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 Renaissance (def.) –
  rebirth of knowledge
  & spread of that
  knowledge in art,
  architecture, science,
  medicine, literature
 Renewed appreciation
  of Greek & Roman
 Location- began in
  Italy (Florence)
Patrons of the Arts
           Medici Family – formed
            balance of power with
            Milan & Naples against
           Lorenzo de Medici – 1st
            to employ artists as a
            patron to beautify his
            city, & his children
            maintained rule & idea
            of Florentine superiority
      Hallmarks of the Renaissance
A. Individualism
      1. Stress personality, uniqueness, genius, and
  talents – celebrated man’s achievements and not just
  God’s achievements
      2. Guilds and patrons – teaching and paying for
  specialized work
      3. In middle ages Christian humility discouraged

B. Humanism – revival in studying achievements &
   interest of Greece and Rome – human form and human
   nature studied
C. Secularism – concern w/ material world as well as
   eternal world – church leaders did not combat secular
I.  Status of upper class women declined
    a. work they performed b. access to property
    c. political power
II. Education Advances
    a. study classics b. learned languages
    c. studied art
III. Sexuality
    a. women bound to monogamy while men
    could have sex outside marriage b. rape not
    seen as serious crime but as damage to
IV. Middle Class Women
    a. increase in status; could work in shops or as
    a servant
             Renaissance Art
I.   Subject Matter – in middle ages = religious
     themes in all media; in renaissance man’s
     achievements celebrated as well
II. In Renaissance – subject matter = more
     secular, focused on more worldly affairs –
     individual portrait emerges as distinct
     genre – art mirrored reality – actual
     representation of human form illustrated
III. Social status of artist improved in
Medieval Art
13th Century
Giotto di Bondone
(c. 1267 - 1337).

Florentine painter and architect Outstanding as a
painter, sculptor, and architect, Giotto was recognized as
the first genius of art in the Italian Renaissance. Giotto
lived and worked at a time when people's minds and
talents were first being freed from the shackles of
medieval restraint. He dealt largely in the traditional
religious subjects, but he gave these subjects an earthly,
full-blooded life and force.
Giotto - The
Mourning of
Christ - 1305
Sondra Botticelli – La Primavera 1482
Benvenuto Cellin
Perseus with the
The Wedding of
the Virgin - 1504
1508 – Rafaelo Sanzio
      Political Thought & Education
 Humanist thought
  focused on education,
  moral behavior, the
  training of rulers
 Baldassare Castiglione’s
    The Courtier (1528)
    influenced education of
    young men into ideal
    gentlemen (well rounded
    in academics, physically
    and spiritually trained,
    familiar with the arts,
    speak & write eloquently)
 Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince (1513) = most
  widely read book on political power
 Subject = political power – how a ruler should
  gain, maintain and increase it
 Machiavelli believed humans were selfish and
  out to advance their own interests – rulers may
  have to manipulate people in any way
 Maintained rulers should be concerned w/ not
  the way things ought to be but how they are
  and sometimes the “ends justify the means.” A
  good gov’t is one that is effective & the ruler
  increases his power
Is it better to be loved or feared?
                  “…. It is much more
                    safe to be feared
                    than to be loved,
                    when you have to
                    choose between
                    the two.”
 In 13thc. Paper money,
  cards, from China reached The Printed Word
  west-block printed (carved
  in wood), wood was inked &
  transferred to paper
 Around 1454 – Johann
  Gutenberg, Johann Faust, &
  Peter Schoffer invented
  moveable type; 1456 –
  Gutenberg’s Bible printed
 Printing transformed private
  & public life for Europeans –
  1.) made propaganda
  possible, political parties
  formed 2.) stimulated
  literacy of laypeople
      The Renaissance in the North
                                Desiderius Erasmus –
 Northern humanists =           schooled in classics – wrote
  more pietistic than            The Education of a
  Italian; In Italy, pagan       Christian Prince (1504), the
  & Greco-Roman motifs           Praise of Folly (1509). 2
  had more humanistic            themes dominate his work
  attention – Northern           a.) Education = means to
  renaissance stressed           reform (classics + Bible)
  use of reason w/               b.) Christianity is an inner
  Christian virtues; faith in    attitude of heart; not
  human intellect                formalism or ceremonies,
 Sir Thomas More –              but what Christ said & did;
  wrote Utopia,                  not what theologians have
  (nowhere), described           written
  ideal socialistic             Flemish painters
  community on an island         emphasized realistic detail
                                 & human personality
Jan van Eyck (1366-1441) Rogier van der Weyden

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