The Renaissance and Exploration

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					The Renaissance and
    Exploration
    1300 - 1600 C.E.
                 The Renaissance
 Began in Northern Italy around 1300 while
  England and France were in the Hundred Years
  War
 Why Italy?
       Urban region, trading cities such as Genoa, Venice
        and Florence
       Lots of powerful merchants who focused on trade –
        took pride in their achievements
       Focus on merit of the individual
       Patrons sponsored art
     Famous men who led the way
   Giotto – developed fresco painting, painting on
    wet plaster
        Human figures looked lifelike and 3 dimensional,
         interacting with one another and showing emotion

   Dante – wrote the Divine Comedy, poem in which
    real people and dead friends guide him through
    hell and heaven
        Combined religious ideas of Middle Ages with
         secular concerns of Renaissance – dealt with
         individuals and personalities

   Petrarch – poetry and letters
      Inspired by a female muse, Laura (who died of the
       plague)
      Strove to revive classical ideas of beauty
    New Values Shape the Renaissance
   Celebration of the individual – people wanted
    recognition and credit for their work, not doing it
    all for the glory of God
       Portraits and autobiographies are written

   Love of classical learning
       Looked down on Medieval times as the “Dark Ages”
       Humanists – studied classical texts, history and
        language arts – thought all people should study this

   Enjoyment of worldly pleasures is ok-Humanists
    say no more poverty vows!
               The Renaissance Man
 Strove to master almost every
  art
 The Courtier – told people how
  to become worthy of
  admiration
       Well educated in the classics
       Charming, polite, witty
       Dance, sing, play music and
        write poetry
       Physically graceful and strong,
        skilled rider, wrestler, and
        swordsman
The Renaissance Woman
        Upper class women are as well
         educated as men
            Charming, know the classics,
             write well, make music, paint, and
             dance (but don’t seek attention
             for it!)


        Expected to inspire poetry
         rather than create it
            Women are better educated than
             in the Middle Ages, but are
             actually less influential in politics,
             economics and social affairs
          Florence Led the Way
   In the 1400’s the Medici were a wealthy
    banking and trading family who dominated
    politics
     Cosimo  de Medici made sure all city counsel
      members were loyal to him
     Spent money on beautifying the city with art
      – created first free public library, his son and
      grandson continued this tradition while
      maintaining political control of Florence
         Artists Beautify Florence
   Lorenzo Ghiberti took 50 years to create door
    for the Baptistry of the local cathedral –
    likened to the gates of paradise
         Ninja Turtle or Artist?
 Donatello – sculptor,
  wanted to show the
  human form in
  perfection, like the
  Greeks
 On Right, The David
                Masaccio
 Developed perspective in painting to give
  objects the appearance of distance from
  the frame
 “Father of modern painting”
    Machiavelli wrote about politics
   When Piero Medici surrendered
    without a fight to invading French
    armies, Florentines were outraged
    and drove the Medici into exile
   Florence’s golden age ended

   During political upheaval, Machiavelli
    wrote “The Prince”
      Why does one ruler succeed while
       another fails?
      Not concerned with what is morally
       right, but what is politically effective –
       the end justifies the means
          Rulers may have to deceive
           enemies and their own people to
           be good leaders in a wicked world
          Today Machiavelli’s name is
           associated with trickery
       The High Renaissance
 While Florence’s golden age had ended,
  Rome was bringing the Renaissance to a
  new height
 The Popes became Patrons – Renaissance
  Popes
                           Michelangelo

   Lived with the Medici during
    his apprenticeship

   Peita and the Sistine Chapel
    are two of his most famous
    works, and were both
    commissioned by the Papacy
    in Rome

   Also made many other
    famous sculptures, paintings
    and architectural works, such
    as “The Last Judgment” and
    the dome of St. Peter’s
    Church
                 Raphael

 Artist, learned some things from
  Michelangelo
 “The School of Athens” – Plato and
  Aristotle in discussion with other famous
  figures from both classical Greece and
  from the Renaissance, (including himself
  and Michelangelo)
 Did a lot of work for the Church
                 Leonardo
 Both a scientist and
  artist – a genius
 Invented many
  machines for many
  purposes, from
  making metal screws
  to making man fly
 Painted “The Last
  Supper” and “The
  Mona Lisa”
    Northern Europe’s Renaissance
 Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo all showed
  interest in classics, curiosity about the world and
  an interest in human potential – Renaissance
  spirit
 Germans such as Durer created woodcuts and
  engravings, and Holbein who painted with
  extreme realism sold their work all over England
  and Germany
 French kings recruited Italian artists
 Flanders became the Renaissance capital of
  Europe
      The end of the Renaissance
   New styles became popular in the 1600’s

   Ideals of Renaissance thought continue to
    influence Western ideas today about the
    importance of the individual
     Gives   rise to more democratic ideas
 Age of Exploration

Explorers Discover New Lands
    New Spirit of the Renaissance
   How did the new ideas and values of the
    Renaissance lead to the Age of
    Exploration?



   During Leonardo’s time, Portuguese sailors
    charted the coast of Africa and others
    discovered new continents
               The Individual
   Explorers wanted to obtain individual
    glory, they were curious, ambitious, and
    confident just like Renaissance artists
         Factors that encouraged
               exploration
   Search for spices and profits
     Crusades   led to demand for more goods from
      Asia

     Italianmerchants controlled Eastern
      Mediterranean, had a monopoly on the spice
      trade, could make them $$

     Wanted    a route free of Turks – religious
      hostilities were high
          More Factors in Exploring
   Wanted to spread Christianity

   New Technology helps!
       Caravel – ship with triangular sails for tacking into the
        wind, square ones for running before the wind

       Astrolabe – used stars to decipher where on the earth
        one was in relation to the equator

       Compass – indicates your direction
           Portuguese exploration
   1420 – Prince Henry create a school for
    navigation – He was a patron of exploration

   First successful expeditions brought gold and
    slaves from Africa, later ivory as well
       Gold Coast at Ghana


   This encouraged further exploration – want to
    reach the Indies
       Explorations around Africa
   Bartholomeu Dias – reached Cape of Good
    Hope, southern most tip of Africa

   Vasco da Gama – 1497, he took 4 ships to
    India, first to round the Cape of Good
    Hope
     Led to Portuguese domination of trade on
      Indian Ocean, gave them a direct sea route to
      India, China and Spice Islands
        “In 1492 Columbus sailed the
                ocean blue.”
   Columbus convinced Queen Isabella and
    King Ferdinand of Spain to sponsor his
    quest across the Atlantic to reach India
      he estimated this would only be 2,000 miles
     Thought the world was round, wanted to
      reach Japan too
     Nina, Pinta and Sana Maria


    •   Landed in the Bahamas, didn’t find the spices,
        but found natives and exotic birds and fruit
          So why do we give him
               such credit?
   Viking voyages had landed in the Americas
    first!

   Columbus’s exploration led to lasting and
    permanent settlements…

   What else did it lead to?
              Amerigo Vespucci
 Proclaimed this a new continent after exploring
  coastline of Brazil, its not Asia!
 Leads to more explorations in a frenzy


   Vasco Nunez de Balboa – slashed through
    Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean

   Pope divides new lands between Spain and
    Portugal, (because they didn’t already belong to
    someone else?), at the Line of Demarcation
             Ferdinand Magellan
   Portuguese sailor sailed round the world, funded
    by Spain with 5 ships and crews

   The trip took 3 years and cost most their lives,
    not an easy trip!

 Proved the Americas were separate continents.
 Proved the world was much larger than anyone
  had thought.

				
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