Solutions 3rd Period by wpr1947


									Small Changes with Big Impacts
   By: Andrew Chen, Melissa Lai, Kenji Nagasawa,
             Harley Zhou, Sharon Zhu

" We simply cannot afford to gamble... by ignoring
it. We cannot risk inaction. Those scienctists who
say we are merely entering a period of climatic
instability are acting irrespnsobly. The indications
that our climate can soon change for the worse are
too strong to be reasonably ignored."
           1978, Lowell Ponte, The Cooling, p 237
Driving Smart Counts
• simple and easy to do
• efficient and cheap
• reduces carbon emission

• more expensive to buy
  hybrid, but more efficient
• does not have a big
  impact unless everyone
Small Changes around the house
• Taking shorter showers
• Use compact fluorescent bulbs
• Use washing machine/dish washer when it's
• Installing solar panels in your house
• Use more recyclable items
Changes at Work and at School
•   Turn off unused electronics
•   Carpool to work/school
•   Teach others about conservation of energy
•   3 R's: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle
Critiques and Comments about small solutions
• These changes make more sense than big solutions
• Easier to do than bigger solution
• Helps to promote industry as people will need to buy
   much of the recyclables and modern appliances they
• Requires a lot of people worldwide
 in order to be successful and to
 actually have an impact
• Requires self sacrificing
• Requires commitment
        Alternative Energy Sources
• Nuclear Power
  o Provides 6% of world's energy and 13-14% of
    world's electricity
  o Strength: reduces carbon dioxide emission
  o Weakness: tank explosions and radiation
• Biomass Energy
  o Strength: renewable source
  o Weakness: expensive, releases gas that may
    contribute to global warming
• Compressed Natural Gas
     o Strength: less air pollution, natural
     o Weakness: slow fueling process, expensive,
       reduction of engine performance
Alternative Energy Sources
• Geothermal Gas
  o heat from inside the Earth
  o Strength: reduces acid rain by 97%, power
    plants are smaller than nuclear power
    plants, can be used immediately for heating
    (pipes in the ground)
  o Weakness: hard to find location to trap the
    energy, health hazards (mercury), usually
    near site of dangerous locations (volcanoes
    and earthquakes)
Alternative Energy Sources

• Hydroelectricity
  o electricity obtained by harnessing power of
    water flowing downward
  o Strength: causes no pollution because it is
    fueled by water
  o Weakness: will not function during drought
 Alternative Energy Source
• Wind Power
  o the conversion of wind
    energy to a useful form
    of energy
  o Strengths: It can supply
    electrical power
  o Weakness: energy
    produced is not at a
    constant rate because it
    is dependent on the
Alternative Energy Source
• Solar Power
  o energy from the sun
  o Strengths: low maintenance
  o Weakness: does not work on stormy or cloudy
    days or at night.   • Wave Power
                          o There are 3 types:
                            Buoys & Floats,
                            Oscilating Water
                            Columns, and
                            Focusing Devices
                          o Strengths: renewable
                            energy source
                          o Weakness: Storm
                            can damage devices
Alternative Energy Source
• Tidal Power
  o merge of wind and solar energy
  o Strengths: more efficient than coal or oil
  o Weakness: the Turbine Frames will
    destroy marine life.
 Alternative Energy Sources
• A form of renewable energy taking advantage of
  renewable resources such as wind of sunlight
• However, this can be costly 6000 to 10000 for per
  kilowatt for solar energy

•    Practically free energy
•    They will not emit CO2

•  Large amount of space needed
•  Poor consumer market
Big Solutions to Global warming
• Geo Engineering
  o Aerosol Cooling
  o Mirrors in space
  o Cloud Formation
  o Iron Fertilization
  o Ocean Mixing
  o Greenhouse gas remediation
     Carbon Sequestration
  o Arctic Geo engineering
     Permafrost of methane
Problems to Geoengineering
• Studies have shown that trying to shade the sun,
  aerosol cooling, might not even change the climate at
  all. It might even mess up Earth's hydrological
  cycle by slowing it down.
• Aerosol cooling also doesn't solve the ocean
  acidification, nor does it help reduce the
  amount of carbon dioxide released into the
 Is it Possible to just Adapt?
• Adaptation: making adjustments to future changes
• Being considered in some places and cities
• Cities in danger of extreme consequences are
  beginning to adapt
Methods to Adapt to Global Warming
• Develop more drought tolerant crops
• Increase storage of water
• Control the weather ( cloud seeding,pouring liquid
  nitrogen into sea, soot to absorb sunlight)
• Damming glacial lakes
• Migration
Comments and Critiques on Adaption
• It is easier than both big and small changes

• It will create jobs

• It is unknown exactly what will happen or how
  severe the climate changes will be
• It will take a long time to implement the changes
  such as building each new street
Chicago's Big Leap Forward
• Chicago has begun to invest in order to adapt to the
  changing climates
• In the next century Chicago is expected to have a
  huge heat wave
• They have created much more modern roads
• These roads absorb water
• They are using trees that are more resistent to heat
  and disease
Other Countries attempts to adapt
 • Using rice varieties that can survive being
   submerged for two weeks
   o These crops of rice also now resist the
     diseases and pests that the original was
     susceptible to
 • However, it is unknown how this inserted
   gene will affect the crop
Adapting in less developed countries
• Poorer nations such as Africa, Bangladesh and
  small islands are more seriously affected by global
• developed countries have contributed billions of
  dollars to aid these poorer nations
• Africa has droughts due to less precipitation
• As a result drought resistant crops are used and
  desalination plants are planted
• medical research for diseases such as malaria
Other Cities' attempts to go Green
• More cities are planting trees and converting
  vehicles to hybrids (NYC planted over 322,000 trees
  last year)
• NYC also bought more land to ensure its water
• NYC has three solar empowerment zones to go
  green and use alternate power sources
Solar Empowerment zones
• Areas that have multiple solar panels on the
  surrounding buildings that create clean energy
• Reduces peak electricity demand and pollution
• Built in three regions where solar power is the most
  beneficial and usable
• Uses solar energy and has a "day-peaking" energy
  usage profile that changes as the day changes
          Political Problems to Solutions
• No definite cost for the solutions
• Nations do not want to sacrifice
• Poorer countries want to industrialize
• It is not clear what effect their actions will have
• If other nations do not participate, they feel that their
  actions will be meaningless
• Developing nations do not want to fix what they think
  is the industrialized nations' problem
•   Web. 26 May 2011.
•    At the office. Web. 26 May 2011. <>.
•   Geoengineering. Web. 26 May 2011. <>.
•   A City Prepares for a Warm Long-Term Forecast. Web. 26 May 2011.
•   Climate change mitigation. Web. 26 May 2011.
•   A Modest Proposal to Fix Global Warming. Web. 26 May 2011.
•   Weather Control. Web. 26 May 2011. < >.
•   Top 10 Craziest Solutions to Global Warming. Web. 26 May 2011. <
•   Adaptation to global warming. Web. 26 May 2011.
    < >.
•   Kyoto and Den Haag: what is (not) happening?. Web. 26 May 2011.
•   Permafrost. Web. 26 May 2011.
•   Problems with geoengineering schemes to combat climate change. Web. 30, May
•    Geoengineering could slow down the global water cycle. Web. 30, May
•   Hydroelectric Power. Web. 31, May 2011.
•   What are the advantages and disadvantages of hydro power? Web. 31, May
•    Wind Power. Web. 31, May 2011.
•   Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Power. Web. 31, May
•    What is Solar Power? Web. 31, May 2011.
•    Solar Power - Advantages and Disadvantages. Web. 31, May 2011.
•    Wave Energy System. Web. 31,
•    Tidal Power - Pros and Cons. Web. 31, May 2011.

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