Chapter 8 by wuyunyi


									Chapter 8
Innovative EC Systems:
From E-Government and
E-Learning to C2C

•   E-Government: An Overview
•   Implementing E-Government
•   Online Publishing, E-Books, and Blogging
•   E-learning
•   Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
•   Customer-to-customer E-Commerce
•   Peer-to-peer Networks and Applications

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•   E-Government: An Overview
•   Implementing E-Government
•   Online Publishing, E-Books, and Blogging
•   E-learning
•   Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
•   Customer-to-customer E-Commerce
•   Peer-to-peer Networks and Applications

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E-Government: An Overview

•     Scope and Definitions
           The use of IT and e-commerce to provide access to
           government information and delivery of public
           services to citizens and business partners

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                       Or G2E

                   IEE: Internal Efficiency and Effectiveness

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E-Government: An Overview
            government-to-citizens (G2C)
            E-government category that includes all the interactions
            between a government and its citizens
           • Enable citizens to interact with the government from their

•        What to do with G2C
     –      Renew driver’s licenses
     –      Pay traffic tickets
     –      Make appointment for vehicle inspection and driving tests

•        Major features of Government website:
     –      Phone and address information
     –      Links to other sites
     –      Publications
     –      databases
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E-Government: An Overview

• Major areas of G2C activities:
     –     Tourism and recreation
     –     Research and education
     –     Downloadable forms
     –     Discovery of government services
     –     Information about public policy
     –     Advice about health and safety issues
     –     Broadcasting of city council meetings, press conferences
     –     Delivering training and educational courses, both to citizens and to

     – The use of internet by politicians, especially during election periods
        • Send emails or establish websites to recruit voters: Target audiences 20-
              30 years old

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E-Government: An Overview

• Government to Citizens
     – Electronic Voting

           bioelectronic voting
           Voting process that involves many steps ranging from
           registering, preparing, voting, and counting (voting and
           counting all done electronically)

     – Electronic Benefits Transfer
        • Government transfers benefits to citizens through bank accounts.
          Alternatively, smartcard can be used to store money.

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E-Government: An Overview

•     Government-to-Business (G2B)
            E-government category that includes interactions between
            governments and businesses (government selling to businesses
            and providing them with services and businesses selling
            products and services to government)
           • Government E-Procurement
           • Group Purchasing
           • Forward E-Auctions
           • Tax Collection and Management
              –   File tax reports and pay taxes online

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E-Government: An Overview

            Government-to-Government (G2G)
            E-government category that includes activities within
            government units and those between governments
           • Aimed at improving effectiveness or efficiency of the

           Government-to-Employees (G2E)
           E-government category that includes activities and
           services between government units and their

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E-Government: An Overview

•        Government-to-employees and internal efficiency and
     –      Internal Efficiency and Effectiveness
           • E-payroll
           • E-records management
               –   Establish uniforms procedures and standards for agencies
           •   E-training
           •   Enterprise case management
               –   Centralize justice litigation case information
           •   Integrated acquisition
               –   Agencies share common data elements to enable other agencies to make
                   better informed procurement, logistical, payment, and performance
                   assessment decisions
           •   Integrated human resources
           •   Recruitment one-stop

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•   E-Government: An Overview
•   Implementing E-Government
•   Online Publishing, E-Books, and Blogging
•   E-learning
•   Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
•   Customer-to-customer E-Commerce
•   Peer-to-peer Networks and Applications

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Implementing E-Government
The Transformation to E-Government
     Stage 1: Information publishing/dissemination
        • Government departments set up their own websites
            –   Provide public information about the department, services offered,
                contacts for further assistance
            –   May establish electronic brochures
            –   To reduce no. of phone calls, and reduce paperwork and no. employees

     Stage 2: ―Official‖ two-way transactions with one department at a
        • Using digital signature and secure websites, citizens can
            submit personal information and conduct monetary
            transactions with single government departments
            –   Citizens claims income support and housing benefits by filling electronic
                forms and receiving benefits online
            –   Tax returns are done online
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Implementing E-Government

     Stage 3: Multipurpose portals
           • One-stop e-government portal
                – Based on the fact that customer needs can cut across department

     Stage 4: Portal personalization
           • Allow customers to customize portals with their desired features
           • Governments get more accurate read on customer preferences for electronic vs non-
             electronic service options

     Stage 5: Clustering of common services
           • Real transformation of government structure takes shape.
           • Customer perception of departments as distinct entities will begin to blur. They will
             recognize groups of transactions rather than groups of agencies
           • Initial implementation started in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, UK, and US in 2004

     Stage 6: Full integration and enterprise transformation.
           • Offer a full-service center, personalized to each customer’s needs and preferences.
           • Full electronic collaboration among government agencies and between governments,
             citizens, and other partners will occur during this phase

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Exhibit 8.2 The Stages of E-Government

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Implementing E-Government

•        Implementation Issues of E-Government
     –      Transformation speed: normally very slow based on the
            following factors:
           • Resistance to change by government employees
           • Rate at which citizens adopt new applications
           • Available budget
           • Legal environment
     –      G2B implementation
           • Easier to implement G2B than G2C
     –      Security and privacy issues
           • concern about maintaining security and privacy of citizen’s data
     –      Wireless applications

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•   E-Government: An Overview
•   Implementing E-Government
•   Online Publishing, E-Books, and Blogging
•   E-learning
•   Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
•   Customer-to-customer E-Commerce
•   Peer-to-peer Networks and Applications

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging

         online publishing
         The electronic delivery of newspapers, magazines, books, news,
         music, videos, and other digitizable information over the Internet
     –      Support e-learning
     –      Provides entertainment
     –      Disseminates knowledge
     –      Supports advertising

         Electronic magazine or newsletter delivered over the Internet via e-

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging

•        Online Publishing Approaches and Methods
     –      Online-archive approach
     –      New-medium approach
           • Provide enhanced features e.g. extra analysis or additional
              information to online news or articles
           • Offers up-to-date material, research services, hypertext links,
              summaries, and more
     –      Publishing-intermediation approach
           • Online directory for news services
           • Help people to locate goods, services, and products online
     –      Dynamic approach
           • Personalize content in real time and transmit on the fly in the
              format best suited to the user’s location, tastes, and preferences

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging

•        Electronic Books (e-book)
            A book in digital form that can be read on a computer screen or
            on a special device
     –      E-books can be delivered and read via:
           • Web access
               –   Read a book on the publisher’s web site
           •   Web download
               –   Download a book to a PC
           •   A dedicated reader
           •   A general-purpose reader
           •   A Web server
               –   Data is stored at a web server and downloaded for print-on-demand

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging

•        Electronic Books
     –      Types of E-Books
           •   Traditional book format
               –   Presented in traditional linear format, no hyperlinks or search mechanisms
           •   Online bookshelf
               –   Collection of books that can be read online or download, simple format and no
           •   The download
               –   Simple text files, HTML source documents, or pdf files that can be downloaded
                   once paid
           •   The Rubics-cube hyperlink book
               –   Truly multimedia, online-only book
               –   Hyperlinks, 3D text
               –   Support e-learning
           •   The interactive, build-your-own (BYO) decision book

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging

•     Advantages of E-Books
     –     To readers
           •   Portability
           •   Easy search capabilities and links
           •   Easy downloading
           •   The ability to quickly and inexpensively copy material,
               including figures
           •   Easy integration of content with other text

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging

•     Advantages of E-Books
     –     To publishers
           •   Lower production, marketing, and delivery costs
           •   Lower updating and reproduction costs
           •   Ability to reach many readers
           •   Ease of combining several books so professors can
               customize textbooks by using materials
           •   Lower advertising costs

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging

•     Limitations of E-Books
     –     Require hardware and software that may be too
           expensive for some readers
     –     Some people have difficulty reading large amounts of
           material on a screen
     –     Batteries may run down
     –     Multiple and competing standards
     –     Only a few books are available as e-books

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging

•     Electronic Books
     –      E-Book Issues
           • How to protect the publisher’s/author’s copyright
           • How to secure content (e.g., use encryption,
              employ Digital Rights Management
           • How to distribute and sell e-books
           • How much to charge for an e-book versus a hard
              copy, and how to collect payment for e-books
           • How to best support navigation in an e-book

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging

           •   Which standards to use
           •   How to increase reading speed. On the average
               screen, reading is 25% slower than hard-copy
           •   How to transform readers from hard-copy books to
               e-books; how to deal with resistance to change
           •   How to design an e-book (e.g., how to deal with
               fonts, typefaces, colors, etc., online)
           •   How publishers can justify e-books in terms of
               profit and market share

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging
•     Print-on-Demand Process
     1.    A publisher creates a digital master, typically in Adobe
           Systems’ Acrobat format, and sends it to a specialized print-
           on-demand company. The files are stored on the printing
           company’s network
     2.    When an order is placed, a print-on-demand machine prints
           out the text of the document or book and then covers, binds,
           and trims it. The entire process can take about a minute for a
           300-page book
     3.    The books are packaged and shipped to the publisher or the

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Online Publishing,
E-Books, and Blogging

•     Blogging (Weblogging)
           Technology for personal publishing on the Internet
           A personal Web site that is open to the public to read and to
           interact with others using the blog; dedicated to specific topics or

           wikiLog (wikiblog)
           A blog that allows everyone to participate as a peer; any one
           may add, delete, or change content

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•   E-Government: An Overview
•   Implementing E-Government
•   Online Publishing, E-Books, and Blogging
•   E-learning
•   Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
•   Customer-to-customer E-Commerce
•   Peer-to-peer Networks and Applications

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•     The Basics of E-Learning

           The online delivery of information for purposes of
           education, training, or knowledge management

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•     Benefits and Drawbacks of E-Learning
     –      Benefits of e-Learning
           • Time reduction
           • Large volume and diversity
           • Cost reduction
           • Higher content retention
           • Flexibility
           • Updated and consistent material
           • Fear-free environment

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Exhibit 8.4 The Effects of E-Commerce
            Forces in Education

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     –      Drawbacks and Challenges of E-Learning
           • Need for instructor retraining
           • Equipment needs and support services
           • Lack of face-to-face interaction and campus life.
           • Assessment
           • Maintenance and updating
           • Protection of intellectual property
           • Computer literacy
           • Student retention

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• E-Learning Failures
     – Believing that e-learning is always a cheap learning or training
     – Overestimating what e-learning can accomplish
     – Overlooking the shortcomings of self-study
     – Failing to look beyond the course paradigms
     – Viewing content as a commodity
     – Ignoring technology tools for e-learning or fixating too much on
       technology as a solution
     – Assuming that learned knowledge will be applied
     – Believing that because e-learning has been implemented,
       employees and students will use it

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•        Online Corporate Training
     –      The Drivers of e-Training
           • Technological change
           • Competition and cost pressures
               –   Time spent away from the job, traveling or sitting in a classroom
                   tremendously reduces per-employee productivity and revenue
           •   Globalization
               –   Companies do not need to bring employees to a trainer or training
                   facility; online classes can run anywhere in the world
           •   Continual learning
               –   Corporations face major challenges in keeping their workforces current
                   and competent
           •   Network connectivity

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•        Implementing E-Learning and E-Training in Learning
     –     Setting up a learning center, may combine both online and
           offline learning activities

•        edutainment
           The combination of education and entertainment, often through

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•   E-Government: An Overview
•   Implementing E-Government
•   Online Publishing, E-Books, and Blogging
•   E-learning
•   Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
•   Customer-to-customer E-Commerce
•   Peer-to-peer Networks and Applications

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Knowledge Management and E-Commerce

      knowledge management (KM)
      The process of capturing or creating knowledge, storing
      it, updating it constantly, interpreting it, and using it
      whenever necessary

      organizational knowledge base
      The repository for an enterprise’s accumulated

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Knowledge Management and E-Commerce

•     KM Types and Activities
     – Organizational knowledge is embedded in these
       1. human capital
              –   Employee knowledge, competencies, and creativity
           2. structured capital (organizational capital)
              –   Organizational structure, cultural, processes, patents, and
                  capability to leverage knowledge through sharing and transferring
           3. customer capital
              –   Relationship between organizations and their customers and
                  other partners

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Knowledge Management and E-Commerce

•     Tasks of KM:
     1.    Creating knowledge repositories where knowledge can be stored and
           retrieved easily
     2.    Enhancing a knowledge environment in order to conduct more effective
           knowledge creation, transfer, and use
     3.    Managing knowledge as an asset so as to increase the effective use of
           knowledge assets over time
     4.    Improving knowledge access to facilitate its transfer between

Knowledge Sharing
     –     Knowledge is of limited value if not shared. The ability to share
           knowledge decreases it’s costs and increases its effectiveness for
           greater competitive advantage.
     –     Thus, it is another major purpose of KM

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Knowledge Management and E-Commerce

• How is Knowledge Management Related to
     – To better perform its EC tasks, organizations need knowledge,
       which is provided by KM
     – In EC market, organizations can learn about clients and generate
       useful knowledge for planning and decision making
         • Such knowledge is needed to interpret information and to execute

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Knowledge Management and E-Commerce

•     Core knowledge management activities for companies doing EC should
      include the following steps
     1.    Identification
     2.    Creation
           –   Using computer-based tools and techniques to analyze transaction data
               and generate new ideas
     3.    Capture and codification
           –   Gathering new knowledge and store it in a machine-readable form
     4.    Classification
           –   Organize knowledge using appropriate dimensions relating it to its use
     5.    Distribution
           –   Share relevant information with suppliers, consumers, and stakeholders
     6.    Utilization
           –   Appropriate application of knowledge to problem solving
     7.    Evolution
           –   Update knowledge as time progresses

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Knowledge Management
and E-Commerce

•     Knowledge Portals

           knowledge portal
           A single point of access software system intended to
           provide timely access to information and to support
           communities of knowledge workers

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Knowledge Management
and E-Commerce

•        Online Advice and Consulting
     –      Medical advice
           • E.g.,
     –      Management consulting
           • E.g.,
     –      Legal advice
           • E.g.
     –      Gurus: sites providing diversified expert services
     –      Financial advice

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Knowledge Management
and E-Commerce

•     Expert Advice Within Organizations
        expert location systems
        Interactive computerized systems that help employees
        find and connect with colleagues who have expertise
        required for specific problems—whether they are across
        the country or across the room—in order to solve
        specific, critical business problems in seconds

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•   E-Government: An Overview
•   Implementing E-Government
•   Online Publishing, E-Books, and Blogging
•   E-learning
•   Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
•   Customer-to-customer E-Commerce
•   Peer-to-peer Networks and Applications

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Customer-to-Customer E-Commerce

      customer-to-customer (C2C)
           E-commerce in which both the buyer and the seller
           are individuals, not businesses; involves activities
           such as auctions and classified ads

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Customer-to-Customer E-Commerce

•        C2C Auctions
•        Classified Ads
•        Personal Services
•        C2C Exchanges
     –     C2C bartering exchange: goods and services are exchanged
           without monetary transactions
     –     C2C exchange: helps buyers and sellers negotiate deals
•        Selling Virtual Properties
     –     E.g. in MMORPG (Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game),
           players can buy or sell virtual properties via auctions when
           playing games

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•   E-Government: An Overview
•   Implementing E-Government
•   Online Publishing, E-Books, and Blogging
•   E-learning
•   Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
•   Customer-to-customer E-Commerce
•   Peer-to-peer Networks and Applications

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Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications

      peer-to-peer (P2P)
      A network architecture in which workstations (or PCs)
      share data and processing with each other directly
      rather than through a central server

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Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications

•        Characteristics of P2P Systems
     –     Provide real-time access to other users through techniques such
           as instant messaging and multichannel collaboration
     –     User computers can act as both clients and servers
     –     Maximize the use of physical attributes such as processor
           cycles, storage space, bandwidth, and location on the network
     –     Employ user interfaces that load outside of a Web browser

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Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications

•        Models of P2P Applications
     –      Collaboration
           • Allow real-time direct interactions between people, including
               instant messaging and videoconferencing
     –      Content distribution
           • Enable file sharing, make famous by Napster, KaZaa
     –      Business process automation
           • Enhance existing business processes. E.g. users can control
               the type of data their email will accept
     –      Distributed search
           • Enable sending of search requests in real time to multiple
               information repositories rather than a centralized index

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Exhibit 8.7 Peer-To-Peer Networks

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Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications

•     C2C P2P Applications
     –     Napster—the File-sharing utility
     –     Other File-Sharing Programs
           •   Gnutella
           •   Kazaa
     –     Other Commercial P2P Applications in C2C
           •   Users can sell digital goods directly from their computers
               rather than going through centralized servers

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Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications

•        Intrabusiness P2P Application
     –     Internal collaboration e.g. software to use additional processing
           power of entire computers in the company to help solving
•        B2B P2P Application
     –     People can share information, but they are not required to send
           it to an unknown server, as they do when using a regular
•        B2C P2P Applications
     –     Marketing: conduct market research to peers
     –     Advertising: distribute advertisements to thousands of peers
     –     B2C payments: email payments

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Mobile Commerce and
Pervasive Computing

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