemical science and to foster creative talents and groups. The
Department supports research of more types and patterns of molecules at different levels
and controlling chemical reactions and processes, and encourages multi-level and
multi-scale research proposals that take atoms, molecules, molecular aggregation and
condensed state as well as those of complex systems as their objects of study. In order to
bring the role of chemistry and chemical engineering into full play to address major
scientific issues related to the national economy, social development, national security and
sustainable development, it encourages research of chemical science and chemical
engineering conducted in the fields of life, materials, energy, information, resources,
environmental science and human health. As for the methods of study, it stresses the
combination of (1) microscopic and macroscopic research, (2) static and dynamic states,
and (3) theoretical research and empirical development of novel experimental methods and
analytical technologies. It also encourages the introduction of latest theories, technologies
and achievements from other disciplines, aiming at promoting innovation and
interdisciplinary studies, and supports the emerging frontiers in research.

In the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, China will strive hard to hold a major position in
the international frontiers of chemical science. To achieve this goal, the Department
energetically promotes high quality research in the fields of cutting edge science, lays
stress on in-depth and systematic work, and gives priority to those interdisciplinary
research projects. It takes effective measures to support original creative researches with
high risk. Scientific value will be emphasized throughout the review procedure and the
balanced, coordinated and sustainable development of different disciplines will be focused
on to enhance the quality of China‟s basic research of chemical sciences. In 2008, the

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                                                                                             General Program
number of Free Application projects to be supported will be almost the same as that in
2007, but the funds granted will be increased.


                  Funding for Free Application Projects in the Recent Two Years
                                                                                               Unit: 10, 000 yuan
                                                         2006                                    2007
                                            Projects granted                        Projects granted
            Scientific division
                                                                      Rate (%)**                             Rate (%)**
                                           Number       Funds                      Number      Funds

                    Inorganic chemistry      98         2,572           22.74       105        2,887           21.43
  Chemistry I
                    Analytical chemistry     89         2,442           20.32        96        2,692           20.60
 Chemistry II        Organic chemistry      148         3,937           22.46       162        4,564           23.11
 Chemistry III       Physical chemistry     150         4,105           24.31       168        4,659           24.85
                      Polymer science        98         2,642           23.50       110        3,291           25.17
 Chemistry IV          Environmental
                                             80         2,169           18.82        95        2,611           20.26
                           chemistry
 Chemistry V       Chemical engineering     156         4,120           18.86       165        4,722           18.92
                  Total                     819         21,987          21.47       901        25,426          21.92
        Average amount per
                                                    26.85 (28. 93*)                         28.22 (28.88*)
                 project

Notes: * Average funding of General Program not including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
       **
            The rate is calculated on the basis of all projects including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory
       Studies.


Division I of Chemistry

Research projects supported by the Division fall into two disciplines: inorganic chemistry
and analytical chemistry.

Inorganic Chemistry
The current trends of the disciplinary development are to attach importance to
intercrossing and fusion of inorganic chemistry with materials science and life science.
They include the following fields: 1) Developing new synthetic methods and ways in the
studies of synthesis and preparation; 2) Employing the concept of molecular design and
crystal engineering on research related to the synthesis of new compounds and the
aggregate state of matters; 3) Emphasizing studies on the composition, assembly and
hybridization of inorganic functional materials; 4) Strengthening research on relations
between the structure and property of functional inorganic matters and supporting
theoretical studies on mesoscopic and microscopic structures; 5) Intensifying in-depth
interdisciplinary research on inorganic chemistry and life science, especially chemical
study of biological effects of inorganic elements; 6) Developing basic research on new
types of metal combined bio-macromolecules, inorganic bionic processes and bioinorganic

                                                           13
General Program
chemistry beyond molecular level.

In the past few years, the number of proposals for coordinated chemistry, molecular-based
materials chemistry and inorganic nano-material chemistry represents a large proportion in
General Program projects funded by the Division, which is in line with the development
trend of the discipline. These fields will remain key funding areas of the Division.
Proposals related to new type inorganic compounds and new synthetic methods, reaction
processes and relations between structures and properties and radiochemistry are declining.
More proposals in these fields are expected. Research on fundamental theories and use of
advanced experimental technique should be strengthened, spirit of creativity and
profoundness of research should be enhanced, and original creativity should be
encouraged.

Proposals are encouraged in the following research areas:
·Theoretical inorganic chemistry;
·Solid state inorganic chemistry;
·Basis of radiochemistry;
·Basis of inorganic biochemistry and pharmacochemistry;
·Synthesis, reaction, structures and properties of new inorganic compounds;
·Design and synthesis of functional inorganic materials;
·Assembly, structure and properties of molecules;
·Research areas intercrossing with other related disciplines.

Analytical Chemistry
The research areas of analytical chemistry include not only inorganic analysis, organic
analysis, biochemical analysis, environmental analysis, process analysis, pharmaceutical
analysis, cellular analysis, immunization analysis, food analysis, clinical analysis, analysis
of traditional Chinese medical herbs, spectroscopy analysis, characterization and analysis
of materials, analytical chemistry of nano-particles and chips, but also chemo-informatics,
bio-informatics, instrument development, quality control and surface and interfacial
analysis. Basic research on new principles, methods, techniques, instruments and key
devices related to those areas are also supported.

In recent years, the number of proposals submitted and projects funded has been increased.
Based on the situation, the tendencies of disciplinary development fall into:
1) To emphasize the research of methodology and the integration of methods to address
scientific issues at deep levels;
2) To relate closely with the national security, national needs and economical development;
3) To strengthen the research on new techniques and methods of detection and diagnosis
related to human health;
4) To emphasize the development of instruments, including not only the development of
whole set instruments, but also the improvement of instruments, the upgrade of

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                                                                          General Program
performance, the development of accessories and parts and so on;
5) To stress the studies of mutual action, signal transformation and action mechanism of
related materials;
6) To bring into full play the major role of analytical chemistry in the studies of all types of
biomics and system biology;
7) To pay attention to the development of pre-treatment technologies of samples.

Research proposals are encouraged in the following areas:
·New technologies and methods of analysis in genomics, proteomics, metabolismics and
metallomics;
·Analyses of monomolecular and unicellular as well as real-time and quantitative
expression of life information;
·Pre-treatment technologies of samples;
·Study of the interaction between bio-molecules;
·Analysis of traditional Chinese herbs and screening of active compositions;
·Food analysis and food safety;
·New techniques and methods of pre-warning and diagnosis of diseases;
·Various kinds of probe and sensor techniques;
·Analysis of spectroscopes and mass spectra;
·Analysis of surface, micro-area and morphology;
·Analysis of in site image formation;
·Analytical chemistry of processes, environment, nano-particles and chips;
·Chemo-informatics;
·Instrument and advice development (including accessories and minimization of
instrument);
·Analytical methods and techniques of aviation and space survey;
·Analytical methods and techniques involved in the national security and suddenly
occurred events.

Division II of Chemistry

Research projects related to organic chemistry and chemical biology are supported by the
Division. The research contents of chemical biology can be found in the guide of other
related divisions.

Organic chemistry research covers sources and components, synthesis and preparation,
structures and properties, reaction and conversion, as well as functions and reactive
mechanism of organic compounds. New theories, methods and reactions in organic
chemistry have promoted not only the development of chemical science, but also its
intercrossing with life science, materials science and environmental science in a greater
extent, which has further pushed forward the progress of organic chemistry. The
characteristics of current research in organic chemistry are: 1) The concept of organic

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General Program
molecular design, recognition and self-assembly is affecting many fields of natural science;
2) The intercrossing between organic chemistry and life science has provided new research
methods and means for studying and recognizing complex phenomena in life systems; 3)
The discovery, manufacture and utilization of new functional organic matters have been
making significant contributions to meeting the needs of mankind; 4) Selective reaction,
catalytic asymmetric synthesis in particular, has become a hot issue and a cutting edge
field in the research on organic synthesis; 5) Green chemistry is turning into an important
strategic field of synthesis chemistry; 6) The development and application of new
technologies promote the deepening of mechanism studies of organic reactions, and
certainly promote the disciplinary development of organic chemistry.

Continuously supported by NSFC, remarkable progress has been made in basic research of
organic chemistry in China in such areas as metal-organic chemistry, physical organic
chemistry, asymmetrical syntheses and so on. From the point of view of disciplinary
development, proposals related to the whole-synthesis of natural products, active
intermediate and element organic chemistry are fairly rare. In addition, proposals focusing
on the studies of intercrossing areas with materials science and life science should also be
strengthened. Applicants should not only emphasis the studies of new methods, reactions
and theories, but also adsorb as much as possible recent achievements grained from other
disciplines, so as to promote the balanced, harmonious and healthy growth of the discipline.
The proposed research should be related to scientific issues identified from the national
needs and economic development.

Research proposals are encouraged in the following areas:
Organic reaction and its mechanism;
Reactions of organic synthesis with high selectivity and high efficiency, green chemistry
and new reagents, and methods and techniques of organic synthesis;
Super-molecular chemistry, molecular recognition and self-assembly;
Basic research on the synthesis of new organic functional substances and their
physico-chemical properties;
Discovery, biogenic synthetic route and synthesis of unique natural organic compounds
with clearly physiological activity and novel structures;
Biological catalysis (enzyme) and conversion reaction with high-selection and bionic
catalysis;
Studies with specific research objects on biomedicine, aiming at solving fundamental
issues in chemical biology and generating new disciplinary growing points, including
mutual recognition and interaction between small molecules and bio-macromolecules, for
example, proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, polypeptides and so on;
Other basic theoretical issues in the crossing and linking of organic chemistry with related
disciplines and those related with organic chemistry for major national needs.



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                                                                       General Program

Division III of Chemistry

Research projects related to physical chemistry and theoretical chemistry are funded by the
Division.

Physical chemistry and theoretical chemistry form the theoretical foundation of chemical
sciences. Their research contents become richer and are continuously extended, from
mono-molecules, molecular aggregates to condensed states and from weak interaction
between molecules to the formation of chemical bond. Using techniques of physical
chemistry and methods of theoretical analysis, it could gain information about molecular
structure and dynamic change from ground states to excited states and from steady states
to transient states. Research on physical chemistry has the following trends: combination
of macroscopic and microscopic studies, combination of bulk phase and surface/interface,
and combination of static and dynamic states. These trends have been furthered into the
study on control of chemical reaction, which makes theories in closer combination with
practice. As its crosscutting and fusion with materials science, energy science,
environmental science, life science and information science, many new disciplinary
growing points have been generated. Physical chemistry has been playing a more and more
important role in the development of chemistry and related sciences.

Proposals in physical chemistry should give play to the discipline‟s professional
knowledge, focus on scientific frontiers and national goals, and emphasize creative,
systematic and foresighted studies. The Division encourages wide intercrossing and fusion
with other disciplines to develop new concepts, theories and experimental methods while
bringing the features of the discipline into full play. In the selection of research topics,
applicants should emphasize basic studies with the possibility of becoming new
disciplinary growing points, as well as those with important theoretical significance and
potential for application. Meanwhile, the Division invites researchers of other disciplines
to apply for interdisciplinary projects and requests the applicants to emphasize the
correlation with the problems of physical chemistry in their applications.

Research proposals are encouraged in the following areas:
Regulating and controlling methods of synthesis processes of materials with photo-,
electro- and magneto-functions and the fundamental physicochemical process in liquid and
solid phases;
New methods of theoretical chemistry and their applied basic research in the fields of life
science, materials science and so on;
New catalytic materials, new catalytic reactions and their basic research in relation to
energy, resources and environmental areas;
Fundamental interface chemistry and its intercrossing with materials and life science;
Basic research on electrochemistry with important potentials for application;
Thermodynamics of complex systems, new ideas and methods in chemo-informatics;
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General Program
Fundamental issues of physical chemistry in life system and nano-sciences and
technologies;
Methods and techniques of in site, real-time dynamic characteristics.

Division IV of Chemistry

Research projects supported by Division IV fall into two areas: polymer science and
environmental chemistry.

Polymer Science
Polymer science deals with the synthesis, molecular structure, chain structure, aggregation
structure, properties and functions of polymers as well as their utilization and process, and
takes synthetic polymer, bio-macromolecules and supermolecular polymer as its objects of
study.

In the field of polymer chemistry, major research directions are as follows: 1)
methodologies of synthesizing polymers, polymerizing reaction with controllable
molecular mass and structure of products, and the biological synthesis of polymers; 2)
chemical reaction process involving polymers; 3) studies on functional polymers such as
polymers with electronic, optic and magnetic properties, and polymers for biomedicine,
energy conversion, adsorption and separation, catalysis as well as reagents, sensor and
molecular recognition. Special attention should be given to the studies of new structural
polymers, such as upper-molecular polymers, hyper-branched polymers or dendrimer and
stereochemistry.

In the field of polymer physics, important directions are: to advance new concepts of
condensed state physics of polymers, to improve the studies of structure and dynamic
evolution, and to obtain a deeper understanding of crystal phenomena, liquid crystals and
glassy states. Applicants should stress the studies of aggregation state from single chain to
shape-forming processing, pay attention to studies on the structure of polymers in
restricted space, structures and properties of surface and interface, nano microstructure and
size effect of polymer, morphology and relations of structure with physical property,
enhance the studies of polymer solution and rheology, and develop simulated methods of
theoretic computation of polymers.

In recent years, proposals for the following research areas are not enough: methodologies
of poly-reaction and structural characterization, super-molecular polymers,
exchanging-place polymerization of ethylenes and ion polymerization. Meanwhile, those
for the Fund for Less Developed Regions are also not enough. When selecting research
subjects, applicants should pay more attention to the development frontiers of the
discipline and try hard to extract fundamental scientific problems derived from industrial
practice, instead of blindly following hot subjects while ignoring subjects attached with

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                                                                          General Program
less attention and basic scientific issues unresolved at present in the discipline. Meanwhile,
a clear statement of scientific issues studied should be given, emphasizing the scientific
value and avoiding a too broad theme in the proposal.

The Division encourages interdisciplinary studies between polymer science and
information science, life science, physics, materials science and food science, especially
those (1) to develop the theory of soft matters, polymer electronics and polymer photonics
by employing new theories and methods from physics, (2) to find out the growing points
and opportunities of polymer development in the study of natural macromolecules and
bio-macromolecules, and (3) to explore possibilities for polymer development in the gap
between synthetic polymers and naturally existed bio-macromolecules, to emphasize the
studies on bio-mimic polymers, supermolecular structures, assembling and regulation of
ordered structures of macromolecules, and to develop chemical biology of polymer.

Environmental Chemistry
Environmental chemistry contains the following branches: environmental analytical
chemistry, environmental pollution chemistry, pollution-control chemistry, pollution
ecological chemistry and environmental theoretical chemistry. It is playing an increasingly
important role in moving forward the frontiers of basic research, solving national major
environmental problems and so on.

Environmental chemistry is mainly to study the existence, behavior, evolving ways, trends
and effects of chemicals, special pollutants in various environmental media, as well as
chemical principles and methods of controlling them. In the recent years, the number of
proposals has been increasing year by year in control chemistry of pollution,
environmental pollution chemistry, pollution ecological chemistry and relation between
environmental pollutants and human health. Researches have continuously deepened from
macrocosmic rule to microcosmic mechanism. Major research orientations include: 1) new
analytical principles, methods and technologies of pollutants, 2) important chemical
reaction, transporting mechanism and species structural changes of pollutants at the
interface of different media and their bio-ecological effects, 3) formation, analyses of
sources, interface reaction of fine particles in the air, and their affection to human health, 4)
shift and conversion of pollutants in the interface between deposit/soil-water, 5)
interactions and synergistic effects of pollutants in the environmental system, 6)
technologies and principles of controlling air pollution, renovating polluted water bodies
and soils, and technologies and reusable principles of treating solid waste substances, 7)
forming mechanism, ecologic-toxicology and risk evaluation of pollutants‟ ecological
effects, and 8) relation of structure/effect and dose/effect of pollutants and forecast model
of environmental pollution, as well as other studies of frontier and creativity in
environmental chemistry. Among them, the ranges or species of environmental pollutants
studied are increasing which include heavy metals with different species, species of
gaseous state and particles in air, persistent organic compounds, endocrine disrupter

                                              19
General Program
compounds, antibiotics and daily chemicals.
Research proposals are encouraged in the following areas:
Finding of pollutants with serious environmental effect or harm, and the probing into
emerging major environmental issues;
Separation and analysis of ultra-trace hardly degradable toxic organic pollutants;
Formation mechanism of pollution;
Environmental behavior and microscope mechanism of interface processes of pollutants;
Molecular mechanism of mutual action between pollutants and organisms and study of
omics;
Process and mechanism of complex pollution and their effect on ecology and health;
Evolutional process and mechanism of regional environmental qualities;
Control of air, water and soil pollution as well as renovating principles and technologies
after pollution, and treatment of solid waste substances as well as their reusable principle
and technology;
Application of nano-materials in the fields of renovating ecologic environment and
pollution controlled as well as their ecological effects;
Biological effect of toxic chemicals exposed for long time with low dosage;
New bio-markers, indicators and methodology of risk evaluation;
Environmental behavior and ecologic-toxicology of newly emerged toxic pollutants.

Division V of Chemistry

Research projects funded by the Division cover two areas: chemical engineering and
industrial chemistry.

Research of chemical engineering and industrial chemistry focus on the motion, transfer,
reaction and interrelation in the conversion processes of matters. Its tasks are to recognize
the transfer of matters in the conversion processes and its effect on the reaction and
properties of products, to study technologies, flow and equipments for the effective
conversion of substances, and to establish theories and methods of design, scale-up and
control for use in industrial production. Specific new ideas, concepts and methods as well
as their application in chemical engineering and technology are emphasized.

In recent years, it has become a major developing trend of chemical engineering that
extracts key scientific issues from complex studying systems and gradually forming
systematic theories and key techniques. Its research contents are revealing a lot of new
changes, which are mainly in the following forms. Studies have been shifted from the
measurements and correlation of gross properties to the observation, measurement and
simulation of structure, interface and multi-scales, especially researches on the
optimization and regulation of structures, reinforcement of processes and scale-up rules,
from common systems to uncommon and extreme processes, and from chemical
processing engineering to chemical product engineering.

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                                                                       General Program
Under the guidance of the national goals and social needs, the Division will give
preferential support to the studies of basic theories and key practical technologies in
chemical engineering and industrial chemistry, as well as fundamental engineering issues
of sustainable development, which aims at enhancing the overall national strength and
creativity. It gives particular considerations to the following two research areas: 1) Great
efforts shall be made to explore frontier subjects in new and high technologies of chemical
engineering and newly emerged disciplines and to emphasize the crossing of
multi-disciplines, specially from which to extracts problems related to chemical
engineering, so as to promote the development and creation in scientific ideas and
technical means. 2) Systematic basic research and accumulation should be enhanced for
key technologies in chemical engineering related to the national economy and people‟s
welfare, so as to gain systematic understanding on the laws, to develop and consummate
the theories on the discipline and to play the guiding role of basic research.

Research proposals are encouraged in the following areas:
Measurement, computation and stimulation of fundamental data of substantial properties;
Transfer processes;
Separation and purification process;
Chemical reaction procedure;
Chemical systematic engineering;
Inorganic chemical engineering;
Fine organic chemical engineering;
Bio-chemical engineering and food chemical engineering;
Energy and materials chemical engineering;
Chemical metallurgy;
Environmental and resources chemical engineering.




                                            21
General Program


                              Department of Life Sciences
The Department of Life Sciences consists of 10 divisions covering 19 subjects which
support basic research in three main areas of biology, agriculture science and medical
science, involving environment, resources, agriculture, population and health, etc.

In recent years, with the funding of NSFC and the unremitting efforts made by Chinese
scientists, life science research has witnessed important progress in China. The number of
research papers published by Chinese scientists in international authoritative journals is
increasing and Chinese basic research in life sciences is stepping forward gradually.


                Funding for General Program Projects in the Recent Two Years
                                                                                   Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                             2006                                 2007
            Division            Projects                    Rate    Projects                    Rate
                                               Funds                               Funds
                                granted                     (%)++   granted                     (%)++

               Microbiology     107+11*      3,002+88*      19.44   108+13*      3,249+104*     18.79
 Division
    I                                   *               *                    *              *
                  Botany         94+9        2,613+72       19.66   105+11       3,147+88       22.92


 Division         Ecology        91+10*      2,607+80*      22.95   83+12*       2,486+96*      19.87

    II
               Forest science    85+7*       2,446+56*      18.15   82+10*       2,472+80*      19.37

               Biochemistry,
                biophysics &
                                 93+7*       2,612+56*      19.23   92+12*       2,795+96*      21.01
                 molecular
                  biology
 Division
   III          Cell biology     81+7*       2,262+56*      19.69   82+12*       2,468+96*      21.27


                  Genetics       80+9*       2,256+72*      23.30   84+12*       2,526+96*      25.07

                                         *              *                   *               *
                Immunology       85+12       2,374+96       15.80   96+12        2,873+96       17.17

               Neuroscience
                                 109+11      3,025+88*      17.17   113+13*      3,379+104*     16.20
 Division      and sychology
   IV           Biomedical
                                121+12*      3,386+96*      19.08   122+11*      3,812+120*     16.46
                engineering

 Division       Agriculture
                                263+22*      7,426+176*     18.04   262+20*      7,838+160*     18.03
    V             science
                  Animal
                husbandry &
 Division        veterinary     140+11*      3,923+88*      15.04   140+13*      4,211+104*     16.14
   VI           science and
               aquatic cience

                  Zoology        75+8*       2,109+64*      25.78   75+12*       2,256+96*      25.66




                                                    22
                                                                                          General Program

                  Physiology &
                                    234+27*        6,443+216*    12.83        248+20*      7,434+160*    13.39
                    pathology
 Division
    VII            Preventive
                   medicine &       161+12*        4,505+96*     14.85        165+16*      4,952+128*    16.20
                    hygienics

 Division         Basic clinical
                                    209+15*        5,860+120*    10.99        229+19*      6,574+152*    11.70
   VIII            medicine I
                   Traditional
                     Chinese
                   edicine and      185+23*        5,171+184*    11.70        191+17*      5,731+144*    12.11
 Division               materia
    IX                  medica
                     Materia
                   medica and       114+12*        3,185+96*     16.56        118+12*      3,531+96*     16.80
                  pharmacology
 Division         Basic clinical
                                    210+12*        5,880+96*     10.81        230+18*      6,570+144*    11.77
    X              medicine II

                Total              2537+237*      71,085+1896*   15.26    2625+265*      78,304+2160*    15.77

    Average intensity per                                 **                                       **
                                               26.31 (28.02 )                           27.84 (29.83 )
               project

Note: * Projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
         **
              Average intensity of General Program projects in three years.
          ++
               Funding rate includes projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.


The Department received 19,183 proposals and 18,327 were accepted for General Program
projects in 2007, 1,008 (or 5.55%) more than that in the previous year, and 2,890 projects
were funded (including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies), with a funding
rate of 15.77% (of the accepted proposals) and the average funding intensity of 278,400
yuan per project. Among which, there are 2,625 3-year General Program projects
(compared with 2,537 projects in 2006), the funding rate is 14.32% and the average
funding intensity is 298,300 yuan per project (280,200 yuan in 2006).

In the near future, the Department will comply with NSFC‟s funding policy of controlling
the funding scope moderately and enhancing the funding intensity gradually to further
increase the funding for General Program projects. It is hoped that the home institutions of
applicants pay close attention to the quality of research and try hard to reduce the number
of applications, so as to improve the research quality. The funding of General Program
projects will reach 310,000 yuan per project in 2008.

The Department strongly encourages researches with innovative academic thoughts,
techniques and approaches, particularly those with original innovation ideas and having
the capacity prompting the development of related disciplines, and high emphasis is on
new theories, hypotheses and intercross of subject applications proposed on the
background of research over a long period of time. Based on the suggestion of the
Consultation Committee, the Department gave 7,500,000 yuan as the macro control fund

                                                           23
General Program
in 2007, in which, 6,800,000 yuan was used in preferential for General Program projects,
including 3,000,000 yuan for classical biosystematics (taxonomy of animals, plants and
microbe), 800, 000 yuan for psychology, and 3,000,000 yuan for immunology. The
Department will give preferential support continuously to classical taxonomy, psychology
and immunology, and according to the specialty of preventive medicine, give preferential
support to in site research of this subject. Besides, the Department will pay close attention
to important, frontier and new emerging subjects in life sciences.

The Department encourages scientists to take part in the systematic and innovative work
centering on key problems of long-term research, attaches great importance to project
management at later stage, implements the policy of linking performance with funding,
and gives preferential considerations to applicants with good performance in their previous
projects. It encourages substantial international cooperative research, and outstanding
researchers abroad to come back and undertake their research in China. But there is an
increasing tendency that some institutions or universities use the name of overseas
scientists when applying projects in recent years. So, the Department reminds those units
in particular that such applications should follow the requirements of the Regulations on
the National Natural Science Fund and the administrative regulations strictly, and the
qualification of every applicant within the institution be carefully examined.

Moreover, considering the problems occurred in application and peer review in recent
years, the Department reminds applicants to pay special attention to the following points
when writing proposals:

1. In the column of resume, detailed information concerning the applicant and members of
the group is needed, such as employment, education, previously funded projects, results of
fulfillment and related papers. Papers published and to be published should be listed
separately. As for the papers published, the name of the journals, all the authors, theme of
the paper, year, periodical and page numbers should also be provided, and they should be
listed according to the order of treatises, paper abstracts and conference paper, etc.,
respectively.

2. The applicant should elaborate his/her research background in detail related to the
proposal, and the experiment basis of his/her new assumption or new hypothesis,
necessary predicted results, etc. Papers published beforehand should be indicated clearly,
and for papers to be published, related data of important experiment results, such as
photographs or diagrams of the experiment, etc., should be provided.

3. The research scheme, technical path and methods are the important basis for reviewers
to evaluate the feasibility of the application. So, in the proposal, the experiment plan
should be complete and accurate, the technical path should be clear and brief, and
ambiguity should be avoided by all means. It is suggested that there should be one more

                                             24
                                                                        General Program
scheme in reserve in case some key technical scheme is failed, and the reserved one can be
taken as a reference for the reviewers.

4. For new proposals based on projects funded before, applicants should describe the
progress in detail, and the difference and connection between new proposals and the
former projects. If there is some conjunction with other projects, the similarities and
differences between them should also be explained. Applicants should not only give
enough consideration to the continuity of research contents, but also prevent the repetition
with the previous projects.

5. Concerning proposals related to ethics, applicants should give the certification of ethic
committee from their home institutions or the superior administrative agencies. For
research using genetically modified organisms, the source should be indicated, and if
donation is needed from other laboratories, the agreement from the donors should be
attached.

6. For applications involving international cooperation or with team members living
abroad, applicants should offer the agreement or protocol for international cooperation, or
the certificate for affirmation of the members concerned.

Division I of Life Science

The funding scope of the Division covers microbiology and botany,
supporting mainly basic research related to plant and microbe and research on
interdisciplinary subjects.

Microbiology
The Division supports scientific research in microbes, principally the study of fungus,
bacteria, archaea, virus and other microbes in species resource, taxonomy and evolution,
physiology and metabolism, heredity and development, and related scientific problems.

The research object of microbiology has decided its two remarkable characters. They are
irreplaceable basic materials in life sciences due to their simple body structure, so this has
laid the basic position of microbiology in life sciences. There are various metabolic
products due to the rich biodiversity of microbes. Meanwhile, they also have a close
connection with human beings, animals, plants and the environment. Consequently,
microbiology becomes one of the most active subjects in applied research.

The kernel aspects of current microbe research are resources of microbe species and gene,
the structure and function of microbe cells and molecules, the physiology and genetics, the
community and ecological function, microorganisms and human health, etc. The Division
encourages studies on the above aspects and fields, and systematic studies on basic biology

                                             25
General Program
of model microbe, applied microbe and pathogenic microorganisms, and basic studies on
nitrogen fixation. The Division will continue to give preference to “classic taxonomy of
fungus”, and “taxonomy of prokaryotic microbe”, especially proposals from young
applicants.

Genome and post genome research and the application of “Nome research” on a large scale
have led the development of microbiology. Chinese researchers should catch up the
opportunity to take full advantages of the research achievements of genome and functional
genome of microbes, to facilitate the fusion of evolution, genetics, development,
physiology and other traditional subjects, to carry out exploring systemic studies, and to
cultivate innovative achievements of science and technology. Meanwhile, the Division will
highlight the policy of linking the performance of previously funded projects with new
proposals, to carefully examine the accomplishment of the former funded projects while
selecting new proposals to be supported, and give preferential support to applicants with
excellent accomplishment if other qualities are the same.

Botany
The Division supports scientific research on plants as its object. It mainly covers studies in
structure botany, phylogeny and evolution, plant physiology and biochemistry and
development, plant resources and chemistry, biogeography, and other interdisciplinary
researches.

In recent years, applications involving plant phylogeny and evolution, phytohormones,
plant growth and development, water potential and resistant physiology are rapidly
increasing and keeping a good tendency of progress. Therefore, studies of structure botany
need to be supported continuously. The Division encourages actively the combination of
systematic research with ontogeny and close connection of physiology and biochemistry. It
will highlight consciously the study of plant resources.

The taxonomy and phylogeny of plant are the most important foundation for the research
and development of botany. The Division will give moderate preference to classic
taxonomy so as to stabilize and cultivate fully trained researchers in plant taxonomy.

A new opportunity has been provided for the rapid development of modern botany by the
start-up of the project “Tree of Life” and the determination of various plant completed
genome sequences. The Division will give priority to studies on the emerging scientific
issues of botany, and encourage researches on kernel fields such as plant physiology and
development by using the achievements in genome to dig out new genes, new proteins and
new functions unceasingly, to make new achievements possessing independent intellectual
property rights. Studies of interdisciplinary and new subjects will be also encouraged. The
principle of “linking performance with funding and providing stabilized support” will be
insisted. Continuous support to applicants with excellent accomplishment on former

                                             26
                                                                         General Program
projects will be actively promoted.

Division II of Life Science

The Division supports research on ecology and forest science based on long-term
accumulation of experimental data.

Ecology
Ecology is a branch studying the interaction between organisms, and between organisms
and the environment.

In recent years, certain progress has been obtained in the ecological study in China. But
there is still a big gap if one looks at the overall quality of fundamental research in ecology
in China, with more tracing work instead of creative research.

In the past few years, the main reasons for applications in ecology failed to be supported
are as follows:
1) Big research scope, overfull contents and ambiguous definition;
2) Insufficient creativity and more repetition of other‟s work;
3) Imprecise experiment plan and inexplicit description of research approaches, techniques
and methods;
4) Inexplicit ecological issues to be studied in interdisciplinary applications.

The Division will give priority to multidisciplinary research with strong innovative ideas
linking theory with practice, and give preference to research closely related to the
ecological features of Chinese environment, especially basic research which may hopefully
make important breakthroughs in new theory and methods. The combination of field
observation, controlling experiments, models and modern technical means will be
advocated.

In the future, the Division will mainly support such aspects and fields as follows:
1. Field ecological study;
2. Ecological restudy with long-term observation;
3. Natural water ecosystems and their safety;
4. Reciprocity in/between species;
5. Global change and the ecological effect.

Forest Science
The Division mainly supports scientific research on the cultivation, conversation,
management and utilization of forest resources targeted at forest and woods.

The crosscutting between forest science with cellular and molecular biology, materials

                                              27
General Program
science, and space and information science has become the main driving force of
development. The multidisciplinary and synthesized studies of the growth and
development mechanisms, the hereditary rule of important properties of forest, the
multi-service functions, and the management of forest resources and information
techniques have become the frontiers and hot spots in forestry.

In the past few years, the main reasons of applications failed in the Division are as follows:
The research contents are not closely connected with the national major demands of
forestry; the scientific problems are not well designed especially for some basic kernel
problems based on the explanation and settlement of important applied problems; some
applications are following-ups and imitation and lack of creativeness for academic
thoughts; the scope is too big, the contents is vague or just a pile of materials, lack of
pertinence for the techniques and methods of study, showing the tendency of farfetched
connection with molecular, information and nano techniques.

In 2008, the Division will actively encourage basic researches on typical important issues
of forestry, national major forest projects and sustainable development. Priorities will be
given to the study of important discovery, invention, and its deep explanation of the
mechanisms and rules; to basic research by using genome and functional genome,
especially by using the genome information of Populus in the in-depth research of typical
growth and development of forest; to the excavation and evaluation of excellent
germplasm and gene resources of forest, heredity rules of important characters of forest,
theory of genetic improvement of multi generations and the innovation of breeding
methods, the restoration of forest vegetation, protection and sustainable development, the
mechanisms of controlling and forming of forest production, the prevention and effective
control of biological disasters of forest, multi-service functions of forest, exploitation and
utilization of forestry, the effective transform of forest energy, etc. More attention will be
paid to basic research on typical or important problems of energy forest, woody grain and
oil, rubber forest, tea, bamboo, and dry and fresh fruit plants of economic forests. Based on
the characteristics of forestry, the Division will encourage continuous and in-depth
research on these key problems.

Division III of Life Science

The Division covers five first-grade disciplines: biophysics, biochemistry and molecular
biology, genetics and development biology, cell biology, and immunology. They represent
the most fundamental and frontier research, and reflect the features of disciplinary
intersection, which is one of the most active research areas in life sciences.

Biophysics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Since 2006, theoretical biophysics, environmental biophysics, molecular biophysics,
membrane and cellular biophysics have been combined with biochemistry and molecular

                                             28
                                                                       General Program
biology, so the Division mainly supports the structure and function of large biological
molecules, the interaction between such molecules, their effects and roles of the physical
environment to organisms, and new techniques and methods in biochemistry and
biophysics. The subject of large biological molecules, especially the structure and function
of protein, is a key field which enjoys more applications and support. Judging from the
contents of applications, it can be seen that research on protein crystallography, including
protein complexes, shows its solid foundation and in-depth study. There are comparatively
excellent applications in nucleic acid biochemistry, biomembrane and membrane
biophysics. Researches related emphatically to the theoretical biophysics have
comparatively well incarnated the feature of disciplinary interaction. There are few
experiments within the country by using NMR and electro microscopy to carry out
structural studies and the research basis is weak on polysaccharide and carbohydrate
complex, environmental biophysics, etc. Researches on bio-effect and functional
mechanism of ionization and the electromagnetic radiation to organisms are still
concentrated on the cellular or individual level. Researches on bioacoustics and
biophotonics, and applications for biophysics and molecular biology with new techniques
and methods are very few.

The funding emphasis of the Division in the future is as follows:

Protein formation, function and fold, for instance, the structure computing and forecasting
of large biological molecules, protein crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance,
bio-mass spectrometry, electronic microscope, etc. and the development of new structural
biology methods for the structure determination and function study of proteins and other
large bimolecular.

Reciprocity between large molecules during the signal transductions of cells, for instance,
the interactions of proteins of important linkage on the core signal pathway and route, new
components in signal transduction network, the structure and function of signal
transduction pathway and netware, etc.

Structure and function of DNA and RNA and their interaction with proteins, for instance,
the regulation of gene expression in the field of nucleic acid, the function and mechanism
of RNA in gene expression regulation, many questions involving various life processes and
their control, such as RNA selective splicing, RNA editing, snRNA and miRNA‟s.

The Division encourages the application of new methods and ideas from mathematics and
information sciences, highlights and encourages applications on bioinformatics, systems
biology or integrative biology, and encourages to certain extent interdisciplinary studies of
computing biology, single molecular technique, etc.

The structure and function of membrane proteins and their interaction with membrane

                                             29
General Program
lipids are the emphasis of the Division, and research on the spatial structure with high
resolution of membrane proteins is a challenging issue. The Division will encourage
structural biological research on membrane proteins and give priority to applications on
membrane and cellular biophysics.

Research on polysaccharide and glycoconjugate also represents an important aspect of
biochemistry and molecular biology, so the Division will give encouragement and support.
Moderate encouragement will be given to research on the mechanisms of environmental
physical factors to organisms at cellular and molecular levels, and research on the effect to
organisms in micro gravity conditions.

Genetics and Development Biology
Heredity and development are the two most basic life phenomena, and they have gained
comprehensive recognition in modern life science research.

Genetics is a branch dealing with the research of inherit and variance, and mainly covers
plant genetics, animal genetics, microbe genetics, human genetics, medical genetics,
genomes, population genetics, evolution genetics, epigenetics and bioinformatics, etc. The
Division will encourage studies using model organisms (yeast, nematode, drosophila,
zebra fish, mice, rats, primates, arabidopsis, rice, etc.) to establish different research
systems and models, and to reveal the hereditary basis of various important phenomena of
life.

In recent years, funding is mainly given to the identification of gene and functional
research, including human disease genes and genes related to important plant characters.
Applications concerning the expression and control of genes are very active. Applicants
should pay more attention to the combination of researches on the regulation and function
of gene expression. Epigenetics and their control are a new and hot field, and the Division
will give certain preferable support to it. Moreover, the Division will continue to highlight
the mechanism research on gene function and genetic diseases by using model organisms.

In 2008, the Division will continue to pay attention to the purification and identification of
related genes by using gene resources, and give high value to the mechanism and control
research of gene function and expression with genetic methods, to researches based on
bioinformatics to study prognosticate of gene function, information characters of genome
structure, comparative genome and intercross fields, etc., especially to researches of
controlling function of non coding RNA genes, biological significance of epigenetics and
its control, and the genetic researches concerning complex characters determined by
polygenes.

Developmental biology mainly studies the whole process from occurring to death of the
organisms, including gametogensis, fertilized oocyte, from early embryo, morphopoiesis,

                                             30
                                                                       General Program
organogenesis, eventually to the completion of a whole living individual, and till caducity
and death.

The mainly supported areas in development biology are the happen and growth of germ
cells, fertilization, formation of germinal layers, tissue and organogenesis, tissues‟
maintaining, repair and regenesis, caducity, multiplication and differentiation of embryo
stem cell and adult stem cell, and nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells as well as
nuclear-cytoplasm interactions.

Research on developmental biology is conducted mainly on tissue, organ and at individual
level. The Division will highly value researches to realize normal development process and
to comprehend the development defect at molecular level. The following research will be
encouraged: the intercross and penetration of developmental biology with genetics, cell
biology, molecular biology, clinical medicine, etc.; the control function of new component
of signal transduction, non coding RNA, and various epigenetic modifications to important
development process and their relationship with characters; tissue, organogenesis and
regeneration; and the relation of stem cells with embryo development.

Cell Biology
Cell biology is a branch that deals with the study of rules and mechanisms of life activity
of cells. Modern cell biology mainly focuses on the molecular, cellular and individual level
to reveal the structure, function, phenotypes, and the control under the conditions of
physiologic, pathologic, and adversity environment.

Research areas to be supported in cell biology mainly include cellular and cellorgan
structure, components and their assemblage mechanisms, cytoskeleton and molecular
motors, cell signal transduction, cell cycle, differentiation and polarity of cells, adhesion
and movement of cells, extra cellular matrix, communication and reciprocity between cells,
transportation of bio molecules and vesicle, epigenetics of cells, cell stress, aging, death,
pathological changes of cells, and other new technologies and methods used in cytology.

The Division highly values system studies on the subtle molecular control mechanisms and
complex control network of various life activities of cells on time and space by using new
and different means and technology, and the study of molecular mechanisms of normal and
abnormal activities of cells within the organism.

There have been certain achievements in the study of cell biology in China recently. But
quite a number of applications are mainly on the description with less mechanism
exploration. Some applications are failed for such reasons as not being able to explain
accurately and entirely the research status in this field and the potential scientific
contributions of their projects, not putting forward proposals with academia significance in
biology, lack of experimental plan with academic hypothesis or validate designing, lack of

                                            31
General Program
relevant research experience or working condition, lack of well accumulation of
pre-experiment data, research methods being solitary, not providing thorough and refined
contents, too vague or big in scope, lack of the feasibility analysis of the experiment
scheme and without the substitute schemes if the one proposed is failed.

In 2008, the Division will stress on researches on functional and mechanical issues, and
highlight the utilization of various new research techniques and methods in the study of
cell biology, and highly value the integrated research from molecular, cellular and
individual levels, so as to reveal different molecular mechanisms closely linked with cell
function and biological effect, and network control.

Main areas to be supported include the assemblage mechanisms of different structure/cell
organ within cells; synthesis, ornament, degradation, localization and translocation of
proteins and their mechanisms; aggregation, dissociation and the location of its
components, and the activity diversify with time and space of protein complex during the
process of cell signal transduction under normal or abnormal conditions; molecular
mechanisms of ageing, death, carcinoma and other pathological changes of cells; the
differentiation and migration of cells; chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation;
regulation of miRNA to cell function; mechanisms of cells signal transduction to adversity
or to stress response of microbe infect; and new technology for the study of cytology.

In the areas of anthropotomy, histology and embryology, support is mainly focused on
human cells, tissue, organ and systems, and the occurrence, development, configuration
and function of general level. Attention will be paid to the study on applied anatomy and
anthropology. It will be encouraged to apply new methods in such fields, especially, to
conduct relevant researches by expanding from structures to function and by extending
from cellular level to molecular levels.

Immunology
Proposals received and projects supported in 2007 in immunology basically reflected the
current mainstream and direction for the development of immunology. Some frontier
topics of the subject are occurred in proposals, such as molecular mechanisms of immune
regulation and discrimination, molecular mechanisms of T-cell activation, inducement of
typical immunoreactions, discovery of new antigen and the mechanism of refine and
present, the structure and function of immune molecules, and new ideas in the immune
therapy. But quite a number of applications are just following up international hot spots
with less study on their own technological systems and independent intellectual property
rights, and very little concentrated research on the exploration of major problems in
immunology from plenty clinical resources.

In 2008, the Division will continue to encourage basic research on the following areas:


                                            32
                                                                       General Program
1. Basic scientific problems of immunology
1) Development and differentiation, phenotypic characteristics, tissue distribution and
migration, and function regulation of immune cells and sub-sell groups;
2) Gene structure and regulation of new immune molecules, structure and function of
proteins, net ware of cellular localization and the interaction of proteins;
3) Comparison for the recognition mechanisms of innate immunity and acquired immunity,
the reciprocity of innate immunity system and their ligands as well as signal transduction,
the structure and recognition mechanism of antigen, and the activation and regulating
network of immune cells;
4) Immune response and its regulation of cellular and molecular recognition mechanisms,
especially the effect and molecular mechanism on the formation of immune tolerance of
various adjusting immune cells and sub-cell groups.

2. Establishment and application of new techniques, methods and new research
patterns in immunology
1) Systematic and quantitative studies for the complicated immune system by using
immune genome, immune proteomics, immuno-informatics, systems biology and
quantitative biological approaches;
2) Interpenetration with physics, chemistry and materials science, interdisciplinary
research in glucide immune, tracer and imaging techniques of immunology;
3) Establishment of research systems of model animals relating to immune diseases, and
model animals of different diseases;
4) New diagnostic approaches of immunology with our own independent intellectual
property.

3. Utilization of new theory and methods of immunology in the prevention and cure
of major diseases
1) Close combination of basic immunology and clinical immunology, and basic immune
studies based on key clinical issues;
2) Clinical immunology research on major diseases with Chinese (or regional)
characteristics by fully taking the advantage of Chinese disease resources and hereditary
resources;
3) Basic problems of immunology during the development of vaccines (such as the
immune escape of pathogen), and new vaccines to major infectious diseases (tuberculosis,
hepatitis, AIDS, malaria, schistosome, etc.);
4) Immune tolerance and pathological mechanism research in organ transplantation,
reproduction, contraception and autoimmune diseases;
5) Development of new immunological treatment techniques, products and related
biological techniques aiming at different major diseases, and coalition research and valuing
system in vivo and in vitro;
6) Application of various modern research systems of population genetics and molecular
genetics to discover the pathological genes concerning different immune associated

                                            33
General Program
disease.

Division IV of Life Science

The funding scope of the Division covers neuroscience (neurobiology, neurology and
psychiatry), psychology, biomedical engineering, and medical imaging and radiation
medicine.

Neuroscience and Psychology
Neuroscience and psychology are among the most rapidly developing fields in life
sciences which all address the relations between brain and behavior.

There are three main aspects to be supported, i.e., neurobiology, psychology, neurology
and psychiatry. In neurobiology, the Division mainly supports the structure and function of
nerve system, the development and plasticity of nerve system, and the changes of structure
and function relevant to nerve diseases. In psychology, it mainly supports researches on the
behavior of basic psychological process like sensory perception, learning and memory,
thinking, sensibility, decision-making and their neural mechanism. It also highly values the
effect of heredity and circumstance to the full development of individuals and their
psychological healthy. In social psychology, it mainly supports social psychological
process as human emotion, attitude, interpersonal relation, group decision making and
their neural mechanisms. In neurology and psychiatry, it mainly supports researches on the
pathogenesis of neural and mental diseases.

There were two distinct characters in the applications in 2007. Firstly, the use of new
technology has become a common recognition. Secondly, the combination of basic and
clinical medicine has getting closer. Most of them got involved not only in the basic
processes and rules of the movement of nerve system, but also in their relationship with
diseases of nerve system and mental disorder.

From the study of pathogenesis of nerve system diseases, neuroscientists could obtain
basic information on the development and function of nerve system. The interaction
tendency of basic research and clinical practice is getting more and more obvious among
the applications, but there are very few substantial joint researches of clinical doctors and
neuroscientists. Multidisciplinary research has become a development tendency nowadays,
in which the integrated research approach of behavior, imaging and genetics has become a
popular research model in psychology and psychiatry. What should be strengthened is the
long-term accumulation of environmental data of typical population. Research on
children‟s cognitive ability and behavior model in cyberspace circumstances has also
received some attention. Chinese language cognitive research still remains a priority area
in favor of funding in recent years.


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                                                                        General Program
The Division will strengthen its support to in-depth research on the nerve passway and its
molecular cellular mechanisms associated with typical behavior and encourage the
establishment of model animals of major neuroscience and mental diseases. As far as
research on neural diseases and mental diseases is concerned, stress is given to
pathogenesis of psychosis and neuropathy by using new methods and concepts. In-depth
research of continuation is encouraged using valuable genetic resources, pathologic nerve
specimen, etc., and research teams of this type will receive favorable funding. In the near
future, the Division will give certain priority to pathogenesis research of major mental
diseases like depression, schizophrenia, and will emphasize on the discovery of biological
therapy markers, pathogenesis of psychological stress and other environmental factors. In
psychology, efforts are encouraged to initiate research on the nerve basis of cognition and
behavior genetics on human intellection, creativity, psychological health care (i.e.,
cyberspace addictiveness, juvenile delinquency and criminal behavior, etc.). Research on
neuropsychology using favorable resources in China will continue to receive support. The
study of risk assessment and decision-making of economic behavior will be also
encouraged.

Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical engineering has the character of multi-disciplinary intercrossing. The funding
scope of the Division covers three subjects: biomedical engineering, medical imaging and
radiology.

Applications in biomechanics and biorheology should be mainly focused on the
biomechanical properties and mechanism, mechanical emulation and modeling of the
system and organs, and researches at the cell- and sub-cell-molecular level. Applications in
tissue engineering and biological materials should be focused on bone, cartilage, tooth,
muscle, tendon, skin, as well as cardiovascular, nerve, liver, kidney, etc. The Division will
support basic research on the reconstruction and injury repairing of tissue and organs as a
final aim, on biocompatibility, surface treatment and modification, targeted drugs and gene
carrier, and degradation character of biological materials, and on artificial organs including
machinery, electronics and biological man-made machineries. Research fields in
bioelectronics include the measuring and processing of biomedical signals, the modeling
and simulation of bio-system, and biomedical sensors as well as new theory and methods
of biomedical apparatus and equipments. In biomedical imaging, it covers applications in
acquiring, treating and analyzing the macro or micro imaging of organisms, and the
display, communication, management and application of imaging. Research on bionics,
nanobiology and nano-medicine will be also supported. In medical imaging, applications
should be mainly focused on supersonic diagnoses, ultrasonic microbubble, scintigraphy,
targeting therapy of nuclide, basic research of nuclide, CT, MRI, molecular imaging and
functional imaging, etc. Besides, the Division will also support research on new theory and
methods in medical physics. Radiology covers radiotherapy, radio-pathology, radio biology
and radiological protection. Please note that applications of bioinformatics, systems

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General Program
biology and other subjects that are not included in the funding scope of the Division will
not be supported.

Reviewing the applications in 2007, the intercrossing of biomechanics and biorheology
with other subjects, especially with tissue engineering, etc. needs to be further
strengthened. It needs a deep systematic acquaintance of the interaction of materials and
the environment within organisms in the subject of tissue engineering and biomaterials. In
biomedical electronics and biomedical imaging, basic and creative research needs to be
strengthened, and more emphasis needs to be given to well-designed scientific problems.
In imaging medicine and radio medicine, creative research and subjects intercrossing need
to be strengthened.

The Division will encourage integrated research of biomechanics and biorheology with
cytology, molecular biology and other subjects, emphasize the coupling of mechanics with
biology (chemistry), stress the research of tissue engineering, new biological materials,
biological compatibility and appraisal of biological materials safety, encourage research on
the extracting and integration of concealed signals and images in biomedicine, and
non-invasive, real-time and dynamic measurements and transduction techniques,
encourage the modeling and simulation of bio-system and computer aided diagnoses and
therapy, stress the research on new concepts and methods of digital medical equipment,
encourage research on the functional mechanisms of supersonic medicine, nuclear
medicine, imaging diagnostic, spectrum imaging and radio medicine in disease diagnosis
and therapy, especially research on new theory and methods in functional imaging and
molecular imaging.

Division V of Life Science

The Division supports applications related to basic research on agriculture, including the
science of basic agriculture, crop, plant nutrition, plant conservation, gardening,
preservation in storage process of crop production and food safety. Proposals concerning
farm animal, aquaculture, wood, forest, etc. are not in the funding scope of the Division,
therefore, they will be not supported.

The analysis of proposals shows the following major problems in the past:
1) A number of applications only follow blindly the international hotspots, lacking their
own creative ideas.
2) Some applications are not connected closely with the practical problems of Chinese
agricultural production. Especially, some proposals tend to over stress molecular
biological methods but ignore their applicability and the integrated utilization of various
technologies.
3) A number of proposals do not have previous research accumulation, shift their research
directions frequently, or are poor in continuity and systematic.

                                            36
                                                                       General Program
4) The key scientific problems in some proposals are not clear, research topics are
ambiguous, research contents are broad but not in-depth and research plans are very
general and lack of details. It is hoped that applicants pay adequate attention to these
problems when they apply in 2008.

The Division will encourage basic theoretical research of promoting the development of
agriculture science on the one hand, and strengthen the support to basic research rooting
from practical agricultural production with significant scientific and practical value on the
other hand, so as to provide theoretical basis and approaches to solving problems for the
development of national agriculture. Besides, it encourages scientists to make systematic,
in-depth and long-term research on some agricultural problems, and form their own feature
gradually by combining the scientific development with the demand on Chinese
agriculture, modern biotechnologies with traditional methods, and laboratory work with
field experiment.

During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, the Division will give intensive funding to
support research fields meeting the major agricultural demands of the nation, such as the
excellent gene excavation and utilization of crops and their important characters, the
effective utilization of resources, research on increasing the efficiency of crop
photosynthesis and the ability of bio nitrogen fixation, the prevention of crop pests (crop
disease, insect, weed, rodent pest, etc.) and their effective control, and basic research on
the nutrition quality of crop production and food safety.

Moreover, the Division will give relevant preference to fields or new creative subjects as
below:
1) Important but comparatively week fields, such as the excavation and utilization of
excellent gene resources of minor crops, basic research on crops of high yield, high quality,
high efficiency and resistance under drought and rain-fed conditions, basic research on the
prevention of crop disease, insect, weed and rodent pest, and basic research on the quality
and safety of crop production;
2) New creative spots based on the intercrossing of subjects, such as agricultural
information, establishment gardening, and interaction process of crop-soil and their
regulation.

Division VI of Life Science

The Division supports applications in animal husbandry, veterinary science, aquatic
science, grassland science and zoology.

Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences and Aquatic Science
The funding scope of animal husbandry and veterinary science includes studies on the
basic laws governing the product formation, disease occurrence, prevention and control of

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General Program
livestock, poultry, silkworm and bees. The main problems existed in the applications are as
follows:
1) A number of applications are just following-up and imitation of others with few
originated creative ideas;
2) Some applications are seeking for innovation inappropriately, their topics are too big
and inconsistent with research contents, research goals are too high and key scientific
problems are not explained clearly, resulting in a “broad” and “empty” research content;
3) Some applicants exaggerate their research significance, and overestimate the unknown
research results by using the quantitative method of SCI papers, showing fickleness in
study;
4) Research on epidemic diseases over-emphasizes pathogeny, and is obviously
insufficient in the basic immunology and experimental zoology of important functions to
the prevention and control of poultry diseases.

In the years ahead, more attention will be paid to innovative interdisciplinary research and
support be given vigorously to researches possibly leading to new discoveries, new ideas
and new technologies. Full protection and continuous support will be provided to
non-consensus innovative projects with certain risk. The Division encourages researchers
that apply advanced theories and technologies to solve key scientific problems in animal
husbandry and veterinary science, such as to strengthen basic research concerning the
national unique germplasm resources; new theories and techniques related to stock raising;
the infection mechanism and pathogenesis of important pathogeny of livestock and
zoonosis (i.e., M. bovis, swine hepatitis E virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, etc.) and
new distinctive and sensitive diagnostic techniques; bacterial diseases to the stock rising
and animal products safety; and immunological identification of livestock and poultry to
important pathogeny. Basic research will be strengthened on genetic breeding of domestic
animals, metabolize mechanisms of livestock and poultry nutrition, and on relative studies
of increasing pasture productivity.

The Division reminds applicants to pay special attention that application for experimental
studies of highly pathogenic animal bacteria should strictly abide by the Decree and related
regulations, meet with the condition requirements of carrying out studies with animal
pathogenic microbes, otherwise, the application will not be accepted.

Aquatic science is a comprehensive research area which deals with the growth,
propagation and development of aquatic economic animals or plants and the relation of
water area productivity with the environment. The research fields encouraged in aquatic
science include genetics and genome to important economic traits of breeding variety,
pathogenic transmission, pathogenesis of chief pathogen and immunological mechanism of
the host, molecular basis and regulating mechanisms of the reproduction and development
of chief breed variety, study of metabolic process and leavings of medicament and
pollutants in aquatic organisms, and breeding influence to the aquatic environment. In

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                                                                       General Program
recent years, preferential funding is provided to some extent to researches on aquatic
resources, aquaculture biology, nutriology of aquatic economic creature, and the process of
manufacture and preservation of aquatic products.

Zoology
Zoology is the discipline studying life phenomena and rules of activity in animal
morphology, taxonomy, physiology, behavior and evolution. Accompanied by the
application of new research methods and advanced techniques, especially the development
of molecular biology, bioinformatics and animal clone techniques, the research contents on
animal morphology, taxonomy, physiology and animal behavior have been enriched.
Animal phylogeny and evolution, animal behavior and adaptation mechanism to adversity
have gradually become the hotspots. Research on animal taxonomy, genetics and evolution,
zoogeography and resource exploitation and preservation have been deepened and
integrated unceasingly. The experimental zoology has acquired the recognition.

An analysis of applications received and peer review results in recent three years shows
some problems in application:
1) Some applications seek the innovative subject and method, but ignore the depiction of
justification for the project and demonstration of the technical route;
2) Some applications are too simple about their early acclamation of experiment and
without detailed progress and research contents;
3) Quite a number of them have big and improper topics that do not coincide with the
contents;
4) Some proposals set very high objectives and over stress the number of published papers
but ignore the quality.

In the future, the appraisal and description to the unknown taxon and species as well as the
re-confirmation of identification and classification to known species still remain the main
research contents supported in classic taxonomy. Studies of animal phylogenetics and
biogeography focused on evolution are the key frontline at present. The Division will
encourage researches on comparative physiology, adaptative physiology, animal behavior,
the establishment of model animals, etc. It will strengthen researches on the biodiversity,
conservation biology of endangered animals, sustainable utilization of important resource
animals, relevant biology research on important alien invasive species and biosafety. Basic
zoological research on specific species in China and areas of fragility needs to be
encouraged continually.

The Division encourages theoretical and methodological exploration and research
according to animal resources and regional features in China, with the application of new
techniques and means. Interdisciplinary studies will be encouraged.



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General Program
Division VII of Life Science

The Division is composed of two sections: preventive medicine, and human physiology
and pathology.

Preventive Medicine
The Division is responsible for applications concerning preventive medicine. The priorities
areas are as follows:
1) Research to explore new theories, methods and technologies for disease prevention and
control;
2) Population research based on the actual needs of the national health care with a proper
use of new technologies;
3) Research combining on-site population studies with laboratory studies;
4) Urgently needed investigation and studies on the population epidemiological
fundamental data for China‟s health care.

Moreover, the Division will pay attention to intercross penetration and interdisciplinary
synthesized research and international cooperation, give preference to applicants who have
good accomplishment in previous NSFC projects and papers published in international
journals, and encourage research projects dealing with certain scientific problems on the
long-term basis and having fine research accumulation.

The Division will not support applications which are divorced from the actual needs of
preventive medicine, which are only based on the mere enumerate of foreign references,
lack of analysis and extraction of basic scientific problems as well as scientific hypothesis,
and which are insufficient in original innovation and are merely the transplantation or
tracing of similar research abroad, or even a low level repetition. It will not support
proposals failing in the research design and technique scheme by not selecting proper
techniques for the solution of scientific problems but relying only on new and high
technologies which lead to a simple heap of techniques and indexes and proposals lacking
basic elements of research design.

In consideration of the problems occurred before, the Division particularly emphasizes that
in nutriology, it only supports human nutrition; in woman and nursling sanitation, children
and adolescent hygienic, proposals for diseases in gynecology and pediatrics will not be
supported; in toxicology, it only accepts proposals in health toxicology, and will not accept
that in phamatoxicology; epidemiology only accept proposals with infectious disease
infected from pathogeny microbe to human body, and common infectious diseases without
infectivity will be denied, and proposals relating to the resistance (resistant), antibiotics,
animal infectious disease (besides the zoonosis infectious diseases) and proposals of
digestive internal medicine of fibrosis irrespectively with viral hepatitis will also not be
accepted. Proposals in medical administration and health economics are not accepted. The

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                                                                         General Program
Division will give preference to the combination of on-site study and experimental
research, so as to encourage applicants to pay more attention and carry out such on site
studies.

Human Physiology and Pathology
Applications are accepted in human physiology, human pathology, human
pathophysiology, medicine, special medicine, sports medicine, etc. The research scope of
human physiology and pathology covers functional studies of tissues, organs, cells and
molecules of normal human body, and the etiology, pathogenesis and prognosis
mechanism of diseases. The Division reminds applicants that it will reject applications
relating to pathogenesis of infectious diseases and applications on pathogenic biology. In
sports medicine, it will not accept applications for research on damage and healing
treatment caused by orthopedics disease or non-sport diseases. Applications for research
areas that are not listed by the Division will not be funded.

Analysis of applications in recently years shows the following problems: 1) Some
scientists do not pay enough attention to research accumulation, often track the hotspot
blindly, cannot form their own characters, and do not have original ideas, lack continuity
and systemic work; 2) Some applications lack scientific hypothesis and deep exploration
of physiological or pathological mechanisms, and new techniques are carried out
one-sidedly and only rest on the observation level; 3) What should be mentioned is that
some applicants do not provide necessary accumulation of early stage research and
pre-experiment results, what they proposed is only based on the literature search and
inference, and the research contents and plans are huge which could not be finished under
present limited time and funds. Besides, some applicants do not fill in their resume abide
by the requirements of the Guide to Program, or provide wrong catalog of published
papers, or other information. The Division reminds applicants to pay attention to the
problems mentioned above.

In 2008, researchers are particularly encouraged to conduct long-term and systematic
research on key scientific problems and to gradually form their unique features. The
Division encourages basic research with original creativity stressing the intercrossing of
research subjects, integrated researches at the individual, organ, tissue and cell levels while
strengthening research at molecular level, experimental research aiming at the transition of
basic research achievements to clinical practice, and applications with the combination of
basic and clinical research by using the plentiful clinical resources. For applications within
this subject, the Division will support proposals which find problems from clinical practice
and explain the pathogeny and pathogenesis through basic research, so as to provide the
basis for enhancing the level of disease diagnoses and treatment.

The Division will support in priority the following research fields: creative, frontier
physiological function studies for normal human tissue, cell and molecules, especially the

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General Program
endogenous active substances; mechanism study of molecular pathology, especially in-depth
study aiming at the clinical pathology; important pathophysiological problems, such as
functional research of inflammation, emergency, blood vessel rebirth on pathogenesis of
major diseases; pathogenesis and prognosis study on cardio-cerebral-vascular disease,
metabolic related diseases and other major diseases, tumor pathology, and other common
diseases with an increasing tendency of occurrence. The Division will give preference to
applications with creative hypotheses and good feasibility based upon the early well
accumulated basis.

Division VIII of Life Science

The funding scope of the Division covers basic diagnosis and therapeutics, surgery and its
subjects, gerontology and rehabilitative medicine.

Basic diagnosis and therapeutics mainly involve basic research of laboratory medicine,
physical diagnoses and therapy to reflect the application of hematology, immunology,
microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology and bioinformatics in disease diagnosis
and the development in laboratory medicine, and to reflect the development and utilization
of new techniques and methods of physical diagnosis in disease diagnosis and therapy.
Surgery and its sub-disciplines cover anesthesiology and resuscitation, infection and
inflammation, transplant and immunity, burn wounds, trauma and repair, tumor and
malformation, etc.

The therapeutic model of “repair without wound” to replace the traditional “repair wound
with wound” is the development tendency of modern medicine. The tendency of
population aging and early occurrence of aged degenerative diseases has made gerontology
a hotspot in medicinal research. The orientation of development in gerontology is to sieve,
identify and examine susceptibility genes pertinent in caducity and special susceptibility
genes within the Chinese population, to study the mechanisms of expression and regulation
of important aging related genes, to explore the occurrence and development mechanism
of caducity, the relationship of occurrence and development of aging and senile
degenerative diseases, and to stress the jeopardy factors of decrepitude and new approach
for its prevention and cure. Research on rehabilitative medicine is concerning the cell and
molecular mechanism study of traditional rehabilitate therapy, and it also reflects the
crosscutting penetration and the spread utilization of tissue engineering and biomedical
engineering techniques.

The main problems drawing from the proposals are as follows:
1) Some proposals only trace and report international hotspots, change their research
directions frequently, and lack systematic research focusing on one research aspect and
original creativeness;
2) Research topics selected are not closely connected with clinical practice. They are not

                                            42
                                                                        General Program
targeted on key issues from clinical practice, but just for the sake of applying high-tech
approaches. Some applications fail to provide sufficient deep analysis on the current status
in the theoretical statement and the extraction of scientific problems and rational scientific
hypothesis;
3) Some applications have large research topics and ambiguous contents, and lack
interdisciplinary features;
4) A number of applications are not written in accordance with the requirements of the
Guide to Program and lack clear description of technology route and feasibility analysis.
The resume of the applicants are incomplete, the list of published papers are not normative
and the order of authors on some papers are wrong or unreal.

Division IX of Life Science

The Division covers materia medica and pharmacology, and traditional Chinese medicine
(TCM) and Chinese materia medica (CMM).

Materia Medica and Pharmacology
The main scope of materia medica includes the chemistry of synthesis drugs, chemistry of
natural products, drug design and drug information, pharmacy, Bio-pharmacy,
pharmaceutical analysis, marine pharmacy, pharmaceutical materials and special pharmacy.
The main scope of pharmacology includes neuro-psycho pharmacology, cardiovascular,
geriatrics, anti-inflammatory and immunology, anti-tumor, anti-virus, pharmacology of
metabolize diseases, and other subjects of drug pharmacology, drug metabolize and
dynamics, clinical pharmacology, drug toxicology, etc.

From applications received in recent years it can be seen that remarkable progress has been
made in the study of materia medica and pharmacology in China. One major progress is
aiming at the pathogenesis of major diseases to discover and determine novel drug target
sites and possible prognosis linkage by using important theory, thoughts and methods in
molecular biology, cytology, genetics, biochemistry of life sciences; the other one is to
develop new methods and technologies of drug study by using achievements related to
pharmacology, such as bioinformatics, computer sciences, chemistry, and materials
sciences.

Most applications in pharmacology focus on the functional mechanism of certain drugs,
which are basically tracking researches in their basic thoughts, but there are also some
applications that have formed their own features on the basis of long-term study.
Applications in materia medica for pharmaceutics, natural and artificial product chemistry
and drug design take a large proportion, and their research ideas need to be expanded.
Except for a few applications with well-selected topics which were not supported because
of the insufficiency of data and materials provided or because of the oversized plan and
equivocal aim, many applications are not funded due to the fact that their research topics

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General Program
are not obviously innovative, or the applications are too simple, or they do not have
enough previous research basis.

In 2008, the Division will strengthen its support to studies of key problems in basic
research on bio-pharmacy, pharmaceutical analysis, marine pharmacy, pharmaceutical
materials, special pharmacy and the integrated mechanisms of multi components.
Basic research and continuous in-depth research will still be the preferential areas of
support by the Division in the future. Applicants are encouraged to conduct
multidisciplinary cooperation and interdisciplinary researches, and to focus, with creative
academic thoughts, on the pathogenesis mechanism of important diseases in China, new
drug targets, drug function mechanism, new types of leading compounds, new drug design
ideas and new approaches, and to highlight basic research on clinical pharmacology.
Appropriate support will be given to the distinctive study of Me-too drugs. The funding
scope does not cover conventional research and pharmaceutical craft research aiming at
licensing application for new drugs. The protection of intellectual property in the study of
materia medica and pharmacology is very important, and applicants should deal with this
issue properly. If some of the important key technological secrets such as the structure of
compound, etc., can not be offered in the proposals due to inconvenience, it could be send
to the Division directly by registered mails or give a suitable explanation in the proposals.

Traditional Chinese Medicine and Chinese Materia Medica
The purpose of this discipline is to stand out the dominance of traditional Chinese
medicine (TCM) and Chinese materia medica (CMM), and for the development of TCM
and CMM theory, it consists of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese materia
medica (CMM), the combination of TCM with western medicine, and ethno-medicine. The
main scope of applications include: basic research of TCM, such as zang and fu organs,
qi-blood, body fluid and constitution, etiology and pathogenesis, and basic research of
syndrome, diagnosis, treatment principle and method, prescription, Jingluo theory and
Acupoints; basic research in CMM, such as the chemistry of Chinese herbal, resources,
identification, pharmacology of CMM, toxicology, herbal preparation, pharmaceutics,
pharmacokinetics of TCM, and theoretical research of traditional Chinese drug effects;
clinical basic research such as internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, pediatrics, and
orthopedics of TCM, ophthalmology, stomaology, otorhinolarynqology of TCM,
acupuncture, anmo and tuina, geriatrics of TCM; basic research of healthcare and
rehabilitation; the combination of TCM with western medicine, such as basic and clinical
basic research; basic and clinical research of ethno-medicine; and study of new methods
and technology in TCM and CMM.

Main problems in current applications are as follows:
1) Lack of the supervision guide by the theory of TCM and CMM, failing to provide key
scientific problems, and lack of relevant prophase clinical bases;
2) Vague research targets and without clearly research stress.

                                             44
                                                                       General Program
In 2008, multidisciplinary studies are encouraged to facilitate the continuation,
development and innovation of TCM theories. The Division emphasizes that under the
guidance of TCM applicants should strengthen the utilization and effective integration of
modern science and technology and method to give concrete explanation of TCM theory,
and to overcome the tendency of unreasonable employment of new high technology.
According to the development trend of contemporary TCM research, the Division will
continue to strengthen the research as follows: basic research on the doctrine of
viscera-state and in syndrome pathology (TCM), pathogenesis and syndrome, applied
basic research and clinical efficacy evaluation on the prevention and treatment of critical
or refractory diseases by TCM, basic research on disease prevention and treatment by
Jingluo theory and acupuncture, theoretical and clinical bases for the combination of TCM
with western medicine, CMM resources and their identification, substantial basis of TCDE
(traditional Chinese drug effects), process inside the body, functional mechanisms,
correlate research of traditional prescription and formula and drugs related to syndrome,
the toxicity, toxicology and relationship of toxicant-efficacy study, basic research related
to pharmaceutical techniques and preparation, and new methodological research in TCM
and CMM.

Moreover, based on its characteristics, the Division will not fund applications mainly on
dosage, prescription and acupuncture point, applications without concrete prescription or
acupoint (except for documentations of secrecy) and applications having the name of
CMM or the ingredients of CMM but without real theoretical thoughts and relevant
contents of TCM.

Division X of Life Science

The funding scope of the Division covers oncology, gynecology, reproduction medicine,
obstetrics, perinatal medicine, pediatrics, ophthalmology, rhinolaryngology, oral cavity
science, and forensic medicine.

The main problems drawing from previous proposals are as follows:
1) The “faddy” phenomena like blindly tracing the international hotspots and new
technical methods still exists, with few proposals deriving from practical clinical problems
and transforming basic research achievement to clinical use;
2) Quite a number of proposals are lack of original creativeness and real importance of
study, and have excessive contents. Research design is not rational, or too vague, or
without sound theoretical statement, or lack of thorough understanding of current situation
at home and aboard, or week in research basis;
3) Some applications are not written in accordance with the requirement of the Guide to
Program, and lack clear description of technology route and feasibility analysis; the
resume of the applicants is incomplete, the list of published papers is not normative, and
the order of authors on some papers is wrong or unreal.

                                            45
General Program
In 2008, the Division will continue to encourage and strengthen the following aspects:
1) Innovative research focusing on problems from clinical practice, national demand, and
derived from clinical problems, especially the exploratory research which could transform
the research achievements to clinical use;
2) Long-term research based on the prophase basis of study which is in accordance with
the national circumstances and makes full use of the advantages of clinical resources to
form our own features;
3) Cooperation research of clinical and basic research;
4) Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research combining micro and macro,
morphology and function, local and whole body studies;
5) Studies of occurrence and development, diagnosis, creative method of therapy and
functional reconstruction of major disease, or common, frequently occurred diseases,
obstinate diseases, and dysfunction of sensory system, such as common and obstinate
diseases jeopardizing the health of woman; relevant elements affecting the health of
mother-infant and the health of procreation, and new strategy to explore the treatment of
infecundity and sterility and to find new approaches for contraception; researches to
explore early diagnosis and treatment of important diseases such as disease in childhood;
researches on important and common diseases of stomatoqnathic system and their
dysfunction; researches of pathogeny and pathogenesis of China‟s ordinary tumors,
especially for the study of early diagnosis, pre-warning, effect of treatment, prediction of
metastasis and recurrence, and new strategy and approaches for individualized treatment as
oncology being the ascendant fields of the Division; and studies on those areas which are
weak but having special features, such as perinatal medicine, reproduction medicine,
sensory system, diagnosis and treatment of tumors and forensic medicine.




                                            46
                                                                       General Program

                   Department of Earth Sciences
Earth science is one of the fundamental sciences concerning the understanding of the Earth.
Taking the earth system and its components as research subjects, earth science explores the
phenomena, processes and thereafter the mechanism, evolution and causality of these
processes and their interactions, therefore, to promote the understanding of the Earth and
to help solve the major problems of resource supply, environmental protection and hazard
mitigation for human habitation and sustainable development by providing scientific basis
and technical support. The spirit to explore the mystery of the Earth, the increasing
immense needs rooted from the utilization of resources for social economic development
and the improvement of life qualities for environmental protection and natural hazard
prevention have always been the driving force for the development of earth science.
Disciplines included in earth science are geography, geology, geochemistry, geophysics
and space physics, atmospheric science and oceanic science.

Academic disciplines are fundamental units of the human knowledge system. They play
important roles in the creation, communication and spreading of knowledge. The
development of sub-disciplines of earth science is the core and basic factor for the progress
of earth science. According to the funding orientation, General Program projects promote
the balanced and harmonized development for all the disciplines of earth science, inspire
original innovation and broaden the frontier of research. Understanding the spirit of
exploration, unpredictability and durability of basic research, the Department pays special
attention to high risk, interdisciplinary and frontier research. Scientists are encouraged to
face the most challenging scientific issues and to carry out adventurous research work.

In 2007, the Department received 3,287 proposals for General Program projects from 477
institutions. Among them, 799 were funded, with a success rate of 24.3% and a total
budget of 312 million yuan. For General Program projects in 2007, 423 (52.9%) are from
universities and 365 (45.7%) from research institutes. The PIs of 589 projects (73.7%) are
younger than 45. There are 140 interdepartmental and interdisciplinary projects, and the
number of interdisciplinary projects supported by different divisions of the Department is
even higher. Small Fund for Exploratory Studies with a term of 1 year is set up for highly
exploratory, innovative and highly risky projects or projects with uncertainty. Altogether,
35 proposals were approved as the Small Fund projects in 2007 and 4.54 million yuan
were allocated.

The criteria for the selection of General Program projects in 2008 are as follows:
1) Innovation and academic value of the overall research approach;
2) Research ability of the applicants;
3) Rationality, thoroughness and feasibility;
4) Availability of necessary research basis and conditions.
While encouraging the exploration of new scientific issues, attention should also be given

                                             47
General Program
to the weaker disciplines. Under the same condition, preferential support will be given to
those applicants who have good accumulation of previous studies and accomplishments of
high-quality obtained in their recently completed projects and who apply to continue their
studies. Applicants are required to address the relation between the proposed research work
and their accomplished projects. Because cutting edge science and interdisciplinary
projects have become the fertile soil for innovative ideas and indigenous innovation,
special care should be provided to those applications on interdisciplinary studies during the
selection of projects. The trend of globalization of basic research is becoming more and
more apparent. By acquiring and sharing research results and experience of international
scientific community and using the research means, apparatus and information of
developed countries, it would be most likely for our research to reach the international
advanced level at the earliest possible time. Therefore, applications with international
collaborative background, particularly those participating in the international science
research plans, will be given a high focus. The Department will gradually introduce and
create the honest style of study, and encourage excelsior research style in the project
application through proposal evaluation. While stabilizing the success rate for proposals,
the intensity of individual grant will be increased.

                     Funding for General Program Projects in Recent Years
                                                                                                           Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                                    2006                                       2007
                    Division
                                                Projects                         Success   Projects                      Success rate
                                                                   Funds                                       Funds
                                                granted                      rate (%)++    granted                           (%)++
                   Geography (including soil
   Division I                                   192+6*              7,067         17.22    212+6*              8,422         18.33
                  science and remote sensing)
                             Geology            194+18*             7,534         31.18    206+10*             8,584         30.73
   Division II
                                                        *                                          *
                        Geochemistry             73+6               2,790         29.59     77+4               3,138         31.89

                                                        *                                          *
   Division III Geophysics and space physics     92+6               3,530         30.34     95+5               3,952         30.77

                                                        *                                          *
   Division IV          Marine science           90+6               3,394         26.59     94+6               3,866         24.21

                                                        *                                          *
   Division V        Atmospheric science         77+6               2,877         22.07     80+4               3,240         20.84

                                                            *                                          *
                     Total                      718+48             27,192         24.22    764+35              31,202        24.31

                                                                            **                                          **
           Average amount per project                           35.50 (37.20 )                             39.05 (40.24 )

       *
Notes: The number of projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies for 1 year.
       **
            Average amount for individual projects with a term of 3 years (not including Small Fund for
       Exploratory Studies projects).
       ++
            Success rates include the projects of Small Funds for Exploratory Studies.


Division I of Earth Science

The funding fields of the Division include physical geography, human geography, soil
                                                                  48
                                                                       General Program
science, remote sensing and geographical information system, and environmental
geography.

The funding goes to researches aiming at the understanding of the developing processes,
the spatial/temporal heterogeneity, and the interaction of the human and natural elements
on the earth's surface. The interaction and spatial heterogeneity of natural environmental
elements, especially the evolution processes on different spatial/temporal scales and the
environmental effect, gains more attention in physical geography. Human geography
explores the spatial structure of human elements on different scales. As the bridge linking
natural and social sciences, human geography focuses on the natural background of the
spatial structure of human elements, and its interaction with human science. Soil science is
an independent discipline aiming at the pedogenic processes and spatial distribution
pattern of soils, the chemical/physical/biological mechanisms of soil function, and the
rational utilization and scientific management of soil resources. More emphasis is given to
the inter-cycling of soil mater and its interaction with soil organism, as well as the
dynamics of soil environment and soil quality. As a special and independent branch of
geography, environmental geography pays more attention to the formation, transformation,
and heterogeneity of the natural and anthropogenic matters in the environment which do
harm to human health. Geographical information science is another new branch of
geography, which emphasizes the formation and evolution mechanisms, and the obtaining
and analyzing technologies of geographical information. Geographical information science
is defined as the science of obtaining, treating, managing, interpreting, analyzing and
expressing the geographical spatial/temporal information on the earth‟s surface, supported
by modern technologies such as RS, GIS and GPS.

In modern geography, the complex system of terrestrial surface is studied based on the
theory of system science. Terrestrial surface is the place where the interaction among the
hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, pedosphere and lithosphere happens most frequently
and concentrated. Simultaneously, each sphere has independent evolution model. The
application of the theory of earth system science in research is the key for interpreting the
complex system of terrestrial surface.

Researches on the process and mechanism are emphasized in modern geography. The
availability of systematic technologies and methodologies for collecting natural and human
data in geography presents the basis for studying geographical process on different
spatial/temporal scales, and makes it possible to understand the evolution mechanism of
terrestrial surface.

In modern geography, new methods and technologies should be introduced and developed.
The extent of geographical researches to both microcosmic and macrocosmic scales leads
to the innovation of methodology and technology. It is fashionable in geography to use the
methodology and technology of data collection and data analysis from related fields for

                                             49
General Program
reference, which promotes the development of geographical research.

In 2007, the Division received 1,189 applications for General Program projects, among
which 218 projects were supported with a total funding of 84.22 million yuan. Compared
with those in 2006, all indexes were improved in 2007. For example, the success rate
increased from 17.13% to 18.33%, although it was lower than the average of the
Department of Earth Science.

In 2008, the Division encourages research proposals with the subjects such as the
development of new technologies/methods in typical regions, the quantification in human
geography, the key processes in earth's surface system and the mechanism of soil
rhizosphere.

Division II of Earth Science

The funding areas of the Division include geology, geochemistry and environmental
geology.

Geology (including environmental geology)
Geology (including environmental geology) is the knowledge system about the
composition, structure and evolution of the solid Earth. The task of modern geology is not
only to elucidate the materials that construct the Earth, the mechanism controlling the
transition of matters and the history of the environment and life evolution recorded by
these matters, but also to reveal the agents and processes which modify the surface of the
Earth. Our knowledge of geology can also be useful for the human society to explore and
utilize energy, water and mineral resources and to understand the relationship between
geological processes and human community.

The introduction of plate tectonic theory has brought about revolutionary changes to our
understanding of the Earth. Reasonable and comprehensive explanation to the seemingly
isolated and puzzling geological processes and phenomena is successfully applied. The
complexity of the continental dynamics is further raising new themes for the advancement
of plate tectonic theory. The development of mantle plume theory in recent years has
closely linked the deep activities and surface phenomena of the solid Earth.

The development of modern science and technology has improved our ability for data
acquisition. The advancement of analytical precision for terrestrial materials has enhanced
our ability to determine the composition and evolution for the Earth‟s specimen. The
utilization of seismological technology, remote sensing technology and satellite
observation of the Earth has deepened our understanding of the structure of the Earth. GIS
and GPS technologies have improved the quality of geological mapping and are realizing
the real time monitoring of plate motion, earthquake and volcanic activities. Computer

                                            50
                                                                          General Program
simulation has made possible for the analysis, simulation and predication of important
geological processes. Crust drilling techniques and high-temperature-pressure
experimental technologies have also greatly promoted the development of geology.

Profound changes have taken place in the research subjects, models and methods of
geological science owing to the emerging new framework of earth system science and the
strong demand to serve social and economical sustainable development. The concept and
rationale of multisphere interactions and interface processes have been strengthened. The
role of geology has evolved from its traditional function of disclosing the records of the
Earth‟s history to the prediction of the Earth‟s future environment, due to the improving
capability to obtain the critical data. The theory on the formation and exploration of the
mineral resources and fossil energy, the environmental changes under the intervention of
human activities, as well as the mitigation of geological hazards have been major
challenges to geologists. New interdisciplinary fields, such as geobiology, are emerging
due to the close correlations between geological science and life science established by the
discovery of the critical role of life activities in the geological processes.

The geological program encourages characterized proposals based on the abundant
materials and data recently acquired and accumulated by the geology-related agencies and
institutions. Field and site observations are emphasized. Multidisciplinary approaches,
such as the application of the concept, theory, technology and methodology of mathematics,
physics, chemistry as well as biosciences, are encouraged to attack geological issues.
International collaboration, which may combine the privileged local geological features
with global scientific views, is encouraged to promote the progress of geological theories.
Young scientists, especially newly graduated researchers are encouraged to submit
proposals to benefit their research career.

In 2007, 703 proposals for General Program projects were received and 206 were funded,
with a success rate of 29.3% and an average amount of 398.7 thousand yuan per individual
grant. In addition, 10 projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies were funded. The
distribution pattern of the funded projects among main research fields is as follows:
projects in mineralogy, petrology and ore deposit account for 20% of the total funds,
projects in paleontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology for 17%, projects in structural
geology and regional geology for 12%, projects in Quaternary geology and environmental
geology for 15%, projects in hydrogeology and geo-engineering for about 23% and
projects in petroleum geology and coal geology for 11%.

The predominant defects in the proposals in 2007 are as follows: the proposal title is too
broad to be supported by the designed research work; the raised arguments fail to focus on
the scientific frontier; the contents fail to state the scientific issues clearly, thus inducing
poor design of the main objects and approaches of research; and the contribution to the
progress of geological science are too vague. In some proposals, the description of

                                              51
General Program
research methods and technological outlines is very general and there is a lack of essential
feasibility on key approaches. In certain proposals, the budget is stated not reasonable
enough. A few proposals are attributed to unsuitable application code. The Division has
forwarded opinions of all the reviewers for each proposal to the applicants for their
reference to prepare proposals for the next season.


Geochemistry
Geochemistry is mainly to study the chemical composition, chemical interaction and
chemical evolution of the Earth or even the universe by using its principal theoretical
frameworks and methodological systems such as the elemental and molecular tracing,
isotopic tracing and dating systems. The strategic principles for financially supporting
research projects of this subject are to promote the harmonized development of various
geochemical branches, to encourage researches on the fundamental theories of
geochemistry, to keep strong support to researches on geochemical frontiers in the fields of
the origin and evolution of planets, the earth, environment and life, and to pay attention to
the fundamental researches on those mineral resources, energy resources and water
resources which are applied and needed.

There are several characteristics of geochemical researches at present.
1) The geochemical research methods and techniques are changed from the static
semi-qualitative description to the dynamic qualitative modeling;
2) The geochemical research fields are extended from 3D to 4D, with more special
interests on the temporal and spatial evolution of the research objects;
3) The geochemical research means are developed from the comprehensive measurement
of the mineral and rock samples from a large area to the micro-scale measurement within a
single mineral grain;
4) The geochemical research objects are developed from the components and their
interaction of matters in a single sphere of the earth to the interaction among various
spheres and various boundaries;
5) In geochemical researches on the chemical regularities of the natural processes,
attention has been paid to not only the long timescale old geological events, abut also the
short timescale geological events, and not only the reconstruction of old geological
movements, but also the prospective of the future geological movements.

The following aspects should be emphasized in all proposals.
1) Combination between macro studies and high resolution and high sensitive geochemical
studies of the geological processes and internal structures of the Earth;
2) Combination between plate tectonic evolution studies and chemical geodynamic
studies;
3) Combination between research on past environmental changes and the studies of
modern environment;
4) Combination between studies of chemical interaction and biological interaction of the
                                             52
                                                                     General Program
Earth;
5) Combination between researches on fundamental theories and their applications of
geochemistry.

The following fields are to be encouraged in the next few years.
1) Chemical structure and compositional heterogenity of continental lithosphere,
interaction of crust and mantle and the associated material cycling, mechanisms of
continent formation and lithosphere evolution, continental collision and reworking process
and their associated metallogenic effects and environmental impacts;
2) Geochemical interaction and mass exchange between the solid earth system and earth
surface systems;
3) Formation and evolution of Monsoon in East Asia, the effect of geological processes on
the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, and the interaction between
human activities and environmental changes;
4) Bio-geochemical processes and their effects on the surface environment of the Earth,
and earth environments that controlled the origin, evolution and biodiversity of important
creature biota;
5) Fundamental theories and potential applications of the metallogenesis and accumulation,
and the techniques for resource exploration.

In 2007, 31.9% of the proposals applying General Program projects in geochemistry
(including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies) were financially supported,
with an average funding of 400 thousand yuan each project (excluding projects of Small
Fund for Exploratory Studies). In the last two years, proposals applying for General
Program in geochemistry include about 45% proposals for the study of environmental
geochemistry and biogeochemistry, about 30% for ore deposit geochemistry, organic
geochemistry, petro-geochemistry, isotopic and chemical geochronology, and about 17%
proposals for isotopic geochemistry, trace element geochemistry, experimental
geochemistry, calculating geochemistry, cosmochemistry and comparative planetology.
There is no obvious difference among the funding percentage of proposals for various
sub-disciplines of geochemistry.

Some major shortcomings are showed in those failed proposals.
1) Applicants have only emphasized the importance of the research realm, but have not
elucidated the innovation of research ideas and research values of the proposals according
to the research subjects;
2) Applicants have set unachievable long-term targets instead of achievable short-term
targets for their proposals;
3) Applicants have selected good research objects or subjects, but have not extracted
innovative scientific problems to be solved;
4) In some proposals, detailed research plans are not provided, or the plans are not in
accordance with the proposed targets;

                                           53
General Program
5) Applicants are only interested in the application of new techniques and methods, but
have not clearly expressed the scientific questions to be solved;
6) Applicants are only interested in pursuing the full span of research methods and
experimental techniques, but forget to provide specific effective methods for solving these
problems;
7) Applicants fail to demonstrate the feasibility of core and crucial techniques.

Division Ⅲ of Earth Science

The funding scope of the Division includes solid-earth geophysics, space physics and
geodesy.


Geodesy
In recent years, the range of application of modern geodesy has been expanded to a large
extent with the up-to-date development of GPS, satellite gravity measurement and INSAR,
which enhances the precision and spatial resolution by two orders of magnitudes compared
with classical geodesy. Researches based on such development are encouraged through the
general proposals.

Solid-earth Geophysics
Solid-earth geophysics has achieved solid advancements in the past decades. Deep-seismic
sounding obtained new pictures of the crust and upper mantle, leading to new
understanding of geodynamics and tectonophysics. Nonlinear seismic inversion
theory/algorithms and their application have made it possible to enhance the resolution of
seismic interpretation to reveal inhomogeneous and complex structures. Long-term
accumulation of seismic data, progress in data analysis, and acquisition, assimilation and
analysis of non-seismic geophysical information facilitate the study of the structure and
composition of Earth‟s interior. Exploration geophysics plays a critical role in the
sustainable development of economy and society. Fundamental researches and
application-oriented researches in these fields will be encouraged, expecting possible
breakthroughs in the understanding and applications which lead to the persistent growth of
the competence of Chinese geophysics.

Space Physics
Rapid development has been witnessed in space physics in the past few years, marked by
the new results of multi-level energy transport and coupling, and the comprehensive theory
of the disturbance of the solar-terrestrial system. These advancements provide studies and
prediction of space weather with a sound basis. Proposals dealing with scientific problems
in these fields are to be encouraged so that breakthroughs may be fostered and capacity
building be accelerated.

Proposals in geophysics and space physics processed in 2007 counts to 325, with an
                                        54
                                                                         General Program
increase by 0.62% compared to that in 2006. Applications in the fields of exploration
geophysics (D0409), geodesy (D0401), seismology (D0402), seismotectonics and
geophysics of the Earth‟s interior (D0407), space physics (D0410) and geodynamics
(D0408) played a predominant role. Interdisciplinary proposals counted for 107 (50 of
them are crossing first-order subjects, such as computational science and geosciences, and
57 of them are crossing second-order subjects, such as seismology and tectonics). These
interdisciplinary proposals occupied 24.3% of the total, about the same (24.6%) as the
figure in 2006. 122 institutions are involved in the application, which is an increase of 7%.
Among these institutions, 13 submitted more that ten proposals.

The results of peer review have been sent to the applicants to assist the improvement in
either the annual plan (for projects funded) or the next round application (for proposals
rejected).

In recent years, the Division has been emphasizing the endorsement of innovative ideas,
which plays an active role in promoting the advancement of geoscience. Emphases will
continue to be given to the support of innovative projects and prospective teams.
Fundamental problems, especially those with academic impact in a wide range and in a
long-term perspective, those with potentials of new growth and those with critical
importance and well-defined difficulties, will be highlighted. Support will be increased to
the frontiers of space weather, satellite gravity, environmental geophysics, experimental
geophysics, geophysics of the Earth‟s deep interior and comparative studies of the Earth
and other planets, and theory of seismic wave propagation. Attention will be paid to the
application of new technology, innovative tools and especially new observational data to
the study of geophysical and space systems.

Geophysics in a general sense, including but not limiting to solid-Earth geophysics, space
physics and geodesy, using the theory and methodology of physics and mathematics, aims
at the understanding of physical processes on the Earth, around the Earth and within the
Earth, as well as physical processes in the solar-terra space. These researches play an
important role in solving the emergent problems of resources, environment and natural
hazards for the sustainability of the society. With its wide range and significant diversity of
observation, modeling and application, the Division welcomes scientists and engineers
from all branches of natural/social sciences to join, to contribute, and to make progress.

Considering the intrinsic unpredictability of scientific discoveries, proposals with
innovative ideas are specially endorsed.

Division IV of Earth Science

The main funding areas of the Division cover marine science and polar science.


                                              55
General Program
Marine Science
Marine science is a discipline concerning all kinds of natural phenomena, processes of the
ocean and their changing rules. The research objects include not only the colossal sea
water but also the estuarine coastal areas, the interface between the ocean and the
atmosphere, the interface between sea water and sediments, and the lithosphere of the
seafloor. As the foundation for marine science development, mathematics, mechanics,
physics, chemistry and biology have interpenetrated and intercrossed with marine science.
New and high technologies, such as space technology, information technology,
biotechnology and deep-diving technology, have been continuously applied to marine
science. New frontier disciplinary areas formed in this way have also been funding areas of
marine science. Research in these areas will be the promoting force of marine science
development.

Marine environment is an integral system in which various affecting factors exist
simultaneously and interact with each other; and the interconnection between various
disciplines and integrated research are currently the development trends of marine science.
While strengthening the regionalization research, marine science has also simultaneously
developed the globalization and internationalization research. A series of influential
international research plans on marine science have been formulated in combination with
hot and pressing issues, such as climate change, resources, environment, etc. Therefore,
extensive international cooperation is coming forth, impelling the fast and in-depth
development of marine science. In addition, the ability to acquire data and information
through field observation has greatly promoted the continuous progress of marine
exploration technology, indoor analysis technology and marine information process
technology. This has become a key impetus for the development of marine science today.

In 2007, 413 proposals for General Program projects on marine science were received
(including marine science and polar science), and 100 were supported, with a success rate
of 24.2% and the average amount of 386 thousand yuan per project. Similar to the past few
years, there are still more proposals applied and funded in the following sub-disciplines
than in other fields: marine biology (D0609), marine environmental science (D0608),
marine geology (D0607) and physical oceanography (D0601). And the applied and funded
numbers of the above four sub-disciplines account for 2/3 of the total. The number of
proposals approved has changed little in the fields of marine chemistry, estuarine and
coastal research, marine monitoring and investigation and marine remote sensing.
However, applications in marine physics (including acoustics, optics and electromagnetics)
and marine engineering are not enough and with a low level of funding. But actually, they
are two important funding directions in marine science.

Marine science is a science essentially based on observation. The promotion of its
academic thoughts and research abilities depends on long-term observation and data
accumulation. Herein, it encourages scientists to participate in the research of investigation

                                             56
                                                                      General Program
and observation in the open voyage planning of Chinese near sea and northern South Sea,
while carrying on other voyages at the same time, to obtain more successive, systematic
and integrated observation data. It encourages scientists to do research on on-site
observation and new technology and method of laboratory analysis focusing closely on the
scientific problems to be solved, to provide technique support for exploiting new research
fields and obtaining new achievements, and encourages scientists to take good advantages
of other voyage planning to do research on deep-sea and to advance equilibriums
development of marine science of our country.

Research fields and directions which will be emphatically supported recently are as
follows:
1) Ocean circumfluence and climate change;
2) Substance exchange of near sea and ocean;
3) Formation mechanism of sedimentary system and evolvement records of climate
environment of coastal-continental shelf;
4) Marine acidification and ecology effect;
5) Biogeochemical circulation of trace metal and its isotopes;
6) The coupling of marine ecosystem and biogeochemical processes;
7) Land-sea interaction and estuary coastal zones;
8) Hydrothermal system of deep-sea and extreme environment biology;
9) Long-term changes and records of marine ecology;
10) Fundamental research of marine acoustics and optics, etc.

Polar Science
Polar science is a discipline studying various special natural phenomena, including
processes and changing rules in the polar regions as well as the interactions between polar
regions and other regions of the Earth. It is a comprehensive discipline composed of
several sub-disciplines including polar biology and ecology, polar oceanography, polar
space physics, polar atmosphere science and climatology, polar geology, geophysics and
geochemistry, Antarctic astrolithology, polar glaciology, polar mapping and remote sensing
science, polar management and information science, polar observation and engineering
technology, etc.

In the past few years, great progress has been made in international polar research.
However, it is still the weakest sub-field in earth sciences. Aiming at the current key
scientific issues on global change and sustainable development, the breaking boundaries of
traditional disciplines, integrated research on the features and interaction of the five
spheres in polar region as well as their connection with every sphere in the middle or low
latitude in a larger time-space scale have become the development trends in polar science
nowadays.

In 2007, 35 proposals for General Program projects on polar science were received, and 9

                                            57
General Program
were funded. The average success rate is 25.7%.

For polar science in China, research integrated with the existing work and in close
association with key scientific issues such as global change and sustainable development
has been suggested. Research fields and directions to be emphatically supported are as
follows: processes and variation of the Southern Ocean, mechanisms of the Arctic Ocean
and sea ice rapid-change as well as their climatic effect, geochemical processes in polar
regions and biogeochemical cycle of carbon, climate and environmental changes of the
Antarctic ice sheet, response of environmental evolution on global change in the ice-free
polar regions, process of polar atmosphere and its relation with global change, polar
environment and biodiversity, polar microbe germ palms and gene resources, polar marine
biological resources changes, etc.

The application code for polar science is D06. In the proposal sheet, applicants need to fill
in the relevant area in “Annotations”. Research areas are polar biology and ecology, polar
oceanography, polar space physics, polar atmosphere science and climatology, polar
geology, geophysics and geochemistry, Antarctic astrolithology, polar glaciology, polar
mapping and remote sensing science, polar management and information science, polar
observation and engineering technology, etc.

Division V of Earth Science

Research areas supported by the Division include meteorology, atmospheric physics,
atmospheric environment and atmospheric chemistry.

Atmospheric science studies various phenomena and their changing regulations occurring
in the atmosphere so as to serve the mankind.

In recent years, with the introduction of earth system science and sphere interaction
concepts, atmospheric science enters into a new historical phase of development. The
atmosphere is one of the most active spheres in the earth system. Its changes are affected
and controlled by other spheres in the system and celestial bodies such as the sun, while
the response of the atmosphere to the changes will result in simultaneously important and
direct impact on the ocean, terrestrial surface, ice and snow and the ecosystem on the Earth.
The atmosphere plays an important role in the interaction among different spheres of the
earth system, and the interaction of the atmosphere with other spheres regulates the whole
behavior of the earth system. Therefore, recently atmospheric science focuses on the study
of dynamical-physical-chemical process within the atmosphere, and at the same time pays
more attention to research to find out the essence of the atmosphere change with the
comprehensive studies on the interaction of hydrosphere, lithosphere, cryosphere,
biosphere and human activity to global climate; the regulation of climate system and
theories and methods of climate change prediction; regulating techniques and measures

                                             58
                                                                       General Program
against local weather; the impact of human activities to weather, climate and environment
system; and the influence of weather, climate and environment system change on human
society. Atmospheric science deepens the study on its various sub-directions, as well as on
the interaction of each different spheres, the comprehensive, integrated and systematical
study of various processes, the model development, the combination of different methods
such as observation, analysis, theory, simulation and prediction, the issues of global
climate and environment change and its impacts, prediction and adaptation, and the
optimization of human life-supporting environment and human orderly activities, so as to
provide a scientific basis for the crosscutting research of multi-subjects on the sustainable
development of human impact and social development.

There has been a significant increase in the number of applications and projects funded in
the past few years. In 2007, the Division received 403 applications for General Program
projects and 84 got funded. The approval rate is 20.84% and the average funding intensity
is 385.7 thousand yuan per project. The average funding intensity has continued to grow
for several years.

In 2008, the Division will continually encourage the study of various investigative and
creative issues, the studies of various unknown phenomena and issues occurred in Earth‟s
and planetary atmosphere and the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes
of substances, energy exchange between atmosphere and other spheres by using latest
research results and methods from the basic disciplines such as mathematics, physics,
chemistry, biology and informatics as well as advanced equipment and technologies. The
Division encourages applications related to disastrous weather, atmospheric chemistry,
atmospheric environment, atmospheric remote sensing and mesosphere research areas, etc.
The Division encourages applications related to the data analysis and research of currently
being conducted and already completed large-scaled scientific experiments and science
plans, and established large-scaled observation network. The Division also encourages
applications related to the study using satellite remote sensing and other data.




                                             59
General Program

Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences
Both engineering and materials sciences necessarily and significantly underlie the
importance of national security, the improvement of people‟s living standard and the
sustainable development of society and economy. Aiming at frontiers and meeting the
national strategic demands of the social and economic development as well, research in the
fields of engineering and materials sciences should pay full attention to scientific creativity
and innovation, especially original creativity and innovation with independent intellectual
property rights, in order to raise China‟s international competitiveness in science and
technology and to achieve a sustainable development of the society.

The Department will continue to strengthen its support to interdisciplinary areas and the
exploration of frontiers and encourage original innovation, integrated innovation and
re-innovation based on the absorption and digestion of existing knowledge, while
considering the common features in the fundamental research of engineering and materials
sciences. At the same time, the Department will pay attention to key scientific issues
resulting from engineering application, especially those researches with such great
significance that the industrial development can be promoted and international
competitiveness be raised.

In 2007, the Department received 7,730 proposals for General Program projects (excluding
that for the Joint Funds), with an increase of 6.68% compared to that in 2006, and among
them 1,118 were supported, with a total funding of 355.68 million yuan. The average
funding is 318,100 yuan per project and the success rate is 14.46%.


                  Funds and Projects for General Program Projects in 2007
                                            (including Joint Funds)
                                                                                    Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                                                Projects
                           Scientific division                          Funds               Rate (%)++
                                                                                granted
         Division I of
                                             Metallic materials         3,498     111         15.48
      Materials Science
                                            Inorganic materials         4,390     138         15.23
    Division II of Materials
            Science                          Polymer materials          3,056    93+4   *
                                                                                              14.12

         Division I of
                                      Metallurgy and mining science     3,622     113         14.21
     Engineering Science

         Division II of
                                          Mechanical engineering        7,387     230         14.08
     Engineering Science
        Division III of
                                        Engineering thermophysics       3,280     103         14.95
     Engineering Science
        Division IV of
                                    Civil engineering and environment   5,897     186         13.96
     Engineering Science


                                                          60
                                                                                      General Program
                                            Hydraulic science               2,630      82          15.33
             Division V of
        Engineering Science               Electrical engineering            2,228      71          14.40

                 Total                                                     35,988    1,127+4*      14.52

         Average intensity                                         27.84 (28.56**)

         *
Note:        Number of one-year projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
        **
             Average intensity of General Program projects in three-year term, one-year projects of Small Fund
        for Exploratory Studies are excluded.
        ++
             One-year projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies are included.


Attention should be paid to the following issues:
1. Proposals that meet the urgent needs of national economic construction and sustainable
development of the society will be encouraged. The Department will support preferentially
basic research with significant scientific merits and applicable prospects, with
considerations of practical conditions and resource characteristics of China, which can
either drive the development of relevant sciences or lead to independent intellectual
property rights.

2. Interdisciplinary research will be encouraged at different levels, especially cross-cutting
research in life science, information technology, energy engineering and environmental
science. Applicants should put forward new conceptions and ideas as creative as possible
with specific scientific issues.

3. The Department will continue to maintain the higher success rate in Young Scientists
Fund to encourage young researchers to put forward independent understanding in their
areas, and preferentially support applications by young applicants with new ideas and good
background of international cooperation.

4. If applicants are not very familiar with the application codes, please contact relevant
divisions in order to avoid the wrong submission of applications.

Division I of Materials Science

The Division mainly supports basic research on metals, alloys and metal matrix
composites. In their proposals, applicants should give specific description and analysis in
the merits of focused scientific problems and their pertinent creative ideas to which a
sound reasoning should be developed, targeting either at the international advanced level
or at pushing forward the progress in the relevant areas that meets the national needs. The
Division also supports research on those fundamental aspects in the preparation and
fabrication process of materials.

The funding spectrum of the Division covers broad areas, including compositions,
                                      61
General Program
microstructures, phases, surfaces and interfaces, scales effect, impurities and defects in
metals, alloys, metal matrix composites, intermetallic compounds and metal-like materials,
and their influence on mechanical, physical and chemical properties and performance of
materials; basic issues in the processing of metallic materials, alloy phase diagram, phase
transformation and alloy design of metallic materials; strengthening and toughening,
deformation and fracture, and strength theory of metallic materials; the fundamentals in
energy materials, environment-friendly materials, biomaterials and recyclable metallic
materials; the mechanism of interactions of metallic materials and environment,
consequent failure and functional degradation and relevant fundamentals; fundamentals on
computational science of metallic materials; new-type metallic functional materials and
structural materials and their theoretical basis, and the development of modern analysis
and test methods, principles and techniques incorporating basic and applied basic
researches of metallic materials.

In 2007, the Division received 697 proposals for General Program projects, 245 for Young
Scientist Fund and 33 for Fund for Less Developed Region. Together with other
applications for programs such as the Steel and Iron Joint Fund, Joint Fund with
Guangdong, etc., the number of proposals reached 1,075. It is noticed that proposals kept
increasing in the areas such as bulk metallic glass alloys and magnetic materials and
hydrogen storage materials. Similar to the previous year, many proposals are related to
magnesium alloys. It reflects to some extent what researchers are interested in but the
Division hopes that researchers should pay attention not only to the frontiers in the hot
areas, but also to other fundamental issues with scientific merits and ideas with creativity.
In addition, some attention should be paid to the new understanding of classic issues in
basic materials. Applications in the field of composites and surface engineering should be
improved in focusing scientific problems and proposing unique ideas.

The Division will continue to support basic research with creative ideas in all aspects in
the funding spectrum specified above. New ideas revealing basic mechanism will be
encouraged with respect to the Key Program areas supported in recent years (including
areas to be supported in 2008). The Division also encourages and supports
cross-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary research in which metallic objectives and
materials science should be the mainstream, especially in the areas such as energy,
information, biology, etc.

The Division will continue to prioritize those well-established research groups and
institutions with good infrastructures in the field of metallic materials science and
engineering in the process of evaluation.

Division II of Materials Science

Inorganic Non-Metallic Materials Science
                                             62
                                                                       General Program
The Division supports fundamental and applied researches which focus on inorganic
non-metallic materials. With the development of material design theories and synthesis
technologies, many new materials have been discovered, including high-Tc
superconducting ceramics, smart materials, biomaterials, new energy materials,
nano-materials and so on, which has greatly stimulated researches on/into inorganic
non-metallic materials. At present, in the filed of inorganic non-metallic materials,
functional materials with high efficiency, reliability and sensibility, smartness and
functional integration are being developed and also high on the agenda are engineering
materials with multi-functionality, high toughness, specific strength, wear-resistance,
corrosion-resistance, high-temperature endurance, and low cost and high reliability.
Meanwhile, conventional materials are also being remolded and upgraded. Furthermore,
inorganic non-metallic materials are playing ever-increasingly significant roles in
information technologies, life science, energy and environmental science.

A review of all the related proposals submitted in the past three years indicates that, in
addition to an annual increase in the number of proposals, researches have been broad in
range and interdisciplinary in nature. In 2007, there were 1,349 applications for General
Program (including Young Scientists Fund and Fund for Less Developed Regions), a
10.8% increase compared with those submitted in 2006. Among the applications, 38%
were interdisciplinary ones within such areas as information technologies, physics,
chemistry, life science, energy and environmental science. The proposals for research on
functional materials accounted for 57.0% of the total. These proposals unfolded many
innovative ideas and quite a few became the hot-spots of research, such as nano-materials,
piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials, carbon and super-hard materials, photoelectric
information functional materials, functional composite materials, and photocatalysis
material, among which applications from photoelectric information functional materials
(about 30.0% of the total) ranked above all the others. There were also many applications
from new energy materials, display materials and biomedical materials. In the field of
structural ceramics, proposals (about 7.6% of the total) mainly came from a few research
institutions. The number of proposals of composite materials based on inorganic
non-metallic materials was also large, with applications in functional composite materials
increasing rapidly.

The Division encourages substantially interdisciplinary research projects and supports the
synthetic science and related fundamental application research on novel inorganic
non-metallic information functional materials in accordance with domestic resources;
research on the low-dimensional and nanomaterials, including new preparation techniques,
property characterization, novel effects and the basic physical and chemical problems in
the application; research on materials featuring phase transformations induced by external
fields and their applications; research on the surface, interface and compatibility of
composite materials; basic research on structural-functional integration materials; research
on material synthetic science and techniques about high-performance, low-cost and high

                                            63
General Program
reliability materials; research on the composition, structure, performance and
characterization features of smart materials, new energy materials, bio-medical materials
and eco-environmental materials; basic theoretical research of design (at macro-, meso and
micro-scales, respectively) and corresponding preparation science of inorganic
non-metallic materials; and basic application research on the improvement and remolding
of the conventional inorganic non-metallic materials based on new theories, with new
techniques and through new processing science.

Organic Polymer Materials
In the field of organic polymer materials, the Division received 953 proposals in 2007 for
General Program, Young Scientists Fund and Fund for Less Developed Regions, 126 more
than the figure in the previous year and an increase of 15.2%. Among them, proposals for
opto-electronic functional materials, functional inorganic/organic composites, polymer-
based nano-composites, biomedical materials and eco-environmental polymer materials
reached 66, 88, 81, 151 and 71 respectively, representing 6.93%, 9.23%, 8.50%, 15.85%
and 7.45% of the total.

At present, the main tasks and developing directions for organic polymer materials science
are as follows: 1) For general polymer materials, the focus is on the implementation of
high performance and functional properties, the relationship between machine forming and
congregation state textures, and the variation of materials textures and materials properties
in their utilization; 2) Functional polymer materials and organic solid functional materials;
3) For polymer-based composites, the stress is on high performance, interface, new
synthesis technology, computer aided technologies and low cost technology; 4) Special
polymer materials and engineering plastics, 5) Polymer materials related to environment,
energy resources and resource utilization.

Basic and applied basic researches in the following fields are encouraged: general polymer
materials with high performance or functional properties, functional polymer materials and
organic solid functional materials, preparation science and technical processes for polymer
materials (e.g. new technique and new technology for material preparation and processing,
new theories of reinforcement and toughening, fatigue and fracture, friction and lubrication,
structures and performance of multi-component materials in congregation state, composite
materials-based matrix resin and its interface properties, and computer aided design and
forming), adhesives, coatings and assistants of new organic polymers, biomedical polymer
materials, organic nano-materials, intelligent materials and bionic polymer materials,
eco-environmental polymer materials including natural polymer materials, environmental
friendly polymer materials and renewable polymer materials.

The Division encourages highly           fountainhead    innovation    and   promotes    the
interdisciplinary cooperation.


                                             64
                                                                        General Program
Division I of Engineering Science

The Division mainly supports fundamental researches in mining and metallurgy sciences,
including such main fields as resource exploitation, safety science and engineering,
mineral processing and separating, metallurgical and material physical-chemistry, ferrous
and nonferrous metallurgy, material preparation and fabrication, eco-environment of
mining and metallurgy, resource recycling, etc.

The development trends of the discipline at present are as follows: 1) Basic research scope
in the above-mentioned fields has been increasingly extended and deepened. Many
researches transfer from macro, middle scope to microscope, and each couples and
intercrosses with another, from raw minerals to the recycling of resource, from metal to
composite materials, even functional materials. 2) Interdisciplinary differentiation and
amalgamation have been strengthened. With the interdisciplinary amalgamation and
differentiation with life science, informatics, mechanism, chemistry, materials science and
managerial science, etc., new research fields such as resource recycling science,
non-pollution process engineering, green catalyzing engineering, bio-metallurgy,
environmental bio-chemical engineering, bio-chemical mining, computing metallurgy and
physical-chemical metallurgy, metallurgical informatics and electro-magnetic metallurgy
have appeared. 3) Relationship between science and technology is getting increasingly
closer. Equipment for mining and metallurgy, monitoring and controlling of system,
metallurgical reaction engineering science and systems engineering, and metallurgical
ecological technology, etc., are integrated with each other, and many new technologies,
new methods and new branches of science have emerged. 4) Researches have been carried
out much more quantitatively and accurately, e.g. precisely analyzing the composition of
molten salts and slag, and precise control of rolling process. Many important research
areas are expected to be studied deeply and systematically.

In 2007, 1,124 proposals were received by the Division, 11% more than that of the
previous year. Among which, 60% dealt with the following research fields: materials
preparation and fabrication, resource exploitation, safety science and engineering, mineral
engineering, resource extraction and matter separations, powder engineering and powder
metallurgy.

The fields with fewer proposals were subterranean heat resource and exploitation, ocean
and space metallurgy, metallurgical chemistry engineering and equipments, other ways of
resource utilization, underground space engineering and metallurgical reaction engineering.
There were a few proposals dealing with special metallurgical methods and other new
techniques, e.g., microwave, plasma, electromagnetism, laser and ultrasonic. Now the
hotspots are resource exploitation, material preparation and fabrication, safety science, etc.

The main research areas encouraged by the Division include 1) theories and technologies

                                             65
General Program
on green mining and digital mine, 2) major disasters, especially the theories about mine
gas explosion, spontaneous combustion of coal and mine flood, 3) preparation, change and
working of mineral materials, 4) recycling of resource, such as carbon dioxide fixation and
utilization, new theories and new methodologies in metallurgical reaction engineering and
its related eco-environment, and new processes of economical atom reaction, 5)
metallurgical and material physical chemistry, 6) theory of metallurgy and process under
extreme and special conditions, 7) metallurgical reaction engineering science, metallurgical
chemical engineering process and equipments, and 8) theories on uniformity control of
batch and/or ultra-size metallurgical products. More funding will be granted to projects of
high cost such as pyrometallurgy, electrochemical-metallurgy and plastic forming of
metals.

Division II of Engineering Science

The Division mainly supports basic research in the fields of mechanical science and
manufacturing engineering science. Mechanical science is a basic technology science
aiming at functional comprehension, quantitative description and performance control of
the mechanism. Its main tasks are to study the unknown characteristics of mechanical
systems, and to develop all kinds of knowledge and performance needed by mechanical
systems into new design theory. Encouragement and support will be given to creative
proposals in such fields as mechanisms and robotics, mechanical transmission, mechanical
dynamics, mechanical structural strength, tribology and surface technology in mechanical
engineering, mechanical design theory and methodology, mechanical bionics, mcrio/nano
mechanology, etc. Manufacturing engineering science is mainly to study manufacturing
products which meet the design requirements, and various manufacturing systems,
processes, arts and crafts, equipment and methods. It includes forming, machining,
manufacturing systems and automation, mechanical metrology and measurement
instruments, MEMS/NEMS, and so on.

Proposals submitted to the Division in 2007 exceeded a total of 2,317 with an increase of
13.52% over that in the previous year. In respect of the distribution of research areas, the
number of proposals in mechanical dynamics and component forming is still big and that
in the fields of mechanisms and robotics, and mechanical transmission has also increased
greatly, while the number of proposals remains nearly the same in such research areas as
mechanical tribology and surface technology, manufacturing systems and automation, and
interdisciplinary research in manufacturing engineering science.

Research contents and scientific problems in some proposals did not fall into the area of
mechanical engineering. For example, in mechanical structure and dynamics, some
proposals mainly focused on mechanics; in mechanical tribology, many aimed at the study
of materials; in bio-manufacturing, quite a number of proposals mainly studied the
contents of medicine, and in mechanisms and robotics, many proposals dealt with control

                                            66
                                                                       General Program
technologies; in MEMS/NEMS-manufacturing area, research contents and technology
approaches in many proposals were purely physical or chemical methods. All of the above
proposals were not suitable for submission to the Division.

In mechanical structure strength, the Division mainly supports studies related to the safety
and reliability of mechanical structures and systems. However, the number of proposals
from this area did not increase but decreased correspondingly. Research on fundamental
theories and methods of practical mechanical structures or systems will be encouraged and
proposals just studying the issues of general mechanics will be rejected. Proposals from
engineering tribology will also be encouraged, and proposals from industry engineering
are not welcome.

While continuing to support research in new disciplines, the Division will, in 2008,
strongly support proposals on new principles and methods, new processes and
technologies in the field of mechanical engineering, putting emphasis on the fundamental
research related to new mechanical electrical systems and equipment with our own
intellectual property rights and to the frontier of the disciplinary. Research on new
principles and methods, new processes and technologies of mechanical electrical systems
and equipment with the characteristics of natural resource saving, environmental friendly
and sustainability will enjoy preferential support. Both joint proposals with enterprises and
proposals with the prospect of engineering application are encouraged. Targeted and
persistent research on practical engineering problems is also encouraged.

Division III of Engineering Science

The Division supports fundamental research in the field of engineering thermo-physics and
energy utilization that involves in engineering thermodynamics, refrigeration and
cryogenics and dynamic characteristics of thermodynamic systems, aerothermodynamics,
heat and mass transfer, multi-phase flow, combustion, thermo-physical properties and
measurement, renewable energy utilization and other fundamental and innovative
researches related to engineering thermo-physics and energy utilization.

Proposals in recent years demonstrate that research in the fields of engineering
thermo-physics and energy utilization is very active. The research contents have gone
deeper, research objectives more extensive and research achievements for wider
applications. In 2007, the Division received 1,084 proposals for General Program projects,
149 more than that in 2006, with a remarkable increase in the areas of combustion related
pollutant generation and pollution control, heat and mass transfer in micro- and nano-scale
structure, radiation and phase-change heat transfer, and renewable energy utilization.

The main development trends of the discipline are as follows. 1) Research on the basic
issues has gone from macro-level to meso-level and micro/nano-level, from isolated

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General Program
studies to coupled studies, from common parameters to parameters under ultra- or extreme
conditions, from routine thermo-physical problems to random, unsteady, multi-dimension,
multi-phase and complicated thermo-physical problems and intercrossing research in the
discipline. Moreover, research becomes more quantitative and precise. 2) Research has
crossed traditional disciplinary borders and formed interdisciplinary projects with related
disciplines (e.g. with physics, chemistry, life science, information science, materials
science, environment and safety). Creative researches in the following areas are
encouraged: mechanism of new type thermodynamic cycles and non-equilibrium thermal
dynamics, refrigeration and low temperature engineering, dynamics, optimization and
control of complicated systems, turbulence properties of internal flows and properties and
control of unsteady flows, porous media and micro-scale heat and mass transfer, radiation
and heat exchange by phase transformation, clean, supersonic and micro-scale combustion,
thermo-physical problems in the prevention of disasters, mechanism of interaction between
phases and thermo-physical model in multi-phase flow, new principles and methods in
thermo-physical measurement, and new thermo-physical principles in renewable energy
transformation and utilization.

The Division requires that applicants provide detailed information on their research
achievements obtained in all previous NSFC projects and the list of papers published on
international and domestic journals in recent years. All the information provided must be
impersonal and true, or it will directly affect the evaluation and approval of the
applications.

Division IV of Engineering Science

The Division‟s funding scope mainly covers architecture, environmental engineering and
civil engineering. The development trends of architecture are research on the development
of region, city and building, the innovation of construction techniques from the viewpoint
of human-environment relationship, and research on basic theory and methods of planning
and design based on sustainable development strategy. The emphasis of environmental
engineering research is on water or air pollution control and quality amelioration, as well
as theories and methods for the treatment, resourcelization and harmlessization disposal of
various pollutants and wastes. Civil engineering stresses that studies should be closely
combined with engineering practice to investigate basic theoretical issues and solve
foresight key technological problems arising in engineering construction. The
interdisciplinary interaction, the application of advanced experiment and information
technologies and the adoption of new materials, new structures and new technologies are
the major features in the development of these research fields.

In architecture, focus should be given to new science problems arising in urban
construction, exploration and application of new technologies and new methods. Research
on environmental engineering emphasizes key scientific issues related to new theories and

                                            68
                                                                        General Program
technical bases of new high-efficiency and low-consumption technologies, which includes
water purification, wastewater treatment and utilization, municipal water supply and
drainage system, urban refuse disposal and utilization, air pollution cleaning, and control
and renovation of the polluted water environment. Other research subjects related to
environmental science should be submitted to other relevant divisions. In civil engineering,
more attention should be paid to innovative research on the analysis, design and reliability
of the complex structure. Key scientific problems on the following topics are encouraged:
intelligent structural systems and performance design theories in civil engineering, disaster
effect, failure mechanism and performance control of civil infrastructure and structures,
new structure systems and constructing technology, modern structure experiment, on-spot
measurement and digital simulation technology, and health diagnosis and renovation of
structures. Research on structural disaster-resistance on the level of overall structural
system should be strengthened, and efforts be made to improve the innovativeness and
practicality in the study of seismic-resistant, fire-resistant and wind-resistant engineering
structures. In the area of geo-technical engineering, researchers should focus their attention
on the engineering properties of soil under complex conditions, and invalidation
mechanism and control methods of geotechnical engineering. In traffic engineering, the
emphasis is on the research of planning theory and key construction technology in traffic
infrastructure. As the Major Research Plan “Dynamic Hazard Evolution of Major
Engineering Structures” started in 2007, proposals with similar research contents should
not be submitted for NSFC‟s other programs.

Division V of Engineering Science

The Division is mainly responsible for funding projects in water sciences and water
management, hydraulic engineering and ocean engineering, and electrical sciences and
engineering.

Water Science and Ocean Engineering
Water science and ocean engineering is the abbreviation of water science and water
management, and hydraulic engineering and ocean engineering. This area shows two
distinguished characteristics. One is that the research is cross-disciplinary, integrative and
innovative since water has close link with such issues as population, resources,
environment, energy and economy. The other is that the ocean exploration and
development, environment protection and eco-system conservation and major hydro
project construction are the main research themes in order to provide scientific and
technical support for the national goals. In the year of 2008, the application codes in this
area have been updated in two aspects. Application codes of hydrology, water resource
engineering, water environment engineering, and hydro-eco system study have been
moved to the top position of the code system of this area in order to highlight water
science. Application codes of ocean engineering and coastal engineering are created to
push forward the development of these two disciplines.

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General Program
805 proposals were received in 2007 for General Program, Young Scientists Fund and
Fund for Less Developed Regions, with an increased of 12.6% compared with that in 2006.
The projects granted in 2007 represent two characteristics. One is that most of them use
multi-disciplinary methods with the possibility of integrated innovation. The other is that
only a few of them are cross-cutting and originally innovative research.

Water science and ocean engineering shows the following main trends: 1)
Multidisciplinary methods are used to solve practical and urgent water related issues in
hydraulic engineering, ocean engineering, agricultural engineering and ecological and
environmental engineering, with the importance specially attached to the impact of global
climate change and massive human activities. 2) The frontiers in hydrology and water
resource engineering are flooding and drought disasters control, utilization of water
resources, water/eco-system/economy complex systems analysis and the centralized
management of river basins. Watershed environment protection and water pollution control
of rivers and offshore areas, especially the mechanism of agricultural pollutions, are still
the research focuses. Safety of drinking water resource, ecological utilization of water,
eco-hydraulics and eco-environmental water management become new growth points. 3)
Because of the construction of major engineering projects, such as marine exploitation,
hydropower development and inter-basin water transfer projects, extensive studies have
been conducted on structure engineering, geotechnical engineering, hydraulics and ocean
engineering, especially on the mechanical properties of complex system of structures,
water and their foundations. Moreover, research on new methodologies of disaster
prevention and relief of the system has been greatly advanced. 4) Research on sediment
movement and disaster, irrigation and water-loss reduction technology are at prevalent
status. 5) Hydraulics and hydraulic machinery gradually attract more attention

The followings are the encouraged research areas in 2008: impact of global climate change
and human activities on water resource, water environment, and water-eco system; damage
mechanism of rock-soils and hydraulic or ocean structures system, methods of disaster
prevention and relief in hydraulic and ocean engineering; key issues related to
geotechnical engineering, dam engineering, harbor and water way engineering, costal
engineering and ocean engineering; theory and methods for the design of ocean structures
and naval structures; flooding and drought control; irrigation technology of water-loss
deduction and water use efficiency; interaction between sediment and pollutant; methods
for recovering polluted watershed, residential water safety and management,
eco-environmental water management; impact of water resources development, major
hydraulic projects and ocean projects on eco-environment system; hydro-informatics; and
finally hydraulic machinery system.

Electrical Engineering
The subject of electrical engineering includes two parts: electric (magnetic) energy science
and the interaction between electromagnetic field and matters. The first one deals with the

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                                                                      General Program
electrical energy conversion (mutual conversion between electric power and other kinds of
energy) and the storage of electrical energy, power system and its automation, power
electronics and pulse power technology. The second one includes engineering dielectrics,
high voltage and insulation technology, discharge and plasma technology, superconducting
technology, bio-electromagnetic technology, environmental electro-technology, and
electromagnetic compatibility. Furthermore, the two parts share some common basic
research contents, such as electric network theory, electromagnetic field theory,
electromagnetic measurement technology, and so on.

In 2007, in the field of electrical engineering, 657 proposals were submitted for General
Program, Young Scientists Fund and Fund for Less Developed Region. By means of peer
review and panel evaluation, 110 projects were funded. Among them, those in
electromagnetic field and circuit theory accounted for 10%, electric machine and systems
9.1%, power systems 25.5%, electric engineering materials, apparatus, high voltage and
insulation technologies 15.5%, power electronics 16.5%, pulsed power and discharged
plasma technologies 8.2%, and others 15.2%.

The innovation in research methodology and approaches in the field of electrical
engineering is encouraged. Priorities will be given to the following proposals: those on the
measurement/test principle and methodology of electromagnetic parameters/characteristics,
and their integration with information technologies; those attaching importance to the
experimental verification and the scientific aspect and quantification of experimental
research.

In the domain of electric energy science, investigations in new theories and new
technologies apparatus of high efficiency, flexibility, safety and reliability, and
environmental friendly for electrical energy conversion, transmission and utilization are
encouraged in order to meet the national demands of energy development. These include
high efficient conversion and utilization of electric energy, measurement of
electromagnetic characteristics, power generation of new energy and renewable energy,
safety and reliability of power systems and apparatus, power electronic converters and
integration, and superconducting electrical technologies.

As to the domain of electromagnetic field and the interaction between electromagnetism
and matter, research on new phenomena, exploration of new principles, establishment of
new models and discovery of new applications related to national economy and demands
of national defense are encouraged. They include electrical insulation under complicated
and special conditions, microstructure and performance of nanocomposite dielectrics, time
and space compressively transmission of electromagnetic energy, coupling between
electromagnetic pulsed energy and its applied objects, discharge and high active plasma
generation, interaction between electromagnetic field and bio-matter, processing and
utilization of biologic signals, and complicated transient electromagnetic fields.

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General Program

             Department of Information Sciences
The Department of Information Sciences funds researches on the generation, acquisition,
storage, transmission, processing and utilization of information. Based on the trends of
disciplinary development and social progress in recent years, the following priorities are
set for funding: nano electronics and bioelectronics, radio wave transmission and new
types of antenna, advanced information processing, future communication theory and
system, space information processing and application, key issues in theoretical computer
science, computer software, computer system configuration and storage system, key
technologies in computer application, computer network and distributed computer system,
network and information security, bionic sensing and advanced sensors, modeling, analysis
and control of complex systems, basic theory and application of intelligent science,
advanced robot technology and application, basic research on semiconductor integrated
chip system, quantum information technology, key scientific issues in optical information
display and processing, advanced laser technology, biomedical optics, recognition radio,
recognition science and intelligent information processing, etc. Particular attention will be
given to basic researches that meet social demands and have far-reaching importance in
promoting national economic and disciplinary development. The encouraged research
fields listed by the divisions of the Department in the Guide to Programs are only for
reference and guidance to application in 2008, and are subject to modification every year
in the future according to the development of each area.

Scientific and technical issues in information science are increasingly interdisciplinary in
nature. Therefore, the Department pays great attention to proposals of interdisciplinary
researches between information science and mathematics, physics, materials, life science,
chemistry and so on. The Department encourages applicants to submit cross-disciplinary
research proposals and proposals for cooperation among scientists with different
background and knowledge. The Department will give preferential funding to proposals
that have a good background of international cooperation to encourage scientists to
conduct substantive international cooperative research with scientists abroad in frontier
areas of information science.

NSFC signed agreements on joint funding with the Ministry of Railways and the General
Administration of Civil Aviation respectively. The joint funds are open to all scientists in
China, with the aim to attract scientists in universities and research institutes to participate
in basic research on scientific and technological issues in the development of industrial
areas. The Division III of Information Science will be responsible for the acceptance of
proposals for the fund of railways, and the Division I of Information Science will be
responsible for the acceptance of proposals for the fund of civil aviation. For details on
submitting proposals and areas of funding, please refer to relevant pages in the Joint Fund
section in the Guide. NSFC has also signed the agreement with Microsoft Research
Institute Asia to jointly fund research projects. All divisions of the Department will accept
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                                                                       General Program
proposals for the joint fund with Microsoft Research Institute Asia. For details of
submitting proposals and areas of funding, please also refer to relevant pages in the section
of Joint Fund. Experts may also submit proposals on research areas to be set for the Key
Program projects for the next year according to the key scientific issues in the areas of the
above three joint funds.

In 2007, the Department received 8,000 applications of various types. Among them, 4,643
were for General Program projects (formerly free application projects), which were 257
more than that in 2006. 792 projects were funded, with a funding of 208.17 million yuan.
The average rate of funding was 17.05%, and the funding level was 262.8 thousand yuan
per project. While keeping the same funding rate, the average funding intensity was
significantly increased from the previous year. The funding for large amount projects was
283.6 thousand yuan per project, which was 22 thousand yuan more than that in 2006.

In 2007, the Department gave priority or de-priority considerations to projects completed
which were rated “A” or “C” in their new applications for funding. Evaluation panelists
made strict checks on the projects that were poorly managed or not properly completed. In
recent years, there remain some problems in the evaluation at project completion, e.g.,
acknowledgement to NSFC‟s support in articles published in academic journals did not
follow the standard format or even did not appear at all. These problems must be brought
to the attention of applicants and management sectors of related institutions undertaking
research projects funded by NSFC.




                                             73
General Program

                      Funding for General Program in the Recent Two Years
                                                                                               Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                            2006                                 2007

              Science divisions              Projects              Success rate   Projects               Success rate
                                                         Funds                                Funds
                                             funded                      (%)++    funded                      (%)++
                    Electronics and
                    communication system
    Division I                               208+19*      5,468          17.61    216+22*     6,096           17.81
                    Signal and new type of
                    information processing
                    Computer science

   Division II      Network and              176+18*      4,620          15.86    200+24*     5,685           16.36

                    Information security
                    Control theory and
                    control engineering
                    System science and
   Division III                              150+12*      3,921          18.06    154+11*     4,336           16.40
                    system engineering
                    AI and intelligent
                    System
                    Semiconductor and
                    information devices
                    Information optics and
   Division IV      photo-electronic         153+19*      4,451          17.60    143+22*     4,700           17.70
                    devices
                    Laser technique and
                    technical optics

                   Total                     687+68*     18,460          17.21    713+79*     20,187          17.05
                                                                   **                                   **
      Average funding per project                       24.45 (26.09 )                       26.28 (28.36 )
       *
Notes: Projects of the Small Fund for Exploratory Study.
       **
            Average funding without projects of the Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
       ++
            Success rate includes projects of the Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.


Interdisciplinary Research between Information and Mathematics

In 2008, the Department of Information Sciences and the Department of Mathematical and
Physical Sciences will continue to fund interdisciplinary researches that require combined
efforts from information science and mathematics. The approval rate and funding will not
be lower than the projects in General Program. The areas to be included are mathematical
methods in modern computer science, mathematical methods in information security,
information system and advanced control theory. Interdisciplinary researches in the
following areas (but not limited to) are encouraged:

1. Theory and algorithm of integer representation of real numbers
                                         74
                                                                       General Program
To design the theory and algorithms of integer representation of real numbers and to
realize by computer and give complexity analysis of the algorithm.

2. Theory and methods of formalized representation of software systems
To describe and represent, by using formalization theory and methods, practical software
system, not only applicable to real time application software systems, but also to
interactive, discrete event software systems.

3. Theory and method of designing security software systems
To verify both theoretically and practically the advantages of the theory, algorithm and
system structures of typical software system (system software or application software)
analysis, design and development for improving the safety performance of software
systems.

4. Theoretical studies on new software system structure
To study, by addressing the contemporary needs of software application, the structure,
theory and methods of the system structure of novel software and to give appropriate
scientific characteristics in combination with practical software system.

5. Theoretical studies on the validation of software systems
To establish the theory and methods on the validation of software system development so
as to ensure the validity of the developed software.

6. Theory and methods of formalized representation of practical engineering projects


Division I of Information Science

The Division mainly funds basic and applied basic research in electronic science and
technology, information theory and information system as well as related interdisciplinary
areas.

Electronic Science and Technology
Research in this area should pay attention to innovative research on basic issues in the
application, particularly through the combination of theoretical research and application to
promote the development of electronic science and technology. Research focus will be on
circuit and system, radio wave transmission theory, electromagnetic field transient
performance, electromagnetic scattering and inverse scattering, high precision and high
efficiency electromagnetic computation method, electromagnetic compatibility and
protection, microwave millimeter wave device and integrated circuit, new style vacuum
device, plasma electron device, superpower microwave technique and application, new
style antenna theory and technology, new types of electronic materials and devices, new
types of sensors, microwave photonics, tera hertz electronic techniques,
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General Program
nanometer-electronics, molecular electronics, biomedical electronics, biological
information detection and recognition technology, and the extraction and processing of
information in medical diagnosis. The Division encourages innovative researches in
frontier areas such as nanometer electron device, electromagnetic property and application
of new type media, tera hertz technology, interaction of electronic wave and matter,
mechanism of electromagnetic information acquisition, electromagnetic biological effect
mechanism and so on.

Information Theory and Information System
Centering on the theoretical and technical researches in the acquisition, transmission,
processing, storage, exchange and application of information in the areas of information
theory and information system, the Division will keep on its funding to encoding technique,
communication theory and system, new communication network, communication software
and protocol, sensing and imaging system, weak signal detection and processing,
self-adaptive signal processing, multidimensional signal processing, network information
processing, image processing and the integration of multiple sensor information, and other
research directions. Applicants are encouraged to explore new methods of signal analysis
and processing, new theory and methods of image interpretation and representation, and
theory and methods in advanced information processing, such as biological information
processing at molecular, cell and system levels. In order to adapt to the trend of
digitalization, networking and intelligent information system, and unification of
information system, research and explorations in frontier areas will be strengthened as
follows: next generation mobile communication, mobile wireless Internet, network
communication theory and system, recognition radio, transducer network new type
network access technology, multimedia communication, space information processing, air
wave radar and surface radar information processing, service science, next generation
network and new types of information system, etc.

In 2007, the Division received 1,336 proposals for General Program (including 5
interdisciplinary projects with mathematics and physics) and 191 proposals for the Joint
Fund of Civil Aviation Research and 7 proposals for the Joint Fund with Microsoft
Research Institute Asia. In 2007, 238 General Program projects, 22 projects for the Joint
Fund of Civil Aviation Research and 2 projects for the Joint Fund with Microsoft Research
Institute Asia were funded. The funding rate for General Program (including small projects
for exploratory studies) was 17.8%, and 11.52% for the Joint Fund of Civil Aviation
Research.

In 2007, some projects funded were related to interdisciplinary research such as
information and mathematics, and information and health related subjects.

In 2008, the Division will encourage researches in areas of network and information
security, detection and imaging technologies, bio-information processing and space

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                                                                         General Program
information processing, multimedia information processing, network information
processing, low power consumption communication electronics and research on basic
theory and key technologies that are significant to the national security, support innovative
and cross-disciplinary research without common view from reviewers, continue to offer
small amount of funds for exploratory studies, support exploratory studies having good
prospects, continue to pay attention to performance and results in project evaluation, and
give preferential funding to projects which scored outstanding achievements in previous
research.

Division II of Information Science

The Division is responsible for funding researches on basic theories, basic methods and
key technologies related to computer science and technology and relevant interdisciplinary
areas.

As one of the most active, fast growing and widely influencing areas in information
science, the objectives of computer science and technology are to obtain high speed, large
storage, highly effective, reliable, networking, universal and intelligent applicability. It is
suggested that applicants conceive their research around these main features.

In 2008, the funding areas of the Division will focus on core scientific issues and key
technologies in computer science and original, basic, foresighted and cross-disciplinary
studies. The Division supports researches on the theory of computer science, architecture,
parallel and distributive processing, storage principle and system, system software,
software engineering and methods, information security, natural language interpretation,
data engineering and knowledge engineering, multimedia information processing, virtual
reality, man-machine environment, mobile computation, embedded computation, artificial
intelligence, pattern recognition and machine learning, bio information processing, etc.
The Division especially encourages and supports scientists to address those basic issues
that are well known internationally for their difficulty and significance, so as to upgrade
the academic level and influence of China‟s S&T team.

In 2008, the Division will continue to support computer scientists in close cooperation
with specialists in life science, mathematics, physics, chemistry, geo-science, mechanical
engineering and management science to jointly explore new ideas, new theories and novel
approaches in these interdisciplinary areas, so as to promote the mutual development of
computer and other sciences.

In 2007, the Division received 1,369 proposals for General Program, an increase of 11.4%
from 2006, and 22 proposals for joint projects with Microsoft Research Institute Asia. 200
projects were funded, each lasting 3 years (including 1 related to health sciences and 4
interdisciplinary projects related to mathematics and physics). The average funding is

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General Program
274.7 thousand yuan per project. Seven joint projects with Microsoft Research Institute
Asia were funded, with an average funding of 262.9 thousand per project, and 4 projects of
Small Fund for Exploratory Studies with an average funding of 80,000 yuan per project.
The total success rate for General Program (including small fund for exploratory studies) is
16.36%.

It is worth noting that many proposals in 2007 still had the problem of blindly following
hot spots in research and lack of creative ideas. It is suggested that applicants aim at
national needs and international frontiers, and select basic, key and in-depth scientific
issues to carry out sustained research.

Division III of Information Science

The Division funds research on control theory and application, system science and system
engineering, navigation, guidance and transducer technology, pattern recognition and
application, artificial intelligence and knowledge engineering, robotics and robotic
technology, and recognition science and intelligent information processing. The above
areas are related and are the basis or support to each other. Research scope involves
mathematics, computer, communication, mechanics, electrical engineering, mechanical
engineering, semiconductor, optics, management, neuroscience and psychology, etc.
Therefore, in addition to the above areas, interdisciplinary research is also encouraged.

In 2007, the Division received 1,005 proposals for General Program projects, and funded
152 projects of 3-year period, 1 interdisciplinary project related to mathematics, 1 health
related project, and 11 projects for Small Fund for Exploratory Studies. The average
funding for General Program was 277.1 thousand yuan per project, and 70 thousand yuan
for Small Fund for Exploratory Studies. The funding rate for General Programs (including
small fund for exploratory studies) is 16.42%.

In 2007, the proposals to the Division had the following new features: 1) Some new
research directions emerged, such as the analysis and control of fraction order systems and
non-cooperative target identification, etc; 2) There were more interdisciplinary studies,
such as the application of vector computer in parametric optimization of control systems,
control based on machine vision and patterns, etc.; 3) The number of proposals related to
the national economy and defense and strong application background was also increased. It
is hoped that applicants pay attention to key difficult problems in traditional areas, as well
as new disciplines and new directions and interdisciplinary areas, and continue to improve
the quality of research projects.

In 2008, such research areas will be encouraged as unified control and management of
energy saving, low consumption and pollution reducing production process, controls based
on pattern and controls based on data driving, complex network analysis and network

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                                                                         General Program
system control, emergence of complex systems and laws of evolution, new methods of
information acquisition and new transducer technology, new theory and methods of
integration of information from multiple sources, new methods of data understanding and
machine learning information processing and control in life science, advanced robotic
system and key technologies, and computer modeling and application of cognitive process.

Division IV of Information Science

The funding scope of the Division is semiconductor science and information devices, and
optics and photo-electronics.

The main scope of funding in semiconductor science and information devices includes:
semiconductor crystal and membrane material, design and test of integrated circuits,
semiconductor photo electric devices, semiconductor devices, semiconductor physics,
integrated circuit fabrication and packaging, semiconductor micro and nano mechanical
and electrical devices and system, new types of information devices (including nano,
molecular, super conducting, quantum functional information devices).

The main scope of funding in optics and photo-electronics includes optical information
acquisition and processing, photon and photoelectric devices, transmission and exchange
photonics, inferred physics and technology (including tetra-hertz), nonlinear optics and
quantum optics, laser, spectrum technology, applied optics, optics and photoelectric
materials, space optics, atmospheric and marine optics, biomedical photonics and optical
problems in interdisciplinary studies. In recent years, along with the development of
information science, the above areas are now having more and more interactions with
physics, chemistry, materials science and life science, and many new research directions
are emerging.

In 2007, the Division received 932 proposals, which is 4.6% less than that in 2006. After
expert review, 165 projects were funded, with a funding rate of 17.7% and an average
funding of 314.8 thousand yuan per project.

Among the major branch areas, the number of applications in the following areas enjoyed
rapid increase: micro electronics, semiconductor photo electronics, optical information
processing, technical optics, optics and photoelectric materials and optical problems in
interdisciplinary disciplines had large increase, semiconductor and other devices, optical
information transmission and laser had some decrease in application number. In regard to
the contents of applications, IC design, high-speed optical communication network and
relevant photoelectric devices, solid laser device, quantum optics were still the hot spots of
research, and micro and nano structure photonic materials and devices and biomedical
optics.
In the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, the Division will give priorities to areas of solar cell

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General Program
materials and devices, tera hertz devices, nano device and technology, optical information
processing and display technology, advanced photonic technology, wide gap
semiconductor materials and devices, semiconductor integrated circuit system (SoC), etc.
In 2008, the Division will encourage researches in the following fields: photo electric transfer and
interaction, power devices and integration, radio frequency and digital analogy mixed integrated
circuit design, micro-nano optical and electro-mechanical device and technology, transducer
technology, organic (polymer) and organic/inorganic composite materials and devices, nanometer
scale MOS devices and technological issues, on-chip system and on-chip network chip design, low
dimensional quantum structure materials and devices, wide gap semiconductor materials and
devices, self-spin electronics and self-spin photo electronic materials and devices, quantum
computation and quantum communication, high speed optical communication, optical exchange,
optical interconnection, optical transmission network element technology and devices, high density
information storage, display materials and devices, new technologies and devices of optical
transmission, optical display, optical detection and sensing, high speed real time optical
information and image acquisition and processing, new laser device and optical information
functional materials and devices, laser physics and new types of laser technologies, microwave
photonics, micro-nano photon devices, advanced optical manufacture and checking technology,
super spectrum imaging method and technology, study of new phenomena and new technology in
ultra fast optics, information devices, and information devices, optics and photonic technology in
health and biomedical sciences and interdisciplinary studies.

It is hoped that researchers in relevant areas dare to make explorations and propose more, better
and creative proposals and suggestions on setting up Key Program projects.




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                                                                       General Program

            Department of Management Sciences
Management science is an interdisciplinary science which aims at revealing and applying
the basic laws of various management activities, in order to optimize the utilization of
limited resources with the help of modern science and technology. There are three
divisions in the Department, namely management science and engineering, business
administration, and macro-management and policy, respectively. Research proposals
should be submitted to one of these divisions according to the contents contained.

In accordance with NSFC strategy of “supporting basic research, sticking to free
exploration and playing a guiding role”, the Department is working on promoting the
original creativity in China‟s management researches through selecting, supporting and
managing innovative research projects. Proposals which lay stress on the combination of
theory and practice and intercrossing of multiple disciplines will be supported with
priority.

During the past 20 years, noticeable progress has been made by Chinese scientists in
applying and further developing the associated knowledge and skills to solve management
problems encountered in reality. The central and local governments, society and various
communities have paid much attention to management sciences, which is verified by the
constant increase of the number of management researchers and their study outputs with
significant influence on China‟s social and economic development.

However, there still exists a number of problems to be solved in the future. For example,
many researches simply follow oversea mainstreams without their own creative ideas;
there are few research results having influence in the international academic circles; the
academic and practical circles are not closely connected, consequently theoretical
researches cannot well reflect the management practice; some management experiences
which have been effective in solving China‟s problems are not well summarized and
formulated; some research proposals are mediocre and lack insights; some scholars cannot
use scientific methodology to carry out their research projects, and basic data collection
and database construction are not satisfactory. All of these are blocking the development of
China‟s management sciences.

The Department encourages researches in which the theoretical frontiers of management
sciences can be introduced and further developed, research methods are internationalized,
research cases are localized, and research results are useful in solving practical problems
and best published in both domestic and international journals and/or conferences.
Research projects supported by the Department should further develop some theories
and/or creatively solve real management problems in China through applying the advanced
theory.
The Department periodically organizes experts to evaluate all research projects completed.

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General Program
Scientists with good records in completing projects will be given priority for funding when
they apply for new projects. All evaluation results have been published on the
Department‟s website.

Please note that proposals belonging to pure social science will not be considered by the
Department because another organization (the National Social Science Foundation)
supports all social science researches in China. Submission of one proposal to these two
organizations simultaneously is not allowed.

In 2008, the Department will accept and process applications in three directions separately.
The number of projects to be granted will be the same as that in 2007 and the average
funding intensity per project will be increased to 200 thousand (See below).


                    Funding for General Program Projects in Recent Years
                                                                                      Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                 FY 2006                             FY 2007
                                     Projects              Success rate   Projects             Success rate
         Scientific division                    Funds                                Funds
                                     granted                   (%)        granted                  (%)
                    Management
  Division I         science and       111      2,036         14.16         118      2,355        14.82
                     engineering
                        Business
 Division II                           118      2,138         13.29         119      2,375        12.59
                   administration
                Macro-management
 Division III                          120      2,186         11.92         125      2,518        9.83
                        and policy
                Total                  349      6,360         13.19         362      7,248        12.02
     Average amount per project                   18.22                                20.02

Notes: The number of projects includes one year projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.


Division I Management Sciences

Management Science and Engineering
In the management science and engineering, the Division mainly supports research projects
associated with fundamental theories, methods and techniques in the field of management
science. They include the history of management science, general management theory,
operations management, decision-making and game theory, organization theory, management
psychology and behavior, management system engineering, industrial engineering,
information technology management, technology and theory of internet management,
forecast, prediction and evaluation methods, quantitative economic analysis, financial
engineering, complexity science, knowledge management and others.

The Division will support the complexity research in economics and management,
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                                                                        General Program
proposals in other complexity research areas may submit to other relevant departments.

The Division will strengthen its support to the research on basic theory and frontier areas,
especially those from Chinese management experience, culture and philosophy.

In 2007, the Division received 795 proposals in management science and engineering (an
increase of 1.53% compared with that in the previous year). Operation research and
management is the research area for most applications (12.7% of total), and the proposals
mainly focus on logistic and supply chain, product management, traffic and finance
operation. 10.76% of the proposals are in finance engineering, which focus on risk
management, product design and price, behavior finance, etc. 8.44% of the total
applications are in information system and management, 8.18% in management system
engineering, and 7.20% in decision making.

Finally, 118 Free Application projects were funded (including Small Fund for Exploratory
Studies). The success rate is 14.82% and the average amount per project is 199.6 thousand
yuan.

In 2008, the Division will pay attention to the research areas as follows: theory and method
of supply chain management; knowledge management; risk management, price and
production design of financial engineering; quality engineering and quality control about
system dependability.

Through the analysis on the applications in recent years, the Division shares the same
problems with the Department. Many proposals still follow and apply the theory and
methods of their peers in the West. Few of them have their original ideas and innovation
potentials on basic theory, methodology and technology. But peer reviewers point out that
the quality of proposals are better than those in the past few years, and the number of
proposals with insufficient technology route, scientific methods and issues, etc., is reduced.

The Division stresses on basic research and originality. It also encourages finding new
problems, exploring new theories and inventing new techniques and new methods.
Research should conform to the standards widely accepted in international academic
circles, address the utilization of integrated scientific methodology and aim at the research
frontiers so as to achieve innovation in various aspects. Proposals that have good
background in conducting international collaboration are encouraged.


Division II of Management Science

Business Administration
In business administration, the Division mainly supports basic research and some applied
basic researches in business administration and nonprofit organization management. These
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General Program
researches are generally conducted at micro-level, referring to the theories, methods and
techniques. The main funding areas include strategy management, enterprise culture,
corporate governance, human resources management, enterprise finance management
(including accounting theories and methods and auditing management), marketing,
operation management, quality engineering, logistic and supply chain management,
service management, technology management and technology innovation, technology
economics, project management, information management and e-business, non-profit
organization management, and so on.

In 2007, 945 applications for Free Application projects were received in business
administration (8% less than that of the previous year). Finally, 119 projects were funded,
with a success rate of 12.59% and an average funding intensity of 199.6 thousand yuan per
project.

In 2007, compared to other areas, the following fields witnessed more applications and
projects funded: marketing, account theory and method, strategy management, logistic and
supply chain management, enterprise financial management, technology innovation and
R&D management etc., showing that these areas have powerful research ability. In product
management, quality management, service management and e-commerce areas, the
number of proposals also increased and had original ideas and innovation potentials, but
were still weak in theory. It is relatively weak in non-profit organization management and
quality management, and research results can‟t satisfy the needs of China‟s social
economic development, although the number of applications is increased.

The quality of proposals in business administration is better than that in the past years,
especially the quality of proposals for Young Scientists Fund. But there are some proposals
which do not belong to business administration, are of low quality or can‟t provide enough
information about what to be studied. This brings problems to reviewers in the evaluation.
In order to ensure the efficiency of evaluation, the Division will screen these proposals out.

In 2008, the Division still aims to fund the original innovation and frontiers of basic
science. High attention has been paid to proposals which are original and innovative in
effectively combining cases and positive studies as well as scenario observation and
analysis. Applicants are encouraged to cooperate with scientists and institutions in other
countries. The funded projects are expected to find new management laws and develop
new theories and methods with Chinese features. Proposals with fundamental data
collection and investigation will be encouraged.

The Division will pay attention to the following areas in 2008: management innovation
and enterprise administration with Chinese management experience, culture and
philosophy; service science and service management; and enterprise/unit technology
management.

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                                                                       General Program
In order to improve the research quality, the Division will continue to support the frontier
issues in the following areas: business theory, business strategy, enterprise finance
management, marketing and human resources management. Priority will be given to
researches on operations management, service management, quality management and
engineering, non-profit organization management and e-commerce, risk and safety
management in large-project, non-profit organization management, and so on.


Division III of Management Science

Macro-management and Policy
The Division finances research in the field of macro-management and policy, and the
emergency research program supports researches that timely study some difficult and
urgent management related problems in the current social and economy development in
China.

The following research areas are covered by the Division: macro-economy management
and policy, financial management and policy, public administration and policies,
agriculture economics management, science and technology management and policies,
library-information-archive management, natural resources and environment management,
etc. The Division addresses applied basic researches originated from the real
macro-problems existing in China and aiming at providing assistance to the country‟s
macro decision-making and training research talents, and promoting innovative researches
for the disciplinary development.

In 2007, the Division received 1,271 proposals, 9.47% less than that in the previous year.
Finally, 125 Free Application projects were funded. The approval rate is 9.83% and the
average funding intensity is 201.4 thousand yuan per project.

In 2007, more applications were submitted and granted in such areas as public
administration, finance management, agriculture economics management and resource,
and environment management. The success rate in agriculture economics management,
S&T policy and management, and information and library management was higher than
other topics. It shows that applicants take great care of China‟s reform progress and apply
the management theories and methods to analyze the emerging issues during the reform.

In 2008, the Division will pay more attention to researches in such topics as theory and
methods of public administration and public production, public security management,
urban and regional development management, health care management, and resource and
environment management.

The applications in recent years contain some problems. First, applicants can‟t utilize the

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General Program
methodology in dealing with the process and don‟t know how to treat the problems.
Second, they do not really connect theory with practice in Chinese management issues.
And finally, researchers mix the management practice and academy issues.

Many of the sub-disciplines covered by the Division show an unbalanced development.
The Division encourages research projects with sound and stable background. Problems to
be studied should be originated in China, research methods used be scientific and accepted
by the academic circles, and research results be partially internationalized. Applicants
should distinguish the difference between management research and management practice.
Proposals should refine their topics to study and explore the central parts of the problems,
try to describe accurately the problems to be studied, state clearly research methods to be
adopted, and show how to overcome key difficulties encountered in the studies. The
Division does not support research proposals that are purely based on general working
experience obtained in industries.




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                                                                                        Key Program



                          Key Program
Key Program is another important type in NSFC‟s research project series. Its aim is, on the basis
of promoting the balanced and sustained disciplinary development, in accordance with the
priority areas of NSFC and through the guidance of the Guide, to focus on international frontier
areas, integrate innovation resources and foster key breakthroughs. It mainly supports in-depth,
systematic and innovative researches that are integrated with the national demands in key areas
that have good research basis and accumulation and have important roles in promoting
disciplinary development, or where new growth points of research disciplines emerge.

In order to achieve the goal of making breakthroughs, the Key Program stresses on the principle
of limited objectives, limited research scope and focused goals, and on the intercrossing of
disciplines and making full use of the existing major scientific research bases. Key Program
projects are generally planned in every five years. Each year, research areas are determined and
announced in the Guide to Programs. The length of the projects usually lasts 4 years. Please
refer to the application notes and limitations, and write proposals according to the writing
guidelines.

In 2007, 1,754 applications for Key Program projects were received, and 373 projects were
approved, with a total funding of 635.3 million yuan and an average funding of 1.7032 million
yuan per project. In 2008, the Key Program will, in accordance with the Eleventh Five-Year
Plan, continue to expand the funding scale and increase the funding intensity. 426 projects are
planned to be funded, with a funding of 792 million yuan, and an average funding of 1.85
million yuan per project.


                                 Funding of Key Programs in 2007
                                                                                      Unit: 10,000 yuan

                                                  Funding and projects approved
                                                                                                Success
      Science           No. of
                                                                                   Average       rate
    department       applications      No. of               Percentage of
                                                 Funding                          funding per     (%)
                                      projects              the total (%)
                                                                                    project

       Total            1,754           373      63,530          100                170.32       21.27

 Mathematical and
                         152            45        8,600         13.54               191.11       29.61
 Physical Sciences

 Chemical Sciences       117            42        7,210         11.35               171.67       35.90

   Life Sciences         675            113      17,850         28.10               157.96       16.74

   Earth Sciences        322            56        9,500         14.95               169.64       17.39

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Key Program
  Engineering and
                       246          61      10,920       17.19          179.02       24.80
 Materials Sciences
    Information
                       168          42      8,050        12.67          191.67        25
     Sciences
   Management
                        74          14      1,400        2.20            100         18.92
     Sciences




Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
In the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, in order to encourage competition and promote the
generation of projects with innovative ideas, the Department will announce more project
areas and research directions than projects to be funded, and let the research directions
guide applicants to choose research topics. Applicants may choose freely the research title,
research content, research scheme and research fund in the following specified areas. Key
Program projects are determined mainly based on the priority funding areas proposed in
the study report of disciplinary strategic development for the Eleventh Five-Year Plan
period. The reason for doing so is to conduct an overall planning for the development of
research disciplines.

Starting from 2008, in areas of mathematics, mechanics, astronomy, Division I of Physics
and Division II of Physics, we only specify areas, and let the applicants decide research
topics and research contents. In 2008, the Department plans to fund 58 Key Program
projects with a total funding of 100 million yuan. Details are given in sections for each
division. Each year, priority areas in the Guide may vary depending on the distribution of
on-going Key Program projects.

Division of Mathematics

In 2008, 8-10 Key Program projects are planned to be supported and the total funding will
be 11.2 to 14 million yuan.

Words in bold are research directions, and the list items are the encouraged research
contents and the code in bracket is the application code. Applicants may choose one from
the encouraged research contents.

1. Algebra and applications
Lee algebra and application, Lee group and application (A010202).
2. Modern differential geometry
Geometry and topology of low dimensional manifold, geometric analysis (A010402,
A010303).
3. Modern analytical theory and application
Variation theory, harmonic analysis (A010601, A010504).
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                                                                           Key Program
4. Theory and application of ordinary differential equations
Functional differential equations, time lag differential equations and difference equations
(A010701).
5. Dynamical systems and ergodic theory
Theory and application of bifurcations in dynamical systems (A010703, A010502).
6. Theory and application of partial differential equations
Nonlinear dispersion equation, compressible fluid dynamics equations (A010801).
7. Optimal theory and applications
Nonlinear optimization, multi objectives optimization (A011201),
8. Mathematical theory of optimal control
Mathematical theory of infinite dimensional control systems (A011301),
9. Graph theory and combination
Applied graph theory, combination design (A011602, A011601).
10. Theory and application of computational mathematics
Computational fluid dynamics, numerical algebra, computational geometry (A011702,
A011705 and A011706).


Division of Mechanics

Applicants should have senior academic title and good research background and records in
the research area to be applied, and the research group should have certain size. Applicants
need to mark the area selected in the application form.

11-13 projects are planned to be supported and the total funding will be 22 to 26 million
yuan.
1. Nonlinear dynamics and control in aerospace science (A0202) (It is an
interdisciplinary project with the Department of Information Sciences.)
2. Vibration control of large and complex structures (A0202)
3. Basic mechanical problems of functional materials (A0203)
4. Multi-field coupled basic mechanical problems (A0203)
5. Studies on the completeness and endurance of structure (A0203)
6. Key mechanical problems in advanced manufacturing (A0203) (It is an
interdisciplinary project with the Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences)
7. Studies on complex flow mechanisms (A0204)
8. Key scientific problems in high speed hydrodynamics (A0204)
9. Fluid mechanical problems in environmental disasters (A0204) (It is an
interdisciplinary project with the Department of Engineering and Materials sciences.)
10. Biomechanical studies related to human health and the cures of diseases (A0205)
11. Mechanical problems in extreme conditions (A02)
12. New theory and methods in computational mechanics (A02)
13. New theory and methods in experimental mechanics (A02)

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Key Program

Division of Astronomy

In 2008, 6 to 8 projects are to be supported with a funding of 1.8 to 2.4 million yuan for
each project.

1. Galactic cosmology (A0301, A0302)
Key scientific problems include:
1) Measurement of cosmological parameters, in particular, physical properties of dark
matters and dark energy, and observable phenomenon of residuals from early cosmic
evolution;
2) Formation of various celestial bodies and structures in the universe, and key physical
process of formation of structures;
3) Formation and evolution of galaxies;
4) Radiation, structure and evolution of active nucleus of galaxy.

2. Formation, evolution and eruption of stars (A0303)
Key scientific problems include:
1) Formation and early evolution of stars, especially the observation and theoretical studies
on the formation of large mass stars and large scale formation of stars in galaxy;
2) Star structure and evolution and star atmosphere, late evolution of stars and compact
celestial bodies and relevant eruption phenomenon and radiation mechanisms, and the
observation and theory of formation, evolution of outer planets in solar system;
3) Structure and evolution of the Galaxy.

3. Solar physics (A0304)
Key scientific problems include:
1) Structure and evolution of solar magnetic field and velocity field, and the process of
interaction between solar magnetic field and plasma;
2) Solar eruption events, especially the solar flare and characteristics of the source and
physical mechanism and high energy radiation, and dynamic process of solar corona mass
ejection;
3) Effect of solar eruption activity on the weather in solar earth space, and physical basis
and methods for solar activity forecast;
4) Solar quake, solar power generator and solar weekly activity mechanism;
5) Heating mechanism of solar corona and cause of high-speed solar wind.

4. Astrometry and celestial mechanics (A0308, A0309)
Key scientific problems include:
1) Methods of astrometry and development of astronomical reference frame;
2) Theory and methods of celestial mechanics;
3) Planet and star system dynamics;
4) Natural and artificial celestial dynamics of the solar system;
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5) Astrogeodynamics;
6) Applied astronomical research to address the key national need.

5. Astronomical techniques and methods (A0311)
Key scientific problems include:
1) Radio astronomical techniques (including millimeter wave and sub millimeter wave);
2) Optical and infrared astronomical techniques;
3) High energy astronomical technology;
4) Space astronomical techniques and other astronomical techniques and methods.

Division I of Physics

Project PI should have been the PI of a national project, and the research group is required
to have certain size. Applications in research of new techniques and new methods in
physical problems in new energy, advanced material preparation, physical experimental
measurement and representation, and new computational methods and simulation software
will be given high priority in funding. Applications that combine theory and experiment
will be encouraged. In 2008, 14 to 15 Key Program projects are planned to be supported
with an average funding of 2 million yuan per project.

1. Physical problems in solar energy, hydrogen energy and other new forms of energy
(A0402, A0404) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Information
Sciences.)

2. Physics of new functional materials (A0402, A0404) (It is an interdisciplinary project
with the Department of Information Sciences and Department of Engineering and
Materials Sciences.)
1) New types of artificial microstructure materials and physical properties;
2) New functional materials such as ferro electric and thermoelectric and their physical
properties;
3) Highly effective luminescent and photo electric material physics;
4) Physical properties of new magnetic functional materials and their heterogeneous
structures.

3. Quantum phenomenon of confined quantum systems (A0402, A0404)

4. Novel phenomena in relevant electronic systems (A0402)
1) Special physical properties of strong relevant electronic systems, metal/insulator
conversion and quantum phase change;
2) New physical problems in low dimensional interactive electronic systems.

5. New physical problems in bio information and large bio molecular structures and

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their functions (A0401) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of
Information Sciences and Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences.)
1) Simulation and prediction of the functions of non-coded RNA, DNA functional
fragments and 3-D structure of protein molecules;
2) Large bio molecule (DNA, RNA and zymoprotein) interactive network dynamics and
system dynamics;
3) Bio molecular self-assembly and physical and mechanical properties of bio nano
systems;
4) New principles, new methods and new techniques of bio molecular control, analysis and
measurement.

6. Complex interactions in atomic and molecular systems (A0403) (It is an
interdisciplinary project with the Department of Chemical Sciences.)
1) Atomic and molecular properties and applications under special environments (super
cold, super strong, super fast, etc.);
2) Size related cluster properties and dynamics.

7. Super fast and super strong optical physics (A0404)
1) Physics of atto second laser and ultra fast phenomena;
2) Extremely nonlinear optical phenomenon of ultra short pulse.

8. Micro-nano scale photonics (A0404) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the
Department of Information Sciences.)
1) New photon crystals and its integration;
2) micro-nano scale cavity quantum electrodynamics phenomenon;
3) Surface plasma excimer physics.

9. Quantum information physics (A0402, A0403, A0404)
1) Physical problems such as quantum information storage, transmission, cloning,
identification and measurement;
2) Physical realization of quantum bit, generation and measurement of quantum
entanglement, principle and methods of quantum relay;
3) New principles and new methods of quantum computation.

10. Physics of new light sources (A0404)
1) New principles and techniques of frequency transformation;
2) Generation and detection of infrared and THz radiation and its interaction with matters;
3) Exploration of new laser principles.

11. New types of acoustic energy converter and its matrix (A0405) (It is an
interdisciplinary project with the Department of Information Sciences.)
1) New types of new energy conversion materials and wide band acoustic energy

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converter;
2) Acoustic surface wave transducers for measurement of physical, chemical and
biological quantities (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Chemical
Sciences.).

12. Temporal and spatial properties and applications of marine acoustic field (A0405)
1) Sound transmission, variation and scattering properties in 3-D non-homogeneous
marine environment;
2) New methods of marine acoustic chromatography and applications in fast forecasting of
sea water sound speed.

13. Theory of sound transmission, detection and interaction in complex media
(A0405)
1) Theory of acoustic wave transmission and detection in special media and structures;
2) Theory and methods for qualitative acoustic detection and evaluation.

14. Principle of high precision physical measurement technology and key equipment
(A04) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Information Sciences and
Department of Chemical Sciences.)
1) Principle of high spatial and temporal and energy resolution, high sensitivity
measurement technology and development of key equipment;
2) Single photon, electron, atomic/molecular measurement and control;
3) New representation and measurement techniques at nano scales;
4) Extension of functions and improvement of performance of precision instruments.

Division II of Physics

Applicants should state in the beginning of the proposal the research direction chosen. In
2008, 10 to 12 projects are planned to be supported with a total funding of 20-25 million
yuan.

1. Basic research on quantum control and quantum information physics (A0501) (It is
an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Information Sciences.)
2. Grid quantum chromodynamics (A0502)
3. Experimental and theoretical studies on high energy cosmic rays (A0502)
4. Studies of hadrons physics and exotic state (A0502, A0503)
5. Property study on high temperature and high-density strong interactive matters
(A0503)
6. Basic research on the application of bundle of rays in biomedical and materials
sciences (A0504) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Life Sciences
and Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences.)
7. Basic research on slow positron beam technology and application (A0504)

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8. Physics, accelerator and probe in frontier areas of high energy physics (A0505)
9. Generation, acceleration, transport and energy sedimentation of high energy
particles driven by strong lasers (A0505, A0506)
10. Key physical problems and technology of magnetic confined plasmas (A0506)
11. Key physical problems and technology of new types of low temperature plasma
source (A0506)
12. Key technology of advanced synchrotron radiation light source and new light
sources (A0507)
13. Advanced technologies and experimental methods of synchrotron light rays and
experimental stations (A0507) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of
Chemical Sciences.)



               Department of Chemical Sciences
Proposals for Key Program projects shall conform to the priority research areas supported
in NSFC‟s Eleventh Five-Year Plan, give considerations to disciplinary development,
integrate innovative resources and cultivate key breakthroughs. During the Eleventh
Five-Year Plan period, there is a large increase in the number and funding intensity of Key
Program projects supported by the Department, which plans to grant 180-200 Key
Program projects compared with 120 Key Program projects funded in the Tenth Five-Year
Plan period. In 2008, the Department will publish guides and accept proposals in 46
research areas listed below and the total funding to be granted will be about 90 million
yuan. Among those areas, there are 15 programs belonging to intercrossing projects
between other departments at NSFC. The average funding is in the range of 1.2 to 2.4
million yuan for each project, while the actual amount will be determined by specific
conditions and evaluation results. It invites proposals from those groups and teams with
excellent research resources. The duration of each project is generally four years unless
stated otherwise.

Division I of Chemistry

1. Crystal engineering of functional coordinated polymers (B01);
2. Molecular assembly and their product engineering‟s basis (B01) (It is an
interdisciplinary project with the Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences.);
3. Fundamental study of multi-functional molecular materials (B01);
4. Research area on inorganic solid chemistry (B01) (It is an interdisciplinary project with
the Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.);
5. Research areas on coordinated chemistry (B01);
6. Research area on bio-inorganic chemistry (B01);
7. Basic research on interaction and signal transition between related matters aimed at
developing new technique and new reagent (B05) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.);
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8. Methodologies of system separation and analysis of complex samples (B05);
9. New methods of multi-dimension and multi-parameter analysis and measurement in the
micro-scale (B05);
10. New principle, new methods and new techniques in the omics analysis (B05);
11. Methods of analysis and determination orientated to the national security and human
health (B05).

Division II of Chemistry

1. New method of organic synthesis regulating and controlling selectivity of reaction
(B02);
2. Physic-organic chemical issues in hydrogen-lacked organic compounds (B02);
3. Activation of C-H bond catalyzed by transition metals (B02);
4. Synthesis of important chiral bioactive molecules with multi-pattern structure (B02) (It
is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Life Sciences.);
5. Synthesis of organic coordinative compounds of fore transition metals and their
application (B02);
6. Studies on environmental-friendly new catalytic system (B02);
7. Studies on active intermediate in organic synthesis (B02)
8. Molecular design and synthesis of bio-active substances contained fluor element (B02)
(It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Life Sciences.);
9. Bio-synthetic mechanism of unique structural unit in natural products (B02) (It is an
interdisciplinary project with the Department of Life Sciences.).

Division III of Chemistry

1. Research areas on environmental catalysis or structure, catalytic action and mechanism
of new-type carbon materials (B03) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department
of Engineering and Materials Sciences.);
2. Research on biological electrochemistry or new method and new technology in
electrochemistry (B03);
3. Experiment and theory of molecular reaction kinetics in condensed state (B03);
4. Thermodynamics of functional materials (B03);
5. Physicochemical issue on the basis of molecular device (B03) (It is an interdisciplinary
project with the Department of Information Sciences.);
6. New method and new algorithm of electron structure theory (B03);
7. Computer simulation of electric charge transport and energy transfer in functional
materials (B03) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Mathematical and
Physical Sciences.);
8. Experiment and theory of molecular reaction kinetics (B03);
9. Physicochemical issue related to molecular bionic system (B03).
Research topics shall be determined by applicants for the above 9 areas.

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Division IV of Chemistry

1. Preparation of functional polymers by controllable polymerization (B04);
2. Assembly and polymer of super-molecules (B04);
3. Regulation and control of phase pattern and property of phase interface in the conjugate
polymer (B04) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Engineering and
Materials Sciences.);
4. Structure and dynamic properties of polymer with single-chain (B04);
5. Weak interaction between macromolecules (B04);
6. Functional polymer used in ultra-red wave section (B04);
7. Moving, conversing, ecologic-health risk and controlling principle of PPCPs in
environment (B07) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Earth
Sciences.);
8. Environmental process and bio-effect of type persistent pollutants with toxicity (B07);
9. New principle, new methods and new materials related to controlling polluted chemistry
of water (B07) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Engineering and
Materials Sciences.).

Division V of Chemistry

1. Chemical engineering foundation of advanced technologies in the areas of biological
and medical engineering (B06) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of
Life Sciences.);
2. Key chemical engineering basis on high effective clean utilization of fossil energies and
exploitation of new energies (B06) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department
of Engineering and Materials Sciences.);
3. Chemical engineering foundation of decreasing green gases (such as CO 2) emission
(B06);
4. Theoretic and technical foundation of the reinforcement and integration of chemical
engineering processes (B06);
5. Scientific foundation of environmental chemical engineering and safety (B06);
6. Design of new materials in chemical engineering and basic research of product
engineering (B06) (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Engineering
and Materials Sciences.);
7. Basic problems of chemical engineering related to the high effective utilization of
resources and the cyclic economy (B06);
8. Basic research on chemical reaction engineering and separation engineering (B06).


                    Department of Life Sciences
Aiming at problems in the project selection and application processes in the past, such as
long period of planning, limited research scope, strong directional guide and insufficient
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linkage with other NSFC projects, the Department has tried a model of combining chiefly
application in designated areas (ADA for short) with complement free application of non
designated areas (AFA for short). Applicants shall read carefully the application
requirements, things to be noted and funding plan of the Department in 2008 in this
chapter. Applicants for ADA shall correctly fill in the corresponding application code lined
out in each division when making application. Proposals for AFA may choose
autonomously the application code relevant to its research content.

The requirements for ADA and AFA Key Program projects to be noticed are listed below:

1. Key Program projects in designated areas (ADA)
For designated areas, applicants shall propose research topics and compose application
texts in reference to the guidelines issued by the Department in 2008. In the column of
“Annotations” on the basic information table of the application form, applicants shall write
down the applied research areas.

2. Key Program projects for free application of non designated areas (AFA)
Applicants who have achieved great progress, such as new discoveries, new theoretical
hypotheses and new techniques and methods with important scientific significance from
previous funding and other projects and who need intensive support to further their
research, can apply directly for AFA Key Program projects without the limitation of
designated areas (AFA). Applicants for this category shall specify with “Application for
Free Areas” in the column of “Annotations”. Moreover, a statement with about 800
characters on the important innovative progresses already achieved is required in addition
to the routine application text for AFA. In the statement, applicants shall elaborate the
concrete contents of important innovative progress, important results concerning the
progress achieved and papers published in international important academic periodicals.
Papers representing the “significant progress achieved” in the application are the ones that
are published in recent years, and applicants must be the first author or corresponding
author.

3. Applicants for Key Program projects (including both ADA and AFA) are required
to annex the first pages of five representative papers attached to the application.
In 2008, the Department will allocate 210 million yuan to support about 131 Key Program
projects, among which 92 are for ADA (70%) and 39 for AFA (30%) with an average
funding of about 1.6 million yuan per project. So applicants shall plan a reasonable budget
clearly according to real necessity. Moreover, the duration of Key Program projects is 4
years in general.

The designated areas for ADA of each division in the Department of Life Sciences in 2008
and the corresponding code for application are as follows:


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Key Program
1. Microbiology
 Basic research of physiology and biochemistry of important microorganisms(C01).
 3 projects will be supported.

2. Botany
Basic research of the utilization of important plant resources (C02).
3 projects will be supported.

3. Ecology
Relationship of biodiversity and ecosystem function (C03).
2 projects will be supported.

4. Forest science
Basic research of genetic improvement of wood properties and the utilization (C04).
2 projects will be supported.

5. Biophysics, Biochemistry and molecular biology
The interaction, structure and function research of biological macromolecules (C05).
3 projects will be supported.

6. Genetics and development biology
Morphogenesis and organ development in developmental biology (C06).
2 projects will be supported.
Genetic basis of important diseases (C0605).
2 projects will be supported.

7. Cell biology
Structure and function of cells (C07).
3 projects will be supported.

8. Immunology
The mechanism of immune regulation and its function in disease (C08).
3 projects will be supported.

9. Neuroscience and psychology
Basic research of the function and important diseases in nerve system (C09).
3 projects will be supported.

10. Biomedical engineering
Research on key basis of molecular imaging (C10).
3 projects will be supported.


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11. Agricultural science
Basic research of efficient use of agricultural resources (oil crops, water, nutrition and light
energy, etc.) (C11).
3 projects will be supported.

12. Animal husbandry and veterinary science and aquatic science
Genetic basis research of domestic animals (livestock, poultry and aquatic economic
animals) and germplasm resources of forage (C12).
3 projects will be supported.

13. Zoology
Evolution and reestablishment of phylogensis of animals (C13).
3 projects will be supported.

14. Physiology and pathology
Physiological mechanisms of cell stress and pathology of important diseases (C14),
3 projects will be supported.

15. Preventive medicine and hygienics
Basic research of epidemic law, prevention and cure of important infected diseases in
China (C15).
3 projects will be supported.

16. Basic Clinical medicine I
Research of early diagnosis and markers of important diseases (C16).
2 projects will be supported.

17. Basic clinical medicine II
Basic research of pathogenesis, prevention and cure of important diseases of women and
children (C17).
2 projects will be supported.

18. Materia medica and pharmacology
The discovery, structure and function of new type natural leading compounds (C18).
3 projects will be supported.

19. Traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese materia medica
Basic research of modern biology of Viscera-state doctrine in TCM (C19).
2 projects will be supported.

In view of the problems existing in the past, the Department particularly reminds the
applicants in 2008 to avoid any cases listed below. Otherwise, the proposals will be

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Key Program
rejected in the format examination:
1) Application for ADA which does not specify the name of designated research areas in
the column of “Annotations” of the basic information table in the application text;
2) Proposals for AFA which does not specify non designated application in the column of
“Annotations” of the basic information table in the application text;
3) For Key Program application of AFA, applicants have not provided the requested
statement with about 800 characters of important innovative progress achieved;
4) Applicants for Key Program projects (including both ADA and AFA) have not provided
the requested first pages of five representative papers attached to the application;
5) Similarity or overlapping with projects already funded by the National “973” Plan,
“863” Plan or NSFC Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars;
6) Applications that indicate the designated areas in the “Annotations” column but the
actual research contents do not match the scope of funding;
7) Applicants working abroad who could not guarantee enough time and energy to work in
China.


                   Department of Earth Sciences
The Department announces guidelines of Key Program projects according to the major
issues in the Priority Funding Areas in Earth Sciences for the Eleventh Five-Year Plan
Period. The criteria to identify priority areas are: 1) to foster the development of earth
sciences, boast beneficial accumulation, represent the advantage and characteristics of
China, and effectively contribute to the promotion of international impact of earth sciences
in China; 2) to solve certain critical scientific issues concerning the major problems which
constrain the development of economic and social sustainable development, and strive to
bring far-reaching impact on the social and economic development. According to the
scientific issues listed in the following specified areas, applicants are free to determine
their research topics, goals, technical approaches and funds needed on the basis of
summarizing research work carried out both domestically and internationally as well as
stating clearly the new breakthrough points and ways for research.

In the proposal sheet, applicants need to fill in the relevant area in “Annotations”, and
address key issues and contributions to the area. To avoid duplication in funding,
applicants shall state clearly the relations and differences of the research with related
projects funded by other agencies. In addition, first pages of 5 representative papers are
required to be attached to the submitted hard copy of the proposal.

An annual workshop will be held with the participation of principal scientists for each
research area in order to strengthen the communication and exchange of academic ideas
and information, and to promote the formation of new research groups and integration of
various disciplines. Expenses for this meeting shall be included in the budget of
application. For the realization of the overall scientific goals and the integration of
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                                                                             Key Program
different fields, principal investigators shall obey the related stipulations on data and
research materials.

As one branch of basic sciences, the object of earth science research is the complex planet
of the Earth. The challenges emerging from the research in the past, present and future of
the earth system and its habitability have well gone beyond the capability of any single
traditional discipline. Interdisciplinary researches have become fertilizers for innovative
ideas and original innovation. It is expected that scientists from various disciplines of earth
science and scientists from other research areas such as mathematics, physics, chemistry,
biology, materials and engineering science, information science and management science
jointly submit applications for Key Program projects. The code for interdisciplinary study
shall be filled in on the application form.

In 2007, the Department of Earth Sciences received 322 proposals for Key Program
projects, and 56 were funded with 95 million yuan allocated. The average amount for
individual project is 1.7 million yuan. In 2008, the total budget for Key Program projects
will be around 99 million yuan for 57 projects, with 1.5 to 2 million yuan to be allocated
per project on average. The research period of a project is generally 4 years.

1. Global change and regional responding
Scientific objectives are to improve the understanding of global change regulations and
future change trends, to explain the origin of global change, current situation and future
prediction and to provide scientific and technical support for addressing the enormous
environment problems and challenges which human society is facing, by focusing on key
scientific issues in the Asian monsoon region.

Key scientific issues in this field are:
1) Regulations and characteristics of global change events during periods from decades to
centuries;
2) Causes of global change, mechanisms induced by human activities, and interactive
physical, chemical and biological processes dominating global change;
3) Obtaining, monitoring and early warning for early signal of global change;
4) Modeling, simulation and prediction for global change process;
5) Impacts and consequences of major global change events;
6) Mitigation, evasion and adaptation strategies for global change.

Research directions to be emphatically granted this year include:
1) Related processes of Asian monsoon system from decadal to centurial timescales, as
well as its mechanism and multi-sphere interaction;
2) Uncertainty of the estimation on carbon cycle and carbon budget in the grassland
ecosystems over the Tibetan Plateau (modeling significance and error analysis);
3) Features of interaction between ocean, land and atmosphere in the Asia-Indian

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Key Program
Ocean-Pacific monsoon region, and their connection to climate change;
4) Major regional environmental change events, characteristics and the main driving
factors (with global significance since the Cenozoic);
5) Interaction between Cryosphere and climate system;
6) Theoretical framework, conceptual model, preliminary design and development for
climate system model;
7) Other important scientific issues related to global change.

About 5 to 7 proposals will be supported.

2. Environmental evolution and life processes on the earth
The targets are to exploit China‟s advantages of the abundance of records for Earth history
and reinforce the intercrossing between geochemistry, mineralogy, tectonics, paleontology
and biogeology; to make full use and digest the up-to-date results of modern biology, to
re-speculate the relationship between the Earth environment and life process so as to
produce a group of creative results and retain the world leadership of China in the field.

Key scientific issues to be studied in this area include:
1) Concerted evolution of the life and environment in the early Earth history;
2) Environmental response and evolution of key species during major historical era of
global change;
3) Fossil records and environment constraints to construct the “tree of life”;
4) Present biogeochemical processes and earth surface environmental changes;
5) Species, characteristics and specific life processes in extreme environments.

Research directions to be emphatically supported this year include:
1) Origin, evolution and environmental constrains of critical species;
2) Life-environment processes and ecosystem changes in major geological saltatory
period;
3) Geological process of major biological event and environmental evolution;
4) Geochemical and environmental evolution of biogenic and supergenic elements of the
Earth evolution;
5) Geobiology, low temperature geochemistry and their environmental effects on the
biogeochemical processes;
6) Forms and processes of life in extreme environments.

5 to 7 projects will be supported.

3. Deep earth processes and continental dynamics
The scientific objectives are to take major tectonic unit of the China continents as typical
examples and key scientific issues as sketch lines and apply new approach and new
technology, to disclose the forming and dispersion of the continent in various geological

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era, the orogenic processes and uplift of the plateau and forming of basins, and the
mechanism of large scale magmatic activities, to detect the physical and chemical 3-D
structure and mechanical state of present continent, as well as probe into the pattern of the
accretion and elimination of the continents, to set up a new theoretical framework of the
tectonic pattern and continental evolution, and to discover how deep dynamic processes
control the resource formation, environment evolution and natural hazard.

Critical scientific issues for this area include:
1) Heterogeneity of the structure and composition of the continental lithosphere;
2) Processes and dynamics of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental deformation;
3) Mechanism of the origin and evolution of the continent;
4) Form and process of the crust-mantle interaction.

Research directions to be emphatically supported this year include:
1) 3-D structure and geodynamics of the deep earth with their controls to the lithospheric
process;
2) Inter-layer exchange of material and energy with the mechanism of large scale
magmatic activities;
3) Chemical differentiation and recycling of the deep subducted materials with the effects
to continental evolution;
4) Accretion of orogenic belt, basin-range system evolution and later modification;
5) Tectonic process of the solid earth in the early geological history;
6) Precise record, tracing, simulation and experimental research of the physical-chemical
process of the geodynamics;
7) Surface response of the geodynamic processes-coupled crustal deformation, structural
geomorphology, drainage and environment evolution;
8) Mechanism and appearance of the N-S earthquake belt of China;
9) Modern continental margins geodynamics and evolution.

5 to 7 projects will be supported.

4. Process, mechanism and distribution of metallogenesis and accumulation
The scientific objectives of this field are to make big breakthroughs in the metallogenic
theories and mineral exploration and prospecting through studying the relationship
between the structure of shallow crust and metallogenesis, tracing the regional fluid system,
elucidating carefully the orefield structures and metallogenic process, and studying the
special metallogenic system and the metallogenic geodynamics, to improve the theoretical
systems for petroleum and gas generation in complicated geological conditions in China
and to expand the remaining resources of petroleum and gas in the matured basins and to
extend prospective of petroleum and gas exploration through studying the theories on the
relationship between the dynamic process of the large compound basins and the petroleum
and gas accumulation especially in the oceanic carbonates and deep water sediments, the

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Key Program
accumulation dynamics of coalbed methane, continental sequence stratigraphy, the
palaeo-environment of hydrocarbon generation and the evolution of the earth system, the
methods for prospecting petroleum and gas, and to strengthen theoretical researches on
some strategic energy and mineral resources such as natural gaseous hydrates, marine
polymetallic nodules and accretions, and the hydrothermal sulfides of the marine floor.

Some key scientific questions in the field include:
1) Metallogenetic mechanism and temporal and spatial evolution of important and unique
deposits in China;
2) Formation of large scale metallogenetic domains;
3) Comparison between the metallogenetic systems in regional scale and those in global
scale;
4) Theories and methods for prospecting mineral deposits and petroleum and gas resources
in depth;
5) Dynamic and accumulation of petroleum and gas-bearing basins;
6) Theories of large scale metallogenesis and accumulation beneath the sea floor.

Research directions to be emphatically supported this year include:
1) Mechanisms of the enrichment of large amount of ore-forming materials in sedimentary
basins;
2) Metaollogenesis and metallogenic regularities of some specific metallogenic systems;
3) Background and process of continental intra-plate metallogenesis;
4) Tracing of regional fluid systems and evolutions of metallogenic systems of large
metallogenic concentration areas;
5) Forming mechanism and geophysical response of mineral deposits and petroleum and
gas resources in depth;
6) Subduction of western Pacific plate and the associated large scale Mesozoic
mineralization in eastern China;
7) Regional dynamic system of the evolution of large congruent basins and their
accumulating regularities of petroleum and gas;
8) Evolution of the earth system and sedimentary conditions of hydrocarbon-generating
materials;
9) Geodynamics of large marine basins in China and the formation of associated large
systems of petroleum and gas;
10) Analogy of the modern ocean floor hydrothermal systems and the old metallogenic
systems.

5 to 7 projects will be supported.

5. Processes and mechanisms of the changes in terrestrial surface system
Guided by the earth system theory and targeted at the terrestrial surface systems, the
scientific goals of this field are centered on the study of the interactions between human

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society and natural systems, and building upon the modeling studies of various
fundamental processes. Research should emphasize the interactions between multi-scale
spatial processes and the coupling of natural and human systems. Research should reveal
key components of terrestrial surface systems and their evolution processes and dynamics,
demonstrate the relationships between the roles of human actions and environmental
conditions in sustaining regional development in China, and explore the strategies for
achieving sustainable regional development.

Key scientific issues in this field are:
1) Processes and mechanisms of key component dynamics;
2) Mechanisms of mass transportation/transformation and the interfacial processes;
3) Interaction of key components and its modeling;
4) Integrated assessment of disaster damage mechanisms and risks.

Research directions to be emphatically supported this year include:
1) Process and mechanism of the soil-water interface of lakes;
2) Mechanics of the environmental changes of aquatic life in the lake and its impacts on
the aquatic ecosystem;
3) Bi-directional succession of the wetland and its ecological impacts;
4) Mechanisms of mass transport and transformation in soil evolution;
5) Processes of C-N transformation in soils and the roles of microbe;
6) Interface processes in root and soil system;
7) Coupling of water and heat processes during the formation of snow and ice;
8) Eco-geographical processes in the cold region and their responses to climate change;
9) Eco-geographical zoning and regional ecosystem functions;
10) Risk management and scenario analyses of physical disaster.

The recent revolution of aerospace and information technology is rapidly transforming the
landscape of geosciences. The application of new principles, methodologies and
technologies of earth system observation and information processing will inevitably
become the core of future geoscience research and development. Therefore, in the
Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, the Division will strengthen research efforts in these areas
and encourage research on some specific disciplines or fields.

Geographical information science is a new branch of geography, focusing on the study of
the mechanisms of geographical information generation and evolution, and technologies
for information acquisition and analysis. It aims at improving our comprehensive
understanding of integrated geographical objects and systems. Recent rapid progress in
geographic science, information science, computing and network technology, aerospace
engineering and sensor technology has brought unprecedented capabilities and
opportunities for GIS research.


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Key Program
Research directions to be emphatically granted this year include:
1) New theory and methodology for the quantification of remote sensing;
2) Theory and methodology for the simulation and assimilation of satellite remote sensing
data;
3) New theory and methodology of data processing for new remote sensing sensor;
4) Discovering and monitoring the key elements and the dynamics of the terrestrial
surface;
5) New theory and methodology of GIS;
6) Synthesis and expression of geographical information;
7) New theory and methodology for spatial analysis;
8) Methodology and technology for spatial simulation of the evolution processes of the
earth‟s surface.

5 to 7 proposals will be supported.

6. Water cycle and water resources
The scientific objectives of this field are to study the regional water cycle processes, build
water cycle models and explore the temporal and spatial features of the water resources
evolution. It aims at investigating the impacts of water resource utilization on the
ecological system and environment and proposing optimal schemes for macro control and
utilization of water resources to support the sustainable regional social-economic
development.

Key scientific issues in this field are:
1) Mechanisms of water cycle and interactions among water, climate, ecosystem,
environment, and the society at the watershed scale;
2) Temporal and spatial variation and the cycling of water in atmosphere-surface water-soil
water-groundwater;
3) Regional water resources formation and transformation;
4) Impact of anthropological activities on water cycle;
5) Mechanism of social forcing on water cycle.

Research directions to be emphatically supported this year include:
1) Multi-scale integrated measurement and comparative experiments of the water cycle;
2) Processes of soil water and regional water consumption under different land use and
land cover;
3) Evolution of river-stream system and water cycle;
4) Distributed simulation of water cycle dynamics and processes;
5) Models of water cycle and uncertainty studies;
6) Relationship between water resources formation and transformation in water systems
and appropriate utilization of water resources;
7) Water cycle and water resources renovation;

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8) Impact of anthropological activities on the regional water cycle and their ecological
effects;
9) Impact of the hydro-geological structures and media heterogeneity on water cycle.
5 to 7 projects will be supported.

7. The effect of human activities on environmental change and its control
principles
The scientific objectives in this field are: to study regional, typical and key environment
issues and illustrate the effect of human activities on environmental change and its control
principles under the guidance of systematic science of the Earth and the concept of
sustainable development.

Key scientific issues in this field are:
1) Impact of resource utilization for the environment of the Earth;
2) Impact on ecosystem and environment due to major infrastructure construction;
3) Spatial and temporal distribution of persistent toxic pollutants and its environmental
risk;
4) Identification and control for the environment abnormality caused by natural processes
and human activities.

Research directions to be emphatically supported this year include:
1) Evolvement of spatial pattern for urbanization and its environmental effect;
2) Variety of ground utilization and its ecological effect;
3) Pollutants migration and dynamics in the ring interface;
4) Persistent toxic pollutants ecotoxicology and its ecological risk;
5) Transport theory and restore principle for typical pollutants in groundwater;
6) Environmental effects of major infrastructure construction and the geological disasters
control;
7) Environmental effects and control of utilization of mineral resource and energy.

5 to 7 projects will be supported.

8. Marine resources, environment and ecosystem
Centered on international frontiers and scientific issues closely related to major national
demands and oriented towards deep-sea and polar ocean, scientific objectives in this field
are to try to make great progress on the offshore process, ecosystem variation and the
environmental evolution of deep-sea and polar areas, with emphasis on evolutionary rules
of marine resources, interaction between marine environment and ecosystem and its
function on climate changes.

Key scientific issues in the field are:
1) Marine dynamic process and environmental change;

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2) Marine ecosystem and biogeochemical process;
3) Service function and biodiversity of marine ecosystem;
4) Land-sea interaction and its environmental effect;
5) Deep-sea environment and ecosystem;
6) Environmental change and interaction of sea-land-atmosphere-ice in polar areas.

Research directions to be emphatically supported this year include:
1) Dynamics research on marine internal wave and internal tides of continental shelf;
2) Coupling and simulation of transportation rules of ocean substance, dynamic process of
continental shelf circumfluence and ecosystem;
3) Formation mechanism of coastal-continental shelf sedimentary system and the evolution
record of climate and environments;
4) Sea and coast interaction;
5) Response of deep-sea hydrothermal system and extreme environment biology;
6) Marine acidification and its ecological effects;
7) Typical long-term changes and records of marine ecosystem;
8) Effect of human activities on the sustainable marine offshore ecosystem;
9) Offshore compound pollution mechanism and its effect on ecosystem;
10) Climate and environmental changes of the Antarctic ice sheet;
11) Mechanisms of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice rapid-change and their climatic effect;
12) Research on the multiple time dimensional climate evolution of low-latitude sea and its
effects and mechanism.

5 to 7 proposals will be supported.

9. Process and mechanism of weather and climate system change
The scientific objectives are to investigate various physical, chemical and biological
processes of disastrous weather and climate dominated by climate system; to understand
their spatial and temporal characteristics, variability rules, mutual relations and physical
mechanisms; to obtain symptoms of significant weather and climate events; to improve the
accuracy of weather forecast; and to develop new visions of climate model, forecasting
method and climate prediction theory. During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period,
innovative studies shall focus on the process of climate system, theory of model and
prediction, theory of dynamics and predictability of disastrous weather, atmospheric
chemistry, boundary layer physics and atmospheric environment, middle and upper
atmospheric dynamics, cloud and mist physics, and so on. Significant and advanced
progress in the mechanism of weather and climate system change is expected.

Key scientific issues in this field are:
1) To further improve the accuracy of forecast to disastrous weather, to extend the time
range of prediction, and to expand prediction objectives;
2) To study the climate change and climate prediction theory and experiment on the

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monthly, quarterly, annual and decadal time scales;
3) To study the interaction among human activities, climate change and socioeconomic
development, and to develop weather and climate models;
4) To proceed with the analysis and assimilation applications of massive survey data;
5) To investigate new theories, methods and technologies for weather and climate element
detection;
6) To study physical and chemical processes of cloud and mist, and to investigate the
weather modification.

Research directions to be emphatically supported this year include:
1) Impact of the high-latitude atmospheric circulation on the East Asian climate
inter-annual anomalies;
2) Interactions among ocean, land and atmosphere and their impacts on the East Asian
climate;
3) Design and development of climate models;
4) Occurrence, development and prediction of heavy influence weather;
5) Macroscopical and microcosmic physical processes of cloud and mist;
6) Interactions among atmospheric chemical composition, aerosols, clouds and radiation;
7) Observation and parameterization of land surface process and atmospheric boundary
layer;
8) Ways and methods of weather modification.

5 to 7 proposals will be supported.

10. Solar-terrestrial space environment and space weather
The scientific objectives in this field are: based on the study of space weather processes in
different regions of solar-terrestrial system, to form a complete theoretical frame of the
space weather coupling process so as to gain some important, creative progresses, to
establish cause-effect coupling models and develop integrated method of prediction of
space weather events to contribute to the astronautics and other applications, to study,
through the intercrossing with physics, mathematics, informatics, material and life sciences,
the mechanism of effects of space weather on human activities so as to provide a reliable
scientific basis for the administrative departments as reference in making policies, and to
develop new concepts and methods of space exploration and put forward some new
designs of missions of satellite series so as to open up new prospects in space weather
research. Fundamental research related or linked with national key projects is encouraged.

Key scientific issues in this field are:
1) Trigging mechanism, releasing and source region physical processes of solar coronal
ejection (CME);
2) Source region of solar wind, surface structure of the source and 3-D structures of solar
wind, and effects of various discontinuities on the propagation of interplanetary

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disturbances;
3) Interactions between interplanetary disturbances and magnetosphere, and physical
processes of space storms in the magnetosphere with multi temporal and spatial scales;
4) Couplings between magnetosphere-ionosphere-middle and upper atmosphere,
storm-time responses of the Earth‟s mesosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere, and
principle physical processes, ionospheric and upper atmospheric modeling;
5) Physical processes of magnetic reconnection in space plasma, mechanism of heating
and acceleration of charged particles, and trigging mechanism of plasma waves and
instabilities;
6) Mechanism study on the effects of catastrophic space weather to information
transferring, damages of materials and microelectronic devices in space, and the influence
on space life and human health;
7) Study on prediction requirements, methods and models in different space regions of
solar-terrestrial system and integrated prediction model for space weather;
8) Measurements of the Sun with multiwave bands, methods and techniques, imaging and
remote sensing techniques of interplanetary disturbances, magnetosphere, ionosphere,
middle and upper atmosphere, techniques of mini-satellite constellation, and new methods
and techniques in space explorations;
9) Solar activities and their influence on weather, and climate of the whole solar system.

Research directions to be emphatically supported this year include:
1) Solar driving forces of space weather;
2) Basic physical processes of space weather;
3) Multi temporal and spatial scale structures in solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere
and mid- and upper atmosphere, and their evolutions and couplings;
4) Fundamental scientific problems in synthesized prediction modeling and effects of
space weather;
5) New concepts, principles and methods in space exploration.

3 to 5 proposals are to be supported.


Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences
Two categories of Key Program are to be supported under the Department of Engineering
and Materials Sciences, namely, Key Program under priority areas of the Department and
Key Program of the Division. For 2007, 61 out of 77 Key Program projects were granted
after the evaluation by the Department, with a total funding of 109.2 million yuan, an
average funding of 1.79 million yuan per project and an approval rate of 24.5%. According
to the overall arrangement of the Department in priority areas in the Eleventh Five-Year
Plan period, 75 projects are planned to be supported in the following areas or directions,
and the total funding will be about 150 million yuan.


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Applicants who apply to Key Program under priority areas of the Department shall make it
clear in the Annotation, while choosing relevant disciplinary code of the Department.

Funding priority areas of the Department:
1. Biomaterials
1) Tissue Engineering Materials;
2) Drug delivery Control-Release Materials;
3) Biocompatible Implant Materials.

2. Intelligent Structures and Systems
1) Intelligent controllers and smart sensors (select one of them for research);
2) Signal processing and control;
3) Integration of intelligent structures and intelligent systems;
4) Basic engineering application of intelligent systems.

3. Water Contamination and Recovering Technology
1) Mechanism of combined pollution in urban water and its control technology;
2) River and lake or reservoir contamination and recovering technology;
3) Polluting mechanism and processing of waste water of non-ferrous heavy metal.

Division I of Materials Science

1. Magnetic transportation features, mechanism and transformation of new-typed transition
metal intermetallic compounds;
2. Deformation behavior, crystallography and scale effect of micron-scaled metallic single
crystals;
3. Nano-scaled experimental mechanics of one-dimension nanomaterials;
4. Influence of evolution in microstructure and properties in the elastic stage on in-service
performances of metallic materials;
5. New types of metallic functional materials, for free application;
6. Defect behaviors and microstructural evolutions of multi-phase metallic materials and
their interactions;
7. Thermodynamics and kinetics in microstructural evolution of multi-component and
multi-phase metallic materials;
8. Characteristics and behavior of the interfaces in multi-phase strengthened composites
and their influence on complex properties;
9. Melt behavior of superheated metals and glass forming ability.

Division II of Materials Science

1. Multi-ferroic materials and their structural and functional manipulation;
1) Synthesis science and function mechanism of magnetoelectric composite material (It is

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an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Chemical Sciences.);
2) Key basic issues and new system exploration of electronic ferroelectric materials and
giant dielectric constant materials;
3) Key basic problems and structural and functional control of magnetic-dielectric
materials (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Mathematical and
Physical Sciences.);
4) Key basic issues and new system exploration of ferroelectromagent.
2. Basic issues of the preparation and application of new-type inorganic luminescent
materials (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Chemical Sciences.);
3. Research on fatigue characteristics and strengthen-toughening mechanisms of C/C
composite materials (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Mathematical
and Physical Sciences);
4. Basic issues on doping and defect of Czochralski silicon single crystal of large diameter;
5. Free research topics selected with reference to “structural-functional” integration;
6. Basic issues of the implementation of high performance of general polymer materials
and special polymer materials (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of
Chemical Sciences.);
7. Basic issues of polymer-based composites and hybrid polymer materials;
8. Functional materials: basic and applied basic research on controllable preparation of
organic polymer materials with optic, electronic, magnetic, separate and absorbable
properties (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Chemical Sciences.);
9. Basic research of polymer materials related to environmental science, energy resource
science and resource utilization science.

Division I of Engineering Science

1. Basic theories and methods on coal and gas double energy exploitation;
2. Basic issues of the coal rates compatible with environment;
3. Mechanism and basic preventive technology of coal spontaneous combustion;
4. Fundamental research on new media in oil and gas exploitation;
5. Key science issues of the complicated mineral flotation;
6. Basis and application of phase control in melt seeping materials;
7. New method and technology of non-ferrous metal.

Division II of Engineering Science

1. New theories, methods and technologies of real time monitoring and sensing for
mechanical systems;
2. Interface drag-reduction and surface characteristics (It is an interdisciplinary project
with the Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.);
3. Precision forming and controllable manufacturing for micro-components;
4. New theories, methods and equipment of integrative design, manufacturing and

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measurement for complex free-form surfaces;
5. New theories and methods of quality control for typical mechatronics products;
6. New theories, methods and technologies of cast metal forming for oversize components;
7. Safety design and reliability for typical mechatronics products;
8. Theories, methods and technologies of moving robots (It is an interdisciplinary project
with the Department of Information Sciences.);
9. Key scientific issues on high power LED manufacturing.

Division III of Engineering Science

1. Multi-functional energy system research based on the integration of solar thermal
energy and fossil fuel energy;
2. Research on key thermo-physical problems in arcjet thrusters;
3. Research on micro/nano-scale thermal radiative properties and transfer mechanism;
4. Fundamental thermo-physical research on the utilization of biomass energy (It is an
interdisciplinary project with the Department of Chemical Sciences.);
5. Advanced methods and techniques of measurement for complex thermo-physical
properties;
6. Fundamental thermo-physical research on the utilization of wind energy;
7. Fundamental interdisciplinary research with other disciplines.

Division IV of Engineering Science

1. Research on the theory system and history of Chinese modern architecture;
2. Theoretical and experimental study on dynamic thermal environment and comfort;
3. Formation and control of persistent organic pollutants during the incineration of
municipal waste (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Chemical
Sciences.);
4. Ecological reuse of domestic wastewater and safeguard of urban water environmental
quality (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Earth Sciences.);
5. Size effect of destructive testing of structures;
6. Research on the performance of civil engineering structures during construction period;
7. Interaction of modern railway infrastructure and vehicle system;
8. Research on the theory of coastal city planning.

Division V of Engineering Science

1. Effect of irrigation and drainage on environment and eco-system;
2. Key issues on Coastal Engineering;
3. Hydro-machine-electricity coupling of hydropower machines or pumps;
4. Research on relief methods to flood disaster (e.g. urban flooding, slope instability,
mud-rock flow under rainstorm);

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5. Hydrological characteristic change and water resources issues;
6. Estuary sediment movement under new condition;
7. Integration and operating control of distributed generation system;
8. Transient over voltage in UHV grid and its impact to the safe operation of power
system;
9. Key issues on repetitive pulsed power switch;
10. Fundamental issues on the protection and control of bulk power grid;
11. Insulation aging mechanism and state assessments of AC/DC transmission and
distribution equipment.


             Department of Information Sciences
In 2008, the Department of Information Sciences plans to fund 47 areas for Key Program projects.
The average funding is about 1.8 million yuan per project. Among them, 37 areas will be funded
by the Department and 10 areas with other departments as interdepartmental projects.

Key Program projects funded by the department
Wireless network is now facing the challenges of limited spectrum resources, rapid
increase of demands in wide band and high speed business and the existing conflicts
between multiple formats and structures of the wireless network. How to increase the
effective use of spectrum and ensure coordination between different structured wireless
networks so as to meet various business demands and to provide good user experiences has
become the trend of wireless network development. Intelligent wireless cognitive network
can actively sense the usage of wireless spectrum, recognize wireless environment,
reallocate network resources working mode and parameters in a self-adaptive way, and
further realize the goal of coordinating the work with neighboring network. Therefore,
having cognitive wireless and reallocating ability becomes the focus in the next generation
of intelligent cognitive wireless network. In 2008, the Department plans to fund 4-6
projects in the area of cognitive wireless, with a funding of about 8 million yuan. The
following are the relevant research directions:
1. Theory and technology of wireless spectrum environment cognition (F01);
2. Dynamic management and utilization of wireless resources based on cognition (F01);
3. Theory and technology of interference resistance in communication based on cognitive
wireless (F01);
4. Studies on relay and coordinated communication based on cognitive wireless (F01).

Division I of Information Sciences (F01)

1. Studies on the mechanism of electromagnetic environment effect in complex
electronic information system
This project takes large and complex electronic information system as the research
background, studies the mechanism of generation and coupling channel of electromagnetic
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environment effect in the radio microwave spectrum at the levels of the whole unit and the
complete system, makes breakthroughs in key technologies for making highly reliable and
quantitative prediction and evaluation on the complete unit, constructs experimental
verification platform, and provides theoretical and technical support to the top level
quantitative design of realizing electromagnetic environmental effect in the radio
microwave spectrum for the complete system.

Main research contents include:
1) New analytical methods on the electromagnetic environmental effects at the complete
system level based on field channels;
2) Mechanism of interference and mathematical statistical model for the system level
interference channels;
3) Sensitivity mechanism and statistical modeling of system level sensitive equipment;
4) Evaluation methods and main evaluation indicators on the completeness of the
electromagnetic effect of the whole unit.

2. Basic studies on elastic display system inside blood vessels
This project studies the basic theory, relevant algorithm and technical standard of the
imaging technology for coronary artery elasticity, establishes a complete imaging system
for blood vessel elasticity on the basis of pathological data verifications, and provides
important information for the first level prevention and treatment intervention for artery
atherosis vulnerable plaques.

Main research contents include:
1) Theoretical system of elasticity mechanics suitable for human blood vessel tissue elasticity
imaging;
2) In vitro test system suitable for elasticity imaging studies;
3) 3D reconstruction and real time imaging of coronary artery and relevant algorithm for blood
vessel elasticity imaging;
4) Accuracy verification for elasticity imaging;
5) Developing methodology of checking the vulnerability of coronary artery atherosis plaques
based on elasticity imaging.

3. Basic theory and methods for supplementary diagnosis of cognitive disability based
on neural image information
This project studies several problems in diagnosis of specific cognitive disability based on
neural image data, and tries to make breakthrough in basic theory, key technologies and
system realization.
Main research contents include: cognitive task design based on pathologic characteristics,
methods and key technologies of brain data acquisition and analysis; setting up
identification model and small sample database of specific cognitive disabilities;
construction of prototype supplementary diagnosis of cognitive disability based on neural

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image information.

4. Network coding theory and application
This project studies the properties of network coding in different communication networks,
such as information transmission rate, complexity, reliability, safety, universality and
robustness, making full use of the strength and potential application of coding in different
networks, further improves network coding theory; and based on the present study,
explores highly effective, low cost, safe and reliable communication systems.

Main research contents include: network informatics, single/multiple signal network
coding, network secured coding and network error correcting coding, and applications of
network coding in different environment and fields.

5. Basic theory and key technology of mobile audio coding and decoding
This project, through studies on mobile audio coding and decoding algorithm, tries to
make breakthroughs in key technologies and provides theoretical and technical support to
relevant fields in China.

Main research contents include:
1) Extension methods for higher order code book of low computational complexity and
high performance grid vector quantification;
2) Wide band extension technology of low computational complexity based on cognitive
property;
3) Leveled coding technology of mobile audio with properties of frequency levels and fine
leveling particles;
4) Spatial parametric representation model for mobile audio information;
5) Low computational complexity double channel virtual surrounding sound technology
for mobile equipment.

6. Security mechanism and key technology of streaming media coding and decoding
This project studies the streaming media coding and decoding process and mechanism of
encryption, accreditation and content identification, and achieves security and
controllability of audio, imaging and visual streaming media data and contents.

Main research contents include:
1) Anti-attack scalable encryption and accreditation of streaming media code flow, local
encryption and accreditation of cognitive area, and highly effective encryption and
accreditation algorithm for contents;
2) Unified coding and decoding and transparent security mechanism of encryption and
accreditation;
3) Hash method for streaming media cognition;
4) Code stream security accreditation mechanism based on cloud digital watermark and

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damage-free watermark;
5) Low complexity stream media encryption and accreditation mechanism, and intelligent
distribution algorithm for computation load.

7. Basic theory and technology of free viewpoint multi-video coding and 3-D display
This project aims at, through research on new theory, methods and experimental system in
3D TV of free view point multi-video coding and decoding, providing theoretical basis and
technical support for 3D TV in China.

Main research contents include:
1) Theoretical relationship between number of view points, 3Dperspective and display
resolution and optimal selection;
2) Mechanism and method for increasing the efficiency of MVC and fast generation of
virtual view point;
3) New methods of 3D TV multi display and multi-user traced large 3D perspective
display;
4) Construction of 3D TV experimental system of free view point multi video based on
light ray space.

8. Methods of physical analysis and video reconstruction based on statistical model
and motion base
This project aims at, through models of various objects including human body and
statistical theory, developing parametric models of study and using nonlinear filtering
technology to propose effective analytical and expression methods for object presentation
and motion information, application in highly efficient video coding, 3D animation and
new types of man machine interactions.

Main research contents include:
1) Studies on the statistical composition and parametric selection for video information of
object models;
2) Studies on the information theory based on statistical composition;
3) Studies on the application of nonlinear filtering technology in information selection and
modeling;
4) Studies on efficient video coding, 3D animation and new man machine interaction
method based on above theories.

9. Theory and key technologies of near surface spatial information grid
This project aims at, through studies on basic theory, system structure, transmission and
grouped grid of near surface spatial information grid, providing theoretical and technical
support for near surface spatial information grid technology in China.
Main research contents include:
1) System of near surface spatial information grid network of integrated air-air and air

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surface grid;
2) Coordinated transmission theory and technology based on distributive spatial temporal
code;
3) Network coding theory and technology for coordinated information transmission;
4) Studies on 3D Ad Hoc group network theory and technology.

10. Wide range asymmetric information sharing system
The overall objective of this project is to study the basic theory and key technology of low
cost, wide range, safe and reliable content, new structured information gathering and
sharing that follows the searching habit, and to lay an important foundation for low cost
information system with Chinese characteristics.

Main research contents include:
1) New system configuration for information sharing network;
2) Nonlinear characteristics and overall dynamic mechanism of new configuration shared
network;
3) Network information sharing application level behavior analysis and topological
agreement problems and solutions;
4) Standard system for description of information sharing resources;
5) New configuration information sharing network demonstration and verification systems.

Division II of Information Sciences (F02)

1. Studies on concurrent system model check
This project studies the logic basis of concurrent system model check, algorithm and
techniques of increasing temporal and spatial efficiency of model check, and method for
infinite state system model check.

2. Studies on flush data base technology
This project studies, on the basis of flash properties, database technology from a totally
new perspective, including data storage and search model, inquiry and optimization, data
repair and concurrent processing, security control and privacy protection, new property
evaluation index, etc.

3. Theory and key technologies of 3D representation
This project studies theory and key technologies of 3D representation, and provides new
theory and new methods for solving key problems and difficulties in computer
representation of 3D objects.

Main research contents include:
1) Mathematical representation of energy model, minimum energy and curve and surface
shape and properties;

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2) Mathematical theory and methods for data point parameters;
3) Confined 3D representation and numerical computational methods;
4) Point data sampling theory and algorithm based on regions;
5) Prototype verification system based on new methods, for sampling data in typical
region.

4. Streaming encryption design and analysis
This project makes in-depth studies on streaming encryption theory, and provides
theoretical basis for standardized algorithm. Proposed studies include (but not limited to)
the following:
1) (Quasi) randomness and measurement of order;
2) Systematic streaming encryption design method;
3) Provable security of steaming code;
4) Standardization of streaming encryption algorithm.

5. Wireless multimedia transducer network design theory and key technology
Main research contents include:
1) Node system structure and design theory for wireless multimedia transducers;
2) Structure and design theory for credible wireless multimedia transducer network
system;
3) Mid device technique for wireless multimedia transducer network;
4) Information processing method in wireless multimedia transducer network.

6. Virtual scenario modeling and real time computation based on physical models
This project studies virtual scenario modeling and real time computation based on physical
and behavior models and by making full use of powerful functions of modern graphic
processing hardware, realizes high fidelity virtual environment and provides new
theoretical basis and key technical support for virtual reality applications.

Main research contents include:
1) Fluid and solid object modeling, real time simulation and interaction;
2) Physically based natural scenario and object variation in space and time and dynamic
simulation;
3) Physically based acceleration algorithm and parallel processing;
4) Group activity simulation technology based on bio or human behaviors.

7. Studies on key computation problems in large scale protein identification
This project studies basic problems in genomics, and key computational problems in large
scale protein identification.

Main research contents include:
1) Mass spectroscopic data generation and modeling;

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2) Protein, modification and identification algorithm;
3) New protein and new gene discovering algorithm;
4) Quantitative analysis methods for protein presentation;
5) Statistical check on the reliability of large scale protein identification;
6) Application of parallel computation software and hardware technology in large scale
protein identification.

8. Personalized video order and key adaptive technology in wireless network
environment
This project aims at the demand of end user on video data in wireless network environment
and explores key technologies related to personal video order and adaptive browsing.

Main research contents include:
1) Video semantic presentation and semantic model generation;
2) Introduction and integration of personal demand of the end user and personal video
order;
3) Robust video coding and switch technology in wireless network environment;
4) Net work based personal video browsing and searching.

9. Internet system theory for the future
This project studies system structures and theory of future internet.

Main research contents include:
1) Survivability, expandability and security mechanism;
2) Routing and switching theory, protocol and algorithm;
3) Generic servicing theory;
4) Batched broadcast theory and algorithm.

10. Studies on key technology of large scale network on chips
This project aims at the special features of multi core and many core processors, and
makes studies on low delay, high bandwidth and low power consumption network on
chips.

Main research contents include:
1) Topological structure and routing algorithm of network on large scale chips;
2) Switch/Router configuration design and technology for deep sub micro semiconductors;
3) Performance evaluation and optimization techniques for network on large scale chip;
4) Low power consumption design technology.




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Division III of Information Sciences (F03)

1. Theory and methods of system control for mixing of communication parameters in
network environment
When the control and measurement signals in the control system transmit through network
(internet, wired or wireless), they will be influenced by communication parameters
(channel bandwidth and capacity) and other characteristics. The objective of this project is,
through integrated studies on the control and network communication disciplines, to
develop system control theory and methods reflecting the above constraints and impacts.

Main research contents include:
1) Network control system modeling and analysis reflecting communication parameters;
2) Analysis on network control system performance limits under finite (incomplete)
random information conditions;
3) Design and integration of multi variable and multi channel network feedback control
system. Part of the research results should be verified and applied in real network control
systems.

2. Control theory based on data driving and applications in large complex systems
Many operating large scale complex systems have the abundance of online and offline
measurement data, but there has no overall dynamic model for the system, which is very
difficult to set up. How to control such systems better and assess the control effect are both
practical needs and a challenging problem for control theory. The objective of this study is,
by taking large and complex systems such as urban traffic and complex production process,
to preliminary develop control theory and methods based on data driving.

Main research contents include:
1) Prediction theory and method for data based system state or behavior;
2) System control theory and methods based on data driving;
3) Theory and methods for data based system behavior evaluation. Part of the research
results should be verified and applied in real large network control systems.

3. Real time management and optimal control of chip manufacturing process
equipment and system (It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of
Management Sciences.)
Semiconductor manufacture involves large amount of automatic machineries, and is a
complex production process with long production flow, complex paths, numerous working
procedures and certain uncertainties. Current management and control methods cannot
meet the demand of making further development. The main objective of this project is to
develop real time management and optimal control methods that can deal with various
uncertainties, equipment re-structuring and accidence in chip manufacture process.


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Main research contents include:
1) Dynamic characteristic analysis and modeling for manufacture equipment, process and
the whole system;
2) Real-time planning, management and optimal operation control of the manufacturing
process;
3) Real time management and optimal operation control of equipment;
4) Emergency management and operation control in abnormal environment. This study
requires the participation of chip manufacturer, and except for the theoretical part, research
results need to develop simulation software.

4. Visual check and optimal control for precision assembly line
Precision assembly technology involves electronic products, instruments and devices,
beverages and pharmaceutical industries, and has now become an important component of
modern manufacturing business. Many precision assembly lines in operation now use
visual check and visual based control methods, which are fast and accurate. The main
objective of this project is, aiming at precision assembly line, to develop high speed and
high precision visual check theory and visual based optimal control technology, so as to
break partly the monopoly of foreign companies in this industry.

Main research contents include:
1) High speed and high accuracy visual information acquisition technology and
preprocessing methods for assembly lines;
2) Visual based high speed and high precision target identification theory and methods;
3) Visual based optimal control of high speed motion, precision positioning and proper
force. Part of the research results should be verified and applied in real large precision
assembly lines.

5. Multi autonomous robots coordinated control theory and methods for tasks (It is an
interdisciplinary project with the Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences.)
When performing complex tasks, compared with single robot, multi autonomous robot
system can have spatial distribution and combination of functions, perform parallel work
and high tolerance to errors and low cost. The main objective of this project is, targeted at
specific tasks, to develop preliminary coordinated control theory and methods for multi
autonomous robot systems.

Main research contents include:
1) Structure of multi autonomous robots system;
2) Information interaction and mixing between multi autonomous robots;
3) Task distribution and behavior planning between multi autonomous robots;
4) Coordinated control of multi autonomous robot system. The research needs to be related
to a specific task and part of the research findings should be verified in application.


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6. Theory and methods for 3D construction of large scenarios based on image
Image based large scenario 3D construction technology has important application
prospects in landscape mapping, urban planning and protection of old buildings. But this
technology is not matured. There are some key scientific problems to be solved. The main
target of this research is to develop preliminary theory and methods for image based large
scenario 3D automatic and high precision reconstruction.
Main research contents include:
1) High precision positioning and automatic matching theory and methods for large
scenario image points;
2) High precision self targeting theory and methods for external parameters of video
camera;
3) Multi view point reconstruction surface automatic mixing and overall optimization
theory and methods. Part of the research findings need to be verified in relevant
experiments and application.

7. Several basic problems in data understanding
For data sets of specific area, developing model of interpreting specific user demands and the
problem world is the key problem that needs to be solved in mass data processing, and also the
key basis for further development and application of machine learning. The main target of the
project is, targeting at specific application area, to develop theory and methods for several data
interpreting model construction.

Main research contents include:
1) Interpreting model construction methods for parameter space and function space;
2) Structured data modeling and analysis;
3) Data understanding and model construction for specific needs. Part of the research
findings should be applied and verified in specific areas.

8. Modeling of bio vision information processing mechanism and application in target
identification.

9. Quantum system control theory and relevant experimental studies (It is an
interdisciplinary with the Department of Mathematics and Physical Sciences.)

10 Underwater navigation assistance theory and technology based on gravity and
magnetic field information

Division IV of Information Sciences (F04, F05)

1. Studies on integrated circuit radiation effect and radiation resistant technology
Taking deep sub micron and super deep sub micron semiconductor devices and integrated
circuit as the research subjects, it is to explore the laws of property variation of deep sub

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Key Program
micron CMOS devices and integrated circuit in space radiation environment, study mainly
the total ionized quantity and single particle radiation effect, damage mechanism and
theoretical model of super deep sub micron devices, analyze key parameters affecting
radiation property of devices, propose measures to strengthen the assistance of radiation
for super deep sub micron devices, and lay a foundation for developing super large scale
integrated circuit with strengthened radiation resistance.

2. Studies on key scientific and technological problems of GaN based laser
Addressing key scientific and technological problems for GaN based laser continuously
working at room temperature, it is to develop engineering design of the energy band for
new structured GaN based laser, develop new technology and techniques for high quality
micro structural materials and devices, effectively reduce the defects, improve luminescent
efficiency, and develop high power, long life GaN based blue and purple laser.

3. Optical fiber devices for fine particle optical rout information exchange security
network
It is to study key photo-electric devices, especially optical fiber devices and key scientific
problems in fine particle sized optical route information security network that can support multi
terminals (e.g., 100) and each terminal has 1Gb/s transmission rate, such as, developing super
large scale AWG with 50-5000 wavelengths, including key manufacturing equipment for such
device, to develop selectable wavelength optical fiber and grid laser, and solve polarized
stability problems; to develop new types of optical regulator, especially new optical regulator
based on optical fiber; develop rare earth element mixed optical fibers such as Tm and To, so as
to obtain new special optical fiber covering O, E, S, C, L and Al wave lengthen range; and to
develop optical fiber and grid laser and amplifier covering all wave length range of O, E, S, C, L
and AL.

4. Silicon based micro nano optical devices and integration
It is to study key scientific and technological problems in silicon based micro nano optical
devices and integration, such as key preparation techniques for silicon based micron nano
structural photon devices function integration, optical coupling, interconnection and
transmission property at micron nano scale light wave conducting devices optical
communication wave band, static and dynamic performance measurement and analysis for
micro nano structure photon function integrated devices and optical wave conduction
devices, and photoelectric probe preparation technology at optical communication
wavelength compatible with CMOS technology.

5. Studies on high spatial and temporal resolution femto second holography
It is to study and develop scattering optical devices for spatial angle dividing femto second
holography, and holographic micro digital record and display with femto second resolution
for angle division and wave division, study the relation between 3D image vertical
resolution and femto second laser pulse parameter in digital display and the relation

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between horizontal resolution and object frequency band with and recording system
parameters, study the theoretical spatial resolution limit in reflective and refractive micro
digital holography and effective methods to realize super resolution imaging, and study
image scattering in multi spectrum imaging and methods of compensation in pulse digital
holographic super fast probing.

6. Studies on methods of measuring large size non-spherical lens based on structural
lighting
It is to study the principle and key technologies for measuring large size non-spherical lens
using structural optical measurement. For coarse and fine grinding of lens of 2 meters and
above, it is to provide methods and technologies for surface measurement and quality
control with proper precision, and to develop the prototype and software platform for
surface shape analysis by providing guidance for manufacturing process.

Interdepartmental Key Program projects
7. Semiconductor-high quality semiconductor self-spinning electronic materials
preparation and self spin regulation (It is an interdisciplinary project with the
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.) (F04)
Aiming at developing semiconductor self spinning devices, it is to study the preparation of
high Curie temperature rare magnetic semiconductor and high self spin polarized ferro
magnetic material, semi metal or ferro magnetic metal/semiconductor hetero structure, and
to study self spin control technology such as injection of self spin polarization interceptor
to semiconductor, transport and operation and measurement, etc.

8. Studies on key technologies of super conducting quantum devices and circuits (It is
an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.)
(F04)
It is to explore methods and key technologies for reducing effect of noise on super
conducting quantum devices, study optimal design and preparation of super conducting
quantum devices and circuits, develop methods and key technologies of quantum
regulation and quantum measurement related to super conducting quantum devices and
circuit, and lay the foundation for super conducting quantum bit and large scale quantum
computation.

9. Studies on slow light delay and storage (It is an interdisciplinary project with the
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.) (F05)
It is to study basic principles of regulating the speed of light, with a focus on slow light
delay and storage technology for optical fiber communication and optical signal processing,
develop relevant integrated prototype device, and establish system application
experimental platform.

10. Studies on micro nano scale micro cavity laser and quantum effect (It is an

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Key Program
interdisciplinary project with the Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.)
(F05)
It is to study basic physical problems of high quality micro nano micro optical cavity design,
manufacture, coupling property, model property and quantum effect, study micro nano scale
cavity on photon confinement and regulation, and develop manufacture and measurement
technologies for micron nano scale micro cavity lasers.

11. Basic theory and key technology of photon crystal optical fiber femto second laser
(It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Mathematical and Physical
Sciences.) (F05)
It is to study photon crystal optical fiber femto second laser and photon crystal optical fiber
femto laser amplification system integrating expansion, amplification and compression,
and study long distance non-distortion communication of femto second laser in photon
crystal optical fiber, and high efficiency frequency change and wide band regulation of
femto second laser in photon crystal optical fiber.

12. Studies on key physical and technical problems in ultra violet light carving source
(It is an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Mathematical and Physical
Sciences.) (F05)
It is to study key physical and technical problems through theory, experiment and
equipment integration by focusing on high conversion efficiency, high power, narrow band,
high repeated frequency, high stability, large collection angle, low damage and long service
life requirement for ultraviolet carving equipment.

13. Studies on new types of thermal electrical materials and optical transducers (It is
an interdisciplinary project with the Department of Chemical Sciences.) (F05)
It is to study preparation technologies for new types of thermal eclectic materials and
properties of materials, study preparation technologies of relevant optical transducer and
relation with device performance, and develop high performance (detection rate, response
time, stability and wavelength response range, etc.), new types of thermal electric
materials and non-refrigerant optical transducers.


            Department of Management Sciences
According to the general funding plan for the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period approved by
NSFC council, the Department will make reasonable increase to the funding intensity of
Key Program, with an average funding of 1.1 million yuan per project. The total number of
projects to be supported will be over 60 compared to 37 in the Tenth Five-Year Plan period.
The three divisions will each support 20-21 Key Program projects during the Eleventh
Five-Year Plan period, with an annual number of 4-5 supported by each division.

In 2008, the Department will support 16 Key Program projects in 13 disciplines, 5 by the
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                                                                           Key Program
Division I and the Division II, and 6 by Division III, respectively. Each project should be
completed within 4 years. The average funding is about 1.1 million yuan.

Key Program projects aim at frontier scientific issues which promote disciplinary
development and bring innovative achievement with international impact, and focus on the
economic and social development and opening up to enhance China‟s comprehensive
national competitiveness by resolving major issues of theoretical and application values.
The research shall orient towards scientific issues exploring theories and laws of
management with Chinese characteristics and be carried out in the fields with sound
research basis and good potential to achieve theoretical and application breakthroughs.

Applicants, guided by the Guide to Programs, may compress or expand the research
contents when preparing their proposals. It is not required that for a specific proposal all
contents stated below be covered, but research should be focused on kernel topics with
limited targets, trying to make original innovation. Previous research records in relevant
fields will be highly considered in evaluating proposals.

The brief introduction to the Key Program projects is presented below.

Division I of Management Science

Applications for Key Program projects will be accepted in the following areas in
management science and engineering.

1. Information systems adoption, diffusion and value creation mechanism (G0110)
To study individual and organizational IS adopting behaviors and technology diffusion
mechanism in the context of enterprise environment of China, analyze the driving force
and process of technology diffusion within a single organization and among organizations,
and explore the relationships among IT diffusion, IT readiness, competitiveness and
performance of organizations. The main topics are: influential factors and modes of
individual and organizational IS adoption, the process of IS adoption and characteristics of
each stage of IS adoption process, the effect of IS adoption and technology diffusion on
organizational behaviors, the critical success factor of IS management, the mechanism of
IT diffusion among different types of organizations and the mechanism of market value
creation of IT.

2. Theory, models and implementation methods of e-auctions (G0111)
To study the theory of e-auctions including models for pricing strategies of e-auctions,
influence factors of e-auctions, behavior of participants in e-auctions, performance
assessment of e-auctions and risk measurement of e-auctions, to study optimal design of
e-auctions, optimal strategies of e-auctions and online experiments of e-auctions, and to
study key issues in the implementation of e-auctions.

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Key Program
3. Diversification of China’s foreign exchange reserves and international asset
allocation models (G0115)
The project aims at modeling the diversification of China‟s foreign reserves, international
asset allocation and foreign reserves risk management, including currency composition of
foreign reserves, the composition between financial assets and real assets like gold and
silver, strategic asset allocation, tactic asset allocation, market risk, interest risk and
liquidity risk of the foreign reserves, the relationship between foreign exchange rate of
RMB and foreign reserves, etc.

4. Research on theory and methods targeted at program integration management
(G0118)
Great efforts will be exerted to resolve the difficulties of program integration management
theory and methods, according to program characteristics and aiming at great challenges
that Chinese programs are facing. The main research contents include the evolution and
forefront advances of program integration management theory, program integration
management model innovation based on Chinese situation, international program
integration management model innovation and international program management of the
virtual organization, lean thinking based program management model, coordinating
mechanisms and optimization methods, international program risk analysis, control models
and methods, environment-friendly based program performance evaluation method and
project management maturity model, and international program integration management
cases, etc.

Division II of Management Science

Applications for Key Program projects will be accepted in the following areas in business
administration.

1. Integration strategy and dynamic competition of Chinese enterprises under new
situation (G0201)
This project attempts to study the enterprise‟s dynamic competition theories, the strategic
behaviors and management patterns of the vertical and horizontal integration in Chinese
enterprises under the situation of globalization and transitional economy. It should
particularly focus on the strategic behaviors in micro-level enterprises and aim at quickly
improving the international competitiveness of main businesses in Chinese enterprises.
The main research contents include: (1) configuration and evolution of the enterprise‟s
dynamic competitive strategy under globalization and marketing system; (2) incentives
and approaches of vertical and horizontal development of Chinese enterprises; (3) resource
allocation and integration modes for Chinese enterprises to implement the vertical and
horizontal integration strategy; (4) corporate governance, organizational structure,
controlling system and motivation mechanism for Chinese enterprises to realize the
vertical and horizontal integration strategy.

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                                                                           Key Program
2. Research on urban Chinese consumer behavior (G0208)
This project aims at studying urban Chinese consumer behavior, especially the antecedent
factors and the mechanisms that bring about the behavior. Through surveying individual
consumers and families, to explore the factors influencing their brand choices and
post-purchase evaluations for fast moving consumer goods, durables, luxury goods and
services. In a nutshell, the project enables the understanding of urban Chinese consumer
behavior and mode of decision making, relevant external factors and underlying
mechanisms.

3. The operation management of service enterprises (G0214)
Focusing on the characteristics of service product consumption and demand, and the
characteristics of service intangibility, simultaneity, experience and concomitance, this
project studies new theories and methods for service enterprise operations management.
The main contents of research include the characters of consumption and demand for
service and service products, the mechanism of service operations management, the model
of service capacity and quality control system, and case studies based on typical service
enterprise operation management.

4. Innovation on products and services from Chinese financial institutions under
globalization (G0206/G0203)
It is required that research should focus on the theories and practice of innovation on
financial products and services under economic globalization and open-up of Chinese
financial market. Research contents include measures of the innovation on products and
services from Chinese financial institutions, motivations and impacts of the financial
innovation, identification of key elements and relationships for financial innovation, cost
and risk analysis models for financial innovation, and the evaluation of competitive
advantages of Chinese financial institutions on financial innovation.

Division III of Management Science

Applications for Key Program projects will be accepted in the following areas in macro
management and policy.

1. Research on ecological and environmental management of rural development
(G0305)
The focus of this research is on the integrated rural ecological and environmental pollution
problems caused by the fast transfer of pollution-intensive industries to rural areas,
excessive use of agricultural chemicals, and inappropriate land use in rural areas. The main
issues to be studied include: farmland conservation in the process of rural development,
the model of rural industrialization, industrial development and the prevention and control
of point source pollution, the impact of the transition of agricultural economic growth on
the prevention and control of non-point source pollution, institutional design and policy

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Key Program
innovation of rural ecological and environmental management, etc.

2. Research on the structural change and process re-engineering of public
organizations in China (G0306)
The focus of this research is on understanding the evolution of the organizational change
and process re-engineering in China's public organizations (particularly government
organizations) in the broader context of globalization, informationization and realignment
of government functions. The main issues to be studied include: the system, structure,
function and structure of public organizations and their interrelationships; the
contemporary innovative approaches of structural changes and process re-engineering in
foreign public organizations; organizational structures and processes required by the grand
endeavor of constructing harmonious society and innovative country in China. The
research objectives are to provide guidance along both value and technique dimensions to
the organizational restructuring, process re-engineering, and innovation on organizational
operation mode of Chinese public organizations.

3.Research on the construction of new national education system and mechanism of
achieving equitable education (G0309)
The optimal design of the new national education system in China should be studied in the
background of new national development strategy and social development trend. The main
issues to be studied include: optimal methods of social education resources (including
education funding) distribution and analysis on the efficiency of its using; formation and
development of life-long education system; optimal modes of education management
supported by civil and governmental investment; rule of social needs for optimal structures
of elementary education-vocational and technical education-higher education; conditions
and mechanisms to achieve equitable education in rural and urban/regional development;
education cost-sharing mechanism and government responsibility, etc. Theories and
methods of management science and in-depth empirical studies are used in the study to
provide scientific basis to disclose problems in existing education system and its original
sources, evaluate effects of past education policy and efficiency of education resource
distribution, and propose effective measures on the reform and development of existing
education system.

4. Research on comprehensive management of urban public emergency (G0310)
Focused on the evolution patterns of unexpected public emergency, and the theory and
method of corresponding response decision in larger cities, the research aims at putting
forward scientific policy suggestion for the management practice of urban public
emergency in China, including the management system and functions, emergency
decision-making mechanism, resource deployment and allocation, etc. Main issues to be
studied include: the principles of quantitative risk assessment of urban planning, new
modeling theory of predicting major public emergency, comprehensive coordination
principles of multiparty emergency commanding and decision-making, and simulation and

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                                                                          Key Program
management strategy of large-scale crowd evacuation.

5. Research on digital information resource exploration and management mechanism
(G0314)
The study focuses on the emergence, distribution, dissemination, sharing characteristics
and patterns of digital information resource under modern computer and
telecommunication network environment. The aim is to provide theoretical and application
foundations for the establishment of digital information resource implementation guarantee
system. Main issues to be studied include: methods on how to organize digital information
resource and how to improve its order, and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of its
exploration and application; and digital information resource exploration strategies,
structures, technology and organization models. The research delves into the standard
norms, resource integration, coordination, decision making models and formulation of
government policies, legal regulations for digital information resource management
mechanism and management innovation, etc.




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Major Program



                     Major Program
Major program is set up to serve the major needs of the national economy, sustainable
development of the society and S&T development. It selects scientific issues with strategic
significance assembles innovative human resources, conducts multidisciplinary research,
and plays the leading and guiding role for further improving the ability of making
indigenous innovation in China‟s basic research.

Major Program projects will be implemented in the way of unified planning and the
initiation of projects in batches. Research areas for the Major Program will be proposed on
the basis of in-depth discussions and soliciting opinions among scientists according to
NSFC priority areas. It is focused on the growth points resulting from long term funding of
NSFC projects, and it is expected that the achievement of important breakthroughs can be
made in key scientific issues through the considerable amount of funding.

In Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, NSFC only accepts one integrated application for each
Major Program, which should includes both the overall application for the Program and
proposals for research projects. Proposals involving only part of the research areas or one
of the research projects indicated in the Guide of each Major Program will be not accepted.
Each application can contain no more than 5 proposals for project with no more than 2
collaborative research units for each project. Applicant for the application of the Major
Program must be one of the PIs of the projects proposed.

In writing the application form, “Major Program” should be selected in the funding
category and “application for Major Program” or “proposals for projects” in the
sub-category, and the research area of the Major Program should be indicated in the
annotation. The text of the application should be in accordance with the outlines of the
Major Program.

According to the guidelines of the 8 Major Program projects during the Eleventh Five-Year
Plan period announced in 2008, applicants should refine key scientific issues with strategic
and fundamental significance and put forward clear, concentrated and interdisciplinary
scientific targets. They should be academic leaders with international reputation and have
research teams of relative size, excellent facilities and accumulation of research work.
Each project will be funded with 10 million yuan for 4 years.


Key mathematical issues in information processing
In the 21st Century, the development of mathematics tends to intercross and integrate
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                                                                          Major Program
among its sub-branches, and many new interdisciplinary research areas have been emerged.
Many breakthroughs in mathematics indicate the integration of methods in various
different disciplines, which is especially true in the intercrossing of mathematics and
information sciences. This project focuses on basic issues in mathematics that are
necessarily used in the information processing of communication systems and starts with
research on key problems in the area of information processing of the next generation
communication systems for developing theory and methods in the next generation of
information processing, and further promote the intercrossing and merging of research
areas concerned.

The main targets of the project are as follows: to make full use of the guiding role of basic
research for developing new methods and new skills in accordance with various security
requirements and mathematical problems in the complex iteration system and computation
complexity, as well as image processing and reconstruction of network systems based on
the intercrossing and merging of mathematics and information sciences, and to promote
the intercrossing and integration of research areas concerned in mathematics on the basis
of developing basic theory and methods of information processing through solving new
mathematical problems in the field of information sciences.

I. Main scientific issues:
1. Multi party security and optimal design in network systems
Theory and algorithm of algebraic coding and decoding, attack resistance of keys in
private key and public key systems and computation of multi party security, and
application of group and representation in network design and optimization.

2. Iteration and Frame method in information transmission
Iteration system of functions and computational complexity, finite automatic machine and
application in information transmission, harmonic analysis theory and application in data
compression, signal enhancement and noise reduction, etc.

3. Geometric analysis in image processing and reconstruction
Geometric flow and symplectic geometry and application in image processing, and
chromatographic imaging technology based on partial differential equations.

II. Notes to applicants
Proposals should indicate the intercrossing features of the disciplines concerned and
emphasize on the intercrossing and merging of main scientific issues.

III. Funding period : 4 years

IV. Funding: 10 million yuan


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Major Program
V. Department in charge
The project is jointly proposed by the Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
and the Department of Information Sciences, and applications are handled by the
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.


           Basic theory and key technologies for
           multi-dimensional microwave imaging
Microwave imaging provides the capability of all time and all weather earth observation
which is an important means of resources survey, environmental monitoring and disasters
evaluation. Along with the development and application of microwave imaging technology,
methods of data acquisition have developed from single wave band, single use and single
view point to multi scale, multi frequency, multi polarity, multi view point and multi time
phase. Correspondingly, the mechanism of dispersion of the observation target and the
representation in the microwave image become more complex, which directly affects the
identification and understanding of the observation target. Therefore, systematic research
is required on the scientific and objective description of the observation target in various
dimensions of resolution, wave band, polarity, view angle and time phase.

This project plans to make close link to the national key program of “high resolution earth
observation system”, and to achieve mutual development of basic research and R&D of
high technology. Joint proposals by institutes and universities in China sharing their
advantages in theoretical research and experimental facilities is encouraged for studying
jointly the innovation of theory and technology of multi dimensional microwave imaging.

I. Research targets
In order to make breakthrough in multi dimensional microwave imaging theory and
methods, and to provide theoretical and technical support for the high resolution earth
observation and future development of microwave imaging in China, it is devoted to the
study of the dispersion mechanism of multi dimensional microwave imaging, the
development of information processing methods of multi dimensional microwave imaging,
the exploration of the mechanism of multi dimensional microwave imaging, the
establishment of the theoretical framework for multi dimensional microwave imaging and
the innovative experimental platform. It is aimed at typical applied experimental studies of
multi dimensional microwave imaging in order to provide theoretical and methodological
support to the quantitative survey of high precision mapping of complex land form, 3-D
marine exploration, forestry and ecological monitoring.

II. Research contents
1. Study on the scattering and imaging mechanism of multi dimensional microwave
The study is focused on the scattering and imaging mechanism of multi angle microwave,
the scattering mechanism of temporal and spatial variation complex fields, the scattering
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and imaging mechanism of high resolution multi band microwave and polarity of body
dispersion, etc. It is also devoted to the study on representation methods of the objectives
under multi dimensional observation, the imaging mechanism of polarized interference
microwave, the imaging mechanism of multi frequency and multi phase centered
microwave, the imaging mechanism of multi angle microwave and the information
acquisition mechanism of multi dimensional micro wave imaging.

2. Study on the imaging signal processing of multi dimensional microwave
The study is focused on the imaging signal modeling and processing of multi angle
microwave complex field microwave and the imaging multi dimensions signal modeling
and processing, as well as high resolution multi band signal modeling and processing of
the temporal and spatial frequency polarized region microwave.

3. Experimental study on multi dimensional microwave imaging
It is focused on the study of experimental methods of multi dimensional microwave
imaging, the imaging information acquisition methods of multi mode microwave, the
establishment of experimental platform for conducting typical experiments of multi
dimensional microwave imaging to verify the effectiveness of the theory, model, methods
of multi dimensional microwave imaging.

4. Application of multi dimensional microwave imaging in marine remote sensing
It is focused on the study of the response characteristics of marine multi dimensional
microwave for typical application, and the establishment of the marine remote sensing
model of multi dimensional microwave imaging for studying the parameter inversion
methods and the optimization of multi dimensional combination with microwave imaging.

5. Application of multi dimensional microwave imaging in land remote sensing
It is focused on the study of modeling and methods of high precision mapping, the land
form measurement, the high precision classification of land objectives, vertical structure
parameter inversion for vegetations such as forests and parameter inversion for soil
humidity under the vegetation basis of multi dimensional microwave imaging information.
It is also devoted to the study on the multi dimensional combinational optimization of
microwave imaging in the typical land remote sensing.

The project is jointly proposed by the Department of Information Sciences and the
Department of Earth Sciences, and proposals are handled by the Department of
Information Sciences. The project is conducted in the period of 4 years with a funding of
10 million yuan. Proposals should cover all research areas announced in the Guide to
Programs. Proposals for only part of the research areas of the Guide to Programs will be
not accepted.

III. Duration of the project: 4 years

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Major Program
IV. Funds to be provided: 10 million yuan

Ⅴ. Department in charge
The project is jointly proposed by the Department of Information Sciences and the
Department of Earth Sciences, and proposals will be handled by the Department of
Information Sciences.


   Research on the integrated biochemical analytic
            system of micro-nanofluidics
Microfluidic technique is one of current frontier areas of rapid growing intercrossing
disciplines and high technology, and an important technical platform for studying signal
detection and handling method in life science, chemistry and information science.
Microfluidic analytical system has the superiority of minimization, integration and easy to
carry, and provides very wide applied prospects for biomedicine, drug synthesis, screening,
inspection and protection of environment, health quarantine, judicial determination,
detection and determination of biochemical weapon and so on.

According to the urgent requirement of life science, materials science and national security,
as well as the trend of microfluidic analytic system in the world, research on the integrated
micro-nanofluidic biochemical analytic system is established as a Major Program project
by NSFC. It aims at international scientific frontier and centers on key scientific problems
of micro-nanofluidic chip system, and based on the studying platform provided for the
application of micro-nanofluidics, fully utilizes the controlling action in nano-liter or
p-liter level as well as the features of high flux and multi functions, and studies basic rules
and special properties of micro-nanometer channel. By taking bio-macromolecules and
cells as research objects and using means of crossing research of multi disciplines, it also
explores the accurately location operation, the image formation of tree-dimension, the
response excited with time-space resolution, cell lysis, the separation and determination of
composition in cell, and the behavior of cell and interactive mechanism between drug
small molecule and cell in the micro-nano system in order to strengthen the indigenous
creative ability of the country in the integrated biochemical analytic system of
micro-nanofluidics and to lay a new foundation of technical innovation for the
development of biochemical analytic technology and instrument in China.

1. Scientific targets:
It is to study key scientific issues involved in the location, operation, transport and
accurate control of nano-liter or p-liter level, or of mono-molecule and mono-cell in the
integrated micro-nanofluidc chip system through the intercrossing of basic disciplines
concerned such as chemistry, informatics, life sciences, nanotechnology and fluid
mechanics. Some breakthroughs are expected in the indigenous creative ability of basic
theory, methodology and experimental techniques in the fields of system integration of
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                                                                        Major Program
micro-nanofluidc chip with multi-function, the minimization and integration of detectors,
accurate location operation, image formation of tree-dimension, the response exited with
time-space resolution and the separation and determination of composition in cell.

2. Research contents:
1) Integrated system of micro-nanofluidic chip of multi-function
To develop processing technology of micro-nanofluidic chip;
To study the surface property of micro-nanofluidic channel, as well as the driving and
control rule in micro-nanofluidic system;
To develop the integrated system of micro-nanofluidic chip of multi-function such as
pre-treatment, mix, reaction, separation, detection and so on.

2) Minimization and integration of (piled) detectors in the system of
micro-nanofluidics
To develop detective techniques and detectors compatible with micro-nanofluidic chip,
especially piled detectors used in high-flux analysis for providing an analytic and
determining technical platform with high-flux, high-sensitivity and high-stability in the
micro-nanofluidic and mono-cell analysis.

3) Bionic chip system of micro-nanofluidics
To study the driving and controlling technique of bionic micro-nanofluidics on the basis of
evaporation and capillarity for simplifying the structure of driving and controlling system
to upgrade the level of minimization and integration of the whole system;
To study the methodology of bionic sampling at nano-liter or p-liter scale;
To study new devices and systems of bionic micro-nanofluidics based on intelligent
polymer.

4) Regulating and controlling cell growth by time-space resolution and exited effect in
the chip system of micro-nanofluidcs
To explore the accurate location operation, image formation of tree-dimension, response
exited by time-space resolution, cell lysis, and separation and determination of
composition in cell;
To study the mono-cell behavior in micro-environment of imitated tissue under common
and pathological condition, and biological behaviors of cell in the micro-nano bionic
system;
To develop the cell immune analytic technique in the micro-nanofluidics, and to develop
the immune analytic system with the integration and minimization for the application in
clinical analysis.


3. Duration of the project: 4 years

4. Funds to be provided: 10 million yuan
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5. Department in charge:
The project is jointly recommended by the Department of Chemical Sciences and the
Department of Information Sciences. Proposals will be handled by the Department of
Chemical Sciences.


 Research on the genome polymorphism of certain
               Chinese populations
There is about one thousandth difference between human individual genome, and such
difference has formed entirely the polymorphism of genome, and just the one thousandth
difference has resulted in the adaptive ability of individual to special environment, the
sensitivity to drugs, and the susceptive to complicated diseases. It is also indicated that the
difference of genetic polymorphism of genome is often provided with the character in
colony, and makes one population have the same or close genetic phenotype. Therefore, to
carry out research on the genome polymorphism of certain populations will deepen the
understanding of constitutes and characters of human population genetics, and provide a
dependable molecular basis for the prevention and treatment of diseases, as well as for the
R&D of drugs.

The International GapMap Project (HapMap) has drawn millions of polymorphism maps
of polymorphic loci within three represent populations in Asia, Africa and Europe, and has
dug out a great deal of polymorphic of DNA sequence copies, insertion/deletion
polymorphism, polymorphism of chromosomal rearrangement and inversion, etc. It has not
only determined the structure of haplotype blocks of stable inheritance (tightly linked) on
DNA sequence, but also reckoned the tagSNPs in each “block”. However, due to limited
samples, this result can not systematically comprehend the characters of genetic
polymorphism of Chinese population. The genetic polymorphism study of Chinese
population could only be accomplished by Chinese scientists.

The purpose of the project is to carry out research on genome polymorphism of certain
Chinese populations (including the polymorphic of single-nucleotide, DNA sequence
copies and chromosomal inversion, etc.) based on the achievement of HapMap plan, so as
to understand the genome character of polymorphic constituent of special human
populations, and meanwhile, to develop the SNPs molecular markers adapt to Chinese
populations and to carry out research on the genome polymorphism and function of
Chinese population.

1. Research contents
1) Constituent research of the genome polymorphism of certain Chinese populations
It is focused on the study of genome polymorphism (including the polymorphic of
single-nucleotide, DNA sequence copies, chromosomal inversion, etc.) by selecting some
Chinese populations (i.e., population of Mongolian, Tibetan, Li and Han nationalities in
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Hainan Province, etc.) for realizing the constituent character and possible biological
significance.

2) Molecular markers and associated research on the genome polymorphism of Chinese
population
It is to develop SNPs molecular markers adapting to Chinese population, and validating by
heredity analysis based on the constitute characteristics of genome polymorphism of Chinese
population in the use of the gene location and identification of relevant characters. It is expected
that the performance will overtake the current micro-satellite molecular markers in genetic
background, resolution, veracity and manipulation flux for sufficiently excavating and
utilizing China‟s genetic resources.

3) Research on the genome polymorphism and function of Chinese population
It is focused on the development of new methods for the conformity of different “-omics”
data with genome polymorphism of Chinese population to study the relationship of the
genome polymorphism and relevant character of Chinese population on the basis of data
information analysis of “-omics” pertaining to different aspects of markers of genome
polymorphism, gene expression and gene regulation network.

2. Notes to applicants
The number of institutions involved in the joint application could not be more than 4
because the project composes of 3-4 sub-subjects only.

3. Duration of the project: 4 years

4. Fund to be provided: 10 million yuan

5. Department in charge
This project is recommended jointly by the Department of Life sciences and the
Department of Information Sciences. Proposals will be handled by the Department of Life
Sciences.


       Functional mechanism of metabolic nuclear
       receptors in the regulation of metabolism of
                     glucose and lipid
The regulation of metabolism of carbohydrate and lipid is an important basic issue in the
activity of human life, and the abnormity of metabolism is connected to the
parthenogenesis of many important diseases. But so far, the molecular mechanism of
metabolic regulation is not explicit and complete. To explain such an important basic
physiological issue and further expose the molecular mechanism of metabolic abnormity is

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the basis for the in-depth study of the pathogenesis of related diseases and the search for
effective treatment and cure method.

Metabolic nuclear receptors are a general appellation for a group of nuclear receptors
closely related to the metabolism of carbohydrate, lipid and energy. And they play a key
role in the important life process like the metabolism of carbohydrate and lipid, insulin
secretion, signal transduction, oxidative stress, inflammation, growth and differentiation of
cells, etc. It has been discovered that almost all the metabolic nuclear receptors are
involved in the regulation of physiological function of the body by affecting the target
gene expression profile of each, especially the inner environmental stability of glucose and
lipid. Metabolic nuclear receptors strictly regulate the expression of the target genes as the
transcription factors including many enzymes participated in redox of glucose and lipid
and antioxidant systems within the cells. Under the physiological and pathological status,
redox system affects the function of metabolic nuclear receptors by the modification of
protein and small molecules. The functional abnormity of metabolic nuclear receptors is
possibly the common pathological basis of many closely correlated important metabolic
diseases. Therefore, the study of molecular mechanism of metabolic nuclear receptors and
its regulation and the metabolism of carbohydrate and lipid within cells provide important
theoretical significance and prospect for application.

1. Main scientific problems
1) Interaction of metabolic nuclear receptors with target molecules and ligand
molecules
To determine tissue specific genes, proteins and metabolic products of metabolic nuclear
receptors; To study the netware regulation of metabolic nuclear receptors to metabolic
route of carbohydrate and lipid, and the molecular signal pass-way;
To search and study the new ligand and moderator, as well as the interaction of receptor
and ligand.

2) Molecular mechanism of metabolic nuclear receptors regulating the metabolism of
carbohydrate and lipid
To study the mechanism of transcript regulation of metabolic nuclear receptors and ligands
in carbohydrate and lipid synthesis, transport, and metabolic pass-ways.

3) Role of metabolic nuclear receptors in the process of abnormal and pathological
physiology of glucose and lipid metabolism
To study the role of metabolic nuclear receptors and ligands in the disorder of glucose and
lipid of different tissues, and the molecular mechanism of related pathological physiology
process.

2. Notes to applicants
The number of institutions involved in the joint application could not be more than 4

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because the project composes 3-4 sub-subjects only.
3. Duration of the project: 4 years

4. Fund to be provided: 10 million yuan

5. Department in charge
This project is recommended jointly by the Department of Life Sciences and the
Department of Information Sciences. Proposals will be handled by the Department of Life
Sciences.


Research on the tree rings and millennium climate
                 change in China
Since the 20th Century, along with the rapid development of industry, the global warming
possibly induced by greenhouse gases resulted from human activities has attracted great
attention of all nations in the world. In 1988, the World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) established the
International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which got input from thousands of
scientists and worked out successively four series of scientific assessment repots on the
global climate change, impacts and adaptation. It is confirmed once again that by the
“IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007” the global mean temperature has
increased by 0.76 ℃, and the global-averaged sea level has risen by 20 cm since the 20 th
Century, and that the global mean temperature will raise by 1.8- 4.0℃ in the 21st Century.
These conclusions have caused again great concern in the international community. In
order to deal with the climate change issue, the Chinese government established officially
the National Leading Group on Climate Change chaired by Premier Wen Jiabao and drew
up China‟s National Climate Change Program, in which high emphasis is given to the
causes of climate change and the scientific projection of future climate change tendency.

Researches on paleo-climate changes show that the earth‟s climate has been experiencing
an alternate periodic time between cold and warm and between dry and wet climates in
history, warmer periods relative to the 20th Century occurred for many times. Therefore,
does the greenhouse effect induced by human activities result in the climate warming in
the recent 100 years, or the natural factors also play an important role? Will the future
climate continue to become warmer or experiencing an alternate periodic time between
cold and warm climates just as in the history? At present, these are still controversy issues
in the scientific frontier. One of the special objectives of the Coordinated Observation and
Prediction of the Earth System in the WCRP Strategic Framework 2005-2015 is to study
the sensitivity of the climate system to the forcing of the natural factors and human
activities and hereby to estimate the changes caused by specific factors of disturbances.

Therefore, the project aims at reconstructing the time series of climate change in the recent
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1,000 years in China through the establishment of the tree-ring climate network in some
typical climate regions of China, establishing the evolution models of the millennium
climate change through the nonlinear diagnostic analysis, conducting numerical simulation
experiments of climate changes, revealing the inter-annual and decadal characteristics and
regularities of climate changes over China in the recent 1,000 years and mechanisms
responsible for these variations, and identifying the influence of greenhouse effect induced
by human activities in the 20th Century on climate change. Finally, the project is to forward
a more reasonable estimation of future climate change tendency in order to serve the
strategy for addressing climate change in China.

1. Scientific objectives
1) To construct the time series of tree rings in the recent 1,000 years and reconstruct the
millennium climate change series for typical climate regions over China;

2) To reveal the characteristics and regularities of the millennium climate change in some
typical climate regions of China and establish the associated evolution models by means of
tree-ring climate proxy dada and data from the updated meteorological observation
network through statistical and diagnostic methods, to perform numerical simulation
experiments on the millennium climate change in China, and to compare the simulated
results with tree-ring climate proxy data to reveal the mechanisms of the millennium
climate change in China;

3) To analyze comprehensively the results of the extension of tree-ring climate series, the
evolution models of the millennium climate change, and the associated numerical
simulations, to project future climate change tendency in China, especially on the
inter-decadal scale, and to provide a scientific basis for the implementation of China‟s
National Climate Change Program.

2. Research contents
1) To analyze climate data from the updated meteorological observation network in China
and identify the optimized distribution of tree-ring sampling sites, and to integrate the
existing tree-ring climate proxy data, enhance researches on the responses of tree-rings to
climatic and hydrological processes, make breakthroughs in the tree-ring climate research
for monsoon regions of China, construct the time series of tree rings proxy data, and
reconstruct the millennium climate change series for typical climate regions of China.

2) To conduct statistical and diagnosis analyses using tree-ring climate proxy data and
updated observed climate data, and to reveal the characteristics and regularities of climate
change in the recent 1,000 years in China.

3) To carry out numerical simulation experiments on the process of climate change in the
recent 1,000 years in China using the advanced air-sea coupled climate model and such

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millennium change data as the surface feature (snow/ice and land use), volcano activity
and solar radiation as the time-varying external forcing and considering the random
perturbation of solar radiation, and to compare the results of numerical experiments with
the millennium tree-ring climate proxy data to reveal the mechanisms of the millennium
climate change in China.

4) To construct the evolution models of climate change in some typical climate regions of
China by means of the nonlinear dynamic theory and methods, integrating the tree-ring
proxy data and updated observed climate data.

5) To integrate the results of the extension of the tree-ring climate series, the evolution
models of climate change, and the numerical simulation and present a scientific estimation
of climate change tendency in China.

3. Duration of the project: 4 years

4. Funds to be provided: 10 million yuan

5. Department in charge
The project is recommended jointly by the Department of Earth Sciences and the
Department of Life Sciences, and proposals will be handled by the Department of Earth
Sciences.


Fundamental research on organic/inorganic hybrid
           semiconductor materials
With the rapid development of information science and technology, semiconductor
materials, as the main material foundation, have played a tremendous role for more than
half a century and have been promoting the information optoelectronic technology to
develop in the directions of being renewable, ultra-fast response, ultra-high capacity and
high-level integration. In recent years, with the emerging of energy crisis and the
popularity of environmental awareness, there is an increasingly urgent demand for the
development of highly efficient optoelectronic and electro-optical conversion
semiconductor materials. Simultaneously, semiconductor materials and related devices
with simple manufacturing process and reduced energy consumption are highly required.
However, it is difficult for the existing semiconductor materials to meet with the above
requirements. Since 1980‟s, organic/inorganic hybrid semiconductor materials have been
developed through structural and functional composition, offering the possibility of
combining both advantages of organic and inorganic components. In these composite
systems, the organic component offers useful properties such as design diversity, flexibility,
easy processing, etc., while the inorganic component offers potential advantages such as
high electrical mobility, mechanical and thermal stability, etc., usually resulting in
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synergetic and optimization effects. Such composite materials are a new type of
semiconducting hybrid materials consisting of two or more organic and inorganic
components, becoming one of the key materials for the future development of information
and energy technologies. A series of new scientific issues, such as new phenomena, new
structures and new effects brought about by the composition, must be resolved in order to
promote the development of materials sciences. Research on organic/inorganic hybrid
semiconductor materials is characteristic of large-span and multidisciplinary intersection
and is one of the most active, creative and forward-looking research direction in materials
science. Such research belongs to preferential development areas in the fields of
information, energy and new materials in "the National Guideline on Medium and Long
Term Plans for Science and Technology Development (2006-2020)" and "the Eleventh
Five-Year Plan of the National Natural Science Foundation of China".

Fundamental research on organic/inorganic hybrid semiconductor materials should be
implemented on the basis of large-span, multidisciplinary and substantive intersection, and
the scientific objectives are as follows: to achieve important innovations on the composite
principles, composite structures, characteristics of the composite interfaces, photoelectric
conversion processes, carrier transport mechanism, structural stability and related
theoretical issues of organic/inorganic hybrid semiconductor materials with the discovery
of new phenomena, new structures and new effects due to the organic/inorganic
composition in focus, to make breakthroughs in key technologies such as the methods for
obtaining high carrier mobility, controllable preparation and low-cost processes with
emphasis on exploring new principles, new functions and new mechanisms, and to seek
world leading innovative achievements in the fields of thin-film transistors, thin-film solar
cells (not dye-sensitized type), which are of potential applications.

1. Research contents
1) Design of organic/inorganic hybrid semiconductor materials and study of easy
fabrication process technology with controllable structure: to investigate the adjustment of
materials‟ micro-structures during the design and preparation processes. The introduction
of innovative composition means and easy preparation and processing methods will be
highly encouraged.

2) Research on the surface and interfacial properties of organic/inorganic hybrid
semiconductors: in combination with theoretical simulation, to study the surface and
interface structures and characteristics, photoelectric conversion processes as well as the
carrier injection and transport mechanisms in different interfaces, in the interfacial buffer
layers and in the bulk phases of the composite materials.

3) Study on the structural stability of organic/inorganic hybrid semiconductor materials: to
investigate the evolution and control of the structure of organic/inorganic hybrid
semiconductor materials as well as the approaches to stabilize the structure under the

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influence of light and heat.

4) Study on organic/inorganic hybrid semiconductor materials with high carrier mobility:
to explore the relationship between the structure and long-distance carrier transport
properties of organic/inorganic hybrid semiconductor materials as well as the methods to
achieve high carrier mobility. New principles, new functions and new mechanisms will be
emphasized.

5) Design and fabrication of organic/inorganic hybrid semiconductor devices: to study the
relationship between thin-film morphologic structure and device performance, and to
explore the device operation mechanism, device design and device fabrication processes.
The integration design and fabrication covering materials and devices will be encouraged.

2. Duration of the project: 4 years

3. Funds to be provided: 10 million yuan

4. Department in charge
The project is jointly recommended by the Department of Engineering and Materials
Sciences, Department of Chemical Sciences, Department of Information Sciences and
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Proposals will be handled by the
Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences.


Research on major fundamental and technological
          issues in emerging e-business
The rapid advancement of IT nowadays has enabled e-business to play an increasingly
critical role in the economy. The new century has witnessed the emerging features of
e-business in China in a significant way, which are characterized by mobility (ubiquitous),
virtualization, extreme data, personalization and sociality. It is the result of tremendous
progress of information and communication technologies along with great social-economic
changes including the globalization of service sectors, diversified market needs and
extensively established social networks.

E-business is not only an important aspect of core competence in organizations, but also an
inseparable part of the country‟s overall competitiveness, which explains why countries
across the world regard e-business research as a high priority in the new wave of global
competition. Coupled with the distinctive characteristics of e-business development in
China, an in-depth study on underlying theories and patterns of emerging e-business
activities will not only contribute to the intellectual knowledge in management for
e-business, but also provide sound guidelines for e-business practice in innovation and
effectiveness improvement, which will enhance China‟s economy in the global market.
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Major Program


1. Scientific objectives
In line with the new features of e-business such as mobility (ubiquitous), virtualization,
extreme data, personalization and sociality, the project is to focus on major fundamental
issues in various business activities and gain the understanding of essential theories and
patterns of emerging e-business in three aspects: (1) behavior patterns of participants, (2)
mechanism and evolution of micro-markets, and (3) key enabling technologies. The
project also expects to establish e-business research experimental platforms for improving
research means and efficiency, as well as to cooperate with application collaborators on
demonstration projects to testify theoretical findings.

2. Research issues
1) Behavior patterns of e-business participants
It focuses on cognitive features and behavior patterns of individuals and
enterprises/organizations, as well as on the related trust mechanisms in the context of
emerging e-business and Chinese culture. Research topics may cover: search, browsing
and purchasing behaviors of mobile/online consumers and impact factors; utility models
and satisfaction measurement of individual consumers in e-business; e-business individual
consumers‟ behavioral patterns under insecure conditions; interactive mechanisms of
online and offline transactional behaviors; factors impacting enterprises‟ e-business
adoption behaviors; diffusion patterns of emerging e-business in an organization; value
creation mechanisms of e-business and its external factors; Internet-based service
outsourcing decision-making and its impact; measurement and evaluation of online credit
and trust; novel Internet trust mechanism and modeling, etc.

2) Structures of micro-markets and business models
Research should be focused on the mechanisms for market pricing and innovation for
business models in emerging e-business activities. Research topics may cover: revenue
management models of buyers and sellers in different market structures, complex dynamic
pricing mechanisms of e-transactions, bidding and tendering strategies and new auction
models, micro-mechanism design and optimization of transactions in e-market, innovation,
dissemination and evolution of e-business models, impact of new technologies on
e-business model innovation, online/offline multi-channel coordination, resource
optimization and modeling, etc.

3) Service-oriented business intelligence and knowledge management
Based on the features of emerging e-business and actual needs of precise marketing,
comparison shopping and supply chain/delivery optimization, the project focuses on the
theories and approaches of knowledge management and intelligent generation in
e-business. Research topics may cover: representation of business knowledge with
mobility features and data mining methods, data collection and knowledge integration for
distributed intelligent business nodes, knowledge acquisition technologies with

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                                                                         Major Program
unstructured information, web-based data feature extraction and real-time dynamic
analysis, real-time decision support theories and methods of mobile (ubiquitous) networks,
theoretical foundations of personalized online recommendation technologies, new methods
and principles of intelligent matching based on natural languages, etc.

4) Market complexity and social experimental platforms for e-business
Research focuses on complexity evolution and risk management technologies in the
emerging e-business markets and aims at establishing platforms for e-business experiments
and research. Research topics may cover: formation and evolution of market structures
under different network and communication environments, complexity of structure
changes in market participants, formation and evolution of online business communities
and the impact on market, risk management technologies of emerging e-business and its
theoretical foundations, intelligent identification and authentication technology of mobile
terminals, design and development of social experimental platforms for e-business
participants, specific analytical tools (for example, for participant behavior, pricing and
credit, evaluation of business models, network security, etc.) on the interactive platforms,
exploration of computation and experimental methods for e-business standards, etc.

3. Duration of the project: 4 years

4. Funds to be provided: 10 million yuan

5. Department in charge
The project is jointly recommended by the Department of Management Sciences,
Department of Information Sciences and Department of Mathematical and Physical
Sciences. Please send proposals to the Department of Management Sciences.




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Major Research Plan



             Major Research Plan
In the light of the principle of definite objective, stable support, integration and refinement
and leap forward development, Major Research Plan gives focus on key basic scientific
issues with strategic importance of the country and farsighted significance of the major
frontiers in the areas arranged on the basis of the capability and advantages of the country
to form groups of projects with relatively identical objectives for assembling innovative
research resources to realize the leap forward development in certain key areas.

Major Research Plan is organized in the way of comparative separation of decision making,
execution and evaluation, and the combination of expert academic guidance and project
funding management. It also emphasizes on the combination of objective oriented top
design and curiosity oriented free application, and the combination of the selection of new
projects and integration of the on-going projects, as well as the coordination and
connection with other major national programs of science and technology development.

Proposals should provide the features of interdisciplinary research, and stress on their
contributions to solving key scientific issues and fulfilling the overall goals of the Major
Research Plan concerned. Major Research Plan funds generally two sorts of projects:
“fostering project” and “key funding project”. The former is 3-year project in general and
the later is 4-year project. Proposals should be written according to the outline given by the
Major Research Plan.


   Key basic scientific issues in near space vehicles
The development of near space vehicle is related to the national security and peaceful use
of space. It is one of the key issues of space technology in the world, and reflects the
comprehensive strength of the country. This Major Research Plan will focus on key
scientific issues in near space vehicles, through interdisciplinary research, to improve
China‟s innovative capability in the research on near space vehicles and to establish the
foundation for technology innovation in the development of near space vehicle in China.

I. Scientific targets
With the focus on key basic scientific issues of near space hypersonic long range
maneuverable vehicle, the study may achieve the following targets in areas of
aerodynamics of near space flight environment, advanced propulsion theory and methods,
super light materials and structures, thermal prediction and protection, intelligent
autonomous control theory and methods for hypersonic aircraft, etc.


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                                                                Major Research Plan
1. Developing the innovative theory and methods for solving key scientific problems in
near space vehicle and providing the basis for the research and development of relevant
technology concerned in China;
2. Making innovative breakthroughs to some extent in the development of technical
methods to improve the indigenous capability of the country in relevant areas for leap
forward development of technologies concerned;
3. Fostering a team of outstanding researchers with the theoretical and indigenous
innovative capabilities working in the area and promoting the establishment of a number of
interdisciplinary basic research platforms to support sustained development of technology
in the filed of near space vehicle in China.

The Major Research Plan is focused on scientific issues related to near space hypersonic
long range maneuverable vehicles at the altitude of 30 to 70 kilometers, and breakthroughs
are expected in the following areas:
1. Flight theory and methodology of the vehicle referring the integration of aerodynamic
and centrifugal forces;
2. Thermal environment in long time near space flight and theory and methodology of non
ablation thermal protection;
3. Mechanism and methodology of propulsion related to supersonic combustion;
4. Coupling mechanism and prediction methods of high temperature, non-equilibrium, viscous
interference, rare gas and turbulent effects;
5. Theory and methodology of experimental and numerical simulation of near space flight
environment, and coupling theory and methodology of CFD and computational structure
dynamics;
6. Unified optimum designing methods for material and structure, new super light multi
functional materials and new configurations;
7. Coupling response mechanism of thermal and strength of materials, and designing
theory and methodology of thermal protection structure;
8. Intelligent autonomous control theory and flight theory and control method of variable
body.

II. Key funding areas in 2008
(I) Aerodynamics of near space flight environment
1. New theory of the combination of inertial ballistic flight and maneuverable
aerodynamic flight
Theory of high lift drag ration aerodynamic configuration, high precision, high resolution
computation algorithm and numerical simulation methods compatible with boundary
condition treatment.
2. High temperature rare gas effect, viscous interference mechanism and
compressible turbulent theory
Mechanism and simulation method of high temperature rare gas including chemical
reactions and ionization effect, and method of predicting aerodynamic characteristics

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Major Research Plan
involving viscous interference in high altitude as well as the mechanism of drag reduction
in high speed flight.

3. Thermal environment protection and thermal protection
Accurate prediction method of thermal parameters in characteristics region of near space
hypersonic long range maneuverable vehicle, and new thermal protection theory of high
lift drag ratio complex lifting body configurations.

(II) Advanced theory and method of propulsion
1. Supersonic combustion mechanism
Stabilizing mechanism of injection (vaporization), mixing, ignition and flame in high
speed flow conditions, and new theory and methods of supersonic combustion and high
efficiency energy conversion.
2. Ground test simulation and flow field diagnosis
Diagnosing method of high speed internal flow and combustion flow field, and theory and
methods of combustion performance evaluation.

3. New theory and method of propulsion
New theory of the propulsion and theory and methods of new concept propulsion.

   )
(Ⅲ Super light material and structure and thermal environment prediction and
thermal protection
1. New super light material, new configuration and unified optimal design of material
and structure
Designing theory and method of super light multifunctional material and new
configuration, new super light thermal protection and insulation materials, and unified
designing and representation method of structure and function.
2. Thermal protection materials of non ablation
Response mechanism of material in working environment, and theory and methods of
stiffness enhancement for non-ablation super high temperature material.
3. Thermal protection structure
New theory and mechanism of active and passive integrated thermal protection and
insulation, thermal environment and structure analysis and design method of
computational fluid dynamics coupled with computational structure dynamics.

   )
(Ⅳ Theory and methods for hypersonic vehicle intelligent autonomous control
1. Flight control of hypersonic vehicle
Coordinative control of propulsion and attitude, uncertain nonlinear intelligent
self-adaptive control of parameter coupled with status, composite control of mixed type
multi vertical surfaces and the high reliable control of fault-tolerant.
2. Structure control of hypersonic vehicle
Dynamic modeling of complete configuration and structure of vehicle, analysis and control

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                                                                    Major Research Plan
of complex motion and vibration of vehicle, and control of servo aero-elasticity and flutter.
3. Pneumatic theory and control method of variable body flight
Pneumatic theory and prediction method of pneumatic characteristics of variable body vehicle,
and mechanic modeling and control of the structure of variable body vehicle.

III. Funding and projects in 2008
Applications for the Major Research Plan will be received during the period of 5 years and
be funded as the fostering projects and key funding projects. More than 500 thousand yuan
will be provided to each of the fostering projects having innovative ideas at the initial stage
and as high as 800 thousand yuan will be provided to each of the projects focusing on the
experimental research. For Key Program projects, 3 million yuan will be provided to each
of those with good research foundation, clear and important scientific issues for further
exploration and characteristics of interdisciplinary study.

In 2008, a total budget of 34 million yuan is planned for about 25 3-year fostering projects
(from January 1, 2009 to December 2011) and about 6 4-years key funding projects (from
January 1, 2009 to December 2012). Application for key funding projects should focus
closely on research topics of near space hypersonic long range maneuverable vehicle, and
indicate the importance of problems to be studied, interdisciplinary research among four
core scientific problems and complementariness of the research teams. The research group
should include at least 5 researchers with senior professional titles.

IV Notes to applicants
1. Please read the Guide to Programs carefully before submitting applications. The theme
of application must be selected from research topics within the core scientific issues of the
Major Research Plan, and should has interdisciplinary features and contributions for
solving core scientific issues and achieving the overall goal of the Plan. Applications will
not be accepted if they do not follow the Guide to Programs. In order to avoid duplicated
funding, attention should be paid to the difference, relevance and focuses between the
proposals and other major national research programs, national high technology
development program and national key basic research program.

2. In order to strengthen academic exchange among the projects and promote
interdisciplinary research and integration, one academic exchange conference shall be
arranged every year as well as a number of academic workshops in relevant areas for each
Major Research Plan. Principal investigators should attend the above academic activities
organized by the expert steering panel and management team of the Major Research Plan.

3. For filling in the application form, please select “Major Research Plan” for the funding
type, “General Program” for the sub category of fostering project and “Key Program” for
the sub category of key funding project, and “Key basic scientific issues in near space
vehicle” should be written in the annotation. Appropriate code must be selected according

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Major Research Plan
to the actual research contents.

4. Proposals will be handled by the Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.


 Research on signal transduction process based on
         chemical small molecular probe
This Major Research Plan is to study the process and mechanism of important molecular
event in signal transfer and conduction and those issues hardly resolved by common
methods of biology or chemistry, so as to reveal new rules in biological phenomenon,
which takes the signal transduction process in cell as the object of study and gives full play
to the superiority of combining multidisciplinary researches, such as chemistry,
biomedicine and so on.

1. Scientific targets
It is to develop new methods and technologies taking chemical small molecules as the
probe for utilizing the features of chemical and biological sciences and the superiority of
intercrossing of disciplines which is out of the range of traditional research methods, to
conduct the study of chemical biology in accordance with important molecular events in
the signal transduction process of life system for revealing the regulating and controlling
rules of signal transduction to provide new marker, acting target of drug and structure of
precursor. Meanwhile, it will promote the joining and crossing integration of chemical
science and biological science, to form new disciplinary growth points, and to foster
research talents and teams of chemical biology with indigenous creative ability.

In 2007, 242 proposals were received (including 5 applicants who exceeded the number of
projects allowed), of which 34 were for key funding projects and 208 for fostering projects.
Some proposals are not in accordance with the requirement of the Guide, lack the features
of intercrossing study, and fail to explain the contribution of research to solving key
scientific problems listed in the Guide and realizing the overall targets of the Major
Research Plan. Four key funding projects and 43 fostering projects were funded in 2007 .

2. Areas and directions to be supported in 2008
1) Tectonics of chemical small molecular probe for the study of signal transduction
According to the requirement of regulating and controlling mechanism of signal
transduction process and physiological function of the cell, it is to find and gain active
small molecules as chemical probe for studying the signal transduction process, and to
exploit the biological significance of signal transduction process. Then it is to carry out the
optimum of structure of chemical probe with regulating and controlling actions for signal
transduction process gained in the above study. This should lay a foundation for finding
out the structure of drug‟s precursor. The research contents are as follows:
· To design, find and make small molecular probe used in important membrane protein,
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                                                                  Major Research Plan
kinase and bio-macromolecule;
· To design, find and make chemical small molecular probe with selectivity used in the
process of apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation and movement of cell;
· To study the rules between structure and bio-activity, and to prepare small molecular
probe with regulating and controlling action for signal transduction route based on natural
products with marked physiological activity or endogenous active molecule.

2) New method and new technology pertaining to gaining information in signal
transduction process by chemical small molecular probe
High-effective and precise acquisition of information of the interaction between molecules
in the biological system is the key and basis for explaining transduction mechanism of cell.
The signal transduction process involves many interactions between molecules, including
biomacromolecule-biomacromolecule (such as protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid),
biomacromolecule-small molecule and so on. This Major Research Plan is to exploit new
methods and technology of the information of signal transduction process gained in the
above complex interaction system. The research contents are as follows:

· To develop high-selective and high-sensitive multi-parameter analytical methods on the
interaction and recognizing process between molecules used in transduction process
interfered by small molecule;
· To develop new methods of in-situ, in-time and dynamic information between molecules
and trans-membrane survey at the cell or sub-cell level;
· To design and synthesize the coupling and marked small molecular probe used in signal
transduction process, and to exploit visible tracing techniques for studying the dispersion
and movement of molecule in the inner or surface of cell;
· Depending on the national large scientific platform, to develop the detective method with
high-space resolution, fast-time resolution and high-energy resolution for studying the
interaction between small molecule and biomacromolecule;
· Integrating the results of signal transduction process studied by chemical small molecular
probe, to exploit relevant theoretic forecast and analytical methods and to simulate the
signal transduction route of interaction in the biological body as well as the regulating and
controlling net.

3) Signal transduction mechanism based on chemical small molecular probe
Utilizing the superiority of signal transduction process studied by chemical small
molecular probe, such as controllable, inverse, fast-speed action, in-time detection and so
on, and the ability of changing some processes or functions in different biological bodies
by small molecule, it is to explore and explain the molecular event and rule in signal
transduction route as well as changing laws under the pathological state, so as to provide
new ideas for the diagnosis and therapy of disease.

Research contents are as follows:

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Major Research Plan
· To establish screening models related to molecule, cell and modeling organism, and
models of diseased animals used to screen and evaluate chemical small molecular probes
by choosing some important signal transduction route;
· To study the interaction between proteins in each link of major signal route by chemical
small molecular probe, to find and identify new components of signal transduction net, and
to reveal channel and net structure of signal transduction for studying their physiological
function and pathological effect;
· To study the acting mechanism of signal transduction route involved in cell movement,
such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and moving by chemical small molecular
probe, and to prepare chemical small molecular probe with specially regulating and
controlling action to signal molecules related to disease;
· To study the acting mechanism of regulating and controlling cell signal transduction in
endocytosis and exocytosis by chemical small molecular probe.

3. Notes to applicants
Before writing applications, applicants should read carefully the Guide to Programs. The
Major Research Plan takes the intercrossing study of disciplines as a basic requirement and
consists of a coordinative and comprehensive group of projects by means of connecting
projects concerned. Applications should discuss scientific issues most close to those
indicated in the Guide to Programs, the feature of intercrossing study, and the contribution
to solving core scientific issues and realizing the overall target of the Plan. It will be out of
the funding range if the application does not organically combine chemical small
molecular probe with the study of signal transduction mechanism.

The Major Research Plan mainly funds two types of projects: fostering projects (no less
than 500 thousand yuan per project) and key funding projects (about 2.5 million yuan per
project). Application that has relatively high creativity or a good symptom to solving key
issues but needs to carry out further studies could be granted as fostering project.
Application that has a good basis and accumulation of research, clear key scientific
problems and needs to carry out continuously in-depth and systematic studies could be
granted as key funding project. The combination of research teams in chemistry related
disciplines with those of biological science must be reflected in the application. During the
implementation of the Plan, international cooperation and exchange should be strengthen,
and excellent Chinese scientists are encouraged to strengthen joint research with oversea
scientists (including oversea Chinese scholars) in accordance with the overall target and
requirements of the Guide to Programs within the framework of the Plan.

When filling in the application form, „Major Research Plan‟ must be indicated in the
column of funding category, „General Program‟ for fostering project or „Key Program‟ for
key funding project in the column of sub-category, and „Research on signal transduction
process based on chemical small molecular probe‟ in the annotation. Appropriate
application code should be selected according to research contents.

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                                                                  Major Research Plan
The Department of Chemical Sciences will be responsible for handling applications.

4. Funds and number of projects to be granted in 2008
In 2008, the total funds for the Plan will be 30 million yuan, and about 35 3-year fostering
projects and 4 4-year key funding projects may be supported.


    Guide to the study on the destruction of North
                    China Craton
The aim of this Major Research Plan is to understand and discover the significance of the
destruction of Craton to the formation and evolution of the continent and the interaction
between the Earth‟s spheres through the investigation of the destruction of North China
Craton, and to further provide new ideas and scientific bases for the strategic prediction of
resources and the precaution of earthquake hazards.

1.Scientific targets
From the viewpoint of Earth‟s system science, the aim of the Plan is to understand the
spatial-temporal distribution, processes and mechanism for the destruction of North China
Craton, to unravel the character and structure of different spheres in the Earth‟s interior
and their interactions, to discover the superficial effects of cratonic destruction and their
control mechanisms for mineral resources, energy sources and disasters, and to further
promote human‟s understanding of the formation and evolution of the Earth‟s continent via
highly integrated observations, experimental and theoretical achievements made by new
hi-tech, prospecting methods and analytical approaches of modern earth sciences,
mathematical and physical sciences, and information sciences.

2. Key scientific issues
The Plan will be progressively implemented, focusing on the following 7 key scientific
issues.
1) Spatial-temporal distribution of the destruction of North China Craton;
2. Deep-seated processes of the destruction of North China Craton;
3) Superficial effects of the destruction of North China Craton;
4) Relationship between mineral accumulation and the destruction of North China Craton;
5) Relationship between present large earthquake and the destruction of North China
Craton;
6) Dynamics, mechanism and driving forces of the destruction of North China Craton;
7) Significance of the destruction of North China Craton in the global geological and
continental evolution.

3. Funding principles in 2008
1) Innovative research focusing on key scientific issues of the Plan;
2) Research which may make breakthroughs in the near future on the basis of earlier
                                           155
Major Research Plan
studies;
3) Scientific issue driven observation and experiment;
4) Exploration of new methods that contributes to promoting and deepening the
understanding of scientific issues;
5) Interdisciplinary researches.

Research areas and directions in 2008:
1) Geophysical exploration of the lithosphere and upper mantle structure of North China
Craton;
2) Petrologic and geochemical records of the destruction of North China Craton;
3) Superficial geological effects of the destruction of North China Craton;
4) High-T and P experiments relevant to the destruction of North China Craton;
5) Resource, environment and disaster effects of the destruction of North China Craton;
6) Deep-seated processes and dynamic mechanism of the destruction of North China
Craton;
7) Construction of the shared database.

4. Notes to applicants
1) Before writing proposals, applicants should read the Guide to Programs carefully. The
proposal should focus on scientific issues provided in the Guide to Programs, and the
contribution to the scientific targets of the Major Research Plan must be indicated.
Proposals which are out of the range of the Guide to Programs will be not accepted.
2) Applicants may define their projects‟ name, research emphases and budget in the
proposals based on their understanding of the Major Research Plan.
3) When filling in the application form, „Major Research Plan‟ must be indicated in the
column of funding category, „General Program‟ for fostering project or „Key Program‟ for
key funding project in the column of sub-category, and „Research on the destruction of
North China Craton‟ in the annotation. Appropriate application code should be selected
according to their research contents.
4) Proposals will be handled by the Department of Earth Sciences.
5) The funding in 2008 is about 44 million yuan, which is about 30% of the total budget of
the Major Research Plan. The funding intensity of the projects will be equal to that for
NSFC Key Program or General Program projects and the duration of each project is 4
years.


    Molecular mechanism of plant hormone action
The purpose of this Plan is, through the investigation of molecular mechanism of plant
hormone action, to deeply understand the mechanism of regulation of plant growth,
development, and plant senescence and their adaptation to environment, to recognize the
mechanism of hormone regulation to important plant organs and characters, and to provide
the primary theoretical basis for the regulation of crop productivity, quantity and quality
                                           156
                                                                   Major Research Plan
and breeding.

1. Scientific targets
Overall scientific targets: It is, by implementing multi- and inter-disciplinary studies with
model plants (Arabidopsis, rice, etc.) as research stuff, to investigate the molecular basis of
hormone exerting their biological effect in different levels of hormone metabolism, signal
transduction and signal interaction between hormones, to reveal the molecular mechanism
of hormone regulation on the formation of important plant organs and characters and their
adaptation to environment, and to further understand the basic rules of plant growth and
development.

2. Core scientific issues
Studies will be carried out focusing on the following 6 key scientific issues.
1) Molecular mechanism of destabilization and regulation of plant hormone;
2) Molecular mechanism of signal perception and transduction of plant hormone;
3) Signal interaction network between plant hormones;
4) Molecular basis of hormone regulating the formation of plant important organs;
5) Molecular mechanism of hormone regulation for the adaptation to environment;
6) Composite analysis, ultra micro quantitative detection and in-situ detection.

3. Key research areas to be funded in 2008
In 2008, scientists are encouraged to use model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice as
research materials and to apply for funding in defining specific scientific problems within
the framework of key supporting areas of the Guide to Programs.

Key areas to be supported in 2008
1) Molecular mechanism of destabilization and regulation of plant hormone
Within the body of plant, hormones maintain homeostasis through the metabolic process of
synthesis, modification, transportation and degradation, and then to exert their biological
function. It is the crux to explain the functional mechanism by studying the biochemical
and molecular basis of hormone synthesis, accumulation and distribution process. Aiming
at the scientific problems of hormone metabolism, the Major Research Plan encourages
studies on the synthesis, degradation, translation and modification of hormones and other
important signal molecules, and new type metabolic route of plant hormone (i.e.,
Polypeptide hormones), to analyze the hormone transportation, distribution and dynamic
rule, and key inter linkage nodes between the metabolic routes of hormone and other
materials, and to analyze the gene regulation mechanism of key or important enzyme and
the regulation of hormone signal to hormone metabolism.

2) Molecular mechanism of signal perception and transduction of plant hormone
Most of the processes of plant growth and development regulation and the response to
adversity are related to signal transduction of endogenous hormones. In this respect,
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Major Research Plan
emphasis will be given to researches in the following two aspects: signal perception and
the transduction of hormone. Specific research contents include the study of hormone
receptors and binding protein, identification and functional analysis of new component in
hormone signal transduction, study of the mechanism of hormone transmembrane and
intracellular signal transduction, degeneration mechanism of proteins and RNA
participating in the regulation of hormone signals, etc. It is encouraged to conduct
systematic studies by means of synthesized appliance of techniques and methodology of
genetics, cell biology, biochemistry and bioinformatics.

3) Signal interaction network between plant hormones
There is a complicated interaction relationship among different hormones in many steps
and linkages in the process of metabolism, signal transduction and function. Different
hormone signal routes are always connected and intersected with each other by mutual
signal component, which establishes the complicated and subtle signal interaction network
of plant hormones. This project focuses on the identification of key nodes in the signal
interaction network of hormones to explore the new interaction mechanism and its
biological effect, to study the molecular regulation mechanism of growth and development
and the adaptability by signal interaction between plant hormones, and to verify the
networking system of signal interaction of plant hormones.

4) Molecular basis of hormone regulating the formation of plant important organs
By regulating the morphogenesis of important organs of plant like root, stem, leaf, flower,
fruit, seed, etc., hormones further affect key agricultural characters like crop quantity and
quality. There is one complicated mechanism of physiological regulation within the
process, and molecular genetics provides an important basis for in-depth studies of such
problems. The focus of this study is on the molecular mechanism of hormone regulating
plant organ occurrence and tissue differentiation based on molecular genetics, which takes
Arabidopsis, rice and other model plants as research stuff.

5) Molecular mechanism of hormone regulation for the adaptation to environment
Higher plants have developed their complex and subtle adaptive mechanism during the
long period of evolution. Plant hormone plays a key role during the complicated process of
sensation to the environmental change inside or outside the body, the regulation of the
growth and development differentiation to keep moderate status for life so as to adapt and
withstand poor environmental threatening. This project will focuses on the study of
molecular mechanism of plant hormone function during the process of plant response to
environmental factors, especially to stress the in-depth molecular mechanism of regulation
to plant adaptability under compelling associated plant hormones (ethane, abscisic acid,
jasmonic acid, etc.) and their interaction mechanism.

6) Component analysis, ultra micro quantitative detection and in-situ detection of
plant hormones

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                                                                            Major Research Plan
The ultra micro quantitative detection and in-situ detection technique of plant hormones is
one of the bottle-neck problems restricting plant hormone study in China, this project
therefore will focus on the intercross and cooperation with analytical chemistry and other
relevant subjects to conduct studies on analytical methods of ultra micro quantitative, high
sensitivity, in-situ, instant and dynamic studies on the technology of high-efficiency
separation and pre-concentration, to establish new techniques and methods of separation
and analysis for trace plant hormones based on sub-cellular level and complicated complex
matrix components, to manufacture (including synthesis and preparation ) standard
substances, antagonists and inhibitors necessarily used in the precision detection of plant
hormones and their mid-term products, to formulate the standard for plant hormone
detection, and to establish a high-level technique platform for plant hormone analysis and
detection. Joint studies and interdisciplinary proposals are encouraged.

The Major Research Plan will preferentially support proposals which may
1) Play an important role in accelerating the progress of the overall scientific targets and
the understanding of scientific issues of the Plan;
2) Explore new methodology for solving and further understanding key scientific problems
with creative ideas;
3) Make breakthroughs in the near future on the basis of excellent research in the matured
condition;
4) Encourage interdisciplinary studies.

4. Statistics of application and funding in 2007
In 2007, 121 applications were accepted by the Department of Life Sciences. Among them,
33 are for key funding projects and 88 for fostering projects (27.0% and 73%). Finally, 9
key funding projects and 21 fostering projects were funded, with a total funding of
14,000,000 yuan and 11,400,000 yuan respectively.


             Application and funding of the Major Research Plan of Plant
                                         Hormone in 2007
                                                                             No. of      No. of projects
 Number               Research area                   Program type
                                                                          applications      funded
                 Molecular mechanism of              Fostering project         8               2
    1     destabilization and regulation of plant
                                                    Key funding project        3               1
                         hormone

             Molecular mechanism of signal           Fostering project        15               4
    2
               perception and transduction          Key funding project       11               2

           signal interaction netware of between     Fostering project         5               2
    3
                     plant hormones                 Key funding project        2               1
          Molecular basis of hormone regulation Fostering project             18               7
    4      to the formation of plant important
                         organs                 Key funding project            7               2

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Major Research Plan

            Molecular mechanism of hormone         Fostering project    10             1
    5         regulation for the adaptation to
                                                  Key funding project   6              2
                       environment
             Component analysis, ultra micro       Fostering project    32             5
    6        quantitative detection and in-situ
                         detection                Key funding project   4              1

                                                   Fostering project    88            21
                           Total
                                                  Key funding project   33             9


Problems existed include:
1) Fewer proposals are concerned with obvious creative academic ideas and new technical
methods;
2) The intercrossing studies of different disciplines need to be strengthened .

4. Note to applicants
1) Before filling in the application form, applicants should read the Guide to Programs
carefully. The proposed research should focus on the key areas of this year, indicate the
characteristics of “innovative, fundamental, prospective and intercross-disciplinary study”
of the Major Research Plan and stress on limited targets and focused breakthroughs, as
well as to define the contribution to realizing the overall targets of the Plan and solving
core scientific problems. Application which is out of the range of the Plan will be not
accepted.
2) Projects for the Plan will be funded in the form of fostering projects and key funding
projects. When filling in the application form, „Major Research Plan‟ must be indicated in
the column of funding category „General Program‟ for fostering project or „Key Program‟
for key funding project in the column of sub-category, and “Molecular mechanism of plant
hormone function” in the annotation. Appropriate application code should be selected
according to research contents.
3) Proposals will be handled by the Department of Life Sciences, and the organization of
proposal evaluation will be done by the management team consisting of staff from the
Department of Life Sciences and Department of Chemical Sciences.
4) For the sake of realizing the overall scientific targets of the Plan and the integration of
multidisciplines, applicants should make commitment to share the use of research stuff,
basic data, and experimental facilities. In order to avoid duplicative funding, applicants
should indicate the difference and relevance of their applications with the projects they
have conducted in the National Program for Basic Research or other national programs of
science and technology concerned.
5) The total funding for the Major Research Plan is 150 million yuan for a period of 8
years, and all of the projects should be started in the first 5 years. In 2008, about 30 million
yuan will be used, of which 18 million yuan for key funding projects and 12 million yuan
for fostering projects. The average funding for key funding projects is about 1.8 million
yuan per project, and about 0.6 million yuan for per fostering project.
                                                  160
                                                       Fund for Talented Professionals



                  Fund for Talented
                    Professionals
The fund for talented professionals is an important part of NSFC‟s funding system. It
mainly includes the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (including
those with foreign citizenship), Young Scientists Fund, Fund for Less Developed Regions,
Fund for Creative Research Groups, Joint Research Fund for Overseas, Hong Kong and
Macao Scholars, and National Fund for Talent Training in Basic Science. Please see the
followings for details.


   National Science Fund for Distinguished Young
                      Scholars
The National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars aims at speeding up the
growth of young scientific talents, encouraging overseas Chinese scholars to work in
China and fostering a group of prominent academic pacemakers in the forefront of world
science and technology. The Fund specially supports excellent young Chinese scientists
under the age of 45, who work domestically or abroad but plan to return soon, doing basic
research in natural sciences.

I. Eligibility of applicants:
1. Love the socialist motherland and have good research style and scientific ethics;
2. Younger than 45 by January 1 of the year of application;
3. Generally have Ph.D. degrees or professional titles of associate professor level (or above)
or equivalent technical titles;
4. Have outstanding innovative achievements or creative research results that are
recognized by peers both in China and abroad, have promoted the development of their
own disciplines or relevant disciplines, or have major influence on the national economic
and social development;
5. Have experimental facilities and human and material resources required to conduct
research in China, and have sufficient time and energy to conduct the research proposed;
6. Have citizenship of China, and the employer in Mainland China should be the fixed and
only one of the applicant, work in Mainland China for at least six months each year during
the period of research. Mainland China hereinafter refers to all provinces, autonomous
regions and municipalities directly governed by the State Council of China, excluding
Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions.


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Fund for Talented Professionals
II. Notification
1. The National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars mainly checks on the
academic attainment and creativity of the applicants. In order to ensure fair competition,
please do not fill in the names of the “project group members” in the application form;
2. In the abstract part of the application, please provide “main academic achievements”;
3. This fund belongs to the talent category, so in the project title section, applicant should
put “research area” rather than specific research title;
4. In the appendix section, please provide statistics of the papers indexed and cited.

III. Application submission
Please use the general application form of NSFC‟s project and, according to the Outlines
for Writing Proposals for the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars,
provide accurate information, write the main text and attach relevant supplementary
materials. The academic committee or expert panel of the home institution should make
rigorous selection according to the requirements, and after evaluation and signing the
recommendation, submit the application to NSFC in accordance with requirements
specified in the “Notification on several matters relevant to the application and completion
report for NSFC‟s project in 2008” (abbreviated as the Notification”.


   National Science Fund for Distinguished Young
         Scholars (with foreign citizenship)
In order to give full play to the advantages of overseas scientific and technological talents, attract
young overseas Chinese professionals of high academic level and good potential for further
development to conduct basic research in China, NSFC set up the National Science Fund for
Distinguished Young Scholars (with foreign citizenship) in 2005, supporting Chinese scholars
under the age of 45 and with foreign citizenship to conduct basic research in Mainland China on
full time basis.

Mainland China hereinafter refers to all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly
governed by the State Council of China, excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions.

I. Eligibility of applicants:
1. Have the willingness to make contributions to the development of science and
technology and the economic construction of China, and the capability to work in China
full time during the implementation of the project;
2. Younger than 45 by January 1 of the year of application;
3. Have been officially employed by a host research organization, and, before submitting
application, have no fixed employment in foreign countries, and the home institution is the
only employer of the applicant;
4. Have Ph.D. degrees and have been awarded full professorship or equivalent technical
titles by the home organization;
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                                                       Fund for Talented Professionals
5. Have high academic level, strong organizational capability and are able to master
research directions, have experience of doing research in universities or research institutes
outside China, and have been in charge of several important research projects, have rich
research experiences and research achievements recognized by domestic and international
peers, and are influential in specialized disciplines;
6. Research proposed has clear directions, important scientific meanings, prospects of
development and belonging to international frontier areas, and may promote the
development of relevant disciplines and talent fostering;
7. The home organization has good research support and environment, and can provide
sufficient human and material resources and experimental facilities.

II. Notification
1. The National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars mainly checks on the
academic attainment and ability to grasp the research directions of the applicants. In order
to ensure fair competition, please do not fill in the names of the “project group members”
in the application form;
2. In the abstract part of the application, please provide “main academic achievements”;
3. This fund belongs to the talent category, so in the project title section, applicant should
put “research area” rather than specific research title;
4. In the appendix section, please provide statistics of the papers indexed and cited.

III. Application submission
Please use the general application form of NSFC‟s project and, according to the Outlines
for Writing Proposals for the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars
(with foreign citizenship), provide accurate information, write the main text and attach
relevant supplementary materials. The home institution should check the application, and
verify the state of employment and full-time work of the applicant. The academic
committee or expert panel should make rigorous selection according to the requirements,
and, after evaluation and signing the recommendation, submit the application to NSFC in
accordance with requirements specified in the “Notification”.

The National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars and the National Science
Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (with foreign citizenship) plan to fund 180 people
in 2008. The funding is for 4 years, with a funding amount of 2 million yuan per person
(1.4 million yuan for mathematics and management sciences)


                          Young Scientists Fund
The Young Scientists Fund is the starting fund for young scientists. It aims at stabilizing
young research team, fostering backup talents, supporting independent research,
stimulating creative thinking and continuously strengthening the capability of young
people to make innovation, conduct coordinated research and promote the development of
                                             163
Fund for Talented Professionals
young scientists.

The Young Scientists Fund has about the same application, evaluation and management
mechanism as the General Program. Applicants should be able to do independent research,
and the research group should be consisted of mainly young people. The research period is
3 years in general. Applicants should be less than 35 years old by January 1 of the year of
application (born on or after January 1, 1973). Those who have already had the project of
the Young Scientists Fund (including 1 year Small Grant for Exploratory Studies) can not
apply for this fund again. Applicants should follow the Outlines for Writing the Proposals
for the Young Scientists Fund when writing proposals.

In 2007, the Young Scientists Fund supported 3,336 projects. The total funding was 617.37
million yuan and the success rate of funding increased 5.09% than that in the previous year.
While the number of applications increased by 26.75%, the average funding per project
was 185.1 thousand yuan, which was 43.6 thousand less than that in 2006, and the average
funding rate was 19.74%, which was 1.52% higher. In 2008, the average funding will be
kept at 200 thousand yuan per project, and the rate of funding will be further increased.

                  Statistics of Funding for Young Scientists Fund in 2007
                                                                                       Unit: 10,000 yuan

                                           Projects and funding approved
   Scientific       Proposals                                                                Funding rate
                                                                            Average
  department        received    Projects              Percentage of                              (%)
                                           Funds                           funding per
                                funded                 the total (%)
                                                                             project

     Total           16,896      3,336     61,737          100                18.51             19.74

 Mathematical
  and Physical        1,072       322      6,438          10.43               19.99             30.04
    Sciences
   Chemical
                      1,564       360      6,239          10.11               17.33             23.02
    Sciences
  Life Sciences       6,484      1,138     19,423         31.46               17.07             17.55
 Earth Sciences       1,456       429      8,337          13.50               19.43             29.46
  Engineering
 and Materials        2,931       576      11,670         18.90               20.26             19.65
    Sciences
  Information
                      2,331       391      7,818          12.66               19.99             16.77
    Sciences
 Management
                      1,058       120      1,812           2.94               15.1              11.34
    Sciences




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                                                                Fund for Talented Professionals

Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
The development of young scientists is even more important for the development of
mathematical and physical sciences. The Department has always been paying attention to
fostering and supporting young scientists, and the funding rate has always been higher than
that of General Program projects. In 2008, the Department will maintain higher funding
rate for the Young Scientists Fund so as to give more young people the opportunity to do
independent research, and foster outstanding talents for basic research.


 Funding for Projects of Young Scientists Fund in the Department of Mathematical
                               and Physical Sciences in the Recent Two Years
                                                                                   Unit: 10,000 yuan

                                                      2006                         2007

                  Division                                    Funding                      Funding
                                            No. of                       No. of
                                                      Funds    rate                Funds     rate
                                           projects                     projects
                                                               (%)++                        (%)++

                      Basic mathematics      39        570     36.11      40        630     28.78

                             Applied
  Mathematics
                       mathematics and
                                             32        480     35.16      44        714     31.43
                        computational
                         mathematics

                             General
                                            9+1*       224     34.48      15        296     33.33
                          mechanics

                       Solid mechanics      24+2*      659     22.81      40        874     30.08
   Mechanics
                       Fluid mechanics      21+1*      529     35.48      15        329     25.00


                       Interdisciplinary
                                            3+3*       118     24.00       8        178     19.51
                          mechanics

                         astrophysics         9        308     36.00       9        204     33.33

                        Astronomical
  Astronomy
                      measurements and
                                              5        177     26.32       5        118     27.78
                             celestial
                          mechanics

                      Condensed matter
                                             30        834     32.26      44        949     29.93
                              physics


  Division I of          Atomic and
                                             14        374     35.90      11        251     30.56
    Physics           molecular physics

                              Optics         17        509     32.69      25        551     29.76

                             Acoustics        7        206     30.43      10        229     30.30



                                                      165
Fund for Talented Professionals


                       Basic physics and
                                                    10+1*           212          40.74       15            221      40.54
                        particle physics


                        Nuclear physics
                            and nuclear
  Division II of                                    14+3*           408          33.33       22            475      31.88
                         technology and
     Physics
                            application

                        Particle physics
                        and experimental
                                                        6           168          25.00       10            228      30.30
                            facilities for
                        nuclear physics

                         Plasma physics             7+1*            203          32.00       9             191      30.00

                    Total                        247+12*            5,979        30.49      322        6,438        30.04

                                                                            ++
     Average funding per project                              23.57(23.08 )                             19.99
       *
Notes: Projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
       **
            Not including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
       ++
            Including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies .



                       Department of Chemical Sciences
The Department of Chemical Sciences upholds the principle of people first and fostering
of innovative talents, brings into full play the maintaining and fostering role of the Young
Scientists Fund, and steadily increases the scope according to the idea of controlling a
proper funding level, trying to, on the basis of the funding scale of 2007, further raise the
funding intensity to young scientists. The Young Scientists Fund stresses on supporting
research projects with innovative ideas, giving less weight to research accumulation and
research team evaluation, so as to facilitate the growth of young scientists.

     Funding for Projects of Young Scientists Fund in the Department of Chemical
                                             Sciences in the Recent Two Years
                                                                                                       Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                              Year 2006                              Year 2007
                Divisions                     No. of                                      No. of
                                                            Funds    Funding rate (%)               Funds Funding rate (%)
                                             projects                                    projects

                   Inorganic chemistry         29            708            21.97          41        660         23.43

  Division I
                       Analytical
                                               28            606            20.29          42        730         21.11
                       chemistry


  Division II      Organic chemistry           44           1,095           22.22          65       1,159        25.29



                                                                    166
                                                                                Fund for Talented Professionals

 Division III    Physical chemistry      49           1,122             25.26              67         1,159           25.57


                        Polymer          34           810               21.66              44         806             24.18


 Division IV      Environmental
                                         31           715               18.45              41         700             21.35
                        chemistry


                        Chemical
 Division V                              38           939               14.29              60         1,025           20.20
                    engineering

                Total                    253          5,995             20.19              360        6,239           23.02


  Average funding per project                               23.70                                        17.33




                              Department of Life Sciences
In 2007, the Department of Life Sciences received 6,484 applications for the Young
Scientists Fund in total (6,153 accepted), which was 1,073 more than that in 2006 (an
increase of 19.83%), and 1,129 projects were funded (excluding small grant for
exploratory studies) compared with 808 projects in 2006, with a funding rate of
18.35% and an average funding of 171.4 thousand yuan per project (220 thousand
yuan in 2006). In 2007, the Department allocated 700 thousand yuan in the Young
Scientists Fund to support research in psychology. In the future, the Department will
continue to follow the principle of NSFC Young Scientists Fund to stabilize young
research team, foster backup talents, stimulate innovative thinking, support
independent research and give steady support to young scientists. For details of
application, please see the section of General Program of the Department in this guide.

 Funding for Projects of Young Scientists Fund in the Department of Life Sciences in
                                               the Recent Two Years
                                                                                                         Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                              2006                                          2007
                                                                                                                              Fund
                Division                                                        Fundin
                                           No. of                                           No. of                             ing
                                                              Funds             g rate                        Funds
                                          projects                                    ++
                                                                                           projects                           rate
                                                                                (%)
                                                                                                                          (%)++

                        Microbiology       25+3*              558+24*           15.30        38                649            14.79
  Division I
                           Botany          21+5*              469+40*           19.26       21+2*           351+16*           12.71

                           Ecology         23+2*              505+16*           18.52        36                621            20.69
  Division II
                                                  *
                        Forest science     12+5               261+40*           18.48       19+2*           325+16*           17.07



                                                              167
Fund for Talented Professionals
                       Biochemistry,
                      biophysics and      28+4*          622+32*       16.84       33              560        14.80
                    molecular biology
  Division III
                       Cell biology       35+4*          762+32*       25.32       49              833        31.41
                                                 *                *
                           Genetics       25+4           545+32        20.57       37              624        28.03

                       Immunology          35              773         14.96       46              783        22.77
                     Neuroscience and
                                          43+1*          943+8*        20.56       63             1,081       27.04
                          psychology
  Division IV
                          Biomedical
                                           39              858         17.41       53             1,023       22.46
                        engineering
                        Agricultural
  Division V                              54+1*         1,179+8*       16.08       84             1,428       19.05
                           science
                     Animal husbandry,
                       veterinary and     41+1*          901+8*        15.27      65+2*         1,098+16*     20.00
  Division VI
                      aquatic sciences
                           zoology        10+4*          219+32*       19.18       15              256        18.07
                      Physiology and
                                          93+1*         2,042+8*       14.92       129            2,195       18.45
                          pathology
   Division
                          Preventive
      VII
                       medicine and        58             1,278        15.59       79             1,345       19.80
                          hygienics
   Division            Basic clinical
                                          87+1*         1,908+8*       13.73       120            2,039       16.93
     VIII                 medicine I
                     TCM and materia
                                          56+1*         1,241+8*       13.32       74             1,278       15.38
  Division IX              medica
                      Pharmacology         36              800         14.01      48+2*          813+16*      16.61
                    Basic clinical
  Division X                              87+4*         1,913+32*      13.17     120+1*         2,049+8*      15.36
                    medicine II

                  Total                  808+41*       17,777+328*     15.69     1,129+9*      19, 351+72*    18.50


     Average funding per project                     21.33 (22.00**)                        17.07 (17.14**)

Notes: * Projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
       **
             Average funding for three year projects of Young Scientists Fund.
        ++
             Including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies, calculation is based on the number of
        applications accepted.




                            Department of Earth Sciences
In 2007, the Department of Earth Sciences received 1,456 applications for the Young
Scientists Fund in total from 328 units and funded 429 projects, with the funding rate of
29.5% and the total funding of 83.37 million yuan. In 2007, among the projects of Young
Scientists Fund, universities undertook 197 projects, accounting for 45.92%, and research

                                                         168
                                                                   Fund for Talented Professionals
institutes undertook 218 projects, accounting for 50.82. Continuously fostering outstanding
young scientists is one of the important goals of NSFC. The Department will further
strengthen its funding to young and especially outstanding young talents. The Young
Scientists Fund is mainly for fostering young talents, provides more opportunities for
young scholars in their early career, and supports them to grow faster.

Funding for Projects of Young Scientists Fund in the Department of Earth Sciences in
                                               the Recent Two Years
                                                                                        Unit: 10,000 yuan

                                                      2006                                2007

        Science division
                                        No. of                Funding rate    No. of              Funding
                                                    Funds                               Funds
                                       projects                   (%)        projects             rate (%)


                        Geography
                        (including
 Division I             soil science     109        2,942.0      23.29         196      3,800.0    29.52
                        and remote
                         sensing )

                         Geology         39         1,059.0      28.47         61       1,185.0    29.47
 Division II
                   Geochemistry          24         648.0        28.24         30       596.0      28.85

                    Geophysics
 Division III           and space        23         621.0        29.11         32       618.0      29.63
                          physics

                          Marine
 Division IV                             44         1,188.0      28.03         63       1,226.0    29.44
                          science

                    Atmospheric
 Division V                              34         918.0        28.10         47       912.0      29.56
                          science

                Total                    273        7,376.0      26.07         429      8,337.0    29.46

  Average funding per project                        27.02                               19.43




Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences
In 2007, the Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences received 2,932
applications for the Young Scientists Fund, which was 35.13% more than that in 2006, a
rather high increase. It funded 576 projects, with a total funding of 116.70 million yuan.
The average funding per project was 202.6 thousand yuan and the funding rate was
19.65%. In order to encourage innovation, foster young research talents and ensure a high
approval rate and funding intensity of the Young Scientists Fund, the Department, when
drafting the plan for 2008, adopted the policy of “maintaining the funding scale for
General Program and increasing its funding intensity, and expanding the funding scale of
the Young Scientists Fund and raising its funding rate and maintaining its funding
intensity”.

                                                        169
Fund for Talented Professionals
Funding for Projects of Young Scientists Fund in the Department of Engineering and
                    Materials Sciences in the Recent Two Years
                                                                   Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                               2006                                   2007
                                                                            Funding
                  Division                       No. of                                No. of                      Funding
                                                             Funds           rate                  Funds
                                                projects                              projects                     rate (%)++
                                                                             (%)++
                                Metallic
Materials Science I                              26+3*       716.00          16.11      48        1,028.00           19.59
                               materials
                             Inorganic non
                                                 43+8*      1,166.00         17.35     79+1*      1,590.00           19.05
    Materials              metallic materials
    Science II             Organic polymer
                                                 29+3*       809.00          18.18      48        1,010.00           19.75
                               materials
   Engineering               Metallurgy and
                                                  22         551.00          14.01      41         800.00            20.30
     Science I               mining science
   Engineering                Mechanical
                                                 65+1*      1,651.00         17.89      100       2,000.00           20.41
    Science II                engineering
                              Engineering
   Engineering
                             thermo physics      32+6*       880.00          18.10      59        1,180.00           20.14
    Science III
                             and energy use
                             Architecture,
   Engineering             environment and
                                                  72        1,901.00         15.55      118       2,405.00           18.73
    Science IV                 structural
                              engineering
                               Hydrology         29+3*       745.00          18.93      46         920.00            19.41
   Engineering
                               Electrical
    Science V                                     23         610.00          15.23      36         737.00            21.05
                              engineering
                   Total                        341+24*     9,029.00         16.83    575+1*      11,670.00          19.65
                                                                       **
     Average funding per project                           24.74 (25.72 )                        20.26 (20.27**)

Notes: * Projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
        **
             Not including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
        ++
             Including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.



                  Department of Information Sciences
In 2007, the number of applications for the Young Scientists Fund in the Department of
Information Sciences had a large increase. 2,331 were accepted, which was 581 or 33.2%
more than that in 2006. Among them, Division III had an increase of 43.16%. The
Department, on the basis of maintaining the average funding of about 200 thousand per
project (including small grant for exploratory studies), allocated from the discretionary
budget of the Department 17.52 million yuan to fund young scientists projects, so as to
maintain the same funding rate as in 2006. In 2007, 391 projects were funded, including 26
small grants, with an average funding rate of 16.77%. In 2008, the Department will
                                            170
                                                                             Fund for Talented Professionals
continue to pay attention to applications for Young Scientist Fund, and ensure the funding
rate about the same or higher than that of the General Program projects.

   Funding for Projects of Young Scientists Fund in the Department of Information
                                            Sciences in the Recent Two Years
                                                                                                    Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                              2006                                   2007

                   Division                     No. of               Funding rate      No. of               Funding rate++
                                                            Funds                ++
                                                                                                   Funds
                                               projects                    (%)        projects                    (%)++

                        Electronics and
                    communication system
  Division I                                    85+11*      2,132          19.16      101+2*       2,177          15.35
                    Signal and new types of
                    information processing
                      Computer science

  Division II            Network and            84+14*      2,159          17.92      111+9*       2,213          17.14

                     information security
                      Control theory and
                      control engineering
                      System science and
 Division III                                   54+11*      1,383          19.76       82+2*       1,659          17.80
                      system engineering
                       AI and intelligent
                              system
                    Semiconductor science
                    and information devices
                    Information optics and
 Division IV                                     56+7*      1,573          16.90      71+13*       1,769          17.21
                     photoelectric devices
                     Laser technology and
                        technical optics

                     Total                      279+43*     7,247          18.40      365+26*      7,818          16.77
                                                                     **                                     **
     Average funding per project                          22.51 (24.79 )                         20.00 (20.92 )
       *
Notes: Projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
           **
                Not including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
           ++
                Including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.



                    Department of Management Sciences
In 2007, the Department of Management Sciences accepted 1,058 applications for the
Young Scientists Fund, accounting for 25.24% of the total in General Program, Young
Scientists Fund and Regional Fund. While the total number of applications in the
Department kept constant, applications for Young Scientists Fund increased 18.48%. After
evaluation, 120 projects were funded, which was 11.11% increase compared with 108

                                                              171
Fund for Talented Professionals
projects in 2006, much higher than the 3.7% increase for General Program. They accounts
for 23.95% of the total projects in General Program, Young Scientists Fund and Regional
Fund of the Department, which is higher than 22.01% in 2005 and 22.78% in 2006. The
total funding was 18.12 million yuan, about the same as 18.18 million yuan in 2006. The
funding was 19.34% of the total for General Program, Young Scientists Fund and Regional
Fund in the Department, which was slightly lower than 21.46% in 2006. The funding
intensity was 151 thousand yuan per project, which was also lower than that in 2006. In
2007, the funding scale expansion in the Young Scientists Fund reflected the policy of
giving preferential support to young scholars, and was in accordance with the policy of
“proper increase of funding scale and lowering the funding intensity” of NSFC. However,
since the number of applications for Young Scientists Fund increased so much, the average
funding intensity was lower.

The Division I of the Department accepted 305 applications for the Young Scientists Fund,
which was an increase of 22.98% from 248 in 2006, and funded 40 projects. The Division
II accepted 359 applications, which was an increase of 26.41% from 284 in 2006, and
funded 41 projects. The Division III accepted 394 applications, which was an increase of
9.1% from 361 in 2006, and funded 39 projects. Please see the following table for the
funding of the Young Scientists Fund in the last two years.

In 2008, we shall fund more projects through the Young Scientists Fund, and slightly
increase the funding amount per project.

The requirements given in the general description of the General Program in the
Department of Management Sciences in this guide also apply here, so please read carefully
before applying.


  Funding for Projects of Young Scientists Fund in the Department of Management
                                       Sciences in the Recent Two Years
                                                                                           Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                        2006                                2007
                  Division                   No. of              Funding         No. of             Funding
                                                       Funds                               Funds
                                            projects             rate (%)       projects            rate (%)
                      Management
    Division I        science and             37        610        14.92          40        606      13.11
                      engineering
                      Business
    Division II                               35        595        12.32          41        619      11.42
                      administration
                      Macro-management
   Division III       and policy              36        613        9.97           39        587       9.90

                   Total                      108      1,818       12.09          120      1,812     11.34

      Average funding per project                       16.83                               15.10

Notes: Statistics all include projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.

                                                       172
                                                              Fund for Talented Professionals

                  Fund for Less Developed Regions
The aim of setting up the Fund for Less Developed Regions is to strengthen support to
scientists working in the remote areas and minority regions where research foundation is
weak, which currently includes such provinces and minority autonomous regions as Inner
Mongolia, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet, Guangxi, Hainan, Guizhou, Jiangxi and
Yunnan, and Yanbian Korean Prefecture. The Fund is used to stabilize and foster
researchers in these regions, support and gather outstanding talents by supporting their
research, and serve the construction of innovation system and coordinated development of
science and technology in these regions. Its characteristics is the promotion of talent
training and development by using the model of the management for General Program in
coordination with national major strategic plan of coordinated regional development and
by strengthening the communication and cooperation with local governments The research
period is 3 years in general. Please follow the outlines of the application for the Fund for
Less Developed Regions when filling in the application form.

In 2007, 559 projects were funded, with a total amount of 101.96 million yuan. The
number of funded projects increased by 0.8% compared with that in 2006. The average
funding per project was 182.4 thousand yuan, 43.5 thousand yuan less than that in 2006.
The funding rate was 19.47%, 3.70% higher than that in 2006. In 2008, the average
funding per project will be increased to 250 thousand per project and the funding rate will
be gradually increased in the future.

          Funding for Projects of the Fund for Less Developed Regions in 2007
                                                                                      Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                               Projects and funding approved

   Scientific        No. of                                                     Average       Funding
                                                             Percentage
  department      applications    No. of                                       funding per    rate (%)
                                            Total funding    of the total
                                 projects                                        project
                                                                (%)


     Total           2,871         559         10,196            100              18.24        19.47

  Mathematics
  and Physical        111          30           595             5.84              19.83        27.03
    Sciences
   Chemical
                      238          49           869             8.52              17.73        20.59
    Sciences
  Life Sciences      1,793         326          5,817           57.05             17.84        18.18
 Earth Sciences       177          45           756             7.41              16.8         25.42
  Engineering
 and Materials        269          59           1,254           12.30             21.25        21.93
    Sciences
  Information
                      161          31           596             5.85              19.23        19.25
    Sciences
  Management
                      122          19           309             3.03              16.26        15.57
    Sciences

                                                  173
Fund for Talented Professionals

Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
The Fund for Less Developed Regions in mathematical and physical sciences is aimed at
creating good research environment for these regions, fostering and stabilizing an
appropriate amount of researchers, fostering talents in basic research for local scientific
and technology development, and increasing the capability of solving urgent scientific
problems in the development of national economy. In project review, special attention is
paid to the construction of research teams and researches which have good basis with
characteristics and relative strength.

Please find the followings for the funding in the last two years in various disciplines of the
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.


 Funding for Projects of the Fund for Less Developed Regions in the Department of
                    Mathematical and Physical Sciences in 2006 and 2007
                                                                                  Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                      2006                         2007

                Division                                      Fundin                      Funding
                                           No. of                       No. of
                                                      Funds   g rate              Funds     rate
                                          projects                     projects
                                                               (%)                          (%)

                    Basic mathematics        5         102    33.33       6        115      37.5

  Mathematics          Applied and
                      computational          7         148    25.92       7        140     38.88
                       mathematics

                    General mechanics


                     Solid mechanics         4         139    33.33       2        40      28.57
   Mechanics
                     Fluid mechanics         2         61     66.67       2        41      40.00

                     Interdisciplinary
                                                                          1        19      50.00
                           mechanics

                       Astrophysics          2         60     33.33       2        40      33.33

   Astronomy           Astronomical
                    measurements and
                    celestial mechanics

                     Condensed matter
                                             1         25     11.11       4        80      21.05
                            physics

                           Atomic and
                                             1         22     33.33       0         0        0
    Physics I        molecular physics

                             Optics          3         78     42.86       2        40      33.33

                           Acoustics         1         36      100        0         0        0




                                                     174
                                                                               Fund for Talented Professionals
                           Basic physics and
                                                        2             51        50.00          3           60        50.00
                            particle physics
                          Nuclear physics and
                          nuclear technology                                                   1           20        50.00
                            and application
    Physics II
                          Particle physics and
                              experimental
                                                        1             29       100.00
                          facilities for nuclear
                                  physics
                            Plasma physics

                     Total                              29           751        26.61         30          595        27.03

       Average funding per project                                  25.90                                 19.83




                        Department of Chemical Sciences
On the basis of stabilizing the funding scale of the Fund for Less Developed Regions,
the Department of Chemical Sciences will make efforts to further increase the research
level and efficiency of the Fund, stabilize a batch of research talents for basic research,
and continuously reduce the gap with developed regions. Applicants are encouraged to
do research related to the local resources so as to promote the economic development
of the regions.

 Funding for Projects of the Fund for Less Developed Regions in the Department of
                        Chemical Sciences in 2006 and 2007
                                                                   Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                             2006                                         2007
               Division                                                 Funding rate                              Funding rate
                                          No. of projects    Funds                      No. of projects   Funds
                                                                            (%)                                       (%)
                 Inorganic chemistry               3          71            11.11             6            104       19.35
 Division I
                Analytical chemistry               4          86            22.22             5            97        21.74
Division II      Organic chemistry                 11         255           19.64             17           304       21.52
Division III     Physical chemistry                7          158           21.88             9            151       20.00
                  Polymer sciences                 2          50            18.18             1            20        16.67
Division IV        Environmental
                                                   4          83            20.00             6            102       20.00
                     chemistry
Division V Chemical engineering                    6          163           17.14             5            91        20.83

                Total                              37         866           18.59             49           869       20.59

  Average funding per project                                23.40                                        17.33




                               Department of Life Sciences
In 2007, there were 1,793 applications to the Department of Life Sciences for the Fund
for Less Developed Regions (1,636 were accepted), which was 155 more than that in
                                                               175
Fund for Talented Professionals
2006 (an increase of 9.46%). 326 projects were funded (238 in 2006), including 6 within
the Joint Fund for Less Developed Regions, the funding rate was 19.93% and the
average funding was 178.4 thousand yuan per project (220.4 thousand yuan per project
in 2006). In the future, the Department will continue to give steady support to
researchers in less developed regions, and encourage researches related to local
resources and natural conditions. For details, please look at the sections in the General
Program of the Department in this guide to program.


 Funding for Projects of the Fund for Less Developed Regions in the Department of
                                           Life Sciences in 2006 and 2007
                                                                                                   Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                                  2006                                2007

                 Division                                                     Funding                         Funding
                                                  No. of                                 No. of
                                                                Funds          rate                  Funds     rate
                                                 projects                               projects
                                                                               (%)++                           (%)++
                          Microbiology             10             216          14.29      14          252      18.92
  Division I
                             Botany                10             216          14.29      18          317      19.35
                            Ecology               13+1*        315+8*          18.42      13          255      20.63
  Division II
                       Forest science             9 +1*        207+8*          14.93      16          273      20.00

                  Biochemistry, biophysics
                                                    4             86           14.29       6          109      18.75
                   and molecular biology

 Division III             Cell biology              4             83           14.81       5           85      20.00
                            Genetics                5             105          14.71       7          123      19.44
                          Immunology                6             124          15.00       7          123      19.44
                     Neuroscience and
                                                    4             84           12.50       5           89      19.23
  Division IV              psychology
                   Biomedical engineering           3             59           15.79       4           65      21.05
  Division V        Agricultural science           38             825          14.23      55          996      20.45
                      Animal husbandry,
                    veterinary and aquatic         28             660          16.00      36          666      20.93
  Division VI                sciences
                            Zoology                 6             130          14.29       7          126      18.92
                      Physiology and
                                                   19             411          14.29      21          358      20.00
                            pathology
 Division VII
                  Preventive medicine and
                                                   18             392          14.17      25          459      20.33
                            hygienics
 Division VIII    Basic clinical medicine I        12             272          13.64      24          409      20.00
                     TCM and material
                                                   24             525          14.12      33          583      19.30
  Division IX                medica
                       Pharmacology                 9             192          14.52      10          181      18.87

                          Basic clinical
  Division I                                       16             343          14.41      20          348      19.61
                           medicine II

                  Total                           238+2*      5,245+16*        14.65      326        5,817     19.93

       Average funding per project                          21.92 (22.04**)                           17.84
                                                            176
                                                                Fund for Talented Professionals
Notes: * Projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
         **
            Not including the projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
         ++
            Including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies, and calculation is based on the number
         of applications.
         In 2007, there is no Small Fund for Exploratory Studies in the Fund for Less Developed Regions.



                         Department of Earth Sciences
In 2007, the Department of Earth Sciences accepted a total of 166 applications for the
Fund for Less Developed Regions from 70 universities and research institutions, and
funded 45 projects with the funding rate of 25.4% and a total funding of 7.56 million yuan.
Among the funded projects, 35 are from universities, accounting for 77.78%, and 9 from
research institutes, accounting for 20%. In 2008, while maintaining the funding rate, the
funding intensity per project will be increased.


 Funding for Projects of the Fund for Less Developed Regions in the Department of
                                       Earth Sciences in 2006 and 2007
                                                                                      Unit: 10,000 yuan

                                                      2006                             2007

                Division                                      Fundin
                                            No. of                        No. of                  Funding
                                                      Funds   g rate                  Funds
                                           projects                      projects                 rate (%)
                                                               (%)
                   Geology (including
  Division I        soil science and         16       368.0    14.29        29         487.0       25.22
                    remote sensing)

                           Geology            2       46.0     14.29        4          67.0        28.57
  Division II
                     Geochemistry             2       46.0     16.67        3          50.0         25.0

                  Geophysics and space
 Division III                                 1       23.0     25.0         2          33.0        28.57
                           physics

 Division IV         Marine Science           1       23.0     20.0         1          17.0         25.0


  Division V      Atmospheric Science         3       84.0     15.79        6          102.0        24.0


                 Total                       25       590.0    15.06        45         756.0       25.42

      Average funding per project                     23.60                            16.80




Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences
In 2007, the Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences accepted 269 applications for the
Fund for Less Developed Regions (15 rejected) with a small increase compared with that in 2006.
Applications in mining science and metallurgy, architecture, environmental and structural

                                                      177
Fund for Talented Professionals
engineering, mechanical engineering and hydrology account for a large percentage of the total,
which reflected strong regional features and the character of applied research of the projects in the
Department. In order to foster basic research talents in less developed regions and encourage basic
research related to local economic development, the Department adopted some preferential policies
for the less developed regions when establishing the funding plan, namely, increasing the funding
rate while maintaining relatively high funding intensity. The Department funded 59 projects with
12.54 million yuan. The average amount of funding per project is 212.5 thousand yuan with a
funding rate of 21.93%.


 Funding for Projects of the Fund for Less Developed Regions in the Department of
                       Engineering and Materials Sciences in 2006 and 2007
                                                                                           Unit: 10,000 yuan
                                                            2006                            2007
                   Division                                          Funding                          Funding
                                               Projects    Funds                Projects   Funds
                                                                     rate (%)                         rate (%)
                                Metallic
   Materials Science I                            5        125.00     16.13        7       140.00      21.21
                                materials
                              Inorganic and
                              non-metallic        6        155.00     18.75        6       160.00      23.08
  Materials Science II          materials
                                Polymer
                                                  3        82.00      12.00        6       129.00      26.09
                                materials

                               Metallurgy
  Engineering cience I         and mining         8        222.00     22.86        9       180.00      21.43
                                 science

                               Mechanical
  Engineering cience II                           5        134.00     12.82        8       160.00      19.51
                               engineering

                               Engineering
                                 thermo
      Engineering
                               physics and        1        27.00       6.67        2        40.00      22.22
       cience III
                                 energy
                               utilization

                              Architecture,
      Engineering             environmental
                                                  3        81.00       7.32       10       220.00      20.83
       cience IV              and structural
                               engineering

                               Hydrology          7        164.00     20.59        8       165.00      24.24
  Engineering cience V          Electrical
                                                  2        49.00      15.38        3        60.00      21.43
                               engineering

                    Total                        40       1,039.00    15.09       59       1,254.00    21.93

       Average funding per project                         25.98                            21.25




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                                                                              Fund for Talented Professionals

                     Department of Information Sciences
In 2007, the number of applications for the Fund for Less Developed Regions in the
Department of Information Sciences had a large increase with 161 accepted, which were
52 more than that in 2006 and an increase of 47.71%. In order to maintain the funding rate
and funding level for regional projects, the Department allocated 1.05 million yuan more
from its discretionary budget to fund regional projects. In 2007, 31 projects were funded,
including 2 small grants, with a funding rate of 19.25% and an average funding of 193
thousand per project (2 small grants are included). In 2008, the Department will continue
to give preferential support to the Fund for Less Developed Regions, and try to ensure its
funding rate higher than that of the General Program. All eligible researchers are welcome
to apply.


  Funding for Projects of the Fund for Less Developed Regions in the Department of
                                  Information Sciences in the Recent Two Years
                                                              2006                                   2007
                  Division                                            Funding rate                           Funding rate
                                              No. of projects Funds                  No. of projects Funds
                                                                           (%)++                                  (%)++
                      Electronics and
                  communication system
Division I                                        5+2*         135         31.81           8         159          17.39
                  Signal and new type of
                  information processing
                     Computer science
Division II Network and information               8+2*         206         19.61         12+1*       244          18.57
                            security
                    Control theory and
                    control engineering

Division III        System science and            3+1*         80          22.22         3+1*         73          19.05
                    system engineering
                 AI and intelligent systems

                  Semiconductor science
                  and information devices
                  Information optics and
Division IV                                         4          107         22.20           6         120          25.00
                   photoelectric devices
                   Laser technology and
                      technical optics
                    Total                         20+5*        528         22.94         29+2*       596          19.25
                                                                      **                                     **
    Average funding per project)                          21.12 (24.55 )                         19.23 (20.03 )
       *
Notes: Projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
           **
                Not including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.
           ++
                Including projects of Small Fund for Exploratory Studies.




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Fund for Talented Professionals

                  Department of Management Sciences
In 2007, the Department of Management Sciences accepted 122 applications for the Fund
for Less Developed Regions, which was 6.9% lower compared to 131 applications in 2006,
accounting for 2.91% of the total applications for projects of General Programs, Young
Scientists Fund and Fund for Less Developed Regions. In 2007, 19 projects were funded, 2
more than that in 2006. The total funding reached 3.09 million yuan, a little more than 2.95
million yuan in 2006. The average funding is 162.6 thousand yuan per project, and the
funding rate is 15.57%, which is the highest among the General Program, Young Scientists
Fund and Fund for Less Developed Regions, reflecting the preferential policy to
researchers in less developed regions.

In 2007, the Division I of Management Science accepted 25 applications for the Fund for
Less Developed Regions, which is an increase of 66.67% compared with 15 applications in
2006, and 4 were approved. The Division II accepted 16 applications, a decrease of 38.5%
compared with 26 applications in 2006, and 3 were approved. The Division III accepted 81
applications, a decrease of 10% compared with 90 applications in 2006, and 12 were
approved. Please look at the following table for the funding of the Fund for Less
Developed Regions in the last two years.

In 2008, the Department will increase the funding amount per project and the total number
of projects will be decided according to the actual number of applications.

The requirements given in the general description of the General Program in the
Department of Management Sciences in this guide is also valid for applying for the Fund,
so applicants are requested to read carefully.


 Funding for Projects of the Fund for Less Developed Regions in the Department of
                                      Management Sciences in 2006 and 2007
                                                          2006                              2007
            Division                      No. of                 Funding rate    No. of             Funding
                                                    Funds                                  Funds
                                         projects                    (%)        projects            rate    (%)
                         Management
   Division I            science and        2        34             13.33          4        70         16
                         engineering
                          Business
  Division II                               3        51             11.54          3        53        18.75
                     administration
                           Macro
  Division III           management        12        210            13.33         12        186       14.81
                         and policy

                 Total                     17        295            12.98         19        309       15.57

  Average funding per project                          17.35                                16.26

Note: No projects of Small Grant for Exploratory Studies in the Fund for Less Developed Region were
     funded.


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                                                       Fund for Talented Professionals

      Science Fund for Creative Research Groups
In order to provide steady support to frontier research topics in basic science and to foster
and bring up researchers and research groups with innovative abilities, NSFC has set up
the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups.

The Fund supports research groups which carry out basic research or applied basic
research in China focusing on key research orientations and which have prominent young
scientists as pacemakers or backbones.

Candidates for the Fund are recommended by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry
of Education, China Association for Science and Technology and the scientific
departments of NSFC.

Candidates recommended should submit applications and supplementary materials, and fill
in the general application form of NSFC with accurate information in accordance with the
Outline for writing the application form for the Science Fund for Creative Research
Groups. After checking and commenting by relative home institutions, application forms
shall be sent to NSFC.

The Fund plans to finance around 28 groups in 2008. The funding for each group is 5
million yuan for 3 years (3.5 million yuan per group for mathematics and management
sciences).


    Joint Research Fund for Overseas Chinese
  Scholars and Scholars in Hong Kong and Macao
In order to take advantage of the overseas (including Hong Kong and Macao) resources of
science and technology and encourage overseas excellent young scholars to work to the
interest of our motherland, from the year 2008 on, NSFC will combine the projects
financed by the Joint Research Fund for Overseas Chinese Young Scholars and the Joint
Research Fund for Hong Kong and Macao Young Scholars with the “Two-base” projects
under the category of International Cooperation and Exchange Program, giving birth to the
Joint Research Fund for Overseas Chinese Scholars and Scholars in Hong Kong and
Macao, which supports overseas (including Hong Kong and Macao) excellent scholars
under the age of 50 to conduct high-level joint research with researchers in mainland
China.

I. Eligibility for application
Overseas Chinese scholars applying for the Joint Research Fund for Overseas Chinese
Scholars and Scholars in Hong Kong and Macao should meet all the following
requirements:
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Fund for Talented Professionals
1. Cherishing the love for the socialist motherland and advocating fine academic style and
scientific ethics;
2. Doing research abroad, in Hong Kong or in Marco, but can guarantee working in the
mainland for more than two months every year in general;
3. Under the age of 50 by January 1 of the year of application;
4. Holding professional titles of associate professor level (or above) in that country (or
region), chairing a laboratory or an important research project abroad (copies of certificate
of professional title and awarding documents of the on-going project should be provided.);
5. Having made innovative academic achievements or scientific and technological results
that are recognized by international peers, the proposed research is on the international
research frontier, enjoying necessary basis for cooperation with partners at the mainland
China who should exhibit equivalent high-level research capabilities;
6. Having fixed down the home institution in mainland China (home institution refers to
the institution where the collaborator in mainland China works) and signed a cooperative
agreement. In the agreement, the following main points should be mutually agreed upon:
1) The title, research orientation and proposed goals of the joint research project;
2) The home institution should provide main experimental facilities, human resources and
other materials necessary for the joint research;
3) The applicant should work in the home institution for more than 2 months every year.

II. Mode of funding
The Joint Research Fund for Overseas Chinese Scholars and Scholars in Hong Kong and
Macao adopts the “2+4” model, namely, 200,000 yuan will be provided for the first two
years, and, after the successive procedures of application, oral defense and evaluation at
the end of the first two years, 800,000 to 1,200,000 yuan will be given for another 4 years
to those projects playing an active role at the forefront of international academic research,
enjoying substantial collaborative research, displaying high potential for further
development, in accordance with the percentage of not exceeding 25% of the total number
of projects financed by this fund in the first two years.

III. Notification
1. The Joint Research Fund for Overseas Chinese Scholars and Scholars in Hong Kong and
Macao mainly evaluates the academic level of the applicants and the basis for cooperation.
The applicants should first find their collaborators and home institutions in mainland
China and sign the agreement of cooperation with them before applying for the Fund.
3. Information about the collaborators should be filled in the first line of the “Group
Members”.
4. Names of the applicants‟ institutions and the applicants‟ professional titles should be
written in English.
5. One applicant and his/her collaborator may only apply for one project at a time. Besides,
they should have no on-going project of this category (including projects financed by the
Joint Research Fund for Overseas Chinese Young Scholars and the Joint Research Fund for

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                                                       Fund for Talented Professionals
Hong Kong and Macao Young Scholars, and the “Two-base” projects).

IV. Application and submission
In filling in the application form for the National Natural Science Fund which is used for
the Joint Research Fund for Overseas Chinese Scholars and Scholars in Hong Kong and
Macao, applicants should provide accurate information and relevant supplementary
materials according to the requirements of the Outlines for writing applications for the
Joint Research Fund for Overseas Chinese Scholars and Scholars in Hong Kong and
Macao. The application shall be submitted to NSFC via the applicants‟ home institutions.

The academic committees or expert panels of the cooperative institutions should make
rigorous checks on the applicants and their collaborators and provide comments in
accordance with the regulatory conditions. The research management departments of the
home institutions send the electronic-form applications to NSFC after the confirmation of
the electronic information, and then they should send one copy of the applications in paper
form and supplementary materials (including agreements) to NSFC.

The Joint Research Fund for Overseas Chinese Scholars and Scholars in Hong Kong and
Macao plans to provide 80 awards in 2008. Each award lasts for 2 years, proffering an
amount funding of 200,000 yuan.


National Science Fund for Talent Training in Basic
                    Science
The National Science Fund for Talent Training in Basic Science accepts applications from
the national bases for talent training in basic science (including experimental bases).

In 2008, the Fund plans to finance 12 facility construction projects, 20 capability-
enhancing projects and 8-10 teacher-training projects. The total funding is 51.80 million
yuan.


I. Projects and requirements
1. Project of facility-construction for talent fostering
This type of projects is intended to build a platform for fostering innovative talents with
unique advantages and characteristics by fostering practical capability as the starting point,
with a view to promoting the coordinated development of knowledge, capability and
quality and providing strong support for high-quality innovative talents for our country.
The priority is directed to applications received from the western and northeastern parts of
China.

Project contents: teaching ideas of undergraduate practice and goals of training,

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Fund for Talented Professionals
experimental education system and contents, facility construction and its educational
functions, targets, etc.
Number of projects: 12 in 2008.
Funding: 1.2 million yuan per project for 3 years.

2. Project of capability-enhancing
Capability-enhancing projects comprise two parts: one is for scientific training of
undergraduate students in basic disciplines and the other is for enhancing practical
fieldwork capabilities in earth sciences and biology.

1) Project of scientific training
It aims at promoting the integration of research and education, strengthening the training
of scientific research capabilities and improving the comprehensive qualities of
undergraduates. Universities should make full use of existing research platforms such as
national, provincial and ministerial key labs, experimental teaching centers, etc., to
encourage teachers, especially key teaching staff, to strengthen the scientific research
training of undergraduate students in basic scientific disciplines through research projects
and integration with SRT projects in universities, so as to achieve a coordinated
development of knowledge, capability and quality of undergraduates.
Project contents: ideas about the scientific research training of undergraduate students,
basis states, and main contents, planning, targets of research training, etc.
Project requirements: applications should be made through university departments with
the instructors as responsible persons of the sub-projects.
Number of projects: 14 in 2008.
Funding: 1.8 million yuan per project for 3 years.

2) Project of enhancing fieldwork capabilities
Set up for earth science and biology, the project aims at improving the capabilities of
students in fieldwork and solving practical problems. This project encourages the sharing
of resources among universities, joint training, and making effective complementary use of
regional strength and the strength of individual universities. The principal application unit
should have the capability of receiving students from other units to participate in the field
work.
Project contents: natural advantages of field bases, original foundation, practice contents
and relevant arrangements, ability to receive training and relevant plans and target, etc.
Number of projects: 6 (2 in earth science and 4 in life science) in 2008.
Funding: 1.8 million yuan per project for 3 years.

3. Project of backbone teachers’ training
On the basis of the Tenth Five-Year Plan, this project continues to support the training of
young teachers. Through seminars on basic courses and training classes, this project is
intended to strengthen the academic and teaching capabilities of young teachers. Teachers

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                                                      Fund for Talented Professionals
from the western parts and remote regions of China are encouraged to take part in this type
of project in the hope of strengthening the radiating effects.
Project contents: training, exchange activities and seminars for young backbone teachers,
such as basic courses, experimental classes, research training, and basic research in
mathematics, physics, chemistry, earth sciences and biology.
Project requirements: This program uses contract method to appoint relevant universities
to implement the projects and make summaries. Eligible science bases are welcome to
submit applications.
Number of projects: 8-10 projects in 2008.
Funding: 100,000-200,000 yuan per project.




                                           185
International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange


    International (Regional)
   Cooperation and Exchange
In 2008, funding of international collaboration in NSFC will continue to implement the
scientific concept of development and the 24-character working principles, while focusing
on the core task of science funding. It will carry through the four major strategies in the
new period and actively encourage undertakers of NSFC projects to conduct extensive and
fruitful international cooperation and exchange. It will strive to draw in an extensive range
of international research resources to boost original innovative capabilities of basic
research in China. In line with the overall planning of its Eleventh Five-Year Plan, NSFC
will keep playing a guiding role for substantial international cooperation and pushing
ahead its shift to strategic cooperation. The following tasks will be given priority in 2008:
1) Continue to strengthen the organization and implementation of substantial joint research
projects and facilitate researchers to make full use of global scientific and research
resources;
2) Give full play to the key role of bi/multilateral cooperative agreements, consolidate
strategic cooperation with overseas funding organizations, and plan and organize
substantial joint research projects at a higher level and of better quality.
3) Adopt the management of excellence approach, further standardize the examination and
approval procedures and strictly implement the budgeting system, so as to improve the
environment for international collaboration in science funding and the managerial
efficiency.

Those who undertake NSFC projects of General, Key and Major Programs, Young
Scientists Fund, Regional Fund, National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars
and Creative Research Group are qualified to apply for NSFC international collaboration
fund.

Please refer to NSFC website for detailed information concerning the requirements for
applicants and management regulations of various programs, the main mission of the
Bureau of International Cooperation (BIC), its organizational structure and related
responsibilities, general information on the agreements signed between NSFC and its
partners abroad, and the list of agreements.

The “Two Base Program” was merged into “Joint Research Fund for Overseas, Hong
Kong and Macao Scholars” on January 1, 2008. Applications for this program are no
longer accepted thereafter.

In 2008, only applications for Major International     (Regional) Cooperation Projects are
                                            186
                               International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange
received during NSFC‟s concentrated application period.


                             Project Categories
1. Joint Research Project
This program aims at encouraging NSFC grantees to participate in extensive international
cooperation and exchange activities, promote scientific innovation, talent training and
disciplinary build-up of the on-going NSFC projects, and enhance their research capability,
so as to strive for breakthroughs in cutting edge areas. Meanwhile, it encourages scientists
to maintain sound bi/multilateral relations with overseas science funding organizations and
international organizations through the cooperation and exchange.

The Program funds Chinese scientists to carry out joint research with foreign scientists on
subjects of common interests and relative to NSFC ongoing projects through information
and data exchange, personnel exchange as well as cooperation in lab activities.

2. Major International (Regional) Cooperation Program
The strategic position of this program is to speed up the growth of original innovative
capability and enhance international competitiveness of basic research in China through
substantial joint research; to organize and participate in regional and global scientific
activities in order to help Chinese scientific community and NSFC to have a proper place
and voice in the international S&T innovation system, to foster and train a batch of
distinguished scientists of international influence at the forefront of science, and to
consolidate the cooperative relationship between NSFC and overseas corresponding
scientific institutions and international S&T organizations, and to contribute to Chinese
overall diplomatic work.

Researchers applying for this program shall put forward innovative joint research subjects
around major scientific issues, and clarify the necessity and complementality of the
cooperation according to the priority areas of NSFC. The partners shall have long and
stable collaborative basis and the overseas partners shall have matching fund for this
research. In the process of research cooperation, emphasis shall be given to the protection
of intellectual property rights.

The average funding intensity of this program is around 1-2 million yuan and each usually
lasts 3-4 years.

3. International Conferences (including those within the framework of MoUs)
To enhance the international reputation and competitiveness of basic research in China,
create an environment conducive to the development of basic research as well as foster
scientists of international visibility and cutting edge innovative research groups, NSFC
funds its project undertakers to hold international conferences in China, aiming to improve
                                            187
International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange
the research quality of NSFC projects and expand their international impact.
To facilitate the wide participation of NSFC project undertakers in international
cooperation and exchange, this fund supports Chinese scientists to organize and hold
various bi/multilateral academic conferences. These conferences shall be closely connected
with NSFC projects, and the themes of these conferences shall be of major significance to
the progress of relative disciplines in China, in line with NSFC priority areas, and facilitate
the implementation of major research plans. NSFC also supports its project undertakers to
organize and take part in academic workshops held in China or abroad within the
framework of its agreements with overseas partners.

4. Special Fund for Chinese Scholars Abroad Returning for Short-period of Work or
Lecture in China
NSFC established the Special Fund for Chinese Scholars Abroad Returning for
Short-period of Work or Lecture in China in order to carry through the strategy of
“Empowering China through talents”, give full play to the role of overseas talents as well
as attracting overseas Chinese scholars to work for the development of Chinese basic
research and disciplinary build-up.

This fund encourages home institutions of NSFC project undertakers to attract overseas
Chinese scholars to participate in research work in China through short-period of lecture or
work, so as to offer more care, support and better environment for them to partake in
NSFC projects and give full play to their expertise and intelligence.


     International (Regional) Cooperation and
   Exchange with Different Countries and Regions
Asia, Africa and International Organizations
NSFC has signed bilateral agreements or memoranda of understanding on S&T
cooperation with nine scientific funding organizations in Asia and Africa and six
international research organizations in the world.

1. A3 Foresight Program
Jointly sponsored by NSFC, Japan Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS) and Korea
Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF), the A3 Foresight Program supports the
cooperation of scientists from China, Japan and Korea to conduct cutting edge research in
selected strategic areas. The purpose of this program is to enable Asia to become one of the
core research centers in the world. Meanwhile, through the implementation of this program,
the goal of fostering excellent young researchers and making contributions to the solution
of common regional issues can also be reached. The joint research area of current year is
the same as the topic of the Northeastern Asian Symposium organized by NSFC, JSPS and
KOSEF in the previous year. The joint research area of A3 Foresight Program is advanced

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                               International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange
materials for 2008. The projects of A3 Foresight Program will be conducted as Major
International Joint Research Project.

NSFC, JSPS and KOSEF will make call for proposals on their websites in December,
respectively. Two 3-year projects will be supported with two million yuan each by NSFC.

2. NSFC-JST Joint Research Project
Since 2004, NSFC and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) have developed
cooperation on the theme of “S&T for Environmental Conservation and Construction of a
Society with Less Environmental Burden”. Each year, both organizations will decide the
joint research areas through discussion, and workshops with topics selected from the
decided joint research areas will be organized in China and Japan alternatively. Both sides
will announce the cooperation research areas and call for proposals on the websites in June
each year. A maximum of five 3-year projects will be selected for support with the funding
of up to one million yuan per project from NSFC. This program is conducted as Major
International Joint Research Project.

3. Bilateral cooperation between NSFC and JSPS
The memorandum of understanding on scientific exchange between NSFC and JSPS
stipulates that the two sides jointly support ten 3-year joint research projects and four
bilateral workshops per year organized by Chinese and Japanese scientists, of which two
are held in China and two in Japan. Both organizations will issue call for proposals on their
websites in June every year. The application deadline is the Friday of the first complete
week in September.

4. Bilateral cooperation between NSFC and KOSEF
NSFC and KOSEF jointly support bilateral activities including joint research projects and
academic seminars. The duration of each project is two years. Participants of bilateral
seminars from each side must come from at least three institutions. Both organizations will
issue call for proposals on their websites in October and the deadlines for joint research
projects and bilateral academic seminars are December 15 and Jan. 15 of the next year,
respectively. The Sino-Korean Joint Committee on Basic Science makes final decisions on
the support of bilateral activities.

5. Bilateral cooperation between NSFC and CSIR
NSFC and Indian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) cooperate to fund
bilateral cooperation and exchange programs, such as bilateral workshops and joint
research projects with a duration of three years. In 2008, both sides will co-sponsor up to
five exchange projects in organic chemistry and chemical biology and up to four bilateral
workshops.

6. Others
NSFC has signed scientific agreements with the Academy of Scientific Research and
                                            189
International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange
Technology of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Pakistan Science Foundation, National
Research Council of Thailand and the Department of Science and Technology of India, and
jointly fund research projects and bilateral workshops co-organized with them. The
programs will be subject to discussion by the sponsoring organizations.


International Scientific Organizations
1. Center of European Nuclear Research (CERN)
According to the cooperation agreement with CERN, NSFC supports Chinese scientists‟
participation in LHC experiment at CERN as a major international program together with
the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

2. International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP)
Every year, NSFC supports about 50 Chinese young scholars in the areas of mathematics,
physics and earth science to participate in various research activities at ICTP, such as
summer seminars, short-term joint research or post-doctoral research. The Steering
Committee of the Tianyuan Fund for Mathematics, the Steering Committee of the Special
Fund for Theoretical Physics and expert panels for relevant research areas in earth science
are responsible for recommending qualified scholars to ICTP.

3. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
According to the bilateral agreement between NSFC and IRRI, both sides will co-support
two 3-year major international cooperation projects each year from 2008 to 2010, and
NSFC will provide 1 million yuan for each project. The collaborative areas in 2008 will be
1) rice functional genomics to identify, analyze and deploy rice genes contributing to
durable resistance of rice to major diseases for indica and/or japonica rice and 2) crop,
water and soil nutrient management to improve the sustainable development of intensive
rice-based production systems. Call for proposals will be publicized on the website every
January and the deadline for proposal submission will be March 31.

4. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
According to the agreement reached between NSFC and CIMMYT in 2006, both sides
co-support 2 3-year major international cooperation projects each year from 2007 to 2009
in areas such as the disease resistance, quality and output of wheat, and disease resistance
and high oil content in maize. NSFC will provide 1 million yuan for each project. Call for
proposals will be announced on the website each January and the deadline for proposal
submission is March 31.

5. International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Approved by the State Council in Jan. 2001, NSFC joined IIASA on behalf of China as
one of IIASA‟s 19 National Member Organizations. NSFC encourages Chinese scientists
to conduct multilateral cooperation with various IIASA project groups in the areas of
energy, environment, land use, population, etc., and to jointly apply for research funding
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                               International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange
from various governmental organizations, private and national foundations, World Bank
and EU Framework Program. NSFC fully or partially supports several Chinese young
scholars to take part in the annual 3-month “Young Scientists Summer Program” from May
to August at IIASA. NSFC sponsors Chinese and IIASA scientists to jointly apply for
funding for workshops, cooperation and exchange and Major International Cooperation
Projects. For detailed information, please refer to IIASA website at http://www.iiasa.ac.

America, Oceania and Eastern Europe
NSFC has signed scientific cooperative agreements or MoUs with counterpart science
funding organizations and research institutions in 12 countries in America, Oceania and
Eastern Europe. A detailed list can be found on the website of BIC, NSFC. Priority support
will be given to large-scale cooperation of major scientific significance.

1. USA
NSFC encourages collaboration between China and the USA with emphasis on mutual
benefit, talent fostering and the attainment of research achievements. In 2008, priority will
continuously be given to Sino-US cooperation in areas of information science, network
technology, engineering and materials sciences, mathematical and physical sciences,
chemistry, biology, social economic dynamics, etc.

In 2008, NSFC and NSF will continue to fund bilateral academic workshops and
substantial cooperation between scientists of both countries in areas of common interests.
Projects funded under the agreement of NSF and NSFC can be classified into two
categories. First, Chinese applicants apply to NSFC at any time of the year while American
counterparts apply to NSF according to its specific requirements. In 2008, NSF and NSFC
will continue to support bilateral academic workshops and substantial cooperation in the
fields of common interests. Second, NSFC and NSF collaborate to receive joint research
projects in the areas of social economic dynamics, mathematics and chemistry at a certain
time of the year. Please refer to the website for further notice about the call for proposals.

2. Russia
NSFC and Russia Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) jointly support collaborative
research projects with a two-year implementation period in mathematical and physical
sciences, chemical sciences, life sciences, earth sciences, materials and engineering
sciences, information sciences and management sciences. Projects approved will receive a
two-year funding with 90 thousand yuan from NSFC side. The call for proposals for 2008
will be announced on the websites of NSFC and RFBR at the beginning of 2008. Scientists
of the two countries shall submit proposals respectively to NSFC and RFBR according to
the relative regulations and requirements based on mutually agreed cooperative plans.

3. Canada
1) In 2008, NSFC and Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) will jointly support

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International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange
health research programs in certain areas. The implementation period for each project will
usually be 3 years and the call for proposals will be launched each year. At most 20
projects will be supported and NSFC will provide 450 thousand yuan to each approved
project. The call for proposals is to be publicized simultaneously on the websites of both
organizations and priority areas will be announced in the call.
2) In 2008, NSFC and Fonds de la Recherche en Sante du Quebec (FRSQ), Canada will
continue to support joint research programs. Scientists of the two countries may submit
proposals to NSFC and FRSQ respectively according to their respective requirements.

4. Australia
1) The China/Australia Special Fund co-sponsored by NSFC and the Department of
Education, Science and Training of Australia (DEST) will continue to launch a new round
of call for proposals in 2008, which will be publicized simultaneously at the websites of
NSFC and DEST at the beginning of 2008.
2) In 2008, NSFC will give further attention to cooperation and exchanges with Australia
on energy, environment, biology and health research. Under the cooperation framework
between NSFC and Australia Research Council (ARC), sustained support to research of
common interests will be provided in 2008.

5. Others
NSFC will continue to support cooperation and exchange between scientists in China and
the Czech Republic, New Zealand and Canada within the framework of bilateral
agreements in 2008. Applications will be handled on a case-by-case basis. Please refer to
the NSFC website concerning various calls for proposals and approval lists.

West Europe
NSFC has signed agreements and memoranda of understanding on scientific cooperation
with 27 science foundations or research councils in 15 countries in North, South and West
Europe, providing funds for joint research among scientists on topics of common interests.
Activities to be funded include short-term exchange visits, bilateral academic workshops
and joint research.

1. UK
NSFC and the Royal Society of UK (RS) support up to 20 joint projects with the duration
of 2 years. Each year, NSFC will provide up to 50 thousand yuan for each project,
covering international travel costs of Chinese scientists and local costs of British scientists
in China. RS provides at most 6000 pounds for each project, covering the international
travel costs of British scientists to China and local costs of Chinese scientists in UK. The
deadline for application submission is October 1.

NSFC will continue to cooperate with UK research councils such as EPSRC, BBSRC,
NERC and MRC to fund small-scale bilateral workshops co-organized by Chinese and

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                               International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange
British scientists. Chief organizers from both sides should submit applications to their
funding organizations respectively which will be responsible for the evaluation and
approval. Substantial joint research projects will be encouraged.

NSFC and the Royal Society of Edinburgh (RSE) support 2-year joint research projects
between scientists of both countries in areas of common interests. NSFC provides up to 50
thousand yuan to each project and RSE up to 6 thousand pounds each year. NSFC and RSE
will decide the area for collaboration every year and call for proposals will be announced
simultaneously in mid October.

2. Germany
According to the agreement on cooperation between NSFC and DFG of Germany, both
sides will support short-term research visits (usually not exceeding three months), bilateral
workshops and joint research projects. Chinese and German scientists shall submit their
applications to their own funding organizations, which will make final decision after
respective evaluation and consultation. Since 2005, NSFC and DFG have started to
encourage scientists to apply for substantial joint research projects. Applicants should
jointly make research plans and then submit their applications to their own funding
organizations. NSFC and DFG will organize evaluation and then together make the
funding decision.

3. France
NSFC supports cooperation and exchange programs, such as joint research and bilateral
academic workshops, between Chinese and French scientists in basic research and applied
basic research areas under its agreement with CNRS, INRA, IFREMER and CEA.

4. Finland
According to the agreement of scientific cooperation between NSFC and the Academy of
Finland, both sides will support short-term study visits (usually not exceeding three
months), personal exchange and bilateral workshops. Meanwhile, NSFC and AF encourage
scientists or research teams of both countries to carry out substantial cooperation. Each
year, both sides will decide through discussion the collaborative areas and number of
projects to be funded, make simultaneous call for proposals, and receive proposals from
scientists of their respective countries. They will evaluate the proposals according to the
forms and procedures agreed upon and make final funding decision.

5. Ireland
According to the agreement between NSFC and Science Foundation Ireland, bilateral
workshops and joint research projects between Chinese and Irish scientists in areas of
common interests will be supported. Joint research projects will be subject to agreement
between the two organizations on collaborative research areas and number of projects to be
approved. Call for proposals will be launched simultaneously and scientists of both

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International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange
countries shall apply to their respective funding organization.

6. Others
NSFC has signed MOU or agreements with CNR of Italy, SNF of Switzerland, RCN of
Norway, CSIC of Spain, NOW and TNO of Netherlands, FNRS/NFWO of Belgium, FWF
of Austria, NHRF of Greece and JNICT of Portugal, to cosponsor cooperation and
exchange projects and bilateral workshops. It will continue to receive applications under
the framework of the above agreements on a case-by-case basis in 2008.


Hong Kong and Macao SARs and Taiwan Region of China
Adhering to the principles of “one country, two systems” and the Basic Law of the Special
Administrative Region of Hong Kong of the People‟s Republic of China, NSFC will
continue its active support to various forms of cooperation and exchange between inland
and Hong Kong scientists in the areas of mutual interests. In such cooperation, the
principles of complementary advantages, mutual promotion and sharing of results should
be carried through, priorities of cooperation be stressed and flexible means of cooperation
and exchange be adopted. For instance, joint research, jointly holding international and
domestic scientific conferences and exchange of scientists may be chosen as approaches to
the cooperation of both sides.

On November 23, 1998, NSFC and the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong reached the
agreement on establishing a joint research fund. According to the agreement, the joint
research fund is 7.5 million yuan and 15 million Hong Kong dollars in 2008. Priority
funding areas include information science, biological science, new materials, ocean and
environmental science, Chinese traditional medicine and management science. For detailed
information, please refer to the announcement of application for 2008. NSFC made a
formal announcement in the 4th quarter of 2007 along with other categories of funding.

NSFC will continue to support various activities of scientific cooperation and exchange
with substantial contents among inland and Macao scientists. Emphasis will be put on
research projects related to environmental protection, urban development and
modernization of traditional Chinese medicine.

NSFC has spared no efforts to encourage and promote scientific cooperation and exchange
between scientists on both sides of the Taiwan Straits. In 2008, NSFC will keep doing its
utmost to promote and fund cooperation and exchange activities, especially joint research
projects with substantial contents in some mutually interested areas.


Sino-German Center for Research Promotion
The Sino-German Center for Research Promotion, jointly founded by NSFC and DFG of
Germany, is mainly for the promotion of scientific cooperation and exchange among
institutions of higher learning in China and Germany in the fields of basic research and
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                               International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange
applied basic research. NSFC and DFG each cover 50% of the Center‟s budget and the
budget for 2008 is 24 million RMB.
The Center mainly supports bilateral workshops, joint research groups, cooperative
projects (in some strategic areas), young scientist projects, seminars, publications as well
as preparatory activities for cooperative projects. Its funding scope excludes international
or multilateral cooperation and exchange.

The Center accepts proposals submitted jointly by Chinese and German scientists at any
time of the year. Applications must be written in both Chinese and German or Chinese and
English, and submitted directly to the Center (7 copies in written form and one electronic
copy for each application). In the applications, the content, theme, academic significance
and academic purpose of the research, as well as the participants, contact information,
detailed schedule and specific costs shall be specified.

Following the suggestions by the Joint Committee of the Center, strategic areas such as
water resources, intelligent traffic and advanced manufacturing technology will be given
priority support.

In 2008, the Center will support 25 prominent PhD students and postdocs in physics and
10 in economics to participate in the meeting of Nobel Laureates and pay visits to famous
German laboratories.

Up to now, the Center has received around 500 applications, of which over 200 are finally
approved. Specific requirements and relevant information are available on the website of
the Center: http://www.sinogermanscience.org.cn




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Programs of Joint Funds



       Programs of Joint Funds
The joint funds set up by NSFC and other relevant government departments, local
governments and industrial sectors aim to play a better guiding role of the national science
fund to attract resources from different sectors to support basic research in specific areas
and directions. The joint funds focus on national interests and key directions of scientific
development, attract nationwide researchers to conduct basic research in relevant areas, so
as to solve key scientific problems, promote cooperation among industry, universities and
research institutes, foster scientific and technological talents, and enhance the indigenous
innovation capabilities of China in relevant areas, industries or regions.

In 2008, the joint funds in the Guide include NSAF Joint Fund, Joint Fund of Astronomy,
Joint Fund of Civil Aviation, Joint Fund with Guangdong, Joint Fund of Iron and Steel
Research, Joint Fund of Petrochemical Engineering, Jointly Funded Projects of Railway
and Jointly Funded Projects with Microsoft Research Institute Asia. In addition, there are
some jointly funded projects with relevant departments of science and technology of some
provinces for local regions.

The joint funds form a part of the national natural science fund system, and NSFC
announces guidelines for application. The funds are open to applicants all over the country
and are managed according to NSFC‟s regulations and principles for project selection. Any
results generated from the joint funds such as papers, books, reports, software, patents,
awards, etc., should all bear the words of “joint funds of NSFC” and the project number or
relevant statement. Applications for this type projects should be prepared according to
relevant project type (such as General Program or Key Program) outlines.


                              NSAF Joint Fund
Jointly set up by NSFC and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), the
Fund is to encourage scientists in related fields to carry out basic and applied basic
researches relevant to the national security by applying the management policy and
evaluation system of NSFC, so as to explore new research directions, to discover new
phenomena and laws, to upgrade the innovative ability of science and technology in
national defense, and to foster young professionals in this area. NSFC and CAEP issue the
Guide to Programs according to the research needs of national security.

In 2007, NSAF Joint Fund received 91 applications in total. Through peer review and
panel evaluation, 41 projects were funded. The total funding was 15 million yuan, with an
average funding of 366,000 yuan per project. Among them, there were 1 Key Program
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project with a total funding of 1.70 million yuan, 5 key funding projects with a total
funding of 2.45 million yuan and an average funding of 490,000 yuan per project, 1.29
million yuan for “encouraged research directions” with an average funding of 323,000
yuan, and 31 projects with defined goals with a total funding of 9.56 million yuan and an
average of 308,000 yuan per project. Researchers in 29 units obtained funding (not
including collaboration units).

In 2008, four kinds of projects to be supported are announced, namely, “Key Program
projects”, “key funding projects”, “encouraged research areas” and “projects with defined
goals”. One Key Program project will be funded for about 1.5 million yuan, and is open to
scientists in universities and research institutes in China, and two key funding projects will
be funded with an average funding of 0.5 million per project and are open to scientists in
universities and research institutes in China. In the encouraged research areas, 2 projects
will be funded and applicants can choose freely research topics in the areas according to
their own interests. In projects with defined goals, 46 projects will be funded and
applications must be within the subjects listed in the Guide to Programs for 2008. The
average funding for projects in the encouraged research areas and projects with defined
goals will reach about 300,000 yuan per project. For detailed information, please refer to
NSFC website (www.nsfc.gov.cn) or contact the administration office of the NSAF Joint
Fund.

The application, evaluation and management of NSAF Joint Fund are conducted in
accordance with the management policy of NSFC projects and the Proposed Regulations
for NSAF Joint Fund Management. Attention should be paid to the following points when
submitting applications:
1. NSFC Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences is responsible for organizing
the evaluation of proposals for NSAF projects;
2. Applicants should specify the project type and content of the project to be applied,
namely, “Key Program projects”, “Key funding projects”, “Encouraged research areas”
and “Projects with defined goals” at the beginning of the application form, such as “This
application is proposed according to „projects with defined goals‟ topic 10 “Controlled
preparation and property of nano & micro structure materials with energy containing”, so
as to let panel reviewers learn the project and contents. Application code 1 should all be
A06, and application code 2 should be selected according to the actual research direction;
3. Applications for Key Program projects should be marked “Key Program project” in the
subcategory notes and the projects funded will be managed as Key Program projects;
4. Key funding projects, encouraged research areas and projects with defined goals are all
treated as General Program projects in terms of management. For subcategory notes,
please choose “General Program”. The notes for the two types of programs should all
select NSAF Joint Fund, and for “type of funding”, please select “projects of joint funds”
5. Investigators in CAEP are not allowed to apply, either as principal investigators or as
participants in encouraged research areas and projects with defined goals, which means

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Programs of Joint Funds
that CAEP researchers may not be listed in the formal name list of applicants. But they can
apply for Key Program projects or key funding projects. Cooperation among 2 to 3 units is
encouraged in Key Program projects and key funding projects.
6. Once the panel meeting approves the project, the applicant‟s home institution will
receive a notice to sign the NSAF Joint Fund contract. The applicants, after getting the
notice, should contact the administrative office of the Joint Fund in CAEP and sign
contract within specified time period.
7. Young scientists from CAEP will be provided with opportunities to participate in
projects funded by the NSAF Joint Fund and specific requirements may be laid out in the
NSAF Joint Fund contract.
8. Research results of the projects, including papers and monographs published, patents
and awards obtained, etc., must be marked with “project of NSFC”, or the words
“supported by the Joint Fund of NSAF”, and the PIs must submit the final documents to
CAEP according to the format given in the Guide (Pleased see the agreement for details.).
9. NSFC and CAEP will organize various forms of following-up exams and evaluation for
the completed projects according to the annual progress and final documents provided, and
give encouragement to excellent projects.
10. When applying for projects, applicants may contact CAEP through the Office of Joint
Fund to get better understanding of the background and requirements of relevant subjects.

Contact information:
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, NSFC
Address: 83, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing
Post code: 100085
Contact persons: Liu Xizhen and Pu Men
Tel: 010-62326910

Office of the Joint Fund, CAEP
Address: PO Box 919, Mianyang
Sichuan Province
Post code: 621900
Contact persons: Liu Qiang and Cao Ying
Tel: 0816-2484487

Key Projects
Studies on model verification and confirmation methods for numerical simulation of
engineering structures
Note: CAEP researchers can apply, and joint research carried out by 2 to 3 institutions is
encouraged.

Key funding projects
Studies on isentropic compressible dynamics of materials below 100 GPa

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                                                               Programs of Joint Funds
Multi scale methods and numerical simulation of material dynamic responses
Note: CAEP researchers can apply, and joint research by 2 to 3 units is encouraged.

Encouraged research areas
Interface instability under strong dynamic loading and experimental studies on turbulent
mixing
Studies on physical mechanism of tensile fracture of ductile metals and laws of damage
evolution
Note: CAEP researchers cannot apply or participate.

Projects with defined goals
1. Theoretical modeling of equation of state of some materials in ionization region;
2. Studies on the dynamics of repeated M-Hz frequency strong electron beams;
3. Studies on surface adhesive gas and the effect of release process on vacuum solid
surface flashover;
4. Studies on strong radiation flow nano carbon tube cathodes;
5. Studies on key technologies of high voltage and high amplification gallium arsenide
photo-electric conducting switches;
6. Studies on microscopic mechanism and material design of high electric resistant zinc
oxide ceramics;
7. Identification of state of connecting structure in vibrating environment;
8. Studies on gas sensitive effect of multi channel structure composite metallic oxides;
9. Studies on theoretical design and synthesis of new types of high nitrogen energy
containing compounds;
10. Controlled preparation and property of nano micro structure energy containing
materials;
11. Basic research on the preparation of new types of intermolecular explosives by
polymer assembly methods;
12. Studies on hydrophobic nano SiO2 aeroge modifying active carbon absorption of nitro
compound;
13. Studies on resin buffer materials for high impact loading and mechanism of energy
absorption;
14. Studies on multi enhancing magnesium alloy strengthen and damping property
optimization and microscopic mechanism;
15. Studies on the mechanism of impact of para-carbon membrane tissue structure on
membrane binding and wear resistance;
16. Studies on the compatible mechanism of visible light and inferred properties of flexible
coating materials;
17. Numerical simulation of ion beam formation properties of space and time;
18. Analysis and studies on media conformal array antenna;
19. Studies on medium frequency digital receiver based on software wireless technology;
20. Studies on the mechanism of ceramic insulation sub pulse high voltage flashover

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Programs of Joint Funds
breakdown;
21. Studies on CZT panel pixel array nuclear probing technology;
22. Studies on the electronic structure and physical stability of  plutonium by
LDA+DMFT method;
23. Studies on high voltage discharge plasma wave conducting;
24. Studies on the mechanism of surface multi membrane formation for single energy
X-ray imaging;
25. Studies on high temperature plasma X ray spherical surface crystal mono imaging
spectrum;
26. Studies on the microstructure error analysis and diagnosis of arrayed grating group;
27. Study on the application of quasi phase matching technology on the mechanism of
multi model non-polarized laser high efficient doubling frequency;
28. Studies on the dispersion property of strong dispersion wave conducting models;
29. Studies on the middle inferred spectrum property of rare earth element mixed optical
fibers;
30. Study on the interaction mechanism of second laser and disordered media based on
Anderson regional effect;
31. Studies on the nonlinear transport property of high power chirp pulse in single model
optical fiber;
32. Studies on the derivatives of Sm(Gd)@C cage and its membrane preparation and
structure and properties;
33. Studies on electron collision process in plasmas;
34. Theoretical studies on photo ionization cross-section of atomic and molecular inner
shell layers;
35. Studies on non-equilibrium radiation transport theory for fine spectrum;
36. Studies on reaction dynamics of impact of oxygen and material surface;
37. Studies on fast calculation algorithm for multi physical field of high power microwave
semiconductor device effect;
38. Studies on computational methods for large-scaled parallel numerical simulation of
transport and dissipation;
39. Studies on characteristics acquisition technology for complex flow simulation data;
40. Studies on semiconductor laser output spectrum stabilization technology based on
Bragg grating;
41 studies on the preparation and property of diamond membrane used for cathode;
42. Studies on the properties of damping metallic materials and application in optical
systems;
43. Studies on high stability and high temperature super conducting uniform field magnet
technology;
44. Studies on massive data compression encryption and storage technology;
45. Studies on radiation decomposition of chlorophenol pollutants;
46. Studies on self-adapting alleviation and parameter identification of interfering signals.
Notes: CAEP researchers may not apply as PI or member of the research group.
For detailed contents of the project titles listed above, pleases refer to separate booklet or
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                                                                Programs of Joint Funds
www.caep.ac.cn.


                       Joint Fund of Astronomy
NSFC and the Chinese Academy of Sciences jointly set up the Joint Fund of Astronomy,
which opens to all research units in China (especially non astronomy units) and aims to
combine NSFC‟s strength in evaluation, funding and management with the function and
roles of the national research platforms (observation bases) in astronomical fields that are
already established by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This combination will promote
the effective use of these facilities to conduct astronomical research by researchers in
universities and other research institutions, develop new areas of space astronomical
research, and make astronomical research in China better serve the national strategic
needs.

The Joint Fund of Astronomy includes General Program and Key Program projects. It is
included in the limitation search for research type projects (3 projects), but not included in
the limitation search for General Program and Key Program. Key Program projects will
not specify project titles and applicants may decide the project titles, research contents,
research schemes and research funding according to the following six important scientific
problems. In 2008, the Joint Fund of Astronomy plans to fund about 3 to 6 Key Program
projects.

As a part of the National Natural Science Fund, the project application, evaluation and
management of the Joint Fund of Astronomy will follow the regulations of NSFC and the
agreement signed between NSFC and CAS. In 2008, the funding will be about 15 million
yuan in total.

In 2008, the Fund will accept applications in the following six areas:
1) Scientists from research institutes and universities outside CAS astronomical
observatory system to use optical, radio, infrared observation facilities and data to conduct
observation and theoretical research on cosmology, galaxies, stars, the sun and solar
systems and other basic astronomical areas (Researchers in CAS astronomical observatory
system are not allowed to apply as PIs, but may be members of the research group.);
2) Research on observation techniques in space, including new observation techniques and
new methods in space and pre-studies on key techniques of astronomical satellite, etc.;
3) High energy, ultraviolet, optical, infrared and radio techniques related to astronomical
observations, including the detection of week photoelectric signal, storage and
transmission techniques, high energy, optical, infrared and radio techniques related to
astronomical telescopes, automated control techniques and machinery, etc.;
4) Storage, computation and sharing of mass astronomical data and virtual observatory
techniques;
5) Basic astronomical methods and key scientific problems arising from meeting the
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Programs of Joint Funds
national strategic needs and applications;
6. Analytical research centering around frontier scientific areas in large astronomic
observation facilities that are under construction or planned, in order to provide scientific
guidance on the research, testing and operation of the facilities. Specific contents include
the selection and verification of frontier scientific problems and scientific goals, selection
and optimization of observation model and strategy, and selection of specific observation
objects, processing of observation data and information acquisition, error analysis and
control, and development of observation experimental simulation and theoretical models.

Notes to applicants
1) Before writing applications, applicants should read carefully relevant parts in the Guide
to Programs, get familiar with the methods of implementation, requirements and
responsibilities and limitations on the number of projects allowed. For details, please
check NSFC‟s website: www.nsfc.gov.cn or contact the Division of Astronomy of the
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.
2) The Fund will give priorities to researchers from research institutes and universities
outside CAS astronomical observatory system if other conditions are equal, and encourage
researchers in universities not in the astronomical field. Researchers of CAS astronomical
observatory system may take part in as members of the research group in the application
for the first area of research mentioned above, but may apply for and take part in other
research areas.
3) The topic of application should meet the requirements of the Guide on research scope,
and project title, specific research scheme, research content and targets, etc.. Creative ideas
in research are encouraged. Please make right selections when filling in the application
form, namely, the type of project should be “Programs of Joint Funds”, sub category “Key
Program projects” or “General Program projects”, sub category notes “Joint Fund of
Astronomy”, and application code 1 “A03”. The selection of application code 2 depends
on the research content or research direction.
4) Results of the projects funded during the implementation period, including papers
published, books, patents, awards, etc., must be marked with “Project funded by the Joint
Fund of Astronomy of NSFC and CAS”.
5) The Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences is responsible for handling the
application acceptance and the evaluation of the Joint Fund of Astronomy projects.

Contact information:
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, NSFC
Address: 83, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing
Post code: 100085
Contact persons: Dong Guoxuan, tel: 010-62327189
Liu Xizhen, tel: 010-62326910



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                                                                 Programs of Joint Funds

         Joint Fund of Petrochemical Engineering
In order to play the guiding and coordinating role of the National Natural Science Fund,
attract social resources in science and technology to make investment in basic research and
enhance indigenous innovation capability of Chinese petrochemical industry, NSFC and
Sinopec, in line with the national strategic needs, jointly set up NSFC-Sinopec Joint Fund
of Research (Joint Fund of Petrochemical Engineering for short) to support research on
major scientific problems in areas of petroleum exploration of China, to increase the
support of basic research on social economical development, and promote the expansion of
scientific frontiers.

As part of the National Natural Science Fund, the application, evaluation and management
of the Joint Fund will be conducted according to the regulations of NSFC. It is open to all
scientists in China, and selects, on a fair competition basis, the best to support universities
and research institutions with good research capabilities, attract and gather outstanding
scientists in the country to carry out basic and far-sighted innovative research around key
scientific issues in marine oil and gas deposit exploration and development in China. The
management office for the Joint Fund consists of staff from both parties and is responsible
for the coordination and daily management for the implementation of the Joint Fund.

In 2008, the Fund will support projects only in basic research on conditions of forming
marine oil and gas deposit in the South. In 2007, 35 applications were received, and 8 Key
projects were funded, with a funding of 20.30 million yuan and an average funding of
2.5375 million yuan per project. Proposals in 2007 have the following problems in general:
lack of focus on scientific issues, too wide research contents and lack of key points. Some
applicants in 2007 proposed the scientific problems to be solved, but failed in the research
scheme to provide feasibility studies on how to do better than the existing research
methods and technical means, and just listed the relevant research methods and technical
means which were repetition of existing work, hence showing no trace of innovation.

I. Scientific goals
Taking marine geological background of China as the research subject, it is to study the
formation, transfer, accumulation and control of marine oil and gas mainly in upper and
middle reaches of Yangtze River, explore relevant laws of oil and gas enrichment, establish
theories on the origins of basin, hydrocarbon formation and deposit of marine oil and gas
according to the geological characteristics of China, and at the same time, foster a group of
professional talents in basic research on oil and gas exploration.

II. Main contents of research
In 2008, key funding research directions include:
1. Studies on the control of south continental tectonic evolution and sediment basin
material filling process over marine oil and gas enrichment;

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Programs of Joint Funds
2. Formation, evolution and assessment of high quality marine hydrocarbon rock;
3. Formation and distribution of marine carbonate rock deposit and forecasting earthquake
in the deposit layer;
4. Comprehensive assessment on the storage condition for marine oil and gas deposit
layer;
5. Formation mechanism of large and medium marine oil and gas deposits, and the theory
of hydrocarbon formation and deposit formation.

III. Research period: 4 years.

IV. Notes to applicants:
1. Please select “Jointly funded projects” for funding type in the application, and “Key
Program project” or ”General Program project” for the sub category, “Joint fund of
petrochemical engineering” in the notes, D07 for “application code 1”, and the application
code of relevant scientific division for “application code 2”.
2. Topics of research in the applications should be in agreement with the main research
areas listed in this guide, and applications be submitted with innovative academic ideas.
According to the specific scientific problems to be solved and on the basis of analyzing
existing research results, applicants should define clearly new breaking points and how to
make exploration, and determines the title of the project, research content and related
funding for research.
3. Applications in 2008 will be accepted and evaluated by the Department of Earth
Sciences, and applications that are not in agreement with this guide will not be accepted.
4. Papers, monographs, research reports and appraisal documents, etc., should all be
marked with “Project funded by NSFC-Sinopec Joint Fund of Research” (with project
approval number).
5. During the implementation of the project, progress report meetings will be organized
each year. So applicants should include the budget for the meetings in their applications.
6. In 2008, the Fund will provide a total of 23.70 million yuan for 2.5 to 5 million yuan per
project. The number of projects and actual funding will be decided according to the profile
of applications and actual needs for the proposed research.


Contact information:
Department of Earth Sciences, NSFC
Address: 83, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing
Post code: 100085
Contact persons: Liu Yu, Yao Yupeng
Tel.: 010-62327166
E-mail: Geology@nsfc.gov.cn
S&T Department, Sinopec

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                                                              Programs of Joint Funds

Address: 6A, Huixindongjie, Chaoyang, Beijing
Post code: 100029
Contact person: Wang Guoli
Tel: 010-64998317
E-mail: wanggl@sinapec.com.cn



           Joint Fund of Iron and Steel Research
The Joint Fund of Iron and Steel Research was set up by NSFC and Baoshan Steel
Complex in August 2000. The funding for the first and second phase projects of the Joint
Fund had been allocated, and the third phase has been implemented since 2007. The Joint
Fund aims closely at major problems and strategic development of Chinese iron and steel
industry. The Joint Fund supports foresighted and innovative research, promotes the
integration of knowledge innovation and technological innovation, through scientific and
technological innovation, speeds up the research and development of new technologies and
products in metallurgy and materials, improves traditional industry and increases the
competitiveness of Chinese iron and steel industry.

The Joint Fund is open to scientists all over China, and key funding areas are new
metallurgical technologies and relevant techniques, materials, energy, environment,
equipment, information and so on that are urgently needed by the development of Chinese
iron and steel industry.

Application, evaluation and management will follow the regulations of NSFC for General
and Key programs. Proposals are accepted and processed by NSFC Department of
Engineering and Materials Sciences, and administered jointly by NSFC and Baoshan Steel
Complex.

Any application jointly prepared with units under Baogang Group should be reported to
the S&T Development Department of Baoshan Steel Complex. After the completion of
project evaluation, the host unit awarded the funding should sign an agreement on
intellectual property rights, and send copies to NSFC for record.

The Joint Fund advocates the synergy of industry, university and research, gives priorities
to support young talents, encourages applications from non-metallurgic universities and
research institutes, and encourages further joint funding from other sources.

The total funding in 2008 will be 12 million yuan. Please enter the proper type of project
and application code in the application form. Restrictions on project limit are applicable.

In 2008, the following research areas will be funded:
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Programs of Joint Funds
1. Basis of environmental protection, ecological and environmental coordinated and
sustainable development in iron and steel industry
1) Mechanism of low exhaustion during metallurgical process;
2) Mechanism of modification and high value added utilization of metallurgical slag;
3) Chemical mechanism of removing dioxin and NOx in sintering gas by using hydrazine
type materials;
4) Mechanism and application of decomposing dioxin by catalysis.

2. Materials science and its application in iron and steel metallurgical industry
1) Functions of precious metals such as Ni, Cr, etc., in steel and possible alternative
elements;
2) Rare earth-calcium alloyed preparation and the mechanism of action in steel;
3) Composition optimization and preparation techniques of high stiffness steel based on
layer dislocation and twin crystallization;
4) Interface model for crystal interface and phase boundary of iron and steel based phases
(including ferrite, austenite, cementite and separation phase);
5) Basic research on phase change behavior under continuous casting deformation of high
temperature alloy;

3. New theory and method for surface treatment of iron and steel materials
1) New types of coating and plating of iron and steel products;
2) Nitrogen alloying on stainless steel surface;
3) Mechanism of pulverizing hot galvanizing zinc alloy layer of steels.
4) Mechanism of generation, laws of evolution and measures of prevention for fractures on
surface and inside of steel products.


4. New technologies and new equipment for iron and steel industry
1) Applied basic research on high temperature coal gas desulphurization materials and
desulphurization technologies;
2) Cold solidification agglomerant of fine ore and related basic research;
3) Basic research on composite casting and rolling;
4) Basic research on low cost production of oriented electrical steel;
5) Mechanism and control theory of defect formation on the edge of hot rolled strip steel;
6) Basic research on online quenching and tempering of high strength medium thickness
plate;
7) New theory and methods of information technology for iron and steel industry (such as
multi temporal and spatial scale simulation of metallurgical process, etc.).

In 2008, applications for Key Program projects will be accepted in the following areas:
1. Low temperature heat recovery and utilization in iron and steel industry (E0419)

2. Methods of controlling ultra fine particles of impurity and basic research on the
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metallurgy and rolling of median thickness plates (E0411603)
It is to study the best composition and conditions for the generation of high melting-point
ultra fine impurity particles in steel, dynamic behaviors such as particle size, motion and
distribution in fine metallurgical process, separating out characteristics and form of
distribution in solidification process, the form, orientation and distribution variation in the
rolling and re-crystallization process, the effect on crystal growth in the heated region in
high energy welding and phase variation of ferrite in the induced crystals, to master the
generation and control methods for high heat stability super fine particles of impurity in
steel (including external field effect), and to form the basis for oxide metallurgical
technology for production of high strength medium thickness plate for large linear energy
welding.

3. Studies on two-phase stainless steel heat processing behavior and the mechanism of
surface oxidation (E041601)
It is to study the phase change and deformation behavior in two phase stainless steel heat
processing temperature range (including thermal plasticity, dynamic recovery and
re-crystallization, etc.), to study the chemical composition design, thermal processing
technology (heated rolling and welding) and surface oxidation mechanism of two-phase
stainless steel, and to study the oxidation layer structure, composition and acid pickling
technique selection for two phase stainless steel.

4. Studies on steel materials for 650℃ ferrite boiler and welding property (E041604)
It is to study the composition design, heat processing technology, laws and mechanism of
organization change, welding property and welding technology for 650℃ ferrite boiler
steels.

5. Studies on squeeze deformation mechanism of nickel based alloy tubes (E416)
It is mainly to study the heat squeeze deformation behavior for nickel based
alloy tubes such as Incoloy800H, Incoloy 825, Hastelloy G3, Inconel 690,
Inconel 625, Incoloy 028, GH536, 00Cr25Ni35AlTi, Monel 400, etc., mainly
including the strain, rate of deformation and strain temperature relation for
materials under high temperature squeezing, stretch and compression,
computer simulation of squeezing process, and the computation of squeeze
stress and model designs.

6. Free application of Key Program projects in new technology and new techniques in
iron and steel industry (E0414)

In the above mentioned areas, 4 to 5 Key Program projects will be funded.

For detailed information, please contact:
Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences, NSFC

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Programs of Joint Funds
83 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing
Post code: 100085
Contact person: Zhu Wangxi and Che Chengwei
Tel: 010-62327136, 62327145
FAX: 010-62327133
E-mail: e4m@nsfc.gov.cn
Metala@nsfc.gov.cn

or S&T Department
Baoshan Steel Complex
Room 3406, South Building, Baoshan Hotel
1813 Mudanjiang Road, Baoshan District, Shanghai
Post code: 201900
Contact person: Hu Yi and Wang Zhengjie
Tel: 021-26643935, 26643443, 26645215
Fax: 021-26644233
E-mail: huyi@baosteel.com
wangjz@baosteel.com


           Joint Funds of Civil Aviation Research
The Joint Funds of Civil Aviation Research is set up jointly by NSFC and the Civil
Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). Its aim is to attract researchers from the
universities and research institutions all over China to participate in basic research
(including applied basic research) in the development of aviation science and technology,
so as to increase the ability of original innovation in aviation industry, promote the
integration of knowledge and technology innovation in the field, and contribute to making
China a nation with strong aviation industry in the world.

Under mutual agreement, NSFC and CAAC decide to startup the second phase of Joint
Funds of Civil Aviation Research from 2007, with an annual budget of 8 million yuan and
the duration of three years.

As a component of the National Natural Science Fund, the Joint Funds of Civil Aviation
Research is managed by both parties. Researchers in non-aviation sectors are encouraged
to do join research with those in aviation sectors, and researchers in universities are
welcome to apply for this joint fund.

In 2007, 7 applications for Key Program projects were received, and 3 were funded, 191
for General Program projects from 40 universities and research institutes, ranging in the
fields of management, engineering and materials, and information, and 22 projects were
funded, with a success rate of 11.52%.
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In 2008, the Joint Funds plans to fund 2 Key Program projects and about 20 General
Program projects. The average funding for Key Program project is 1.50 million yuan.

Please select “Joint funds” for the project type in the application form, “General or Key
Program projects” for the sub category, and “Joint Funds of Civil Aviation Research” in
the notes.

Encouraged research areas for General Program projects in 2008

New theory and technology, simulation technology for civil aviation system, basic theory
and technology for aviation safety, intelligent air traffic and information security, new
theory and methods for security check, system reliability and system security theory and
methods (select F01 for application code I, and relevant code in F01 and F03 for
application code 2).

Theory and methods for the management of national aviation resources, theory on aviation
security management and aviation crime prevention and controls, and contingency
decision system for emergency (select F01 for application code I, relevant code in F03 and
G02 for application code 2).

Research areas for Key Program projects in 2008

Basic theory and key technology for altiplano airport and flight route safety
Upon the demand on altiplano airport and complex topography and air turbulence in
altiplano routes, it is mainly to study the laws of complex air flows on altiplano airport,
altiplano aerodynamic characteristics and principles of flight control in altiplano routes,
and to provide scientific bases for the application of new technologies such as RNP
(required navigation program) to improve the approach landing on altiplano airport and
flight routes.

Basic theory and key technology for advanced ATC tower simulator system
In need of simulated training for air traffic control in large and busy airport, it is mainly to
study basic theory on mixed modeling on complex and dynamic scenario, to solve
problems in key technologies such as the recovery and reconstruction of complex
large-scaled and naturally lit images, totally automatic geometric correction for multi layer
and multi screen projection, and to construct the prototype system for large airport control
tower screen simulation.

Contact information:
Department of Information Sciences, NSFC
Address: 83, Shuangqing Road
Haidian District, Beijing

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Programs of Joint Funds
Post code: 100085
Contact person: Xiong Xiaoyun
Tel: 010-62327147
E-mail: xiongxy@nsfc.gov.cn

Department of Personnel Management, Science and Education
Civil Aviation Administration of China
Address: No. 155, Dongsixidajie
Dongchengqu, Beijing
Post code 100710
Contact person: Xu Hong
Tel: 010-64092606
E-mail: xuhongnew@atmb.net.cn


                    Joint Fund with Guangdong
NSFC and the Guangdong Provincial Government jointly set up the Joint Fund of Natural
Science (abbreviated as Joint Fund with Guangdong), trying to attract outstanding
scientists in Guangdong and other areas in the country to solve major scientific problems
and key technical problems in the future development of economy, society, science and
technology in Guangdong and the Pearl River delta region, and promote the scientific and
technological development and talent team building in Guangdong Province.

The Joint Fund with Guangdong is open to scientists all over China, and is part of the
National Natural Science Fund. NSFC is responsible for receiving applications. The
application, evaluation and management will follow the regulations of NSFC and the
detailed procedures of the Joint Fund with Guangdong.

In 2008, the Joint Fund with Guangdong plans a total funding of 46 million yuan,
accepting applications in 5 areas listed below. The Fund mainly supports Key Program
projects, with a funding of 1 to 2 million per project, and at the same time, supports some
General Program projects, with a funding ranging from 300 to 600 thousand yuan per
project. Eligible researchers all over the country are welcome to apply according to the
scope and requirement in the Guide.


I. Agriculture
1. Disease and pest prevention, therapy for tropical and sub tropical horticultural plants
Main research directions:
 (1) Studies on the species/gene resources of droop resistance of banana and the
mechanism of disease resistance (Select C1104 for application code 2);
 (2) Studies on disease resisting genes of peanuts (Select C1102 for application code 2).

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                                                                 Programs of Joint Funds
2. Disease prevention, therapy and health for domestic animals and birds
It is to conduct basic research on important diseases and special species resources in
southern domestic animals and birds.
Main research directions:
  (1) Basic research on important disease immunology of domestic animals and birds
(Select C1202 for application code 2);
  (2) Research on species resources of special domestic animals and birds in south China
(Select C1201 for application code 2).

3. Aquaculture breading and disease control
It is to conduct studies on genetic property and molecular regulation such as quality and
production species resources and genetics of Ma Matrix of pearl shells, and provide
theoretical basis for culturing and improvement of species for “Southern Pearl” industries.
Main research direction:
Molecular mechanism for growth regulation of Ma Matrix of pearl shell and pearl (Select
C1203 for application code 2).

4. Food safety
Taking common viruses in food pollution in tropical and sub tropical areas, such as
listerellosis, para hemolytic vibrion, novac virus and colyliform virus, etc., it is to conduct
research on the monitoring and damaging mechanisms. Main research directions:
Studies on the detection and harming mechanism of important disease inducing
microorganism in food common in south China (Select C1204 for application code 2).


II. Population and health
1. Major diseases in south China
Focusing on regional major diseases and common diseases among the population in south
China, it is to conduct basic research related to disease occurrence and prevention and
therapy.
Main research directions:
 (1) Basic studies on mosquito born diseases (Select C1507 for application code 2);
 (2) Inducing factors and pathogenesis of ocular disease leading to blindness (Select
C1706 for application code 2).

2. Biomedicine
Main research directions:
 (1) Targeted medicine and mechanism of effect (Select C1802 for application code 2);
 (2) Basic research on new types of medicine supply system (Select C1802 for application
code 2).

3. Medical immunology
Main research directions:
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Programs of Joint Funds
 (1) Basic research on immunological identification and rejection in organ transplant
(Select C1801 for application code 2);
 (2) Basic research on allergic diseases of respiratory system (Select C1401 for application
code 2).

4. Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and its modernization
While inheriting and developing the basic theory of TCM, it is to promote the intercrossing
of TCM and other modern disciplines, closely focus on national strategic goals for TCM
development, and pay attention to solving major scientific problems in the development of
TCM in Guangdong Province.
Main research directions:
 (1) Important basic research on resources of herb species in Lingnan region (Select
C1905 for application code 2);
 (2) Studies on TCM theory and new methods (Select C1905 for application code 2).

III. Resources and environment
1. Water resources, water environment and ecosystem
Taking Pearl River delta as the research background, it is to study the response, process
and mechanism of the effect of regional forest ecological system on regional climate
change, signs of variation in water safety system in the delta region, water environment
effect in urbanization process, temporal and spatial changes in water resources requirement
and management mechanisms, etc.
Main research directions:
 (1) Carbon and nitrogen cycling mechanism in tropical and sub tropical forest ecological
systems (Select D01 for application code 2);
 (2) Water resources and water environmental effect in Pearl River delta under the
influence of global change (Select D01 for application code 2).

2. Localized pollution mechanism and control in urban areas
Focusing on the features of typical secondary pollution in air pollution in Pearl River delta
region, it is mainly to study the characteristics, laws of transportation, chemical conversion
process, formation mechanism and control strategies for secondary air pollutants in urban
areas in the delta region. Focusing on the special features of high-density composite
pollution by heavy metal in electronic industrial wastes and sustained organic materials, it
also studies water, air and soil pollution control and ecological recovery mechanism in
high-risk regions.
Main research directions:
  (1) Air pollutant formation mechanism and control methods for typical groups of urban
areas (Select D05 for application code 2);
  (2) Pollution control and ecological recovery mechanism in typical high electronic waste
risk areas (Select D03 for application code 2).


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                                                               Programs of Joint Funds
3. Marine resources and environment
Main research directions:
 (1) Response mechanism of South China Sea alongshore ecological environment to
climate change (Select D06 for application code 2);
 (2) Mechanism of gas hydrate compound deposit formation (Select D05 for application
code 2).

4. Mineral resources and mining environment
Taking south China granite region, which is one of the major various metal ore deposits
regions in China as the research subject, it is to study the laws of metal ore deposit
formation and characteristics of typical pollutant and mechanism of recovery.
Main research directions:
 (1) Laws of ore deposit formation in granite region in south China (Select D02 for
application code 2);
 (2) Characteristics of pollution and recovery mechanism of typical pollutants in mines in
granite region and surrounding areas in south China (Select D03 for application code 2).

IV. New materials and manufacturing areas
1. Nano photoelectric and catalyst materials
It is mainly to study new structures, technologies and materials related to photoelectric and
catalyst technology areas at nano and micro scales.
Main research directions:
  (1) Micro and nano-structured semi conductive luminescent materials and devices (Select
E01, E02, E03 for application code 2);
  (2) Basic research on nano catalyst new materials and applications (Select E01, E02, E03
for application code 2).

2. Biomedical materials
It is mainly to study the preparation of new types of biomedical materials.
Main research directions:
Studies on new absorbable bioactive medical materials (Select E01, E02, E03 for
application code 2).

3. Matter conversion s and new energy source
It is mainly to study the process and mechanism of high efficiency conversion of
biomaterial resources, development and utilization of new energy source.
Main research directions:
(1) Studies on the structure of biomaterial preparation by chemical conversion and new
functional materials (Select E02, E03 for application code 2);
(2) Key technical and scientific problems in the process of hydrogen generation from
alcohol.


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Programs of Joint Funds
4. Energy saving and new energy source exploration
It mainly focuses on advanced manufacturing methods, theory in energy saving and new
energy sources.
Main research direction:
(1) Basic studies on micro thermal tubes in photoelectric area (Select E05 for application
code 2);
(2) Basic research on manufacturing technologies of key strengthened heat transferring
devices used in power and chemical engineering industries (Select E07, E05 for
application code 2).

V. Electronics and information
1. Digital home
It focuses on key technologies and methods in digital home industry.
Main research directions:
  (1) Theory and technology of structures and compatibility of wireless network systems
for digital home (Select F02 for application code 2);
  (2) Key technologies and methods for intelligence and intelligent information processing
in digital home (Select F02 for application code 2);
  (3) Core technology of security and information service system for digital home (Select
F02 for application code 2);
  (4) Key technology for intelligent expansion, monitoring and service of digital home
equipment (Select F02 for application code 2).

2. Intelligent information processing
Basic research and explorations on interdisciplinary and new research topics in intelligent
information processing.
Main research directions:
(1) Massive data integration and data mining technology (Select F03 for application code 2);
(2) Theory and methods for contradictory problems in intelligent system and intelligent
sensing (Select F03 for application code 2);
(3) Identification by bio features and identity verification (Select F01 for application code 2).

Notes to applicants
1. Before writing applications, applicants should read carefully the regulations on NSFC‟s
projects, the detailed procedures of the Joint Fund with Guangdong, the announcement on
NSFC‟s project application and final reporting for 2008 and this guide on joint funds for
2008, and learn relevant rules, requirements, responsibilities and funding areas, etc. Please
refer to NSFC‟s website http://www.nsfc.gov.cn for relevant documents.

2. Please use the 2008 version of application form for this joint fund. When submitting
applications, please send both electronic version and one copy of paper form, and make
sure the contents in the electronic form and paper form are exactly the same.

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                                                               Programs of Joint Funds
Supplementary materials that cannot be made electronically should be sent together with
the paper form application. When filling in the application form, select “jointly funded
projects” for the “funding type”, “Key Program project” or “General Program project” for
“sub-category”, and “Joint Fund with Guangdong” in the “notes” section.

Classification code for “application code 1” should be the following: agriculture area L01,
population and health area L02, resources and environmental area L03, new material and
manufacture area L04, and electronic information area L05.

For “application code 2”, please select the application code of relevant disciplines
according to the actual contents and direction of the applied project.

3. This joint fund is open to all applicants in China. Applicants are encouraged to conduct
cooperative research with universities or research units in Guangdong Province. For
cooperative project, please state the content and responsibilities of each party in the
application.

4. Application to this joint fund should be in agreement with the scope and requirement
specified in this guide. Applicant should propose all the project title, specific research
scheme, research content and goals. Please provide details on existing research conditions,
research foundation and progress of research in the application. Proposed research scheme
with creative ideas is highly encouraged.

5. The PI of the project in this joint fund must have senior academic title. Applicant may
only apply for 1 project, and may not participate in other applications to this joint fund as
key member of the research group. Key members in the research group with senior
academic title may not participate in more than 2 projects in this joint fund.

6. This joint fund and other NSFC‟s projects are all subject to the limitation search on the
number of NSFC‟s projects. Researchers with senior academic titles may not undertake
(including participating in) more than 3 NSFC‟s General Program projects, Key Program
projects, Major Research Plan projects, Major Program projects and project in this joint
fund.

Contact information:
Bureau of Planning, NSFC
Address: 83, Shuangqing Road
Haidian District, Beijing
Post code: 100085
Contact persons: Liu Quan, Zhu Weitong
Tel: 010-62326872, 62327019
E-mail: zhuwt@nsfc.gov.cn, liuquan@nsfc.gov.cn

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Programs of Joint Funds
Department of Science and Technology, Guangdong Province
Address: Information Building, 171 Lianxinlu, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province
Post code 510033
Contact persons: Chen Weimin
Tel: 020-83163881
E-mail: chenwm@gdstc.gov.cn


              Jointly Funded Projects of Railway
The Jointly Funded Projects with Railway is set up jointly by NSFC and the Ministry of
Railway. The Fund is open to all scientists in China, aims at attracting researchers from
universities and institutions in the country to participate in basic research on scientific and
technological development of railway, so as to enhance the original innovation capabilities
of China‟s railway science and technology, and to make contributions to the leapfrog
development of railways in the country.

As a part of the National Natural Science Fund, NSFC and the Ministry of Railway are
jointly responsible for the management according to the regulations of NSFC, and
applications will be accepted and evaluated by the Department of Information Sciences of
NSFC. 2008 is the 3rd year for the implementation of the Jointly Funded Projects of
Railway. The total funding will be 5 million yuan, mainly supporting basic research
(including applied basic research) related to information technology that improves the
safety and benefit of railway operation.

In 2007, NSFC received 46 applications in total, among which 45 are for General Program
projects and 1 Key Program project. 12 were funded as General Program projects, with an
average funding of 250 thousand yuan and the funding rate of 26.67%. One Key Program
project was granted, with a funding of 2 million yuan.

In 2008, 12 General Program projects and 1 Key Program project will be funded. The
funding for each General Program project is about 250,000 yuan for 3 years, and that for
the Key Program project is about 1.8 million yuan for 4 years.

In 2008, applications for General Program projects in the following areas will be
accepted:
1. Theory and technology of railway information network safety;
2. Theory and technology for checking, power supply and control of safe operation of
trains;
3. Theory and methods of passenger line transportation organization;
4. Theory and methods for railway container transportation organization;
5. Theory of the organization and simulation technology of passenger and goods mixed
transportations;
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                                                                Programs of Joint Funds
6. Theory and methods for the optimization of train schedule;
7. Theory and methods for the evaluation of railway transportation safety and reliability.

In 2008, applications for Key Program projects in the following area will be accepted:
Theory and key technology of wireless communication for data transmission required by
the control and safety of high-speed passenger trains.

Notes to applicants:
1. Select “jointly funded projects” for the “funding type”, “General Program project” or
“Key Program project” for “sub-category”, and “Jointly Funded Project of Railway” in the
“notes” section, and select “F03” for “application code 1” and application code relevant or
close to the research contents for “application code 2”;

2. Applications should be prepared within the research areas announced in this guide. The
application form, submission method and deadline are all the same as the requirements for
NSFC‟s projects accepted in the concentrated reception period. Application form can be
downloaded from NSFC‟s website.

Contact information:
Department of Information Sciences, NSFC
Address: 83, Shuangqing Road
Haidian District, Beijing
Post code: 100085
Contact persons: Wang Chenghong, Song Su
Tel: 010-62327149
E-mail: zidonghua@nsfc.gov.cn

Department of Science and Technology
Ministry of Railway of China
Address: No. 10, Fuxinglu, Beijing
Post code 100844
Contact persons: Zhou Li, Huo Baoshi
Tel: 010-51841093
E-mail: huobs@sina.com


  Jointly Funded Projects with Microsoft Research
                   Institute Asia
NSFC Department of Information Sciences and Microsoft Research Institute Asia plan to
jointly fund projects of General Program and Key Program. Jointly funded projects belong
to the projects of NSFC and are administered according to NSFC regulations. Research
areas to be funded include network technology, multimedia technology, man-machine
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Programs of Joint Funds
interface technology, natural language comprehension, information security, image and
graphic technology. The annual funding is 6 million yuan.

In 2007, 31 applications for General Program projects were received and 9 were funded,
with an average funding of 266,700 yuan per project. 4 applications for Key Grogram
projects were received and 2 were funded, with an average grant of 1.80 million yuan per
project.

In 2008, 10 General Program projects will be supported, each for 3 years with a funding of
250 to 300 thousand yuan. Application code can be selected from F01, F02, F03, F04 to
F05, and application will be accepted by Division I (F01), Division II (F02), Division III
(F03), Division IV (F04), and Division V (F05) of the Department of Information
Sciences.

In 2008, Key Program projects will be funded in the following two research areas with an
average funding of 1.80 million yuan. The Division II of the Department of Information
Sciences is responsible for handling applications (application code: F02).
1. Basic methods and key technology for the construction and application of infrastructure
supporting research on Chinese WEB;
2. Studies on highly effective video coding based on visual properties.
Select “jointly funded projects” for the “funding type”, “General Program project” or “Key
Program project” for “sub-category”, and “Jointly Funded Projects with Microsoft
Research Institute Asia” in the “notes” section.

Contact information:
Department of Information Sciences, NSFC
Address: 83, Shuangqing Road
Haidian District, Beijing
Post code: 100085
Contact persons: Liu Ke, Xiao Renyi, Xu Lin
Tel: 010-62327141, 010-62326947
E-mail: liuke@nsfc.gov.cn
         xiaory@nsfc.gov.cn
         xulin@nsfc.gov.cn

Microsoft Research Institute Asia
Address: No. 49, Zhichunlu, Haidian, Beijing
Post code 100080
Contact persons: Wu Feng
Tel: 010-58963119
E-mail: fengwu@microsoft.com


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                                                               Programs of Joint Funds

       Jointly Funded Projects for Less Developed
                        Regions
In the funding scope of the Jointly Funded Projects for Less Developed Regions, NSFC
supports research programs in some special fields jointly with some provinces or
autonomous regions in order to jointly support research with regional advantages and
characteristics or with urgent needs regionally, to serve the training of talented people and
the promotion of local social and economic development.

The selection of project type should be “projects for less developed regions”, the
sub-category should be empty, and the annotation should be the research area applied.

1. Study on the potentiality of degenerated grassland in Tibetan Plateau
Using representative alpine grassland in north Tibet, it is to study the character of
vegetation composition, states and trends of soil seed bank and seed rain, the
ecophysiological characters of seed germination and the process of nutrition and
reproduction, to make sure the self-renew mechanism of alpine grassland vegetation, and
based on the above studies, to determine the revegetation potentiality of degenerated
grassland by the comparative study of plant community on different degenerate stage.

Qualification of applicants: researchers from universities and research institutions under
the jurisdiction of Tibet Autonomous Region.

The Department of Life Sciences is responsible for handling applications (Application
code 1: C0111).

2. Study on the genetic structure and pathological molecular mechanism of chief
geographic populations of vegetable virus in Yunnan
To study genetic constitutes of virus population in different ecogeographic region and
different planting season, including 1-2 important virus such as Potyvirus, Tospovirus or
Begomovirus in main vegetables (i.e., Solanaceae, cruciferae, cucurbitaceae, leguminosae
family, etc.), the features of variance and recompose with different species of the same
genus and their isolates, the interaction between virus, and virus with host, or between
mediators and their influence to the prevalence of disease, so as to provide theoretical
support and monitoring techniques for the rational configuration, production of high
quantity, efficiency and safety of Yunnan vegetation enterprise.

Qualification of applicants: researchers from universities and research institutions under
the jurisdiction of Yunnan Province.

The Department of Life Sciences is responsible for handling applications (Application
code 1: C0101).
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Programs of Joint Funds
3. Basic and clinical studies on tumors with special high incidence in Xinjiang
To study the pathogenesis and molecular epidemiology of cervical cancer in Uyghur
women and esophageal cancer in Kazakh people by using methods like molecular biology,
cell biology, molecular genetics, molecular immunology and molecular pathology, to carry
out qualitative and quantitative authentication for (candidate) biomarkers or early alarming
index, to establish molecular diagnosis with specialty and sensitivity to diseases and
syndrome standard system, and in particular, to explore radiobiology mechanism of time,
dosage and segmentations closely connected to clinical curative effect and damage to
normal tissues, to reveal the interaction and mechanism among time, dosage,
segmentations so as to provide theoretical basis and approach to radiotherapy design for
clinical individuality, and to further increase the effect of treatment to malignant tumors
and improve the people‟s life quality.

Qualification of applicants: researchers from universities and research institutions under
the jurisdiction of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The Department of Life Sciences
is responsible for handling applications (Application code1: C0303).


4. Analyzing study of key genes of important salubrious properties of Lactobacillus
resources from traditional ferment dairy products in Inner Mongolia
To design and make Lactobacillus expression profile gene chips by using comparative
genome and bioinformatics, and by using the gene chips, to analyze the differentially
expressed genes of lactobacillus after intimidation with different factors in Inner Mongolia,
to investigate and discover key genes of important salubrious properties (i.e., acid and bile
salt resistant) of lactobacillus, and to validate the biological function of relevant genes.

Qualification of applicants: researchers from universities and research institutions under
the jurisdiction of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The Department of Life Sciences
is responsible for handling applications (Application code1: C0101).

5. Dynamics of hydrogen diffusion and new technology of hydrogen removal in
aluminous melt
Hydrogen content in the aluminum is more and more strict while the aluminum and its
alloy have been extensively used in such industries as automobile, aeronautics and
astronautics, electronics, etc. But the warm and moist climate in Guangxi area all the year
round makes hydrogen content in the aluminum melt too high to satisfy the demand of
high quality aluminum foil and aluminum materials applied to aviation industry and
electronic industry. To solve the common problems in aluminum metallurgy and
processing industries in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, the relationship between
hydrogen and aluminum melt structure, hydrogen binding and scattering on oxide,
hydrogen solute reassign in solidification process and hydrogen vacuum metallurgy effect
need to be investigated.

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                                                               Programs of Joint Funds
Qualification of applicants: researchers from universities and research and development
institutes under the jurisdiction of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The Department
of Engineering and Materials Sciences is responsible for handling applications (for Code 1,
select E04).

6. Research on the performance-structure design relationship of diphase SiC
poly-systems
To make the best use of abundant natural resources of SiC in Ningxia Hui Autonomous
Region, studies need to be carried out on the structure-performance design and fabrication
of multi-component SiC ceramic composites with low cost, easy processing and high
degree of toughness. Based on the analysis of high-temperature phase-equilibrium and the
relationship among the composition, phase and external conditions of quasi-equilibrium
system, it is intended to explore the equilibrium of isothermal section or sub-solid phase of
poly-systems and the structure-composition-performance relationship of high-temperature
reaction products, providing the theoretical basis for the structural design and phase
control of new-type SiC ceramics.

Qualification of applicants: researchers from universities and research institutions under
the jurisdiction of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The Department of Life Sciences is
responsible for receiving applications (Application code1: E02).

7. Research on the screen-out of components with blood enrichment effect in Taihe
dark-bone chicken and their active mechanism
Taking Taihe dark-bone chicken as the study object, it is to establish new high-flux screen
system of components with enriching blood effect by modern separation technique and
combining chemical and biological method, to study the components with blood
enrichment effect in Taihe dark-bone chicken, and on the basis of the above work, to
explain their possible mechanism by modern theory and technical methods of molecular
biology and to provide theoretical and technical foundation for deeply exploiting their
medicine and health value.


Qualification: researchers from universities or institutes under the jurisdiction of Jiangxi
Provence. The Department of Chemical Sciences is responsible for handling applications
(code1: B02).




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Appendix



                        Special Funds
Special funds are set up by NSFC to support or strengthen research in certain areas or
aspects, and currently they include Tianyuan Fund for Mathematics and Special Fund for
Basic Research on Scientific Instruments. Among them, Tianyuan Fund for Mathematics
does not count in the limitation search on the number of NSFC projects allowed and the
Special Fund for Basic Research on Scientific Instruments counts in the limitation search
for Key Program projects. Applicants should pay attention to this change.


                Tianyuan Fund for Mathematics
Tianyuan Fund for Mathematics is a special fund to support mathematical research in
China to catch up with the world advanced research level in the 21 st Century. It is managed
by NSFC. Tianyuan Fund is coherent with NSFC's funded projects by the Division of
Mathematics in giving a unified support to mathematical research. Tianyuan Fund mainly
supports research in the following six areas:

1) Mathematical summer schools for postgraduate and undergraduate students, summer
camps for middle school students and training workshops for young teachers in the
western regions of China;
2) Tianyuan Youth Grants;
3) Lectures, workshops, academic annual meetings, mathematical forum and international
cooperation and exchange on special topics;
4) Publication of books and journals and development of computer network;
5) Education and dissemination of mathematical knowledge and research on the history of
mathematics;
6) Pre-research on interdisciplinary issues with other disciplines.

The aim of setting up the Tianyuan Youth Grants is to encourage more young people to
devote to the cause of mathematical research and strengthen interdisciplinary studies. The
Tianyuan Youth Grants are open only to institutions that are qualified to award master and
doctor degrees in mathematics. The qualifications for the applicants are: 1) young
researchers under 35 who have their Ph.D. degrees for less than three years, but not
post-docs, and 2) young researchers in less developed regions enjoy certain preferential
treatment.

Through lectures, workshops, academic annual meetings, mathematical forum and
international cooperation and exchanges on special topics, it is to promote and improve the
development of various disciplines of mathematics, to strengthen the intercrossing and
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                                                               Programs of Joint Funds
application of mathematics in other disciplines, and to pay attention to the development of
applied mathematics driven by problems, so as to play the incubator role in promoting the
intercrossing of mathematics and other disciplines.

All applications, except that for summer schools of postgraduate students, summer schools
for undergraduate students, summer camps for middle school students and training
workshops for young teachers in the western regions of China, are supported by combined
ways of free application and special arrangement. All the others are open to free
application. For details, please contact the Division of Mathematics of the Department of
Mathematical and Physical Sciences and the Office of Tianyuan Fund for Mathematics.

The time of application for Tianyuan Fund for Mathematics is as follows: Tianyuan Youth
Grants is the same as applications for NSFC‟s General Program projects. Others can be
submitted 3 month prior to the project commencement.

All applicants to the Tianyuan Fund for Mathematics shall fill out the unified NSFC
application form, and choose “Special Fund” under the “project category” and “Tianyuan
Fund for Mathematics” under “sub-category”. The duration for the project is one year.

Please log on to NSFC website (http://www.nsfc.gov.cn), click Download Center and
download the application form. The procedures of submission for NSFC‟s General
Program shall apply and the Science and Technology Offices of the home institutions are
responsible for the submission of their own proposals. One hard copy of the proposals
shall be sent to the following address:

Division of Mathematics,
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
National Natural Science Foundation of China
P.O. Box: Beijing 8610
Zip Code: 100085

The identical electronic version of the proposal shall be sent to support@mail.nsfc.gov.cn.

The Academic Steering Committee meeting of the Tianyuan Fund for Mathematics is
convened every year to discuss the work of the Fund and approve the funding of projects.
New information will be announced on Mathematical Progress and Communications of the
Chinese Mathematical Society.


     Special Fund for Basic Research on Scientific
                     Instruments
The Special Fund for Basic Research on Scientific Instruments is used to support
                                     223
Appendix
innovative research or make improvement on important scientific instruments that are
urgently needed in the research on frontier areas of basic research, and priority is given to
support research on scientific instruments that have important roles in promoting basic
research and fundamental scientific issues in developing innovative scientific instruments.

The duration of projects supported by the Special Fund for Basic Research on Scientific
Instruments is 3 years, and the funding is determined according to the funding scale of the
year, less than 2 million yuan per project.

NSFC scientific departments will organize and recommend research groups that have good
research basis.

The general application form for NSFC‟s projects will be used. Please choose “Special
Fund” under the “project category” and “Special Fund for Basic Research on Scientific
Instruments” under the “sub-category”. Please use the main text of the relative General
Program project in the syllabus.

The project will be counted in the limitation search for NSFC‟s Key Program projects.


        Special Grant for Key Academic Journals
Special Grant for Key Academic Journals is set up by NSFC in order to improve the
quality of Chinese academic journals. This fund is mainly used for expenses of soliciting
papers, editing, publication and distribution that are directly related to improving academic
standard and overall quality of the journals. The governing agencies or home organizations
of the journals being funded should provide good environment for the journals, and give
financial aid and facility support in case of need.

Applications are open every two years in the even year. Funded journals can receive grant
for two consecutive years. The amount of funding will be determined according to budget
available.

Eligibility of application
Applicant journals are limited to those natural science journals indexed by SCI, SCI-E or
SCI-Search of Thompson Information of USA, or those listed among the top 50 in citation
ranking published by CJCR in the year of application.

Notice
Applicant journals should use the latest version of the “Application Form for NSFC‟s
Project”, select “Special Fund” for the project category, and “Key Academic Journal” for
the “sub-category”, write outlines according to the text of key academic journals, and send
one copy of the original search documents issued by ISTIC or Document Center of the
                                            224
                                                               Programs of Joint Funds
Chinese Academy of Sciences showing citation statistics on SCI and two copies of the
latest issue. After stamping the official seal of the governing organization, two copies of
application form should be sent to NSFC.

In 2008 and 2009, the total budget is about 7 million yuan to fund about 30 journals.




                                            225
Appendix


                                            Appendix
                                      Telephone Directory of NSFC
                  Offices                        Telephone                   Offices                    Telephone
    Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences                             Department of Earth Sciences
      Division of General Affairs                62326910          Division of General Affairs              62327157
       Division of Mathematics                   62327178                  Division I                       62327161
        Division of Mechanics                    62327179                         Geochemistry              62327158
                                                                   Division II
        Division of Astronomy                    62327189                            Geology                62327166
         Division I of Physics                   62327181                 Division III                      62327160
        Division II of Physics                   62327182                 Division IV                       62327165
                 Department of Chemical Science                            Division V                       62327162
      Division of General Affairs                62326906          Department of Engineering and Materials Sciences
                            Inorganic            62327170          Division of General Affairs              62326884
   Division I
                          Analytical             62327075              Materials Science I                  62327145
  Division II        Organic chemistry           62327169             Materials Science II                  62327144
  Division III       Physical chemistry          62327172            Engineering Sc]ience I                 62327136
                            Polymer              62327167            Engineering Science II                 62327098
  Divisin IV           Environmental
                                                 62327173           Engineering Science III                 62327135
                         Chemistry
   Divisin V             Chem. Eng               62327168           Engineering Science IV                  62327142
                   Department of Life Sciences                       Engineering Science V                  62327131
      Division of General Affairs                62327200                  Department of Information Sciences
                      Microbiology               62327195          Division of General Affairs              62327146
 Division I
                            Botany               62327195                  Division I                       62327147
                         Ecology                 62327197                  Division II                      62327141
 Division II
                      Forest science             62327197                 Division III                      62327149
                 Biophysics, biochemistry                                 Division IV             62327143
                                                 62327213
                  and molecular biology                                   Department of Management Sciences
                         Genetics                62327215          Division of General Affairs              62326898
Division III
                    Cell and dev. biology        62327215                  Division I                       62327155
                       Immunology                62326924                  Division II                      62327152
                     Neuroscience and
                                                 62327198                 Division III                      62327151
Division IV            psychology
                 Biomedical engineering          62327198                              Bureau of Planning
 Division V        Agricultural science     62327192 62326918                Office                         62326980
                   Animal husbandry,
                                                 62327194                  Bureau of International Cooperation
Division VI        vet. and aquiculture
                         Zoology                 62326914                    Office                         62327001
                      Pathology and
                                                 62327214                    Center for Administrative Affairs
Division VII            physiology
                   Preventive medicine           62327212                    Office                         62327218
Division VIII        Basic clinical I            62327207                         Department of Publication
                            TCM                  62327211                    Office                         62327204
Division. IX
                     Meteria medica              62327199
 Division X          Basic clinical II           62326922



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