Delta NWA Implementation Overview by shuifanglj

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									            The Drug Czar

‘What a Chemistry Minor in College Gets You’
                    Or
        ‘You Can’t Beat a Drug Test’
Overview

Background

U.S. Department of Transportation Testing

General Chemistry in the Workplace

Drug Czar Q+A (I’ve never been stumped)

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Personal Background
High School

College

U.S. Navy

Northwest Airlines / Delta Air Lines




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U.S Dept of Transportation (DOT) Testing
Safety-Sensitive Functions

•   Pilots
•   Flight Attendants
•   Mechanics
•   Dispatchers
•   Ground Security Coordinators
•   Security Screeners
•   Flight Instructors
•   Air Traffic Controllers
                                           4
U.S Dept of Transportation (DOT) Testing
Safety-Sensitive Functions

• Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers (truck drivers)

• Hazardous materials operators (pipelines)

• Railroad operators (engineers, conductors)

• Mass transit (bus drivers, light rail engineers)

• Nuclear power plant operators.                     5
U.S Dept of Transportation (DOT) Testing
Alcohol

• Pre-duty and on-duty, prohibited.

Prohibited Classes of Drugs

•   Marijuana
•   Cocaine
•   Amphetamines
•   PCP
•   Opiates                                6
U.S Dept of Transportation (DOT) Testing
Prohibited Classes of Drugs

• Marijuana metabolite
  – Delta-9-tetrahydocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC)
  – 15 ng/mL

• Cocaine metabolite
  – Benzoylecgonine
  – 150 ng/mL

• Amphetamines
  – Methamphetamine                                       7

  – 500 ng/mL
U.S Dept of Transportation (DOT) Testing
Prohibited Classes of Drugs

• PCP (Phencyclidine)
  – 25 ng/mL

• Opiate metabolites
  – Codeine, Morphine
     • 2000 ng/mL
  – 6acetylmorphine
     • 10 ng/mL

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General Chemistry in the Workplace
Point of Collection

• Sample volume
  – 45 mls

• Specimen production time
  – 4 minutes

• Specimen temperature
  – 90 – 100 degrees F

• Color / Odor                       9
General Chemistry in the Workplace
Laboratory Testing

• Validity Testing

• Initial Screening (Immunoassay).
   – Negatives >>> negative (>95%).
   – Non-negative >>> confirmation process.

• Confirmation process.
   – Gas Chromatography
   – Mass Spectroscopy
                                              10
General Chemistry in the Workplace
Validity Testing

• pH
   – Normal 4.0 – 9.0.

• Specific Gravity (density relative to water)
   – Normal 1.003 – 1.030.

• Creatinine
   – >20 mg/dl.

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General Chemistry in the Workplace
Oxidizing & Adulterant Agents

• PCC (pyridinium chlorochromate)
  – UrineLuck (hexa-valent)
  – Chromax (chromium picolinate – tri-valent) OK.

• Glutaraldehyde
  – UrineAid, Clear Choice



                                                     12
General Chemistry in the Workplace
Oxidizing & Adulterant Agents

• Nitrites (NO2-)
  – Klear, Whizzies
  – Poppers, Huffers (alkyl nitrites, butyl nitrite)

• Peroxide
  – Stealth
  – Peroxidase and H2O2.


                                                       13
General Chemistry in the Workplace
Initial Screening - Immunoassay

• Immunoassay – A biochemical test that measures
  the presence or concentration of a substance in
  complex mixture of substances.




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General Chemistry in the Workplace
Immunoassay – Initial Screening

• Antibody – Proteins in your body’s immune
  system that are used to identify and neutralize
  foreign objects.

• Antigen – A molecule that binds to an antibody.

• Basic Idea – Use the body’s immune system to
  find & identify analytes.
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• Two Volunteers, please.
General Chemistry in the Workplace
Immunoassay – Initial Screening. Use the body’s
  immune system to find & identify analytes.




                                                  16
General Chemistry in the Workplace
Confirmation Testing (GC/MS)

• Gas Chromatography
  – Used to separate different compounds.
  – Oven.

• Mass Spectroscopy




                                            17
U.S Dept of Transportation (DOT) Testing
Urine vs. Hair vs. Oral Fluid ?

Steroids ?




                                           18
Overview

Background

U.S. Department of Transportation Testing

General Chemistry in the Workplace

Drug Czar Q+A (I’ve never been stumped)

                                            19
Q+A (I’ve never been stumped)




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