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					              Table of Contents

ETHS MUN 2008-2009                     2-4
     Advisors and Executive Board       2
     Letter of Introduction             3
     Welcome to Model United Nations    4

Conference Preparation
5-16
     Time Management                    5
     Researching                        6
     20 Questions                       7
     Position Papers                    8
     Avoiding Plagiarism               10
     Footnoting                        12
     Notebooks                         13

Conference Policies
16-17

Conference Overview
18-37
      Conference Procedure             18
      Committee Rules and Motions      20
      Diplomacy and Professionalism    23
      Public Speaking                  24
      Speech Preparation               27
      Caucusing                        28
      Blocs                            30
      Co-Delegating                    31
      Resolution Writing               32
      Sample Resolution                34
      Writing a Quality Resolution     35
      Amendment Writing                36
      Phrases for Resolutions          37

Acronyms and Abbreviations Glossary
38-44

Glossary
45-47

Structure of the United Nations
48



                                1
Advisors and Executive Board


                  Advisors

          Mrs. Mariotti World History &
                        Cultural Geography



              Executive Board

           Dorothy Dao President
       Nicolás Pedreira Vice President
           Kaitlyn Hieb Treasurer
      Udara Abeysekera Publicity/Outreach Chair
       Soha Bayginejad Technology Chair
         Devin Walpert Records Chair
     Vinodini Sundaram Novice Trainers
          Missy Rogers
       Shabnum Khashi
        Nicole Horowitz
         Ashley Posavec
           Arshia Singh
          Connie Wang
         Alison Walker




                       2
                         2010-2011 ETHS MUN

Dear Delegate,

Welcome to the El Toro High School Model United Nations program! Model United
Nations is a rapidly expanding program with over 200,000 delegates participating in an
array of conferences, located in places from Laguna Hills to Beijing. The ETHS program
has been in existence for over a decade and continues to flourish to this day. The program
grows with success each and every year. ETHS MUN has participated in some of the
most advanced and esteemed conferences, including UC Berkeley and UCLA. Our
delegates have won numerous prestigious awards, including the coveted gavel and Best
Small School Delegation. MUN provides an invaluable experience that expands your
sphere of knowledge and develops your understanding of different cultures and prevalent
issues across the globe. It provides valuable skills required to thrive in the world,
including research and public speaking abilities. However, MUN is not an easy program
and requires a great deal of effort to reach success. The purpose of this delegate guide is
to lead you through the path ahead and to help you become an outstanding delegate. This
guide will bring clarity to the confusion that MUN can sometimes entail and ensure that
your tasks are done to the fullest extent.

We hope that you enjoy your MUN experience at El Toro and take full advantage of the
knowledge that you will attain through the program. If you have any questions, do not
hesitate to consult with your novice trainers or advisors. Good luck and have fun!

Sincerely,

The El Toro High School Model United Nations Executive Board




                                            3
     Welcome to Model United Nations

Model United Nations, or MUN for short, simulates the activities and procedures of the
United Nations. High school students from around the nation represent different countries
and debate world issues, competing against other schools, both within their geographic
area and from all over the world. Model United Nations provides a forum for young
people from an assortment of backgrounds and from around the country to interact and to
get to know each other in healthy competition. MUN has it all!

What’s the big hype about MUN?
Model United Nations provides a valuable forum for students to learn interactive skills
which are vital in the business and professional world. MUN students learn how to
research, analyze, debate, and write about real issues confronting the international
community. MUN gives students the opportunity to travel nationally and internationally,
that in conjunction with AP classes in other subjects, sets our students apart from most
honors students and gives them a competitive edge when applying to selective colleges.
With over 200,000 delegates from around the nation and world, meeting new people and
expanding one’s professional network is a benefit that all MUN delegates will gain.

What is El Toro MUN?
ETHS MUN is a well-respected program in the district. MUN has been an innovative and
cutting edge program for decades. UC Berkeley’s MUN program is highly competitive
and is one of the oldest MUN programs in the country. UC Berkeley has hosted its own
conference for more than 50 years! Each delegate in our program contributes to El
Toro’s respected reputation and the ETHS MUN legacy.




                                           4
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              5
                        Time Management

Time management is one of the most vital skills you will need to succeed. It may be easy
to procrastinate, but the work piles up quickly. The following steps will help you to
avoid this common mistake.

1.     Read the topic synopsis provided by the host school—and make sure that you
       truly understand it. If you need any clarification, e-mail the chairs of the
       conference or ask your novice trainers or advisors.

2.     Begin your research! You don’t want to get caught up doing everything at the last
       minute. Make sure you use keywords and utilize popular search engines, such as
       google.com, the country’s embassy website, as well as the United Nations’ own
       website for links to the issues at hand. You’ll need to find out what the issue is,
       what the United Nations and other organizations have done to help, and how your
       assigned nation feels about it.

       Many of the topics that are used today have been previously assigned to past
       delegates, so it would be advisable to take the time to sift through the research we
       keep on the ETHSMUN website. This will facilitate your understanding of the
       topic before you begin your research.

3.     Write your paper! Make sure you’ve gone through your research thoroughly. By
       the time you begin writing your paper, you should already know and understand
       your research. Color-coding your highlighting for each section will make writing
       the paper a lot less painful. For example, you might use yellow highlighter for
       background information, green for past UN action, and pink for your country
       policy. This way, if a single source contributes to multiple sections, you can
       quickly see which parts apply to which section.

       Ideally, your paper should be done a weekend before the conference. This way,
       you will have time to get feedback from the Novice Trainers and MUN faculty
       before you begin the editing process, thus allowing you to look at it with a fresh
       eye. Keep in mind that the position paper is a formal document, and as such it
       will probably be graded by advanced writers, or perhaps even college-level
       students!

4.     Edit your paper. Make sure that you do not use contractions or first-person
       language. Avoid discussing your nation’s opinions until you come to the country
       policy section, and once at the country policy section, make sure the opinion you
       provide is a reflection of your nation’s position and not your own. If the host
       school provides a preset format, make sure to follow it!




                                            6
                              Researching

Research is the core of MUN. In order to write an outstanding position paper and come
across as a knowledgeable delegate, you must be well prepared. It is important to pay
attention to the validity of your sources and ensure that your research is thorough. Keep
an open mind and be aware of biases, both in sources as well as in yourself. Though it
may seem hard with the more controversial issues, it is imperative to steer clear of your
own opinions when writing position papers and speaking at conferences. Above all, make
sure that you are getting everything done ahead of time. Don’t procrastinate! You will
regret it!

The following tips can make your research much more effective:
           Use key words. If a group or treaty has more than one word in its title, put
              the title in quotes. This way, the search engine will search, for example,
              for ―United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees‖ rather than
              individual instances of ―high,‖ ―refugees,‖ etc. that probably will not
              pertain to the organization.

              Take advantage of prominent search engines such as google.com. Make
               sure you visit the United Nations’ official website (un.org). In addition,
               unbisnet.un.org is a great resource to use to find resolutions that your
               nation supports; just click on ―New Keyword Search‖ under ―Voting
               Records.‖ Not only will the resolutions themselves bolster your Past UN
               Action section, but your nation’s policy will become apparent based upon
               whether they supported or rejected said resolutions.

              Color-code your highlighting. For example, you might use yellow
               highlighter for background information, green for past UN action, and
               pink for your country policy. This will greatly help you once you begin
               the position paper.

              During a position paper, you will have close to 15-30 websites for each
               topic, or maybe for one, depending on how many topics the conference
               requires. It is always helpful to bookmark each website you find, and
               organize them according to which section of your position paper you used
               them. This will become useful when making a notebook and making your
               annotated bibliography.




                                            7
                              20 Questions

Use these questions to guide your research. While it will take some time to craft these
answers into a functioning position paper, answering these questions will provide you
with nearly all of the information you will need. So take the time to complete them!

BACKGROUND
   1. Explain the origin of your topic. When did it first become an issue?
   2. How has the problem changed over the years? What is the current state of the
       topic?
   3. Which nations, regions, and peoples are most affected by the topic?
   4. What factors have worsened or made the topic more difficult to deal with? What
       factors have lessened or made the topic easier to deal with?
   5. How does your topic affect the international community?
PAST UN ACTION
   6. Explain the UN’s initial involvement with topic.
   7. What UN conferences, summits, declarations, missions, and/or resolutions have
       been passed over the years?
   8. Which UN organizations and NGOs are involved with the topic? What actions
       have they taken to address the issue?
COUNTRY POLICY
   9. To what degree and in what ways is your country affected by the topic?
   10. What is your regional bloc’s position on the issue?
   11. What actions, if any, has your country taken or supported to improve the topic or
       to deal with its associated problems?
   12. Which organizations that deal with the topic does your country support? Explain.
   13. Which resolutions and/or treaties regarding the issue has your country ratified?
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Don’t answer each question in this section. Rather, use these questions as a checklist of
what to cover when formulating your solution.

   14. Given the size and scope of the topic, do you plan to create a comprehensive
       resolution that attempts to address all aspects of the topic, or a more narrow
       resolution that addresses a specific aspect of the problem? Explain.
   15. What major aspects of the topic does your resolution try to address, and what does
       your resolution hope to achieve?
   16. How does your resolution mirror your country’s policy/position on the topic? (Be
       realistic by keeping in mind your country’s wealth, political situation, and the
       degree it is affected by the problem.)
   17. Which organizations and/or nations will be called on to help implement your
       resolution? How will your resolution be funded?
   18. How long will it take to implement your resolution? Explain.
   19. What technology can be employed to help your resolution succeed?
   20. In what ways can you make your resolution appealing to other nations?



                                            8
                            Position Papers

The composition of the position paper is a crucial aspect in the MUN experience. Not
only will you develop and refine your research, analysis, and writing skills, but you will
also prepare and educate yourself for the conference ahead. Generally, a delegate is
assigned one to two topics per conference, but up to three can be assigned depending on
the difficulty and length of the conference.

What is a position paper?
Basically, a position paper is a report with its own unique organization. It is different
from other reports in that it is highly concise—in fact, introductions, conclusions, and
oftentimes even transition sentences are avoided.

Why is a position paper important?
If you aren’t convinced that improving your research and writing skills is enough, maybe
an award will win you over. Position papers are sent to the chairs before the conference.
The chairs will read your paper and score it; a job well done will earn you a research
award (not to mention a better grade in the class!). We attend conferences at such
colleges as Stanford, UCLA, UC Berkeley, and UCI; wouldn’t receiving an award based
on your ability to write a research paper for a top college look impressive on a college
application? This is why we highly recommend that you put some serious effort into your
position paper. Plus, the more extensively researched your position paper is, the better
you will do in committee.

General Guidelines on Formatting
Each conference will have different requirements for their position papers; always follow
the instructions given by the particular conference you are attending. However, there are
several general guidelines to follow when specific directions are not provided.

      Use size 10-12 point Times New Roman or similar block font, single spaced.
      Although paper length is not typically specified, papers should be at most two (2)
       pages, or one page front and back
      Each position paper should feature a heading in the upper left-hand corner of the
       page with your committee, topic, and country—in that order.
      Staple the pages together in the upper left hand corner: no binders or folders.
      Use footnotes when required (see pg. 12)




                                              9
   Parts of the Position Paper

Background Information: This should be the smallest section. Always…
      Summarize the topic up to the current date (mention when and how the problem
       started, but focus most on the current issue.).
      Explain the topic’s relevance to the international community.
      Incorporate the answers to who/what/where/when/why-type questions.
      Include appropriate statistics.
      Every sentence (this goes for the entire paper) should include a VALID,
       IMPORTANT piece of information. No fluff!
UN Involvement: This should be slightly longer than the previous section. Always…
      Answer: What has the United Nations done to alleviate the problem?
      Discuss UN organizations and resolutions that pertain to the topic.
      Avoid listing information! Explain the organizations involved, making sure to
       cover their functions, missions, and future plans. For resolutions, explain their
       affect on the issue.
Country Policy/Possible Solutions: This is the make-or-break part of your paper. Other
delegates will provide similar information on the topic, but you are the only one with
your country’s position and your own ideas to solve the problem! Always…
      Explain the official position of your country (hence the name of the paper).
      Summarize how your country has dealt with the problem internally and/or
       internationally.
      Name the organizations and resolutions to which your country supports or objects.
      Create your own solutions to the problem (i.e. don’t copy verbatim the solutions
       you find in your research). However, it is perfectly fine—and even encouraged—
       to build off of different solutions you come across in your research. Use logic and
       reasoning to compile your own solutions to the problem. This type of thinking and
       problem-solving becomes easier with practice.
      Make sure that your solutions are strong, logical, feasible, and supported entirely
       by your country’s position.
      Keep in mind that it is encouraged to organize your solution into steps.
      Remember basic obstacles, and explain how to solve them! Funding is the
       complication most commonly mentioned.
      Also keep in mind that although education is a feasible solution, the judges/chairs
       will get frustrated with your lack of creativity and use of knowledge to come up
       with a resolution that is different from the others, and most of all, repetitive.




                      Never plagiarize!

                                           10
                      Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism is a major no-no—not only for MUN position papers, but for all research
assignments you will do in the future. If you are caught plagiarizing, you will face
certain school disciplinary procedures—not to mention a zero on the assignment!

What is plagiarism?
―Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of
that information‖ (Writing Tutorial Services, 2000).

(Notice how this quote was clearly cited!)

Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism
Cite the source whenever you…
     Refer to someone else’s ideas, opinions, or theories.
     Use any information that is not common knowledge (i.e. facts that cannot be
        discovered with common sense).
     Quote or paraphrase another person’s actual words, either spoken or written.

Paraphrase. Instead of merely rearranging or replacing a few words, read and understand
the text, then write the information in your own words.

Edit your paper when you’re finished. Plagiarism can often be eliminated after a series of
revisions.

It’s a Bird, It’s a Plane, It’s a Plagiarism Buster!
By Gillian Silverman, Assistant Professor of English, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
New York. Used with permission from the author.

At around this time each year, I transform from mild-mannered English professor to take-no-
prisoners literary sleuth. The beginnings are fairly undramatic. They usually involve myself,
a Starbucks, and a large stack of mediocre college-student papers. My mind numbs in
response to the parade of hackneyed phrases (―And in conclusion, these books are both very
similar and very different…‖) when suddenly something catches my eye—a turn of phrase or
an extra-literary locution. ―Paradoxically…,‖ writes one, ―In lieu of an example…,‖ writes
another. My breathing quickens, my heart skips, I reach for the red pen. And behold
Plagiarism Buster, armed with a righteous sense of justice that would rival that of any
superhero.

Plagiarism is the purloining of ideas or language from another source. It is literary theft,
deriving from the Latin plagiarius, meaning kidnapper. Perhaps the dramatic derivation of
the word is what attracts the academic set.

We spend our days in libraries, classrooms and archives. Given the scant opportunities for
stimulation, a kidnapping, literary or otherwise, offers perhaps the only taste of salacious
activity we may experience all year. Maybe this is why the disappointment I feel upon


                                             11
discovering a suspected case of plagiarism is always mixed with a bit of excitement. A
plagiarized paper presents itself as an act of aggression, a taunt behind a title page. To ignore
the challenge would be worse than irresponsible; it would be cowardly. And so, I begin the
chase. The Web is always a productive place to start. With thousands of sites dedicated to
armchair literary criticism, nothing has done more to accommodate paper pilfering. The thing
my students don’t seem to realize, however, is that as easily as they can steal language from
the Web, I can bust them for it. All it takes is an advanced search on Google.com. Plug in any
piece of questionable student writing and up pops the very paper from which the phrase
originates. I’ve discovered papers plagiarized from collaborative high-school projects and
from essay services like screwschool.com. My personal favorite involved a paper cribbed
from an Amazon.com reader’s report for the Cliffs Notes of Herman Melville’s ―Bartleby the
Scrivener.‖ Really, why take the trouble to cheat directly off the Cliffs Notes when you can
simply crib from the reviews?

It’s not that my students are bad performers. Many of them do outstanding and original work.
But on the whole, they are terrible cheaters. They will mooch just as readily from an
adolescent chat room as they will from an online academic journal. And they can be sloppy
in their deceptions: referencing page numbers to editions other than those we used in class or
printing out essays without deleting underlined links. With gaffes like these, the job of
Plagiarism Buster is often less than taxing.

This past semester, I discovered eight cases of plagiarism from the Internet, a new record.
The confrontations that followed often verged on the comical. One student swore up and
down that she had not cheated, and when I pointed to the proof on the computer screen, she
looked genuinely perplexed and asked how her essay got there.

―That’s what I want to know,‖ I told her. ―Yeah,‖ she said as if empathizing with my plight,
―me too.‖ Another student spent 10 minutes insisting that her brother wrote her paper for her
and therefore it was he who was guilty of plagiarism.

Despite their efforts at defense, however, these students generally end up miserable. I fare
little better. While I anticipate these confrontations will leave me victorious, they usually just
make me depressed. The answer that I most frequently receive to my repeated inquiries of
―why?‖ makes me think that plagiarism comes out of a misplaced effort to please. ―You
didn’t like my last paper,‖ one student told me. ―I thought you’d be happier with this one.‖
As if this weren’t enough, I know that in the public university where I teach, it is largely my
students’ overtaxed lives that leave them so vulnerable to the temptations of cheating.
They’re not off rowing crew instead of writing their literature paper. They’re working 12
hour night shifts and caring for elderly parents. In the end, I’m forced to realize that my
students are not bad guys; they’re just guys trying to get by.

And yet, while empathy for my students is important, in cases of plagiarism it has little
educational value. And so I fail them. With compassion, sure, but I fail them nonetheless.
And then, feeling more villain than superhero, I head to the movies for some moral clarity.

My Turn, Newsweek, July 15, 2002




                                               12
                                     Footnoting

    Footnoting is the best—and oftentimes only—way to cite your sources within your paper.
    When you footnote, you place a superscript number after the information in question that
    corresponds to a footnote at the bottom of the page. It is always best to place the
    footnotes at the end of the paper to ensure that the footnotes did not take up valuable
    position paper space.

    Footnote Format

    Book Sources
    Author’s First and Last Name, Book Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Date of
    Publication) Page Numbers.

    Internet Sources
    Author’s First and Last Name, ―Title of Article,‖ Title of Database, Date of Material,
    Date of Access <website address>.

    Example

    The U.K., one of the founding and most prominent members of NATO, believes that
    NATO offers the best solution to terrorism of any organization today. NATO draws
    together the most powerful nations of Europe and North America, and thus its missions,
    often military in nature, prove to be highly effective. Coordination and cooperation, two
    vital aspects of the battle against terrorism, are both encouraged and supported by
    NATO.1 The U.K. is a crucial member of NATO, contributing a great deal of funding as
    well as up to 900 personnel to each of NATO’s current missions: OAE, KFOR, ISAF,
    and NTM-I.2




1
  Mary Campbell, "A Brief History of NATO," The Prague TV Zine, 28 Jan. 2006,
<http://prague.tv/print/article.php?name=brief-history-of-nato>.
2
  "NATO Operations," Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), 28 Jan. 2006
<http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1077043212293>.


                                                 13
                                Notebooks

Notebooks will provide the basis of the MUN portion of your grade within the class.
Remember that you can ask a Novice Trainer for assistance at any time while compiling
your notebook. Notebooks must be organized in a large 3-ring binder. They will not be
accepted late.

What is a Notebook?
A notebook is a compilation of everything you have done to prepare for committee. It
includes not only your position paper and the highlighted printouts of your research, but
also other aspects that will be explained in more detail below. The completion of the
notebook will give you a greater understanding of your research and of your topic.
Generally, delegates bring their notebook to committee and refer to it during the course
of the conference.

Components of the Notebook
The notebook should be divided into five sections, each of which gets a labeled divider.

Cover Page: Oftentimes, delegates decorate the cover page with pictures of their nation’s
flag and other images that pertain to their topics. It must include…
     Your name
     The name of the conference
     The country you represent
     The committee you are in
     The topic(s) you were assigned to research
     The date of the conference
Background Preparation: This section covers the basics. It must include…
     A copy of your topic synopses (all topics) provided by host school.
     Any other directions given (i.e., position paper format specifications, etc.).
     Copies of prewritten resolutions (if applicable).
     A copy of your country profile.
     A copy of your position paper.
Annotated Bibliography: You must keep track of ALL sources used in your research.
Use proper MLA format. Each citation must be briefly annotated; an annotation is a 3-4
sentence overview of the contents of the article. Remember, Knightcite.com is a highly
useful site to use when compiling your bibliography. It can be found at
http://webapps.calvin.edu/knightcite. If you choose not to use KnightCite, the format for
the bibliography is found at the end of this section. (Note that it is different than the
footnote format.)

Research: In this section, you closely examine your best pieces of research. For each
topic, select the best document from your research (sophomores and juniors must select
the 2 best from each topic). Although these sources may touch upon the background to
the issue, they should focus on UN action, country policy, or possible solutions—NOT



                                            14
background. Furthermore, they CANNOT be from an encyclopedia. An example can be
found at the end of this section. This section must include…
 A printout or photocopy of the source in its entirety. Highlight the main ideas,
   particularly the ones you used in your position paper.
 A cover sheet for each selected source.
           Heading: Include the bibliographical information, the topic to which the
           source pertains, and the type of information supplied (UN action, country
           policy, etc.) in the upper right-hand corner.
           Summary: In your own words, summarize the main ideas of the article.
           Concisely (1-2 paragraphs) report on the facts and information in the article.
           It is your job to ―shrink‖ the article down. Do not just tell ―what it is about;‖
           that is for the annotation.
           Analysis: Explain why you chose the article, what it covers, and how the
           information it contains will be useful to you, both in the position paper and in
           committee. Provide relevant information for someone else researching the
           topic – why is this source your best? But also touch upon what it does not
           cover, or what are its shortcomings. Be sure to include an analysis of the
           validity or reliability of the source. Consider the author’s credentials, the type
           of website, the editorial opinion, etc.

Speech: You must write a 1-minute substantive debate speech for each topic (see pg. 26).
Bulleted notes are usually acceptable, but check with your teacher first.

Overhead: Prepare an overhead for each topic that could be used in committee to support
your speech or position. Your overhead should consist largely of chars and other graphic
information. Text should be held to a minimum, only enough to clarify your overhead.
The overhead must be clear and readable when projected.

Bibliographical Format

Book Sources
Last Name of Author, First Name. Title. Edition (if applicable). City of Publication:
Publisher, Year of Publication.
Annotation.

Internet Sources
Last Name of Author, First Name. ―Title of article.‖ Title of Website. Title of Database.
Date of Material. Sponsor (if applicable). Date of Access. <website address>.
Annotation.

Example:
―The Israeli-Palestinian conflict in a Nutshell.‖ Mid East Web. 2003-2005. 27 November
   2005. <http://www.mideastweb.org/nutshell.htm>.
   This document summarizes all aspects of the Israeli-Arab conflict, including the mass
   immigration of Jews into Israel during the Holocaust, Israel’s independence, the
   Palestinian Refugee problem, and Yasser Arafat and the PLO. In addition, the article
   explains current issues, peace treaties, and UN resolutions.


                                             15
Research Analysis Example

     Judson, Tim. ―A World Without Security: Implications of the North Korean Nuclear
                                       Crisis.‖ Syracuse Peace Council. 22 Nov. 2005
             <http://www.peacecouncil.net/pnl/03/718/718WorldWithoutSecurity.htm>.
                                                                         North Korea
                                                       Background/Possible Solutions

Summary

The North Korean nuclear crisis poses ominous repercussions to international politics and
to the environment. North Korea has realized that nuclear weapons provide a great
amount of political leverage, a fact which surrounding Asian nations may soon exploit. If
so, North Korea’s possession of nuclear weapons may set of a worldwide proliferation
initiative. The U.S.’s refusal to negotiate—and threats against the Kim Jong-Il regime—
has only worsened the crisis. The issue’s roots lie in the UN Charter, which permits the
five original nuclear-armed states to possess nuclear weapons: North Korea views this as
unfair. To end the problem, the author states, the U.S. must back out of Iraq and phase
out its nuclear weapons and power plants. Furthermore, the U.S. should provide North
Korea with renewable sources of energy, such as wind, solar, and geothermal, as nuclear
power is inherently costly and detrimental to the environment.

Analysis

This article proved to be immensely helpful in formulating my solution, as well the
background section. The document suggested that North Korea be supplied with
renewable sources of energy, which I included in my solution. Furthermore, the article
emphasized that the U.S. accelerates the crisis with threats of both military and non-
military actions (i.e. sanctions), which inspired Step Four of my plan, calling for the
implementation of a peace treaty. In addition, the international implications the
document provided contributed to the background section of my paper.

However, I found several aspects of the article unhelpful. The article, written as an
editorial, sharply criticized the U.S.’s handling of the situation, and a great deal of the
criticism pertained to Iraq or to aspects of the topic which I did not need to cover. In
addition, the author asserted that nuclear power is dangerous to the environment, a claim
which was countered by other articles I came across. Other than that, the article was
perfect for my purpose.

Tim Judson, the author, is a staff person for the Syracuse Peace Council—thus he is
credible. The document was published on the website of said council—thus it is credible.
Although the article is an opinion piece, it provided facts to persuade the readers, and I
used its facts in my background. I used its persuasive arguments to assist my possible
solutions.




                                            16
                       Conference Policies

Sign-Up Process
There will be only two days to sign up for each conference, and priority will be given to
advanced delegates. In some conferences, delegates can sign up for their country and
committee right away. However, for the more advanced committees, delegates will sign
up on one date and will receive their country and committee assignments on another date
soon after.

Attendance
All delegates are required to attend two conferences per semester or one three-day
conference per semester. First-year delegates are the only ones that can receive
conference credit for the fall training conference. Should the delegate be unable to
complete this requirement, prior notification is needed in order for the student to
complete a supplemental project. The school attendance and tardy policies will be
followed at conferences. Delegates must show up to committee on time each day. Upon
arrival to the conference, delegates must sign in with one of the advisors from El Toro. In
addition, El Toro advisors often require delegates to sign out before they can leave.

Transportation
For out-of-district conferences, busses will be provided by the SVUSD district to
transport all delegates to the conference locations. However, for conferences within the
district, students will have to arrange their own transportation. Car-pooling with an adult
driver is allowed. However, students must obtain permission from the advisors before
driving other students.

Dress Code
Delegates must not wear anything that violates the standard school dress code.
Furthermore, the conference dress code described below must also be strictly adhered to.
You do not have to go for the most expensive looks—delegates must only wear an outfit
that connotes professionalism, not necessarily richness.

Male Delegate Dress
Optimum: A business suit, a tie, and dress shoes.
Alternatives: Instead of a suit, delegates may wear a jacket and dress pants (no jeans),
    with a dress shirt, a tie, and dress shoes.
Minimum Dress: Male delegates should at least wear a pair of slacks, a dress shirt, a tie,
    and dress shoes.

Female Delegate Dress
Optimum: Again, you do not have to go for the most expensive looks—aim for an
    ensemble that connotes professionalism, such as a nice power suit. The minimum
    length of skirts should be just above the knees
Alternatives: A nice blouse or sweater with slacks, or a pantsuit. If in doubt, dress
    conservatively.


                                            17
Shoes: Open toed shoes are not to be worn at conferences; dress shoes are required.
   Throughout the course of the conference, you will probably learn rather quickly that
   delegates move around quite a bit. Try to pick shoes that look nice, but are
   comfortable as well.

Dress tips for all delegates:
Use your best judgment in interpreting the dress code. No sneakers, shorts, sandals,
novelty ties, T-shirts, baseball caps, sweatshirts, sweat pants, printed tank-tops, and
Hawaiian shirts. Nothing on you should glow, and there is absolutely no need to wear
sunglasses during committee. The Secretariat will have the final word on dress code
decisions. If a Secretariat member believes a delegate is inappropriately dressed, the
delegate may be asked to change clothes before participating in committee. You need to
dress nicely, but again, dressing expensively is not necessary.

What to Bring
This list is covers the basics you will need to succeed. Of course, you are welcomed bring
amenities such as breath mints, tissues, throat lozenges, etc. if you so desire. It always
pays to be well-prepared and comfortable in committee.

              Your notebook
              Pen/pencil
              Blank paper to write on
              Clipboard (for caucusing)
              Delegate Guide
              Overhead (if you will need it to bolster your speech)
              Handouts for each delegate (if applicable)
              UN Charter/Declaration on Human Rights
              Change for copy machines and/or snacks
              Hotel key (for overnight conferences)

What NOT to Bring
   Avoid bringing portable CD players, iPods, or MP3 players to committee.
   Furthermore, do not bring to committee any games (including cards), school
   homework, or anything else which might distract you from doing your work at the
   conference. You may, however, bring games or music to play only at lunch and
   break.




                                            18
                   Conference Procedure

Each conference follows a specific order of events. Although some schools choose to run
their conferences differently, most schools follow a standard procedure.

Opening Ceremonies
Most conferences begin with some sort of opening ceremony. This is a chance for the
host school's Secretariat to introduce itself, talk about its goals for the conference, and
welcome the delegates attending. The opening ceremonies can vary in length and style at
each conference; they can be formal or informal, depending on the importance of the
ceremony to the host school.

Adoption of Agenda
In most high school conferences, the host school gives the delegates one to three topics to
research and write about. These topics become the agenda—the subjects that the
committee will debate and discuss. However, Security Council committees may
implement an ―open agenda,‖ and delegates vote on the subjects they want to discuss and
resolve. In these cases, an agenda must be submitted, voted on, and adopted before debate
can commence.

General Debate
General debate is the first stage of debate that occurs at a conference. In it, each delegate
details general information about the topic as well as their country’s policy. This stage of
debate can be extremely repetitive, as no solutions can be presented and delegates may
only present country policy and facts/statistics about the committee topic. General debate
proceeds most often by means of a list of speakers, but it may also proceed with a ―round
robin‖ turn order, and speakers are chosen according to seating or by alphabetical order.

Substantive Debate
Substantive debate is where work can actually get done. Delegates may present solutions
and discuss resolutions on the topics based on the ideas discussed in general debate. Two
to three comments are often made after speeches, and delegates may state whether they
agree or disagree with another delegation's policy—and why. During this time, informal
caucusing (see pg. 29) becomes extremely important, as it will be the only chance you
will have to write resolutions, work closely with other delegates, and showcase
diplomatic skills. Security Council is one of the only exceptions to the speech system, for
due to its nature and its smaller size, general debate and substantive comments are
generally omitted.

Formal Caucus
Formal caucus is called when all resolutions have been completed. At this time,
representatives from each resolution have a given amount of time to explain their ideas to
the other delegates and to attempt to convince them to allow the resolution to pass.
Oftentimes, points are given to the delegates who represent the resolutions—so always
try to be deeply involved in writing and explaining your resolution, but most of all, show


                                             19
diplomacy to other delegates to show them that you have heard them all out and will
present their ideas in the resolution as well as your own.

Voting Bloc
After all resolutions have been presented and any amendments to the resolutions have
been completed, the committee enters Voting Bloc. At this time, the delegates will vote
on which resolutions and amendments shall be passed. Also, all doors and windows will
be locked and closed.

Closing Ceremonies
At the end of every conference, all delegates attend the host school's closing ceremonies.
Here, the Secretariat may comment on what they enjoyed about the conference and how
well the attending delegates did in committee. Awards are given to delegates who
demonstrated above-average preparation and performance, and schools can receive
delegation awards based upon the number of awards individual delegates from their
school received. The awards at most conferences will go in order of performance: the
―lowest‖, for lack of a better word, award one can receive is a ―commendable‖, then
―outstanding‖, and finally, the ―gavel‖ or ―best delegate‖ award. Most large conferences
will actually give away a gavel to the delegate who earns it. The end of the closing
ceremonies marks the end of the conference, and all participating schools are dismissed.




                                            20
          Committee Rules and Motions

The system of rules and motions helps maintain order and professionalism while the
committee is in session. Each motion is usually voted on by the committee and is either
passed or failed based on a majority. Though the system may seem complicated, it
becomes easy to remember with practice. All ―points‖ can be suggested or asked with the
raising of the delegates country placard.

Points of Parliamentary Procedure

Point of Inquiry Used to ask a question.
Point of Order Used to clarify a procedure or a ruling of the chair.
Point of Information Used to inform the chair of something or to request information
     from the chair.
Point of Personal Privilege Used to ask for permission to use the restroom. However, in
     most cases, chairs will let delegates go to the restroom whenever they wish, without
     needing to bring up a motion about it.
Right of Reply Used to respond to any slander or offensive remark made against a
     delegate. Only used in extreme cases. A word to the wise: You do not want to
     provoke a delegate into asking for a Right of Reply.

Motions

Motion to Re -Order Agenda Used to re-order the topics on the committee agenda.
Motion to Open Debate Once the agenda is set, this motion is used to begin debate on
    the topic at hand.
Motion to Open Speaker's List Used to start a speaker's list for a certain topic. The
    delegate who makes this motion is often given the opportunity to make the first
    speech or to decide when he or she would like to speak.
Motion to Close Speaker's List Used to prohibit the addition of more speakers to the
    speaker's list.
Motion to Table Speaker's List Used to erase the current list of speakers.
Motion to be Added to Speaker's List Used to add a delegate's county to the speaker's
    list. If you want to be added after the speaker’s list has been set, send up a note to
    the chair; do not raise your placard and interrupt committee.
Motion to be Removed from Speaker's List Used to remove a delegate's country from
    the speaker's list.
Motion to Change Speaking Time Used to alter the speaking time for speeches and
    comments. When you make this motion, be prepared to suggest a new time and a
    reason for doing so.
Motion to Change the Number of Comments Used to alter the number of comments
    made after a speech. When making this motion, be prepared to suggest a new
    number and a reason for doing so.




                                            21
Motion for an Informal Caucus Used to suspend debate and to move into an informal
    caucus (see pg. 29). When making this motion, you should specify how long and for
    what purpose the caucus is being called.
Motion for a Moderated Caucus Used to suspend debate and move into a moderated
    caucus (see pg. 29). When making this motion, you should mention the time limit
    for each comment, the length of the moderated caucus, and the purpose for calling
    it.
Motion for a Formal Caucus Used to suspend debate and move into a formal caucus
    (see pg. 29). When making this motion, you should specify the amount of time that
    each group will be allotted to present their resolution, and explain your reasons to
    moving into a formal caucus.
Motion to Suspend Debate Used to put the committee session on hold while delegates
    stop for lunch, break, or the end of the conference.
Motion to Submit a Proposal Used to submit any kind of completed resolution,
    amendment, press release, or formally written request to the chair.
Motion to Move into Voting Bloc Used in order for the committee to enter voting bloc
    (see pg. 20), once all amendments and resolutions have been submitted and
    presented. After this motion is presented, chairs will often call upon four delegates
    (two for, two against) to debate it before the committee can vote.
Motion to Move out of Voting Bloc Used to end voting bloc once all resolutions and
    amendments have been voted upon. A committee must remain in Voting Bloc until
    this motion is passed.
Motion to Re-Order Proposals Used to re-arrange the order in which proposals will be
    voted upon.
Motion to Divide Proposal Used to separate a clause from an amendment or resolution,
    in order to vote upon it separately.
Motion to Re -Consider Proposal Used to re-vote a failed proposal. However, the
    original sponsors of the proposal cannot use this motion.
Motion to End/Close Debate Used to end debate on a particular topic.
Motion to Adjourn Meeting Used to end the conference.

Rules of Procedure “Translations”

Until the time when you can consider yourself fluent in MUN jargon, consider this your
handy MUN-to-English translation guide:

I have a question. Point of Inquiry
Can I go to the bathroom? Point of Personal Privilege
He said something mean to me! Right of Reply
It’s 12:30. Can we go to lunch? Motion to Suspend Debate
We finally finished our resolution. Motion to Submit Proposal
I think you might be mistaken. Point of Order
I want to debate the issue with the other delegates. Motion for a Caucus
Can we vote on that resolution again? Motion to Reconsider Proposal
Can we put these resolutions in a different order? Motion to Re-Order Proposals
Can I take that part out of the resolution so we can vote on it separately? Motion to
      Divide Proposal



                                           22
I want to make a speech. Motion to be added to/open the Speakers’ List
I want to go home. Motion to Adjourn/Close Debate


                            The Motion Formula

[Country] makes a motion to [the action you want (specify time if applicable)] for the
purpose of …

Ex: China makes a motion for a ten-minute informal caucus for the purpose of discussing
resolutions.



If this does not seem like a second language to you, don’t worry. As you practice in
committee, it will come naturally soon enough; you will pick it up in no time at all!
Chairs, even in advanced committees, will recommend and ―smile upon‖ any motions
that you make. Sometimes, chairs/judges will give you extra points for making points and
motions, which shows that you are indeed following committee.




                                          23
          Diplomacy and Professionalism

Diplomacy is the use of finesse and skill when dealing with other people. In order to be
diplomatic, you must maintain a professional demeanor and ensure that you display a
decent level of respect towards the person(s) you are dealing with. Finding the key to
compromise and balance is an additional aspect of diplomacy; do not give up your
principles, instead use diplomacy to gently push your efforts forward. Furthermore, chairs
often focus on each delegate’s diplomacy when in informal caucus, and the chairs
appreciate it when delegates allow other, quieter delegates a chance to respond to ideas
and discussions concerning the topic. Ex. ―Excuse me, but China (your country) has
noticed that Japan (quiet country) has been trying to speak/has yet to speak. Do you have
any comments or ideas, Japan?‖ Here are some ―do’s‖ and ―don’ts‖ to help guide you on
your professional, diplomatic way.

                       Do…                                                    Don’t…
Be polite—Always be kind and courteous to your             Be a doormat—There’s a difference between being
fellow delegates. Using traditional ―manners‖ is the       nice, and letting someone walk all over you. Be
key.                                                       benevolent, but don't let anyone control you.

Be professional—Keep in mind you are ―doing                Strike up a rivalry—Nothing can make you appear
business‖ at a conference. Maintain a professional tone    more ravenous and devilish than trying to ―kill the
in your speeches, facial expressions, and body             enemy.‖
language.
                                                           Ask a question if unprepared for the answer—
Be a leader—In caucus, be the one to moderate. If
                                                           Not following this guideline is an easy way to dig
other delegates try to involve themselves, invite them
(without interrupting someone) to speak up or to join
                                                           your own grave. Don’t get stuck in a situation like
the circle. Your peers—as well as the chairs—will see      this; the table can turn.
this and respect you for it, as stated above.
                                                           Confuse your opinion with your country’s
Remain productive—Stay on task, and don’t get              opinion—Properly represent your country, even if
distracted. Chairs will be very annoyed if they see you    your personal beliefs differ. Part of maintaining a
and another delegate being disruptive or discussing        professional demeanor is staying in character.
something else.
                                                           Insult, yell, or use profanity—This type of
Use a strong voice—In the act of being kind, don’t         behavior is absolutely unacceptable in MUN and
sacrifice a strong, willful voice or speech.               will result in punishment.

Be in control—Share your delight, express your             Hold a grudge—Don’t spend all your time trying to
concerns, but keep your emotions under control.            beat one delegate. Stay focused on the big picture
                                                           and on your overall goals.
Maintain friendly relationships—Even if you’re not
working with a group, attempt to ―befriend‖ them.          Be cocky- Cont walk into a conference thinking that
Despite any disagreements, you will need their support
                                                           you have an assured award, even if you have won
in the end when it comes to voting and passing
                                                           many in the past. Do not ever mention anything
resolutions.
                                                           about winning awards during committee; it will
Stay on policy—Even if your state is the ―bad guy,‖        make a bad impression on the chairs and judges.
while in committee stick to your nation’s policy and
try to convince the others in committee that you are
correct. Chairs will highly smile upon your knowledge
and loyalty to your country’s policy.



                                                          24
                            Public Speaking

One of the most important aspects of any Model United Nations conference is speaking.
Speeches are rare opportunities to spread your ideas without interruption or rebuttals
from others, which means that you must always take full advantage of opportunities to
speak. The following information is designed to help you deliver effective, well-prepared
speeches.

There are two types of speeches

Planned: Speeches prepared in advance. These speeches are generally longer than the
other types you will deliver, and include both general and substantive debate speeches.
Usually, general debate speeches last from 1 minute to 2 minutes, while substantive
debate speeches tend to be around 2 minutes.
Impromptu: Spur-of-the-moment speeches that are created as they are delivered. Any
speech can be impromptu; you don’t necessarily have to have planned your speech for
general or substantive debate, although it would be a good idea. Impromptu speeches
allow you to discuss information recently mentioned in caucus or in other speeches.
Comments are generally impromptu.

Every speech has three parts

Introduction: The opening of the speech. The introduction consists of a hook to catch
the audience’s attention and a transition to lead you into the body of the speech. Make
sure your hook is NOT fluff, but rather a statistic or a piece of information that will draw
your listeners’ attention.
Body: The bulk of the speech. The body is the place in which you make your points and
give your support.
Conclusion: The closing of the speech. In the conclusion, all points that were made are
summarized and combined, in order to demonstrate how they will affect the issue at hand
and support your main argument or solution.

General Debate Speeches
The general debate speech is used to inform the committee of your country’s policy on
the topic at hand, and to briefly educate other delegates on the background of the topic
with information you find enlightening and original. As a rule of thumb, assume every
delegate knows just as much as you do in regards to background information. And
NEVER repeat information previously stated by other delegates; this is repetitive and
annoying. General debate speeches are usually 1 minute to 2 minutes long.
             Use specific facts and statistics in your General Debate speech to
                accentuate a point (i.e. ―...our nation is appalled by the x deaths caused per
                year by these atrocious tools of violence and cowardice.‖), but don’t end
                up wasting speaking time reciting facts made by other delegates.
             Show how your nation is affected by the issue at hand by bringing up past
                actions or incidents.


                                             25
              Connect the audience to the issue through an analogy or an explanation of
               how the issue directly affects the delegates as individuals (i.e. WMDs pose
               a threat to their families).
             Try to keep the speech as focused as possible on the topic, as tangent
               topics can hurt your score.
             There are no comments in General Debate, so if your nation has a
               controversial point to make, now is the time to make it!
Substantive Debate Speeches
Substantive debate speeches serve two purposes. In them, you discuss your nation’s
proposed solutions to the problem and try to convince other nations to support your
resolution. You will usually give at least two substantive speeches throughout the course
of committee—the first as a proposal of your nation’s solution, and the second as an
endorsement of the resolution your nation and caucus group has created. This means that
multiple resolutions will be written in committee. These speeches are usually 2 minutes.
             Don’t put your heart and soul into writing your second or third substantive
               speeches—just jot notes about the core idea of your resolution and some
               of its good points and then incorporate them into your speech. In this way,
               most substantive speeches other than the first become impromptus.
             Take on a friendlier, businesslike tone in substantive debate speeches. Be
               a salesperson and show you are willing to compromise (whether you are or
               not).
             Try to repeat as little information as possible from previous substantive
               speeches. Even if it means a 40 second speech, your score will be higher
               than if you had repeated yourself.
             If you need to make several speeches in substantive debate, focus on the
               development of the resolution, and try to think of ways it would benefit
               other nations.
Comments
Comments are brief impromptu speeches given in response to a substantive debate
speech. In them, other states explain why they agree or disagree with the points made by
the speaker. Comments usually last approximately 30 seconds and are usually given in
batches of two or three, but these numbers can sometimes vary.
             Comments must be directly related to the previous speech.
             NEVER begin a comment with ―We commend the delegate on their
               excellent speech,‖ or anything like that. This wastes speaking time and,
               contrary to popular belief, does not give you points for diplomacy.
             While listening to the speech, jot down what your nation agrees with
               and/or disagrees with—and why. When you make your comment, refer to
               those notes for material.
             Don’t become flustered by the short speaking time. You do not have to use
               the full 30 seconds, and if you run out of time, you are still allowed to
               finish your sentence without penalty.
TIPS ON PERFORMANCE
   Try to get on the speaker's list as early as possible.
   Whether you accomplish it through volume or through lack thereof, always make
      sure you have the audience’s full attention when you begin your speech. A great



                                           26
      way to ensure this is to always use volume in your speech, and if you really wish to
      capture attention, vary the volume, but not too dramatically.
     Keep yourself open and connected to the audience through posture, gestures, and
      location. If you can gather your confidence, try not to use the podium, a defensive
      tool for nervous speakers. The less you have in front of you (arms, clipboard,
      podium, etc.), the more attentive the audience will be and thus the more effective
      your speech will be.
     Be animated, but not humorous or distracting. Make sure you don’t speak in a
      droning monotone. Your goal is to attract other delegates to your ideas. Use hand
      movement and turn your body when needed. Too much movement, however, will
      become distracting and will detract from your speech.
     Always maintain a strong degree of eye contact with your audience, but indirectly.
      Don’t stare at one point or person, but constantly shift your gaze from person to
      person or at the audience as a whole.
     Pace yourself and enunciate.
     If you have memorized your speech, take an outline of the speech up with you to
      refer to if you get stuck (a full script of the speech makes it too hard to find your
      place.)
     Don’t banter with the audience or become flustered by a distraction. If you make a
      mistake or if the audience laughs, simply correct yourself (if necessary) and
      continue.
     Don’t apologize if you make a mistake; chances are nobody will notice.
     Stay flexible. If the speaking time is too low, mark the parts of your speech you can
      skip. Also, if another delegate brings up a point before you do, adjust for it—roll
      with the punches, so to speak. If possible, reinforce the idea with some ideas of
      your own that the previous delegate may have left out.
     Speak as a team if you co-delegate, but make sure that you do not interrupt each
      other and that the speech flows well.
     If the room in which your conference takes place is large, walk around the speaker’s
      area a lot to ensure that al parts of the audience are getting attention. However, do
      no win in between desks or chairs and attack individual delegates. Remember:
      interact with words, not with distance
     Also, having a powerful speech may cause people to look for you when trying to
      form a caucus (for more, see Caucus Tips)
     Be confident!

VISUALS
Remember those overheads required for your notebook? Well, now is the ideal time to
use them. A relevant overhead will add spice to your speech. Try using graphs, charts, or
pictures that relate to your topic. Handouts can also be helpful to explain your nation’s
position in substantive debate. These visuals show the chairs and your fellow delegates
that you have put time and effort into preparing for committee, and that you have
mastered the topic through and through. However, be aware that useless handouts and
pointless overheads will get you nowhere.




                                            27
                      Speech Preparation

Writing Your Speech

As with all things, writing speeches becomes easier with practice. Here are some tips…

   Cater to your audience. Remember who you are speaking to and how they will
    receive what you say.
   Control your information in the same way as in your notebook. Use tone and
    wording to alter how your information is received. For example, half a century
    sounds longer than fifty years, and two hundred fifty thousand dollars sounds like
    less than a quarter of a million.
   Have a speech ready at least a day before it is to be presented so you have plenty
    of time to rehearse and revise it.
   Experiment with different writing styles, such as longhand, bullet points, or note
    cards. Handwrite your speech on paper or index cards, or type it on a word
    processor. Also try different ways of creating it. For example, you can dictate it
    to yourself—say a part of the speech, then write it down and tweak it.
Rehearsing

Follow these tips and your speech will go much smoother.

     Find a rehearsal method that makes you feel comfortable and confident. You can
      use a mirror, a blank wall, a friend/family member, or a stuffed animal
     Memorization is not required in MUN, but it makes you appear more confident,
      and can sometimes earn you bonus points.
     Recording a speech and then listening to it on playback is a good way to judge
      yourself and to learn how you sound.
     Rehearse a speech until you are confident that you can present it in front of an
      audience in the intended manner. Then rehearse it again.
     Know about how long your speech is before going to the conference. Your speech
      should never be longer than 2 minutes unless there is unlimited speaking time,
      and even then the chairs may become annoyed and bored if you speak for too
      long. A good way to practice keeping a speech under two minutes is timing
      yourself while you rehearse, so you can learn to talk at a steady, yet fitting pace.




                                           28
                                 Caucusing

Caucusing is the core of debate at an MUN conference. During caucus, delegates will
exchange information and decide which course of action is most advantageous. This is
the perfect time to sell your ideas, answer questions, and persuade others to support your
plans. Introduce yourself—along with your nation’s policies—to as many delegates as
possible. When you are in caucus during substantive debate, focus on creating resolutions
and/or amendments. During general debate, spend your caucus time by forming alliances
with as many countries as you can, so that you can write the resolution with them in
substantive.
Informal Caucus
In an informal caucus, the committee takes a break from speeches, and delegates are
allowed to move about and talk freely with each other. Delegates form blocs (see pg. 30)
according to their region and their goals, while the chairs walk amongst the delegates and
listen to the debates and discussions, grading as they go.

Moderated Caucus
A moderated caucus is a chair-regulated speaking session in which each nation is given a
short amount of time, usually around 30-45 seconds, to comment on the topic, solutions,
or resolutions at hand. A comment made during a moderated caucus is essentially a short
substantive debate speech. All you must do is mention the main points of your resolution
and why the committee should support it. If your reasoning is sound, moderated caucus
can be an excellent opportunity to earn points.

Formal Caucus
During formal caucus, representatives for each resolution and amendment have a certain
amount of time to present their proposal to the committee. Formal caucus is more
structured than the other caucuses, and is more of a press conference than a debate. If the
representatives finish their presentation with time to spare (as is often the case), the
remaining time is usually yielded to questions. Of course, representatives may yield all of
their time to questions if they choose to do so. If you are in the audience during a formal
caucus, always try to ask questions, as most chairs award points for asking questions.
Focus more on the specifics than the broader ideas, and try to incorporate facts into your
question. The more difficult your question is to answer, the better question you have
asked. However, if your resolution is being presented, try to ask your representatives an
easy question which will help the resolution rather than hinder it. If you do so, make sure
to let the representatives know what you will ask.

CAUCUS TIPS
Here are some tips and expectations that you should know in order to lead a successful
caucus:
     Be open, friendly, and willing to compromise
     Avoid shouting matches with other delegates by using appropriate body language,
        tone, and listening to other’s ideas.



                                            29
   Try not to interrupt people when they are talking, or shoot down their ideas before
    you have heard them out.
   Do not intimidate other delegates, because they might leave your caucus and find
    someone more diplomatic, the chairs and judges will notice this happening. It
    looks better if you have control over the caucus and you are open and let others
    speak than if you are leading a monologue.
   Constantly be on the lookout for timid delegates who look like they want to get
    their say, and invite them into your caucus [example: ―China, did you have
    something you wanted to say?‖]. This will show the judges that you are a
    diplomatic leader.
   There will times in a conference when your speech, if it is worthy, will actually
    attract other delegates to you to form a caucus. So it is very important to be
    prepared with back-ups to your main point mentioned in your speech. Back-ups
    could include statistics to prove you point, possible retorts to bashing questions,
    and answers to questions about your main points. To put it simpler, be prepared to
    ―give the audience more‖ if they ―ask for more‖, after hearing your speech.
   If you had not had a chance to speak before the first caucus time is called, and you
    see an important caucus forming, be sure to place you self in the middle of it, in
    the inner circle, and start brining up good points immediately. This will ensure
    that you do not sped your time repeating what other people in the caucus have
    said.
   Be confident yet friendly!




                                        30
                                        Blocs

A bloc is defined as a ―combination of persons with a common interest or purpose.‖ At
every conference, nations form allies and enemies, and the committee inevitably divides
itself into several small groups, each of which is a bloc. Each bloc represents a different
geographical part of the world; typically, the nations in each region share similar policies.

How they work
Each bloc usually begins with a few delegates discussing a point who find themselves in
agreement. Other delegates are attracted, either because they are curious or because they
have nothing better to do. The delegates who begin the bloc will usually establish
themselves as leading figures. If you are not one of these delegates, don't worry. With a
little diplomacy and patience, you can make a heavy influence on the bloc. Once the
blocs have been developed, each will form its own resolution. While the resolution is
being written, some delegates will help to write it while others will go out and "sell" the
resolution to other blocs in hopes of gaining their support and vote. A word to the wise: if
you are co-delegating, split up and do both. However, if you are a single delegate, be sure
that you are the leader that sends others to do the advertising, as it is always crucial to be
present when the resolution itself is being discussed or written. This will help your
position when the voting of resolution presenters is done.

How Policy Affects Them
A large part of your score at a conference comes from knowing—and sticking to—your
country's policy. This is especially true in blocs. Always be sure that you do not group
with rival nations and that the resolution you sponsor complies with your policy. For
example, Iran and the United States should not be in the same bloc when discussing the
War in Iraq. There are six main geographic blocs: Western bloc, Latin American bloc,
Asian bloc, Middle Eastern bloc, African bloc, and Eastern bloc. However, these
geographic blocs are more of guidelines than hard-and-fast rules, so at times you will join
with nations outside of your geographic region to create a resolution.

The “Back Row Bloc"
This is the one bloc that nobody should ever be a part of. The Back Row Bloc is not an
actual international bloc, but rather MUN language for the group of delegates, usually
occupying the back row, who are either too nervous or too lazy to participate
productively. They sit in the back and usually do little to contribute to the committee. Do
not ignore these delegates, but rather try to encourage them to join in. Even more
importantly, never be part of the back row bloc!




                                             31
                             Co-Delegating

Throughout the year, there will be many opportunities to work with a partner at
conferences. While this has its advantages, it also means that you must meet higher
standards. Co-delegating is a privilege and is not an excuse to sit back during committee
and chat with your friend. It is often used at advanced conference to accomplish more
during committee, since each delegation can do two things at once.

Since at El Toro, MUN is a part of school and counts towards your grade, you will want
to work with someone you can depend on to do their share of the work. Friends have a
tendency to do less work and more talking, whereas simple acquaintances may be more
business oriented and may work more efficiently together. When you co-delegate, you
better get to know your partner; you might make a new friend in the process!

Many co-delegates will split up the topics. However, you should try to avoid this as much
as possible, since it will leave each delegate unknowledgeable about a certain topic; since
both co-delegates should work together with each topic, splitting up the topics can
hamper the team’s performance. Instead, delegates should work together during the entire
process of researching, writing, and debating.

During committee, both delegates should participate equally. If one is giving a speech,
the other should be writing, taking notes, or caucusing outside with another delegate. Co-
delegates may also deliver a speech together, which demonstrates their ability to work
together as a team. It is best for both delegates to speak as often as possible, as it will
help others in the committee to recognize both representatives of a certain nation.

During caucus, co-delegates should never work in the same caucus group. The two
should have consistent knowledge of their policy so that each individual can be in a
separate group arguing the same thing. Splitting up allows the group to cover more
ground and to gain more influence in committee. You can talk about what you discussed
in your particular bloc at break or by passing notes during speeches.

During the presenting of resolutions, assuming that both delegates were in different
caucuses, which they should; co-delegations should try to ensure that they both go up to
present resolutions. This will show the judges that both members of your co-delegation
were deeply involved in separate caucus, while still managing to work together.




                                            32
                      Resolution Writing

Resolutions are possibly the most direct reflection of achievement in the United Nations.
The resolution document is, in essence, a to-do list. It outlines, in detail, the steps to be
taken to respond to the issue under discussion. In committee, each resolution created by a
Bloc is then submitted to the chair for approval. After all resolutions are submitted, they
are discussed by the committee and then voted upon to determine which resolution(s) will
be implemented. Regardless of whether your resolution passes or not, the ability to write
a resolution is a crucial skill for all MUN delegates to possess.

Writing resolutions requires the delegates to follow a specific format. In essence, the
resolution is just one long compound sentence. Knowing where to use commas, where to
use semicolons, and what to capitalize becomes easier with practice.

The Heading
The heading and title introduce your resolution and provide the nations who contributed.
Although some committees may change the format, there are several general guidelines
that are usually adhered to.
      In the upper left-hand corner you state your committee, list the sponsors in
        alphabetical order, and state the topic—in that order. Do not use abbreviations.
      The title should be capitalized and centered below the heading. It is generally
        best to keep the title short and sweet, with flowery language at a minimum.
      Address the resolution to the UN organ your committee is in, NOT your
        committee.
The Preamble
Preambulatory clauses introduce the subject of the resolution. They usually include
general facts or statistics on your topic. However, since the delegates in your committee
are already supposed to know the topic, it is best to keep these short and sweet.
Preambulatory clauses should not contain any solutions and therefore cannot be amended
(see pg 36). Although delegates often only skim the preambles, it is still important to
make them strong.
      Preambulatory clauses are indented and begin with an underlined ―-ing‖ verb.
      Each perambulatory clause ends with a comma.
Operative Clauses
Operative clauses are the ―meat‖ of the resolution. They explain—in great detail—the
plan that you and your bloc have developed to solve the given issue. Your fellow
delegates will scrutinize your operative clauses, so be sure to make them good. Many
times you will need to use sub-operatives to explain your operatives; sometimes you will
even need to include sub-sub-operatives to explain your solution further!
     Operatives are numbered and begin with an underlined present-tense verb. They
        end with a semicolon, unless followed by a sub-operative, in which case a colon is
        used.




                                             33
      Sub-operatives are labeled with a letter in parenthesis and end the same way as
       operatives.
      Sub-sub-operatives are labeled with a lowercase Roman numeral.

Additional Format Rules
   Skip a line between each clause and sub-clause.
   Note the different numbering style for each level of operative. Preambulatory
    statements are not numbered.
   All preambulatory and operative phrases are underlined.
   When typing resolutions, justified text alignment is the best choice.
   Always end the resolution in a period.




                                           34
                        Sample Resolution

Committee: United Nations Committee on Resolutions
Topic: Resolution Writing
Sponsored by: China, France, Russian Federation, United States of America

                    RESOLUTION ON WRITING RESOLUTIONS

The General Assembly,

       Explaining that all preambulatory clauses should be underlined and that each
phrase should be indented and ended with a comma,

        Recognizing that one line should be skipped after each phrase and after the title of
the resolution,

        Noting that preambulatory clauses are generally present progressive verbs ending
in –ing but can also be present states such as ―aware that‖ and ―concerned that‖,

       Gravely concerned that delegates use too many preambulatory clauses and that
they should generally limit themselves to 2-4,

           1.Reiterates the fact that operative phrases also have a certain format, which:
           (a) Calls for the use of a colon if there are to be sub-operatives such as this;

           (b) Requires one (1) line between each sub-operative;

               (i) Has no underlining within the sub-operative;

           (d) Welcomes the use of clear and simple wording by:

               (i) Splitting complex ideas into sub-operatives and sub-sub-operatives if
               necessary;

               (ii) Numbering accordingly in an outlined fashion;

               (iii) Ending all sub-operatives and other operatives with a semi-colon;

           2. Requests that all operative clauses be underlined;

           3. Observes that operative clauses are verbs ending in –s that take action;
           4. Emphasizes that resolutions are only one sentence, and therefore end with a
           period.




                                            35
          Writing a Quality Resolution

After learning the mechanics of a resolution and getting familiar with the vocabulary, you
must be wondering what will make an outstanding resolution, not just a correctly
formatted one. Your time should be primarily focused on the operatives of your
resolution, because this is where the real work is required.

Consider a Resolution…

Like a regular paragraph you transformed into a grammatically-correct sentence. Begin
with the general, and then move to the specifics.

       Recommends that the ISAF and NATO organize an election by November:
            (a) With polling booths located throughout each province;

               (b) With protection provided at each voter forum;

               (c) With monitoring from all applicable UN organizations;

       In the above example, the delegate started with the topic of elections, and then
       elaborated upon the specific election conditions within the sub-operative. Apply
       this general concept of ―big idea‖ to ―small details‖ throughout the entire
       resolution.

Be specific, be detailed

Make sure you include HOW the ideas in your resolution will be executed. Consider the
following questions:
      How will this resolution be funded?
      Who will be performing this action?
      In what timeframe should this action to be taken?
      Are there any deadlines or important dates to consider?
      Does the resolution include a ―plan B‖?
      How do we ensure this resolution will be implemented?
Know your power and place

Keep in mind which committee you are in and exactly what your committee does. If you
are in the World Health Organization (WHO), you cannot demand a war to end poverty.
You can, however, establish other anti-poverty initiatives. Remember, there are limits to
international law, so you cannot do everything that you want. Keep ―international
etiquette‖ in mind—do not bash other nations needlessly, and avoid improper language or
rude behavior to other sates/cultures/peoples in your resolution.




                                           36
                      Amendment Writing
Amendments are written in order to amend, or change, the operative clauses within a
resolution. Typically, they are only written by non-sponsors of said resolution; ―friendly
amendments,‖ or amendments written by the writers themselves of said resolution, are
usually not allowed.

Amendment Format

Unlike the resolution, the amendment has only a header (with the same format as the
resolution) and the main clauses. Furthermore, you have a choice of only three phrases to
introduce the amendment clauses with. These phrases are not underlined. Number each
one with a capital letter (A, B, C…). The phrases are:
       Amends operative clause # ___ to read:
       Deletes operative clause #___:
       Includes a new operative to read:
If you only make a few changes to an operative, retype it and underline/boldface the
changes. If you change the ideas of an operative entirely, delete that operative and add a
new one. You must leave at least one original operative intact for the resolution to be
valid. You cannot alter the preambulatory clauses or the title. Keep in mind that the
original intent of the resolution should not be altered.

When you submit an amendment, the process will be the same as with resolutions except
that amendments will not be discussed. Be sure that your amendment does not conflict
with any other amendments, as one of them must fail if both contradict each other.

Amendments that add or remove operatives should end with ―Renumbers accordingly.‖

Sample Amendment

Committee: United Nations Committee on Resolutions
Topic: Resolution Writing
Sponsored by: Benin, Djibouti, Kyrgyzstan, and Uruguay

                           AMENDMENT TO RESOLUTION 1/1
       A. Amends operative clause #2 to read:
             2. Requests that all operative and preambulatory clauses are underlined;

       B. Deletes operative clause # 4;

       C. Includes a new operative to read:
               5. Stresses that amendments should be brief and purposeful;

       D. Renumbers accordingly.




                                            37
                Phrases for Resolutions

Preambulatory Clauses

Acknowledging       Affirming              Alarmed             Anxious
Appreciating        Approving              Aware               Bearing in mind
Believing           Cognizant              Concerned           Condemning
Confident           Conscious              Considering         Contemplating
Convinced           Declaring              Deploring           Desiring
Determined          Distressed             Disturbed           Emphasizing
Encouraged          Endorsing              Examining           Expecting
Expressing          Fulfilling             Grieved             Guided by
Having adopted      Having approved        Having considered   Having decided
Having devoted      Having examined        Having heard        Having received
Having recognized   Having regard for      Having resolved     Having reviewed
Having studied      Hearing                Keeping in mind     Mindful
Noting              Observing              Reaffirming         Realizing
Recalling           Recognizing            Referring to        Regretting
Reiterating         Seeking                Shocked             Stressing
Supporting          Taking into account    Taking into         Taking note
                                           consideration
Underlining         Urging                 Viewing             Welcoming



Operative Clauses

Accepts             Adopts                 Affirms             Appeals
Appreciates         Approves               Authorizes          Calls upon
Commends            Concurs                Condemns            Confirms
Congratulates       Considers              Decides             Declares
Demands             Deplores               Designates          Determines
Directs             Draws attention to     Emphasizes          Encourages
Endorses            Expresses              Instructs           Invites
Notes               Proclaims              Reaffirms           Recognizes
Recommends          Regrets                Reiterates          Rejects
Reminds             Renews                 Repeats             Requests
Resolves            Stresses               Suggests            Supports
Takes note of       Transmits              Trusts              Urges
Welcomes




                                          38
Glossary of Acronyms & Abbreviations

ABEDA Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa
ACC Arab Cooperation Council
ACCT Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique; see Agency for Cultural and Technical
Cooperation; changed name in 1996 to Agence de la francophonie or Agency for the French-
Speaking Community
ACP Group African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States
AfDB African Development Bank
AFESD Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
AG Andean Group; see Andean Community of Nations (CAN)
Air Pollution Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary
    Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Control of Emissions
    of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range
Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants
Air Pollution-Sulfur 85 Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
    Pollution on the Reduction of Sulfur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at Least
    30%
Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
    Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulfur Emissions
Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range
Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds
    or Their Transboundary Fluxes
AL Arab League
ALADI Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion; see Latin American Integration Association
    (LAIA)
AMF Arab Monetary Fund
AMU Arab Maghreb Union
ANC African National Congress
Ancom Andean Common Market; see Andean Community of Nations (CAN)
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
ANZUS Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Arabsat Arab Satellite Communications Organization
AsDB Asian Development Bank
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Autodin Automatic Digital Network
BAD Banque Africaine de Developpement; see African Development Bank (AfDB)
BADEA Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique; see Arab Bank for Economic
Development in Africa (ABEDA)
BCIE Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico; see Central American Bank for
    Economic Integration (BCIE)
BDEAC Banque de Developpment des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see Central African States
Development Bank (BDEAC)
Benelux Benelux Economic Union
BID Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo; see Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
Biodiversity Convention on Biological Diversity
BIS Bank for International Settlements
BOAD Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement; see West African Development Bank
    (WADB)
BSEC Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone
C Commonwealth



                                              39
c.i.f. cost, insurance, and freight
CACM Central American Common Market
CAEU Council of Arab Economic Unity
CAN Andean Community of Nations
Caricom Caribbean Community and Common Market
CB citizen's band mobile radio communications
CBSS Council of the Baltic Sea States
CCC Customs Cooperation Council
CDB Caribbean Development Bank
CE Council of Europe
CEAO Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest; see West African Economic Community
(CEAO)
CEEAC Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see Economic Community of
     Central African States (CEEAC)
CEI Central European Initiative
CEMA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; also known as CMEA or Comecon
CEPGL Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs; see Economic Community of the
     Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)
CERN Conseil Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire; see European Organization for Nuclear
Research (CERN)
CG Contadora Group
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CITES see Endangered Species
Climate Change United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention
     on Climate Change
CMEA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as Comecon
COCOM Coordinating Committee on Export Controls
Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as CMEA
Comsat Communications Satellite Corporation
COPUOS Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
CP Colombo Plan
CSCE Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe; see Organization for Security and
Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
CY calendar year
DC developed country
Desertification United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries
     Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
DISC Disarmament and International Security, First Committee of the GA
DSN Defense Switched Network
DWT deadweight ton
EADB East African Development Bank
EAPC Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EC European Community; see European Union (EU)
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; see Economic and Social Commission
     for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America; see Economic Commission for Latin America
     and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ECO Economic Cooperation Organization
ECOFIN Economic and Financial, Second Committee of the General Assembly
ECOSOC Economic and Social Council
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
ECS European Coal and Steel Community; see European Union (EU)



                                           40
ECWA Economic Commission for Western Asia; see Economic and Social Commission for
    Western Asia (ESCWA)
EEC European Economic Community; see European Union (EU)
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EIB European Investment Bank
EMU European Monetary Union
Endangered Species Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
    Flora and Fauna (CITES)
Entente Council of the Entente
Environmental Modification Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use
    of Environmental Modification Techniques
ESA European Space Agency
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
est. estimate
EU European Union
Euratom European Atomic Energy Community; see European Community (EC)
Eutelsat European Telecommunications Satellite Organization
Ex-Im Export-Import Bank of the United States
f.o.b. free on board
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FAX facsimile
FLS Front Line States
FRG Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated before 3 October
    1990 or CY91
FSU The former Soviet Union
FY fiscal year
FYROM The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
FZ Franc Zone
G-2 Group of 2
G-3 Group of 3
G-5 Group of 5 (not to be confused with the Big Five)
G-6 Group of 6
G-7 Group of 7
G-8 Group of 8
G-9 Group of 9
G-10 Group of 10
G-11 Group of 11
G-15 Group of 15
G-19 Group of 19
G-24 Group of 24
G-30 Group of 30
G-33 Group of 33
G-77 Group of 77
GA General Assembly
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GCC Gulf Cooperation Council
GDP gross domestic product
GDR German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated before 3 October
    1990 or CY91
GNP gross national product
GRT gross register ton
GWP gross world product
Hazardous Wastes Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
    Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal
HF high-frequency
IADB Inter-American Development Bank



                                             41
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IBEC International Bank for Economic Cooperation
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
ICC International Chamber of Commerce
ICEM Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; see International Organization for
     Migration (IOM)
ICFTU International Confederation of Free Trade Unions; see World Confederation of Labor
     (WCL)
ICJ International Court of Justice (World Court)
ICM Intergovernmental Committee for Migration; see International Organization for Migration
     (IOM)
ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross
ICRM International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
IDA International Development Association
IDB Islamic Development Bank
IEA International Energy Agency
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC International Finance Corporation
IFCTU International Federation of Christian Trade Unions
IFRCS International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
IGAD Inter-Governmental Authority on Development
IGADD Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development
IHO International Hydrographic Organization
IIB International Investment Bank
ILO International Labor Organization
IMCO Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; see International Maritime
     Organization (IMO)
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
Inmarsat International Mobile Satellite Organization
InOC Indian Ocean Commission
INSTRAW International Research & Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
Intelsat International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
Interpol International Criminal Police Organization
Intersputnik International Organization of Space Communications
IOC International Olympic Committee
IOM International Organization for Migration
IPD International Press Delegation
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITU International Telecommunication Union
kHz kilohertz
km kilometer
kW kilowatt
kWh kilowatt hour
LAES Latin American Economic System
LAIA Latin American Integration Association
LAS League of Arab States; see Arab League (AL)
Law of the Sea United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)
LDC less developed country
LLDC least developed country
London Convention see Marine Dumping
LORCS League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; see International Federation of Red
     Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)
LOS Law of the Sea
m meter
Marecs Maritime European Communications Satellite



                                             42
Marine Dumping Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and
    Other Matter
Marine Life Conservation Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the
    High Seas
MARPOL see Ship Pollution
Medarabtel Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications
    Union
Mercosur Mercado Comun del Cono Sur; see Southern Cone Common Market
MHz megahertz
MINUGUA United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala
MINURSO United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara
MIPONUH United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti
MONUA United Nations Observer Mission in Angola
MONUC United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
MUN Model United Nations
NA not available
NACC North Atlantic Cooperation Council; see Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)
NAM Nonaligned Movement
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NC Nordic Council
NEA Nuclear Energy Agency
NEGL negligible
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NIB Nordic Investment Bank
NIC newly industrializing country; see newly industrializing economy (NIE)
NIE newly industrializing economy
nm nautical mile
NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone
NSG Nuclear Suppliers Group
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space,
    and Under Water
NZ New Zealand
OAPEC Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
OAS Organization of American States
OAU Organization of African Unity
ODA official development assistance
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OECS Organization of Eastern Caribbean States
OIC Organization of the Islamic Conference
ONUSAL United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador
OOF other official flows
OPANAL Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina y el
    Caribe; see Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the
    Caribbean
OPCW Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OPI Office of Public Information
OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
Ozone Layer Protection Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer
PAC Pan-African Congress
PCA Permanent Court of Arbitration
PDRY People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for
    information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91
PFP Partnership for Peace
Ramsar see Wetlands
RG Rio Group
SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation



                                            43
SACU Southern African Customs Union
SADC Southern African Development Community
SADCC Southern African Development Coordination Conference; see Southern African
    Development Community (SADC)
SC Security Council
SCH Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian, Third Committee of the GA
SDR Special Drawing Rights (see Useful Definitions)
SELA Sistema Economico Latinoamericana; see Latin American Economic System (LAES)
SFRY Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; dissolved 5 December 1991
SHF super-high-frequency
Ship Pollution Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of
    Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)
Sparteca South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement
SPC South Pacific Commission
SPD Special Political and Decolonization Committee
SPF South Pacific Forum
sq km square kilometer
sq mi square mile
SWAPO South West African People’s Organization
TAT Trans-Atlantic Telephone
TNCs Transnational Corporations
Tropical Timber 83 International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983
Tropical Timber 94 International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994
UAE United Arab Emirates
UDEAC Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale; see Central African Customs and
Economic Union (UDEAC)
UEMOA Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest Africaine; see West African Economic and
    Monetary Union (WAEMU)
UHF ultra-high-frequency
UK United Kingdom
UN United Nations
UNAMIR United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda
UNAMSIL United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone
UNAVEM III United Nations Angola Verification Mission III
UNCRO United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNDPI United Nations Department of Public Information
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordination
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
UNFICYP United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus
UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities; see UN Population Fund (UNFPA)
UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNIKOM United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission
UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research
UNMIBH United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina
UNMIH United Nations Mission in Haiti
UNMIK United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan
UNMOP United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka
UNMOT United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan



                                              44
UNMOVIC United Nations Monitoring and Verification Commission
UNOMIG United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia
UNOMIL United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia
UNOMOZ United Nations Operation in Mozambique
UNOMSIL United Nations Mission of Observers in Sierra Leone
UNOMUR United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda
UNOSOM II United Nations Operation in Somalia II
UNPREDEP United Nations Preventive Deployment Force
UNPROFOR United Nations Protection Force
UNRISD United Nations Research Institute for Social Development
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
UNSCOM United Nations Special Commission for the Elimination of Iraq's Weapons of Mass
   Destruction; see United Nations Monitoring and Verification Commission (UNMOVIC)
UNSMIH United Nations Support Mission in Haiti
UNTAC United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
UNTAES United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western
   Sirmium
UNTAET United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization
UNU United Nations University
UPU Universal Postal Union
US United States
USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information dated before 25
   December 1991
USSR/EE Union of Soviet Socialist Republics/Eastern Europe
VHF very-high-frequency
VSAT very small aperture terminal
WADB West African Development Bank
WAEMU West African Economic and Monetary Union
WCL World Confederation of Labor
WCO World Customs Organization; see Customs Cooperation Council
Wetlands Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As Waterfowl Habitat
WEU Western European Union
WFC World Food Council
WFP World Food Program
WFTU World Federation of Trade Unions
Whaling International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling
WHO World Health Organization
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WP Warsaw Pact
WTO see WToO for World Tourism Organization or WTrO for World Trade Organization
WToO World Tourism Organization
WTrO World Trade Organization
YAR Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information dated before
   22 May 1990 or CY91
ZC Zangger Committee




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     Glossary of Model United Nations

Abstention An official statement of no opinion.
Ad Hoc Committee called to focus on a specific topic (i.e. Ad Hoc on Terrorism).
Agenda Topic General topics suggested by the Chairs for the committee to discuss in detail.
Amendment Additions, deletions, and changes in a resolution.
Annex To incorporate into a country the territory of another country.
Armistice A temporary peace agreement
Auspices Protection or patronage
Autonomy Independence; self-government
Back Row Bloc A sarcastic reference to the bloc composed of delegations who sit in the back
    row of the room. You do not want to be in this.
Bilateral Having to do with two sides (versus multilateral)
Binding Having legal force in UN member states. Security Council resolutions are binding, as are
    decisions of the International Court of Justice.
Bloc Common interest group which meets to formulate group policies on particular issues.
Boycott Refusing to deal with so as to punish or show disapproval.
Breach of Treaty Failure to observe the terms of a signed treaty.
Caucus A break in committee for the purpose of informal debate. It may be either informal (most
    often used, at any time during the conference where delegates get around and talk policy)
    formal (when delegates get up and talk about their resolutions in front of committee) or
    moderated (delegates stand up from where they sit and state any comment or push their
    solution forward)
Censure To blame, criticize adversely or express disapproval.
Chair Person in charge of a committee; assisted by Vice-Chairs.
Committee A group of people representing various viewpoints which gathers to discuss certain
    issues; headed by chairs/chairmen.
Compensable financing Credit designed to help raw material producer members of the IMF in
    times of poor markets for their exports.
Coup d’état (Coup) A sudden and decisive act in politics, usually bringing about a change in
    government unlawfully and by force.
Credentials Name tag indicating name, country, and committee; also name of committee
    responsible for investigating policy of member nations.
Dais The group of people in charge of the committee.
Decolonization The establishment of a self-governing area.
Decorum Term used by chair to indicate that the committee is too noisy and that they must come
    to order.
De Facto “Actually,” in reality (not officially)
Delegate The representative of a nation who is designated to defend his/her country’s position on
    certain issues.
Delegation One or two delegates who represent a nation in a committee; also the entire group of
    delegates who represent a nation/school at a conference.
Demilitarize To free from military control or presence.
Deregulation The act of process of removing restrictions and regulations.
Destabilization The act of making a government unsteady
Dilatory Causing unnecessary delay
Diplomatic immunity Special privileges accorded to diplomats and their families and staffs by
    international agreement, including freedom from arrest, search, and taxation.
Disarmament The act of disarming; the reduction of armies, navies, and their equipment.
Docket The resolutions to be discussed by a committee.
Expropriation The taking of property into public ownership without compensation, such as the
    property of foreign investors or foreign industry in a country.




                                               46
Extradition The surrender of a fugitive or prisoner by one state, nation, or legal authority to
    another.
Foreign intervention Interference by one nation into the affairs of another.
Formal speech A speech made by a delegation placed on the Speakers List.
Gavel Used by the Chair during committee at many conferences; awarded to the best delegation
    in the committee.
General debate First portion of debate on a committee agenda item; discussion of specific
    resolutions and amendments is forbidden.
Gross National Product (GNP) The total value of the goods and services produced in a nation
    during a specific period of time. (GDP - Gross Domestic Product)
Internal affairs Having to do with affairs within a country; domestic.
Junta A political or military group holding power after a revolution; a political faction; a group of
    plotters or partisans; an assembly or council for deliberation or administration.
Mandate A commission given to one nation by a group of nations to administer the government
    and affairs of a territory or colony; a mandated territory.
Nationalize To invest control or ownership of in the national government.
Non-aligned A country that is not aligned politically; “neutral.”
Operative clause Policy portion of resolution.
O.P.I Office of Public Information- where resolutions are typed, photocopied, and distributed.
Page A person in committee who delivers notes.
Peace keeping forces A force sent to maintain, enforce, or intervene to achieve a cessation of
    hostilities between opposing armies, countries, or other groups.
Placard Each delegation is given a placard, which is used to receive recognition from the Chair
    and also for voting.
Plebiscite Run by the United Nations in order to affirm a people’s right to self-determination to be
    autonomous or a part of another country.
Plenary session Cumulative Committee session where all committees of the UN organs
    convene.
Preambulatory clause Justifications for action; found in resolutions.
President Person in charge of Security Council or an Ad Hoc committee; assisted by Vice-
    Presidents.
Protectionism The process of government economic protection for domestic producers through
    restrictions on foreign competition.
Protectorate A country under the protection and partial control of another nation.
Puppet A government or person whose actions, while seemingly independent, are actually
    manipulated or controlled by another.
Rapporteur The most eloquent speaker in committee, which is voted on by other delegates.
    He/she will sometime summarize the committee during plenary session at the end of a
    conference.
Resolution A formal expression of opinion on problems confronting the world.
Roll Call Vote Procedure used in order to hear each country call out their vote individually.
    Normally you say aye or nay.
Rules of Procedure The rules used at a Model UN conference to run committee.
Sanction An action by nations toward another nation. Includes blockades, restrictions on trade,
    withholding loans. Intent is to force compliance with international law.
Secretariat Composed of people who organize and run the Conference. Headed by the
    Secretary- General and Under-Secretary-Generals.
Secretary-General The person in charge of the Secretariat and responsible for success of the
    Conference.
Self-determination The ability for the people of a nation to decide what form of government they
    shall have without interference from other nations.
Short Comment Speech immediately following and pertaining directly to a formal speech; Official
Newsletter of the Berkeley Model United Nations Conference
Sovereignty Power or authority in a state.
Speakers List The order in which delegates will speak in formal debate; the Chair keeps the list
    of country names.




                                                 47
Special Drawing Rights IMF currency value is the average of US dollar, European Euro,
    Japanese yen, and English pound.
Sponsor One of the writers of a draft resolution.
Substantive Debate Second portion of debate on an agenda item; discussion focuses on
    specifics of resolutions and amendments.
Tariff A schedule of duties (rates or charges) imposed by a government on imported goods.
Trusteeship The administration by a country of a trust territory, approved by the UN, usually with
    the hope that the area in question will be developed toward self-government or
    independence.
Under-Secretary-Generals Assistants to the Secretary-General.
Veto The ability, held by China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the
    United States to prevent any draft resolution in the Security Council from passing by voting
    no.
Vice-Chairs Assistants to Chairs during Committee.
Vice-Presidents Assistants to Presidents during Committee.
Voting Bloc Temporal portion of committee devoted to voting on resolutions and amendments.
Working Groups A formal subdivision of a committee.
Working Paper A document in which the ideas of some delegates on how to resolve an issue are
    proposed; often the precursor to a draft resolution
Yield In a formal speech, time not needed by a delegation can be “yielded” to another delegation
    or the Chair.




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