The Renaissance and Exploration 1300 - 1600 C.E. The Renaissance Began in Northern Italy around 1300 while England and France were in the Hundred Years War Why Italy? Urban region, trading cities such as Genoa, Venice and Florence Lots of powerful merchants who focused on trade – took pride in their achievements Focus on merit of the individual Patrons sponsored art Famous men who led the way Giotto – developed fresco painting, painting on wet plaster Human figures looked lifelike and 3 dimensional, interacting with one another and showing emotion Dante – wrote the Divine Comedy, poem in which real people and dead friends guide him through hell and heaven Combined religious ideas of Middle Ages with secular concerns of Renaissance – dealt with individuals and personalities Petrarch – poetry and letters Inspired by a female muse, Laura (who died of the plague) Strove to revive classical ideas of beauty New Values Shape the Renaissance Celebration of the individual – people wanted recognition and credit for their work, not doing it all for the glory of God Portraits and autobiographies are written Love of classical learning Looked down on Medieval times as the “Dark Ages” Humanists – studied classical texts, history and language arts – thought all people should study this Enjoyment of worldly pleasures is ok-Humanists say no more poverty vows! The Renaissance Man Strove to master almost every art The Courtier – told people how to become worthy of admiration Well educated in the classics Charming, polite, witty Dance, sing, play music and write poetry Physically graceful and strong, skilled rider, wrestler, and swordsman The Renaissance Woman Upper class women are as well educated as men Charming, know the classics, write well, make music, paint, and dance (but don’t seek attention for it!) Expected to inspire poetry rather than create it Women are better educated than in the Middle Ages, but are actually less influential in politics, economics and social affairs Florence Led the Way In the 1400’s the Medici were a wealthy banking and trading family who dominated politics Cosimo de Medici made sure all city counsel members were loyal to him Spent money on beautifying the city with art – created first free public library, his son and grandson continued this tradition while maintaining political control of Florence Artists Beautify Florence Lorenzo Ghiberti took 50 years to create door for the Baptistry of the local cathedral – likened to the gates of paradise Ninja Turtle or Artist? Donatello – sculptor, wanted to show the human form in perfection, like the Greeks On Right, The David Masaccio Developed perspective in painting to give objects the appearance of distance from the frame “Father of modern painting” Machiavelli wrote about politics When Piero Medici surrendered without a fight to invading French armies, Florentines were outraged and drove the Medici into exile Florence’s golden age ended During political upheaval, Machiavelli wrote “The Prince” Why does one ruler succeed while another fails? Not concerned with what is morally right, but what is politically effective – the end justifies the means Rulers may have to deceive enemies and their own people to be good leaders in a wicked world Today Machiavelli’s name is associated with trickery The High Renaissance While Florence’s golden age had ended, Rome was bringing the Renaissance to a new height The Popes became Patrons – Renaissance Popes Michelangelo Lived with the Medici during his apprenticeship Peita and the Sistine Chapel are two of his most famous works, and were both commissioned by the Papacy in Rome Also made many other famous sculptures, paintings and architectural works, such as “The Last Judgment” and the dome of St. Peter’s Church Raphael Artist, learned some things from Michelangelo “The School of Athens” – Plato and Aristotle in discussion with other famous figures from both classical Greece and from the Renaissance, (including himself and Michelangelo) Did a lot of work for the Church Leonardo Both a scientist and artist – a genius Invented many machines for many purposes, from making metal screws to making man fly Painted “The Last Supper” and “The Mona Lisa” Northern Europe’s Renaissance Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo all showed interest in classics, curiosity about the world and an interest in human potential – Renaissance spirit Germans such as Durer created woodcuts and engravings, and Holbein who painted with extreme realism sold their work all over England and Germany French kings recruited Italian artists Flanders became the Renaissance capital of Europe The end of the Renaissance New styles became popular in the 1600’s Ideals of Renaissance thought continue to influence Western ideas today about the importance of the individual Gives rise to more democratic ideas Age of Exploration Explorers Discover New Lands New Spirit of the Renaissance How did the new ideas and values of the Renaissance lead to the Age of Exploration? During Leonardo’s time, Portuguese sailors charted the coast of Africa and others discovered new continents The Individual Explorers wanted to obtain individual glory, they were curious, ambitious, and confident just like Renaissance artists Factors that encouraged exploration Search for spices and profits Crusades led to demand for more goods from Asia Italianmerchants controlled Eastern Mediterranean, had a monopoly on the spice trade, could make them $$ Wanted a route free of Turks – religious hostilities were high More Factors in Exploring Wanted to spread Christianity New Technology helps! Caravel – ship with triangular sails for tacking into the wind, square ones for running before the wind Astrolabe – used stars to decipher where on the earth one was in relation to the equator Compass – indicates your direction Portuguese exploration 1420 – Prince Henry create a school for navigation – He was a patron of exploration First successful expeditions brought gold and slaves from Africa, later ivory as well Gold Coast at Ghana This encouraged further exploration – want to reach the Indies Explorations around Africa Bartholomeu Dias – reached Cape of Good Hope, southern most tip of Africa Vasco da Gama – 1497, he took 4 ships to India, first to round the Cape of Good Hope Led to Portuguese domination of trade on Indian Ocean, gave them a direct sea route to India, China and Spice Islands “In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue.” Columbus convinced Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to sponsor his quest across the Atlantic to reach India he estimated this would only be 2,000 miles Thought the world was round, wanted to reach Japan too Nina, Pinta and Sana Maria • Landed in the Bahamas, didn’t find the spices, but found natives and exotic birds and fruit So why do we give him such credit? Viking voyages had landed in the Americas first! Columbus’s exploration led to lasting and permanent settlements… What else did it lead to? Amerigo Vespucci Proclaimed this a new continent after exploring coastline of Brazil, its not Asia! Leads to more explorations in a frenzy Vasco Nunez de Balboa – slashed through Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean Pope divides new lands between Spain and Portugal, (because they didn’t already belong to someone else?), at the Line of Demarcation Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese sailor sailed round the world, funded by Spain with 5 ships and crews The trip took 3 years and cost most their lives, not an easy trip! Proved the Americas were separate continents. Proved the world was much larger than anyone had thought.