Skeletal by MikeJenny

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									   SKELETAL SYSTEM
• Organs
  – bones
  – ligaments
   SKELETAL SYSTEM
• Organs
  – bones
  – ligaments
  – cartilages
  – joints
• Skeletal System Functions
  – Support & Protection
  – Movement
  – Mineral storage
  – Blood cell production
  – Leverage
• Classification of bones
• Classification of bones
  – Long bones
• Classification of bones
  – Long bones
  – “Other Bones”
• Classification of bones
  – Long bones
  – “Other Bones”
    • Short
• Classification of bones
  – Long bones
  – “Other Bones”
    • Short
    • Flat
• Classification of bones
  – Long bones
  – “Other Bones”
    • Short
    • Flat
    • Irregular
• Classification of bones
  – Long bones
  – “Other Bones”
    • Short
    • Flat
    • Irregular
    • Sesamoid
• Classification of bones
  – Long bones
  – “Other Bones”
    • Short
    • Flat
    • Irregular
    • Sesamoid
    • Wormian
• Structure of long
  bones
• Structure of “other bones”
Bone Development and Growth

  • Intramembranous
    ossification
     – Mesenchymal CT
      converted into bone
Bone Development and Growth

  • Endochondral ossification
    – Cartilage converted into
     bone
Bone Development and Growth

  • Increasing Length of Bone
    – Requires the epiphyseal
     plates
Bone Development and Growth

  • Appositional growth
   (Increase in thickness)
    – requires the osteoblasts
     from the periosteum
Bone Remodeling

  • Requires osteoblasts and
   osteoclasts
 Factors Regulating Bone
   Growth
  • Growth hormone
  • Thyroid hormone
  • Sex hormones`
  • Vitamin A and C
  • Vitamin D
Aging and the Skeletal System
Incidence of hip fractures with age
Osteoporosis
• Non-modifiable risk factors:
  –Being female
  –Thin and/or small frame
  –Advanced age
  –A family history
  –Early menopause
  –Amenorrhea
  –Caucasian or Asian descent
  –Some drugs (e.g. corticosteroids)
  –Being post-menopausal
• Modifiable Risk Factors:
  –Smoking
  –High protein diets
  –Sedentary lifestyles
  –Excessive exercise
  –Anorexia nervosa or bulimia
   nervosa
Some Symptoms of 0steoporosis




         Hip fractures
Some Symptoms of 0steoporosis




      Vertebral fractures
 Vertebral
 fractures
can result in
  kyphosis
• Prevention
  –A calcium rich diet (dairy
   and/or non-dairy sources)
  –Weight bearing exercises
  –Avoidance of risk factors
Effect of calcium and vitamin D on hip fracture
                in elderly women
Intervertebral Disks
Intervertebral Disks
Intervertebral Disks
Herniated Disks
Herniated Disks
Herniated Disks
Herniated Disks
Curvatures of the Spinal
       Column
Development of Spinal
     Curvatures
Development of Spinal
     Curvatures
      Arches of the Foot
• Longitudinal
      Arches of the Foot
• Longitudinal
  – Medial and Lateral
      Arches of the Foot
• Longitudinal
  – Medial and Lateral
• Transverse
      Arches of the Foot
Arches maintained by ligaments

								
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