Motivating Others

					    Relationship Between
Satisfaction and Performance
           EMPHASIS ON PERFORMANCE
            LOW             HIGH



   HIGH
          Indulging    Integrating


   LOW
          Ignoring      Imposing
To Diagnose Poor Performance,
            Ask...

  Is this an Ability (aptitude, training or
resources) or a Motivation problem (desire
              or commitment)?


     Once again, the root of the issue matters
      because then we know where to begin
                  addressing it!
           Signs of Ability Problems
• Taking refuge in a specialty – responding to
  situations by retreating to a technical specialty
• Focusing on past performance – measuring
  value to the organization in terms of past
  performance or standards
• Exaggerating aspects of the leadership
  role
  – Focusing on one particular aspect of their role
  – Inappropriate delegation
  – Micromanagement begins
   Enhancing Ability: A continuum

• Resupply                  • Reassign
  – Acknowledge problem       – Less interactive than
    then assess resource        Refit
    needs                     – Usually to a job with
• Retrain                       less responsibility
  – Skills specific         • Release
  – Often with a specific     – Separate the
    job or role in mind         employee from the
• Refit                         organization
  – Explore new person—
    job match
   Path Goal: Leader Involvement Decisions
                                  Subordinates’
                                   expectations
                                 (How much help
                                  do they want?)


                                                                   Subordinate’s
    Leader’s                                                        performance
  involvement                                                           and
   (How much
                                                                     MAYBE
should I provide?)
                                                                    satisfaction


                                              Organizational
                           Task
                                                 structure
                      characteristics
                                               and systems
                     (How much help
                                             (How much help
                       is needed?)
                                          is already available?)
Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership
                                                   Leader Behavior
    High
                                     Participating                    Selling
                                          S3                            S2
                                   Share ideas and             Explain decisions and
    Relationship Behavior
    (supportive behavior)


                                     facilitate in            provide opportunity for
                                   decision making                 clarification


                                      Delegating                       Telling
                                           S4                            S1
                                       Turn over                  Provide specific
                                   responsibility for         instructions and closely
                                     decisions and             supervise performance
                                    implementation
       Low
                            Low                    Task Behavior                       High
                                                 Follower Readiness
                            High                     Moderate                      Low
                            R4                  R3              R2                  R1

                                   Follower-Directed                 Leader-Directed
   Motivating Employees: Behavioral
               Guidelines
• Separate ability from motivation problems
• Define an acceptable level of overall
  performance or specific behavioral objective
   – Recall the Alice & Cheshire Cat discussion [p.
     336-337]
• Help remove obstacles to reaching the objective
• Link rewards and discipline to high
  performance [p. 342]
  – Leaders get what they reinforce, not what they want
  – People do what is inspected, not what is expected
      Motivating Employees: Behavioral
                  Guidelines

• Use rewards salient to the individual
  – Recognition, challenge, flexibility, camaraderie….
• Check out subordinates’ perceptions of reward
  allocation equity
  – Techniques?
• Minimize the time lag between behaviors and
  performance feedback
  – Absolutely essential to good motivation. You leverage
    your time and effort with timeliness
Discipline essentials: SC in action
• Problem-oriented: Timely and direct
• Prepared and never public
• Congruent: Don’t reward poor performance by
  ignoring it
• Owned: Clarify impact of actions on self & others
• Specific: Show person how to improve and set
  timeline for doing so
• Do not make empty threats that you are not willing
  to follow up on
• Follow up!
    Model for Motivation Enhancement
                                                                           Commitment
                                     3. Reinforcement
                                        •Discipline
                                         •Rewards
         1. GOALS/EXPECTATIONS
         •Accepted                                  4.EQUITY
         •Challenging and specific                  •Social comparisons         +
         •Feedback                                  •Personal expectations



 EFFORT                                    OUTCOMES
(Desire and      PERFORMANCE               (Extrinsic and             SATISFACTION
Commitment)                                  Intrinsic)

                2. ABILITY
                 Aptitude                               5. SALIENCE             -
                 Training                                •Personal needs
                Resources                               6. TIMELINESS
                                                                       Absenteeism
                                                                       And turnover

				
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