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									Carmel in New York
The Province of St. Elias 1927 – 1947
       Alfred Isacsson, O.Carm.
        Carmel in New York

The Province of St Elias, 1927 – 1947

      Alfred Isacsson, O.Carm.

          Vestigium Press

     4944 Rabbit Hollow Drive

      Boca Raton, FL. 33431


                                  Table of Contents

Introduction                                                          Page 3

Chapter 1      Dionysius L. Flanagan: The Man and His Manner          Page 4

Chapter 2      Provincial Chapters                                    Page 17

Chapter 3      Relations with Rome and other Provinces of the Order   Page 22

Chapter 4      Personnel                                              Page 53

Chapter 5      Student Education                                      Page 73

Chapter 6      The Scapular Militia                                   Page 90

Chapter 7      Finances                                               Page 99

Chapter 8      To the Other Sea                                       Page 102

Chapter 9      The Houses of the Province                             Page 133

Chapter 10     The Kilian Lynch Years                                 Page 169

A Postscript                                                          Page 177


This is the third volume of the history of the New York Province of St. Elias, a work begun in
1976. Seven years later, despite the interruptions of apostolic work and the vagaries of travel as
vocation director, the task I promised the provincial of that time, Charles Haggerty, is completed.

This is not a critical history nor a definitive work. Neither is it a mere chronicle, What I have
tried to do is establish what took place in the past of the province using the documentary material
extant. Decisions on the authenticity of documents and their provenance were required.
Logically, the next project is a biographical summary of the Carmelites who worked in this
province. Sometime in the future, aided by such works, is a critical history of the province.

Much of the material used in this volume is located in the archives of the province, situated in
1984 at St. Thomas Aquinas Church, Fourth Avenue, Brooklyn, NY. Much of the archival
material cited exists in the form of carbons. The adressee received the original and in most
cases, the originals are not extant or available. In some cases, documents were destroyed.
Citation from the provincial archives does not distinguish between the original or the carbon.
Wherever possible the original was used but ecclesiastical restrictions or distance from my
domicile prevented, too, the use of the original.

Thanks are due to the members of the province who have encouraged me by their words and
actions. They have expressed the true meaning of fraternity. May the life of the past of which
this volume is a record be an augury of the future.

                                                                                   Alfred Isacsson

                                                                                   St. Elias Priory

                                                                                  Boca Raton, FL.

                                                    Chapter 1

                             Dionysius L. Flanagan: The Man and His Manner

A decree of September 3, 1926, appointed Dionysius Lawrence Flanagan the Commissary
General of the five houses that had been separated some four years previously from the Irish
Province.1 The motherhouse of Our Lady of the Scapular on East 28th Street, Transfiguration
Church in Tarrytown, Our Lady of Mount Carmel and its missions in Middletown, St. Simon
Stock in the Bronx and St. Albert's, Middletown, were the extent of the realm. Flanagan had
come to the United States in 1908, shortly after his ordination, and had the experience of living
in all of the houses before he assumed command.

Born in Moate, Ireland, on June 19, 1882, Flanagan went to Blackrock College, Dublin in 1897.
After two years as a student there, two Carmelites, Wheatley and McDonnell, came to see him,
having heard that he was interested in studying for the priesthood. In September of 1899, he
transferred to Terenure College and entered the novitiate on October 15, 1900. After studying
theology in Ireland, Flanagan was ordained a priest on March 17, 1907,

In September, 1908, he came to New York to work at 28th Street. 1910 found him at Tarrytown
where he supplied on the weekends at the missions then attached to the Wurtsboro parish of St.
Joseph. That fall, he was made pastor of the parish of Holy Name in Otisville and when the
headquarters of the parish were moved to Middletown in 1912, Flanagan returned to Tarrytown
as an assistant to Finbar O'Connor, From 1914 to 1922, he was at 28th Street, He was then sent
to St. Albert's where he was prior and later novice master. At the death of Finbar O'Connor in
1924, he became the prior and pastor of 28th Street until the death of Gerard O'Farrell in 1926
when Flanagan was appointed Commissary General and moved to St. Simon Stock in the

It seems that until he went out of office as provincial in 1943, Flanagan preferred to go by the
name, Lawrence D. As the number entering the order increased and the use of religious names
became more common, he used his religious name of Dionysius. To many outside the order,
particularly those in Ireland who knew him as a youth, he was always Lawrence or Father Larry.

There is an interesting story concerning Dionysius Flanagan that illustrates his politics and
conviction. When some mission preachers were working St, Simon Stock, one of them stated one
evening that only a fool would have voted for Norman Thomas, the Socialist candidate, in the

    Decree, E. Magennis, Rome, Sept 3, 1926; Consultors Minutes, Nov 22, 1926, ANYP.
 F to Daly, Williamstown, Feb 22, 1957; Celebret, E. Southwell, Sept, 1912, ANYP; Status Ordinis (Rome, 1965) 33;
"Father Flanagan's Golden Jubilee," Vestigium II, 1, p 6-10; Decree, Rome, Sept 20, 1926, ANYP; AOC, VI, 152.

recent presidential election. Thomas usually managed to garner a small handful of votes in each
of the many runs he made for the presidency. On hearing this comment, Flanagan was heard to
mutter, "I must be a fool for I always voted for him."3 Many Irish rebels were socialist in
outlook and this shows his kinship with them. Also, it shows how he relentlessly followed a path
once he chose it.

Dionysius Flanagan enjoyed good health throughout his life. He did have a prostate operation
while visiting Los Angeles in 1934.4 Besides this, he was comparatively well especially during
his retirement years in Williamstown. He died on April 3, 1966 of coronary thrombosis and

Evaluation of Flanagan's regime as commissary general and provincial (1931-43) vary from
Carmelite to Carmelite. To many of his contemporaries, he was a stern taskmaster, strict and
unrelenting. To others, he was the savior of the small and budding province. One of his subjects
and later a general of the order, Kilian Lynch, described how the first constitutions in many years
had been issued in 1902. Previously, there had been little discipline due to the fact that customs,
dating from the times of Catholic oppression in Ireland, had ruled the Irish Carmelites and their
New York group. The new way of life that came in with the constitutions created many problems
for superiors like Flanagan. He had to insist on the life dictated by the constitutions. This did not
sit well with all of the men.

Flanagan gathered money to build up a fund from which building new foundations and student
education could be provided.6

Flanagan himself, almost to the end of his days, worked as hard as he demanded of others. His
sermons indicate that he often gave conferences, particularly to sisters, and preached many
retreats. The length of his material indicates that he gave good value for the stipend he received.7

When Flanagan became the commissary general, he fell heir to the Irish activities of his
predecessors, O'Connor and O'Farrell. When these men were at the height of their activity,
Flanagan was not stationed in New York City and thus at a disadvantage for participating. His
espousing of the Irish cause perhaps dates to his days at Blackrock where he was a classmate of

    Interview with Mel Daly, 1980.
    F to Varglien, /Los Angeles^, May 27, 1943, ANYP.
    Death Certificate, Massachusetts, Apr 25, 1966, ANYP.
    Interview with Kilian Lynch, Tadcaster, Nov 15, 1976.
    Flanagan Papers, ANYP, Sermons.

Eamon De Valera. His role, though, was not that of an activist or fomenter. He was more of an
advisor who proceeded in a quiet and humble way.8

He kept in close touch with many of the Irish heroes like De Valera, Sean 0'Kelly and Sean
Nunan. The MacSwineys were especially close to him. He was active, loaning for example,
"O’Curry's manuscript copy of Keating’s Ireland" to New York's forty-second Street Library for
a De Valera visit in 1939, interceding for Irish immigrants to obtain permanent residency or a job
and contributed £20 to the 1938 election fund of Fianna Fail, When the Irish Pavilion of the
1938-39 World's Fair was dismantled, he purchased some exhibits and took the granite of the
Pearse Memorial to use in the house he hoped to construct in Washington.9 Today, it still lies
beneath the 28th Street church.

Flanagan's role can be seen in an incident. De Valera wrote Father Timothy Shanley concerning
the Irish Press fund raising drive. He did this though only after consulting with Flanagan
obtaining from him information and advice.10

When religious activities were participated in by the Irish, Flanagan was present in a prominent
role. He was the celebrant when Mass was celebrated for the preservation of peace and neutrality
in Ireland.11 St. Patrick's Day, 1943, while Ireland lay in a perplexed neutrality, saw Flanagan as
the preacher at St. Patrick's Cathedral.12

After retirement to Williamstown in 1953, he exchanged a number of letters with Eamon De
Valera mainly concerning the split in the United States between the De Valera and Cohalan
forces in the 1920's. It was Flanagan's opinion to the aging Irish leader that the split was caused
by the fact that the Cohalan forces could not control De Valera and what he thought best for

One day in 1929, when Mother Angeline Theresa was in the process of consulting Cardinal
Hayes about the foundation of the Carmelite Sisters of the Aged and Infirm, Dionysius Flanagan
went to the Old People's Home on East 183 Street in the Bronx to try and place an old man in the
institution. He entered by mistake through the kitchen and met Mother Collette with whom he

1.        W. Carr, The Irish Carmelites, 19-20.

 McCauley-Flanagan Correspondence; McGlynn to F, NY, Nov 1, 1940; Flanagan Papers, Irish Activities, Irish Bonds; S.
O'Riain to F, Dublin, July 14, 1938, all ANYP.
     De Valera to Shanley, Dublin, May 13, 1928, ANYP.
     New York Times, Apr 20, 1941; Catholic News (New York) Apr 26, 1941.
     Catholic News (New York), Mar 20, 1943; Slattery to F, Tarrytown, Mar 18, 1943, ANYP.
     Flanagan Papers, De Valera Correspondence, ANYP.

placed his request. Some days later, he sent the sisters roses left over from St. Simon Stock's
celebration of the feast of St. Therese of Lisieux. This gesture along with Flanagan's visit, the
sisters took as a sign and introduced themselves and their goals to the Carmelites.14 It was in
1931 that the sisters were affiliated to the Carmelite Order. Ellas Magennis presented the
petition to the Holy See after Flanagan had done the groundwork in the United States.15
Flanagan was always modest about his role in establishing the sisters and when forced to speak
of it, he would tell of Magennis' work in Rome and the work of Kieran Hickey and Patrick
Russell in working with the sisters on their constitutions.16

Flanagan arranged a Roman visit for Mothers Angeline and Collette in 1932, enticing Magennis
to escort them around Rome and to arrange a papal audience for them.17 He assisted the sisters
by supplying priests for their retreats, conferences and confessions. He often gave them advice
and did many business matters for the fledgling group.18 He tried to help them found a house in
Rome but Cardinal Hayes withheld his approval.19 He was present for many of the community's
ceremonies and attended the dedication of many of their homes.20

Flanagan also corresponded with many sisters. Some were personal friends, some staffed
Carmelite schools, some were from his hometown of Moate and some were his advisees. He
advised sisters personally and community wise. He sent congratulations on special occasions,
consoled them at the times of personal or community loss. Besides the Sisters of the Aged and
Infirm, the Good Shepherd Sisters, the Sisters of Mercy and the Discalced Carmelites seem to be
the communities he was more familiar with.21

Visitations of the province by the generals give us an indication of the manner of life of the time.
Elias Magennis visitated the houses in 1927, 1929 and 1931. After commending the fathers for
work and sacrifice, Magennis instituted a 5:30 rising in 1927 so that office could be recited
before confessions were heard from 6:30 to 8:00. Vacation in the province was set for every five
or six years subject to cancellation for non-observance. At St. Albert's, he called for capable
     Mss in Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
     M. Daly, "Carmelite Sisters Observe Ruby Jubilee," Sword 30 (Oct, 1970) 49.
     Sermon, Flanagan, Avila-on-Hudson, Oct, 1956, ANYP.
     Magennis to F, Rome, July 25, 1932, ANYP.
     Mother Angeline Correspondence, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
  F to Doswald, Bronx, Feb 25, 1938, ANYP; Angeline to Doswald, Bronx, Aug 19, 1938 Doswald to F, Rome, Jan 11,
1938, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
     As examples, cf. AOC 10, 36-7; Sword 9 (Feb, 1945) 112-3.
     Flanagan Papers, Sisters File, ANYP.

teachers, observant of the rule. He wanted these men also to work in the local parish to solve the
manpower problem and their complaint of loneliness at the college. For Tarrytown, he called for
the opening of a high school as soon as possible.22

Two years later, Magennis was accenting observance especially in superiors. The vacation
regulation was changed to every year but the time was to be spent in a Carmelite house and the
funds were to depend on the kind of vacation needed. These regulations he put under the stricture
that they could be relaxed only by the curia. He did command that the superior lock the door to
the house at 10:30. "23 In his visitation of 1931, Magennis set the rise at 5:45 with office at 6:00.
This gives some understanding for his regulation of being home at 10:00 and in bed by 10:20.24

Flanagan, after he left office, reflected on observance in the province. He cited how there had
been almost none when he came to the United States and how in 1947, it was almost total in
every house, This progress he credited to Magennis. Flanagan also pointed out the fallacy of
abandoning observance under the guise of working for the Church.25

When Doswald made his visitation in 1933, he simply called for no deviation from the
regulations of Magennis. He did call for local elections for house offices and for silence at meals
even when reading was done for half the meal. He called upon the fathers to improve themselves
intellectually and urged them to recruit brothers who could clean and care for the house as this
was the only way the cloister could be observed.26

Flanagan visitated each house but only every two or three years until 1941 when he began a
spate of visitating each house each year until he went out or office. His method seems to have
been to visit each house and then when he returned home, to write up a general series of
injunctions that were sent to each house. Nothing specific to a house was ever mentioned and he
resorted to items like wearing the capuce for Mass, keeping a house chronicle, attending the
funerals of clergy and religious. Talking about Carmelites or Carmelite affairs was forbidden.27

In his 1932 visitation, Flanagan accented the office in common to the point that he said it was a
sin if one was needed to recite the office and he absented himself from choir.28 His regulations
     Visitation Report, Magennis, 1927, ANYP.
     Ibid., 1929.
     Ibid., 1931.
     F to Pausback, Bronx, Jan 23, 1947, ANYP.
     Visitation Report, Doswald, Rome, Oct 15, 1933, ANYP.
     Visitation File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
     Visitation Report, Flanagan, 1932, ANYP.

for Bellevue included notifying the relatives of sick or deceased patients.29 In 1941 and 1942,
he had some problems in Bellevueaid the parish. In 1941, he stated that the laity's help in the
hospital was appreciated but that they had no right to interfere in the Carmelites' fulfillment of
duty.30 In 1942, he placed different priests in charge of certain areas of the parish: Hugh Devlin
and Kevin Flanagan in charge of marriages, for example. Brother Albert Kenny was to come to
the parish to be sacristan and the province was to be paid $500 a year for his services. This salary
was typed only on Flanagan's carbon copy of the regulations indicating that there must have been
some sort of problem paying him from parish funds. He also wanted certain expenses that the
Carmelites had been paying to be paid in the future by the parish.31

In Washington, in 1939, he instituted a 4:55 rising on school days and at 5:55 on Sundays.32 For
California in 1941, he made a complete examination of the finances. Parish salaries, Mass
stipends and all loan payments were to go to the Provincial Fund. He raised the tuition $4 per
student and insisted on total collection. No funds of the fathers were to be used for the school.
The following year, he reinforced these regulations.33

There was a touch of humor in this whole matter as Doswald wrote Flanagan in 1935 that he was
sending a copy of the visitation report to Brocard Taylor, an old Flanagan adversary, just to show
him that the spirit was not that he had found on his own visitation of 1932.34

Twice, Flanagan appointed a commission to draw up provincial regulations. The report of the
first called for a vocation director, drinking on certain days of the week to promote the spirit of
community and a vacation of three weeks with $75 in expenses allowed35 The second
commission established the amounts for major expenses, specified articles of the constitutions
and forbid smoking in public.36

     Ibid., 1939, ANYP.
     Ibid., 1941, ANYP.
     Ibid., 1942, ANYP.
     Ibid., Washington, March, 1939, ANYP.
     Ibid., St. Raphael's, 1941, 1942, ANYP.
     Doswald to F, Rome, July 29, 1935, ANYP.
     Report of the Commission on Provincial Regulations, 1934, ANYP.
     Ibid., n.d.

As he came to the end of his regime, Flanagan was more careful about holding the exams for the
junior clergy37 and insuring that all made the annual retreat.38

In an effort to satisfy requests, make the order better known and increase the funds of the
province, Flanagan sent men out on preaching and supply work. Especially in the summer, he
booked fathers for places like Livingston Manor, Long Beach, Yonkers, Ellenville, Liberty and
Harrison.39 Preaching assignments were sisters' retreats, novenas, triduums and parish missions
mainly in the eastern United States.40

A New York lawyer, William Canary, took care of all wills for Dionysius Flanagan. Indications
are that the Carmelites were the benefactors of a large number of wills but none amounted to
more than $500. It would seem that when money was left in a will to charity, Canary would
direct this amount to the Carmelites. A number of these wills left money for Masses to be
offered by the Carmelites. A Mary Geoghegan had loaned Denis O'Connor $1600 in 1923 and
her heirs made claim on it at 4% interest. Flanagan honored the request when it was made in

When a woman left $4300 to the Carmelites and her two nephews, orphans at St. Michael's in
Staten Island, the decedent's sister approached the Carmelites about relinquishing their share in
favor of the orphans. Flanagan consented.42

Either while provincial or as treasurer, Flanagan helped promote the purgatorial society with a
folder, 4 1/2" X 6", embossed with a bronze picture of the Scapular Vision. One early
enrollment came from Los Angeles inscribing, "The Fallen Angels."43

Flanagan wrote many letters of congratulation to promoted ecclesiastics. Letters of
recommendation, letters trying to get people into rest homes and to obtain apartments and jobs
were numerous, A special charity of his was the Marymount Tabernacle Society run by
Archbishop Cantwell's sister. He also loaned provincial funds to relatives of Carmelites and
seminarians. As a compliment to his foresight, it must be said that all these loans were repaid.

     F to Priors, July 7, 1941, ANYP.
     F to Priors, June, 1941, ANYP.
     Supply File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
     Preaching File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
     Will File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
     Kobbe, Thatcher, Frederick and Hoar to Canary, NY, Jan 7, 1927, ANYP.
     Purgatorial File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.

He, himself, contributed small amounts to hospitals and religious causes here and in Ireland.44
He even sent money to the novitiate of the Irish Province to promote Gregorian Chant among the

In 1939, Flanagan collected money from various people and the Carmelite parishes and sent it to
the Carmelite nuns in Spain to help them in the wake of the Civil War.46 After World War II, he
did the same for the Carmelites in Europe.47

When his friend, Jeremiah O'Mahoney, was seeking admission to the Florida bar, Flanagan
wrote him a letter of recommendation.48 After loaning O'Mahoney money, Flanagan wrote him
that his definitory would like to forget the debt stating that his vocation work for the Carmelites,
years before, had more than compensated the order for the money.49

Once Flanagan went out of office as provincial and was just treasurer, he seems to have spent all
his time monitoring funds. St. Albert's, for example, sent him some bills to pay directly and
some they paid themselves and would also ask him for funds on a regular basis. When the St.
Albert's treasurer, Emmanuel Hourihan, would write asking for money, Flanagan would hesitate
or ask for explanations. Flanagan would make jokes at St. Simon Stock when he received these
requests from St. Albert's. They would be passed on to Emmanuel who did not take them as
jokes. On one occasion, Emmanuel paid all the bills except the bread bill which he sent on to
Flanagan who remarked that Middletown was even sending him the bread bills. It was another
stage in a constant war.50

Bishop Jurgens of Tuguegaro in the Philippines offered Flanagan missions in his diocese. He
described the people as poor and their need for priests as great.51 Three years later, the province
was still talking about these missions.52 Flanagan must have discussed them with the Australian

     Personal Correspondence, Contributions File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
     M. Lynch to F, Kinsale, May 4, 1932, ANYP.
     Spanish and Java Carmelites File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
     Carmelite Relief File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
     O'Mahoney to F, Gainesville, Mar 30, 1933, ANYP.
     F to O'Mahoney, Bronx, Nov 18, 1942, ANYP.
     Interview with Kilian Lynch, Tadcaster, Nov 15, 1976.
     Jurgens to F, Tuguegaro, Oct 23, 1928, ANYP.
     ACG (1923) 23.

provincial, Paul Clery, when he was visiting the United States in 1937.53 Almost a year later,
Clery expressed his willingness to be a partner in the Philippine venture.54 With a shortage of
manpower, the matter just died.

Bishop Daniel Desmond of Alexandria, Louisiana, wrote to the Chicago provincial, Matthew
O'Neill, asking for two Carmelites to staff the parish at Mansfield, Louisiana, mainly because of
a Carmelite tradition there. The bishop guaranteed a subsidy for the fathers as well as Mass
stipends.55 O'Neill sent the letter on to Flanagan.56 While he probably gave the offer some
consideration, there is no evidence of a reply. He may not have seriously considered the offer,
arriving as it did as he was nearing the close of his tenure as provincial.

As Flanagan approached the twenty-fifth anniversary of his ordination, Cardinal Hayes sent him
a letter thanking him for his years of service in the Archdiocese of New York and congratulated
him on the occasion of his anniversary.57

Elias Magennis was finishing his second term as general as the general chapter of 1931
approached. He could have been elected to a third term but not being desirous of serving again,
he made it known that he would not accept another term.58 Flanagan had Elias Varglien and
Simon Farrington as socii when he went off to the chapter held in Rome at San Alberto October
15-24, 1931.59 Hilary Doswald was elected general and on the invitation of Flanagan, Magennis
arrived in the United States in the middle of December to assist in finding new foundations.60 He
lived at St. Simon Stock where he basked in the admiration of the men he had known in Rome as
students. He spent his time hearing sisters' confessions and giving them conferences and

     Clery to F, Albuquerque, Jan 25, 1937, ANYP.
     Clery to F, Middle Park, Nov 21, 1938, ANYP.
     Desmond to O'Neill, Alexandria, Mar 30, 1943, ANYP.
     Doswald to F, Bronx, May 24, 1943, ANYP.
     Hayes to F, NY, Mar 10, 1932; Russell to S. Donohue, Bronx, Mar 7, 1932; F to Hayes, Bronx, Mar 23, 1932, ANYP.
     Interview with J. C. O'Shea, Dublin, Sept 16, 1976 and with P. O'Dwyer, Gort Muire, Sept, 1976.
     ACG (Rome, 1931) 8-9; AOC 8, 91-5.
     Magennis to Antonio, Dublin, Nov 24, £19317, CG, Generali 2.
 Magennis to Doswald, Englewood, /1931/; Magennis to Antonio, Bronx, Nov 3, 1931; Magennis to Franco, Bronx,
Nov 3, £1931?, all in CG, Generali 2; Celebret, Bronx, Apr 6, 1932, ANYP.

There seems to have been some difficulty between Magennis and Flanagan developing over the
course of his stay. Magennis saw Flanagan's unhappiness with a new Roman instruction
concerning the education of students as being prompted by the desire to attend American schools
rather than Roman ones to obtain degrees that could be used in teaching. With some cynicism, he
remarked that Kilian Lynch received a salary at Marymount larger than the sum of all the Mass
stipends received by the Commissariate in its early days. He seemed, too, in the same letter to
envy the success of the province. He saw nine at St. Simon Stock where three had been and five
at Tarrytown where there was two.62

Magennis did see Cardinal Hayes each year that he was in New York. Through his influence, he
was able to use the library at Dunwoodie, the archdiocesan seminary.63 Magennis considered
Hayes devoted to the Irish cause mainly through the influence of his auxiliary, John Dunn, a
friend of the Carmelites raised near their east side parish.64 Perhaps the Irish cause was the
common ground that drew Hayes and Magennis together.

Magennis did try to get a foundation in the diocese of Brooklyn. Monsignor Patrick Cherry,
called a friend by Magennis, had visited the Carmelites in Rome and had been feted at dinner
there. When Cherry was going again to Rome in 1933, Magennis wrote from New York to
Antonio to see Monsignor Caccia and try to obtain a papal audience for Cherry. Magennis'
reason was that Cherry wanted a Carmelite foundation in Brooklyn. Though it had not been
given yet, Magennis wanted Cherry taken care of because he wanted every friend possible in
Brooklyn. He had dined at Cherry's rectory where he learned that Bishop Malloy wanted to wait
a little while before granting the foundation. So, as Magennis said, there was hope. As a final
thought, he told Antonio to have Leahy show Cherry a good time.65

Cherry would give Magennis and later on, Flanagan, a merry chase over the Brooklyn house. He
never came up with a concrete proposal and it would seem that Bishop Malloy was never willing
to grant such, When the Carmelites were offered property in Huntington, Long Island, Malloy
by thoughtful neglect prevented the acceptance or the property.66

     Magennis to Antonio, Convent Station, May 13, £19337, CG, Generali 2.
  F to S. Donohue, Bronx, Jan 5, 1931; S. Donohue to F, NY, Jan 8, 1932; Magennis to Casey, Tarrytown, Easter
Thursday, 1933; Secretary to Magennis, NY, Apr 24, 1933; Magennis to Casey, Tarrytown, Apr 25, 1933, Hayes
Papers, DA.
  P. E. Magennis, "A True Irish-American, His Excellency the Auxiliary Bishop of New York," Catholic Bulletin 23
(Nov, 1933) 904-8.
     Magennis to Antonio, Tarrytown, June 26, 1933, CG, Generali 2.
     A. Isacsson, "Carmel in Brooklyn," Occasional Papers, 16; Definitory Minutes, Oct 27, 1927.

Magennis felt at the start of 1934 that his purpose of founding two houses in the United States
had been fulfilled and was ready to leave for residence in Ireland, Doswald wrote Flanagan
telling him that he knew Magennis was well-treated but wanted to know the real reason for
Magennis' decision to live in Ireland. Doswald considered Los Angeles one of the foundations
but wondered where the other was.67 Flanagan replied with assurances that Magennis was well-
treated but was acting as though he had a grievance against Flanagan and the world in general.
Around the time of his writing, March 1934, Flanagan thought he had improved his humor.68

Magennis and Flanagan had a spat over money, the nature of which is not known.69 Carmel
O'Shea attests to this friction which he finds hard to understand since Magennis was the one who
made Flanagan.70 Some say that Magennis’ popularity with the young priests, who had studied
in Rome, was not appreciated by Flanagan and caused him to see Magennis as a threat to his

In July, 1934, Magennis returned to Ireland and took up residence at Whitefriars Street, Dublin.72
He continued writing, preaching and working with the Legion of Mary. The climate did not seem
to be conducive to his health.73 After a brief illness, he died on August 26, 1937. His passing
was the occasion of numerous tributes. His observance, promotion of the order and his part as
leader and peace-maker in his native land's problems were cited as his contributions.74

With the war in Europe well under way, the United States was building up its military forces and
the need for chaplains was well-advertised. It was natural then that Eugene McCallen wrote
Bishop O'Hara of the Military Ordinariate volunteering his services. O'Hara replied that he had
to have his provincial's permission and so McCallen wrote Flanagan requesting this.75 Though
he was pleased with his spirit prompting this action, he told McCallen he was too young.

     Doswald to F, Rome, Feb 15, 1934, ANYP.
     F to Doswald, Bronx, Mar 26, 1934, ANYP.
     Interview with P. O'Dwyer, Gort Muire, Sept, 1976.
     Interview with J. C. O'Shea, Dublin, Sept 16, 1976.
     Interview with B. Forrester, Middletown, NY, 1980.
     P. O'Dwyer, A True Patriot (Dublin, 1975) 75.
     Cogan to Doswald, Dublin, Mar 4, 1936. CG, Hib (1922-38).
   Irish Press (Dublin) Aug 27, 1937, 1, 6; Aug 28, 1937, 9; Whitefriars 3 (Oct, 1937) entire issue; Sword 2 (1938) 13;
Irish Independent (Dublin) Aug 28, 1937, 10; The Gaelic American (New York) Sept 11, 1937, 5.
     McCallen to F, Los Angeles, July 24, 1941, ANYP.

Flanagan promised to speak to Patrick Russell, the Los Angeles prior, and he would convey to
McCallen and his companions Flanagan's ideas on chaplains.76

Finbar Lynn, obviously with Flanagan's blessings, applied for the chaplains in December 1941.77
Among the letters of recommendation sent for him was one from Charles Buckley, the
Democratic boss of the Bronx.78 Lynn entered in February, 1942 and after a period of training
in the United States, served in New Guinea, the Philippines and Japan. During his tour, he visited
Australia. He was separated in 1945.79

John McGrath's name was submitted for a chaplaincy in August, 1942.80 He was at Fort Dix
and Camp Upton before the end of that year and later served at Ft. Meade and Camp Pickett. By
May of 1944, he was mustered out and was at St. Albert's.81

Joseph Larsen also volunteered but was turned down by Flanagan who said he could spare no
one else.82 Alphonsus Galligan also served in the latter part of the war mainly with ground
troops in Europe.83

The dealings of Flanagan with the New York chancery were amiable and he seems to have had a
good relationship with both Cardinals Hayes and Spellman.

Early correspondence covered the appointment of pastors and in each case, there was approval.84
When Hayes wished to see Flanagan in September, 1934, he had to decline as he was heading for
the general chapter in Rome and so sent Kilian Lynch, whom he cited as being familiar with the
material to be discussed.85

     F to McCallen, Bronx, Aug 1, 1941, ANYP.
     Lynn to Monahan, Bronx, Dec 6, 1941, ANYP.
     Lynn File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
     Ibid.; Sword 9, 403-4.

     F to O'Hara, Bronx, Aug 19, 1942, ANYP.
     McGrath to F, Ft. Meade, July 9, 1943; same to same, Middletown, May 22, 1944. ANYP.
     Larsen to F, Middletown, Oct 13, 1942; F to Larsen, Bronx?, Oct 15, 1942, ANYP.
     Vinculum 1, 68-9; Sword 9 (1945) 239-40.
     F to Carroll, Bronx, Jan 10, 1934, ANYP; Carroll to F, NY, June 26, 1934, ANYP.
     F to Casey, Bronx, Sept 19, 1934; Secretary to Lynch, NY, Sept 25, 1934, Hayes Papers, AD.

In 1935, Flanagan was invited to go by train, along with Hayes to the Eucharistic Congress in
Cleveland.86 He accepted and apparently went.87

Citing the fact that he had seven men at 28th Street due to the care of Bellevue, Flanagan asked
Hayes for another parish in the archdiocese in 1936. An inadequate financial return for the men
invested in the declined 28th Street parish was a reason named for the grant.88 The cardinal was
pleased to know of Flanagan's disposition and was appreciative of the Carmelites' work but had
no parish vacant at the time. He promised to keep the offer in mind.89

When Francis Spellman was appointed archbishop of New York, Flanagan sent him a letter of
congratulations at his parish in Newton Centre, MA. The thanks of Spellman were sent to, "Very
Rev. Lawrence D, Flanagan, O.M. Cap., Provincial, c/o St. John the Baptist Rectory, N.Y." This
is an error that surely was not made again by Spellman.90 Flanagan thought Spellman friendly
enough but felt he had a better friend in his vicar general. He had seen Spellman on New Year's
Day, 1940, and at 28th Street's fiftieth anniversary Mass and on both occasions, he had good
words to say about the Carmelites' work.91

     Lavelle to F, NY, Aug 30, 1935, ANYP.
     F to Lavelle, Bronx, Sept 2, 1935, ANYP.
     F to Lavelle, Bronx, Mar 25, 1936, ANYP.
     Lavelle to F, NY, May 5, 1936, ANYP.
     Spellman to F, Newton Centre, n.d., ANYP.
     F to Doswald, NY, Feb 21, 1940, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).

                                                        Chapter 2

                                                  Provincial Chapters

The first chapter of the Province of St. Elias was held on April 28, 1931 at St. Albert's. This was
the chapter called for by the document establishing the province. It was a genuine chapter
though there was no election of a provincial and definitely since they were appointed by that
same document. When the chapter of 1934 came along, the written reports called that the first
chapter. It is from this confusion over the first chapter that there is different numeration of
subsequent chapters. So the chapter of 1982 was either the seventeenth or eighteenth chapter
depending on which, 1931 or 1934, is considered the first chapter.

Doswald set the 1934 chapter for June and assured Flanagan he was going to preside. He
inquired where he had heard that Brocard Taylor was to preside. 92 Possibly, this was a
prankster's move to disturb Flanagan.

The chapter took place at St. Simon Stock, June 4-8. Flanagan was elected provincial on the first
ballot. The chapter also gave approval to the Los Angeles foundation which was already
accepted by the definitory. Patrick Russell and six others spoke on this new venture indicating
some strong feelings on the project, Doswald supported it somewhat when he spoke of the need
to establish a house outside of New York. $84,000 was voted for the school so it could open in
September, 1934. Vocations received some emphasis and brothers were to "be received and
instructed" so the cloister could be observed. The concept of brother of the time was that of a
janitor. Other regulations for daily life were established like being home at a decent hour and
wearing the capuce at Mass.93 The acts of the chapter were approved by John Brenninger,
assistant general and secretary of the curia. Concerning an allowance of $2 a week, he instructed
that the constitutions be followed. Concerning the capuce at Mass, he cited an article of the
Ceremoniale to follow and corrected the name of the Roman subdelegates to "Vicesgerens Soc.

Doswald wanted the 1937 chapter begin June 20 or 27.95 The chapter took place again at St.
Simon Stock, June 27 to July 1, with Doswald presiding. Flanagan and his four definitors were

     Doswald to F, Rome, Mar 29, 31, 1934, (one letter with two dates) ANYP.
     Acta Capituli Provincialis, Bronx, June 4-8, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64); AOC 8, 240-1.
     Brenninger to F, Rome, Sept 23, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64).
     Doswald to F, Rome, Mar 14, 1937; same to same, Rome, Mar 31, 1937, ANYP.

all elected on the first ballots. Each prior in the parish houses was also named pastor. When
Stephen McGleenan was named prior of 28th Street, he resigned as second definitor. The other
three moved up in number and Hugh Devlin was elected fourth definitor but renounced the post.
Elias Holland then nosed out Stephen Piskurich by seniority for the position after a tie on the
third ballot.

In the opening talk, Doswald cited the recently published Vita Carmelitana as the ideal of
observance. To have this in the entire order was his goal. He praised the province for already
having regular observance, good brotherly spirit and care for provincial affairs. Vocations he
cited as a weak point. Hugh Devlin was named to begin a mission band. The Purgatorial Society
enrollment was reduced from $10 to $5 but the term was for only one year. However, they
would be "in unione Purgatorio pro semper." The men in Los Angeles were allowed home visits
once every three years. Each new priest was considered a student until he passed an exam by the
provincial examiners. This probably was instituted because complaint was made that Morrissey
and Holland, both delegates to the chapter, had not finished their studies and thus did not have
voice.96 Doswald cleared the immediate problem by a dispensation and the rule was to forestall
future problems.

On September 13, 1939, Stephen McGleenan resigned from all offices. After a discussion with
him, Flanagan accepted his resignation as prior and pastor of 28th Street. At a meeting held at
St. Simon Stock on September 16, Elias Varglien was named prior and pastor of 28th Street. He
had to resign from the definitory and Carmel Lynn was elected fourth definitor.97 Another
definitorial session was held at St. Simon's on December 9 and the same elections were held with
the same results but this time a secret ballot was used and scrutatores and punctatores were
used.98 This second election was in response to a query from Doswald when he received an
account of the first session. He asked the method of voting and said it must be in accord with the
constitutions.99 The second session was approved by the curia.100 After sending the account of
the second meeting, Flanagan pointed out to Doswald that a Roman Socius had not been elected
to replace McGleenan because there was no general chapter scheduled before the next provincial

     Acta Capituli Provincialis, June 27 - July 1, 1937, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64); AOC 9, 134.
 Acta Def. Prov. Am. Sancti Eliae, Bronx, Sept 16, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64); Definitory
Minutes, Sept 16, 1939, ANYP.
 Sessio Definitoria, Bronx, Dec 9, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64); Definitory Minutes, Dec 9, 1941,
     Doswald to F, Rome, Oct 12, 1939; same to same, Rome, Nov 24, 1939, ANYP.
      Brenninger to F, Rome, Jan 10, 1940, ANYP; AOC 10, 536.
      F to Doswald, NY, Dec 28, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).

Carmel Lynn's election was protested by John Maher on the grounds that it placed two brothers,
Carmel and Finbar, on the definitory. He called it "absolutely unfair" and cited in addition the
fact that Carmel was in Los Angeles and not much use to his fellow members who were in the
east. He reasoned that many others could have been selected. As he said, "After all we are not
that few in number that two positions on the Definitory should be held by two brothers." He
concluded in his letter to Doswald, "... I wish to protest formally..."102

As the chapter of 1940 was approaching, Doswald stated his determination to preside even if he
had to fly over to do it. The Irish chapter would not interfere with his plans as the United States
would not permit travel through belligerent countries.103 He did preside. The chapter was held
again at St. Simon Stock from June 30 to July 3. Flanagan was elected again and, portends of the
future, Kilian Lynch was elected first definitor. This chapter saw the decline of John Maher as
he was the runner-up for second, third and fourth definitor. Gerard McCarthy was made
vocation director and Lynch and William Bradley were made examiners of the junior clergy.
Reports were given by the delegates of each house but there were no regulations or other
legislation made.104 Kilian Lynch and Patrick Russell had to be dispensed to they could be third
term priors.105 The acts were approved with the presumption that Doswald had given viva voce
a dispensation for Lynch to be a definitor and a prior.106

Opening the chapter of 1943, Hilary Doswald spoke of devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary as
the foundation of Carmelite life and he urged that a vocation director be appointed so work for
vocations could be done. Kilian Lynch preached at the opening Mass on the life of Mary being
the rule of our life. He compared the province to a Benjamin among the provinces of the order
and predicted it would grow if the life and virtues of Mary were kept in mind. Dionysius
Flanagan thanked the gremiales, the general and the Chicago Province for their prayers in his
recent illness. He then thanked all for what they had done during the years he ruled the
commissariate and province. Expressing his desire that the province would grow, he then
concluded with these words, "... nunc autem remanet ut_ inserviam ubi obedientia vocat."

Kilian Lynch was elected provincial on the third ballot by a margin of five votes. His principal
competition was Mel Daly. The chapter dealt with many questions concerning growth and

      Maher to Doswald, Middletown, Sept 25, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      Doswald to F, Rome, Mar 5, 1940, ANYP.
  Acta Capituli Provincialis,Bronx, June 30, July 3, 1940, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64); also ANYP and
AOC 11, 11-2.
      Franco to F, Rome, July 25, 1940; Sacra Congregatio Rel., July 15, 1940, no 4372/40; ibid. July 15, 1940, 4371/40.
      Brenninger to F, Rome, July 26, 1940, ANYP.

development in the province. Alphonsus Galligan gave a long report on Bellevue and suggested
the modus operandi be the one suggested by the general at that year's visitation. John Maher was
given permission to build a priory next to the Middletown church. St. Albert's and Los Angeles
received permission for remodeling and an architect was to be engaged so a house in Washington
could be built after the war. A foundation in the diocese of Alexandria, Louisiana, was turned
down. Concerning the offered foundation in Pasadena, Doswald had four questions he posed to
the definitory: What benefits to the province from it? If there are benefits, how can they be
increased? What expenses do we have to make? Will the archdiocese of Los Angeles give
anything for our sustenance? He wanted these answered before acceptance. The definitory
approved the idea of a new foundation in Pasadena provided it would not be a financial burden to
the province.107

The chapter of 1946 was the first to be held at St. Albert's since 1931. In the absence of
Doswald, Patrick Russell was appointed preses. Kilian Lynch was elected provincial for a
second term. The house in Pasadena was still approved as was a philosophy house and novitiate
in Auburn, NY. The name of St. Albert's became officially, "St. Albert's Junior Seminary," and
$150,000 was approved for Los Angeles for building. $100,000 was for a priory and $50,000 for
enlarging the school.108

The curia objected to certain actions of this chapter. They thought the S100 for vacation
extravagant and cautioned that both the new Los Angeles foundation and the expense of
$150,000 at Mt. Carmel must go through the formal process for approval. An explanation for the
postulation of John Maher as the prior of Mt. Carmel, Middletown, was asked for.109 The acts
were finally approved except for the vacation money. The curia would have the regulation read
that the provincial allots money to each according to his needs and the grave conscience
obligation of poverty. Concerning the name of St. Albert's, it was pointed out that the
constitutions require each house of study to be called a "collegium."110

With the election of Kilian Lynch as general in 1947, a new provincial had to be elected in New
York. John Maher, as first definitor, set the election for St. Albert's on June 16.111 Patrick
Russell was elected provincial on the first ballot receiving nine votes while Mel Daly and John

  Acta Capituli Provincialis, Bronx, July 18-23, 1943, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64); mimeographed acta,
ANYP; AOC 12, 213.
  Acta Capituli Provincialis, Middletown, June 30 - July 3, 1946, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64);
mimeographed acta ANYP; AOC 13, 63-4.
      Pausback to Lynch, Rome, Sept 28, 1946, ANYP.
      Couto to Lynch, Rome, Oct 29, 1946, ANYP.
      Maher to Russell, Middletown, May 26, 1947, ANYP.

Maher received one each.112 The results of the election were received with some joy in Auburn
where Russell was the prior of Whitefriars.113

That summer, a Congregatio Annua with Kilian Lynch as preses was held at Tarrytown on July
8. $10,000 was approved for renovations at St. Albert's and a number of personnel changes were
made. Bernard Daly became the prior of Whitefriars, Auburn. Richard Nagle became the head
chaplain at Bellevue and Finbar Lynn was made vocation director. Gregory Smith and Donald
O'Callaghan formed with him a vocation council.114

      Extraordinary Chapter, Middletown, June 16, 1947, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64); AOC 13, 134.
      Courier Journal (Rochester) June 26, 1947; Citizen Advertiser (Auburn) June 21, 1947.
      Acta Congregatio Annua, Tarrytown, July 8, 1947, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64).

                                                         Chapter 3

                             Relations with Rome and other Provinces of the Order


Relations between Dionysius Flanagan and Lawrence Diether, the Chicago provincial (1924-36),
were very good. Diether was the receiver of funds for Nablus and Flanagan sent him
contributions raised. Diether took in Albert Metcalf for Flanagan and cooperated well in the
dealings of the Little Flower Society.115 He was quick to congratulate Flanagan on the erection
of the province and his elevation to provincial.116

For the services of John Haffert as novice master, a priest had to be sent to the Chicago Province.
Albert Daly was the first of these exchanges going to St. Elias, Joliet, in 1935. He was followed
later that same year by Sean Reid.117 Though spoken highly of by his midwest superiors, Reid
was not too acceptable because of his "quaint Irish accent." Matthew O'Neill, then provincial,
was surprised to learn that he would be returning for the 1936-7 school year. Flanagan was very
congenial in this difficulty offering to have Reid return or remain and acknowledged his fault in
sending him back. He even offered, should Reid have to return to New York, to make a financial
offering for Haffert's services.118 O'Neill solved the difficulty by switching Reid to St. Clara's
and replacing him in the school with Arnold McCarthy. He admitted that he could not ask for a
financial settlement.119 Reid remained there until September, 1937, when he was replaced by
Robert Murphy.120 Dionysius McCarthy went that same year to study theology in Chicago. He
had been sent home from Rome in the summer of 1936 for smoking. John McGrath, also sent
home from Rome, went to Chicago for theology.121

      Diether to F, Pittsburgh, May 14, 1931, ANYP.
      Diether to F, Chicago, Nov 7, 1930, ANYP.
      Daly to author, Rhinebeck, July 25, 1983.
      F to O'Neill, Bronx, Sept 3, 1936; O'Neill to F, Chicago, Sept 3, 1936; F to O'Neill, Bronx, Sept 4, 1936, ANYP.
      O'Neill to F, Chicago, Sept 11, 1946, ANYP.
      Murphy to F, Los Angeles, Aug 5, 1937, ANYP.
      O'Neill to F, Chicago, Aug 9, 1937; F to O'Neill, Bronx, Sept 21, 1937, ANYP.

When the first issue of Sword was imminent, O'Neill asked Flanagan to send news of the
province for a column. He thought it would cement relations and good will between the
provinces. Flanagan accepted the offer and sent congratulations of the first issue of Sword.122
During those early years of the publication, a good number of articles, written by members of the
New York Province, were published.123

John McGrath was ordained before Christmas, 1937, and Dionysius McCarthy was ordained the
following May despite the fact that he had asked to be ordained with McGrath.124 After his
ordination to deacon, McCarthy's celebration of the occasion got him into a bit of trouble but the
fathers in Chicago saw no good purpose in postponing his priesthood ordination.125 Both
returned east after the close of school in 1938.

Flanagan took Herman Golobic in at Los Angeles to live for "some time" for health reasons.126
O'Neill was grateful and said the Carmelites in Los Angeles were pleased to have him.127

Antonio Franco was invited by the Bronx Carmelites to tour the United States.128 He did come
over during the summer of 1938. A side note of their trip is that Franco had obtained a relic of St.
Bernadette for Elias Varglien who then wanted one of St. Therese. He conceived a novel form
of delivery. As he put it, "Considering the troubles of sending money to Italy by mail, please
bring it with you when you visit our province in August and I will give you the necessary
expense and also for your charity."129 Accompanying Franco was Alberto Consalvo and both
were very grateful for this opportunity and the hospitality shown them. 130 While here, the two

      O'Neill to F, Chicago, Feb 10, 1937, ANYP.
   F to O'Neill, Bronx, Feb 16, 1937, ANYP. Cf. Alphonsus Galligan, "Carmelites in the C.S.M.C.," Sword 1 (Oct,
1937) 63-4; Leo Travers, "The Office of St. Elias the Prophet according to the Rite of the Greco-Slav, or the
Byzantine Oriental Church," 3(1939) 191-4; destine Fitzpatrick, "Our Lady of Mount Carmel and Ireland," 3(1939)
315-8; Gerard Pace (Elias Vella, trans.), "Carmel in Malta," 3(1939) 499-502; Vincent McDonald, "The Constitutions
of 1324," 8(1944) 240-6, 399-404, 9(1945) 63-9, 170-5, 275-9, 361-6, 10 (1946) 31-8, 149-55, 244-51, 11(1947) 35-
40; Ibid., "Carmel in France," 8(1944) 122-41, 229-36, 387-94, 9(1945) 45-6, 142-62; James Reilly, "The
Commissariate of the South," 9(1945) 137-41; Gregory Smith, "Father General's Feast Day," 9(1945) 8-9.
      Gilligan to F, Chicago, Nov 11, 1937; McCarthy to F, Chicago, Nov 20, 1937, ANYP.
      Definitory Minutes, July 13, 1936, May 16, 1938, June 24, 1938, ANYP.
      O'Neill to Russell, Chicago, Dec 30, 1937, ANYP.
      O'Neill to F, Joliet, Jan 18, 1938, ANYP.
      Daly to Franco, Bronx, Mar 10, 1939; F to Franco, Bronx, Oct 14, 1938, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Varglien to Franco, Bronx, June 24, 1938, in ibid.
      Franco to F, Rome, Oct 25, 1938, ANYP; Nagle to Franco, Los Angeles, Dec 8, 1938, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).

Italian Carmelites visited all the houses of the New York Province, went to Los Angeles and
visited both Washington and Chicago. Both wrote extensive chronicles of their journey.131

Doswald had written O'Neill asking him to invite Franco but O'Neill restrained. His view, "I
personally would not invite an Italian to our Province not to talk of financing the trip." He would
not interfere with any plans Flanagan had and both he and Doswald knew much diplomacy
would be required to cancel the trip.132 Flanagan promised to handle Franco's tour in such a way
that O'Neill would not be embarrassed.133 Despite O'Neill's view, Franco and Consalvo were
received in Chicago and enjoyed that part of their tour.

Besides the two theologians in Chicago, Flanagan had Andrew McHugh and Paschal O'Brien at
Niagara Falls for college.134 Bills were sent him in September, 1938, for all of his students with
the Chicago Province. Flanagan paid them but he would not pay for McGrath or McCarthy in
Chicago. He also took the opportunity to describe how O'Brien had gone on to studies in Ireland,
stayed a week and then returned home seeking a dispensation from his vows. He related the
manner of his departure because Kevin Cahill at Niagara Falls had touted O'Brien very highly. 135

Cahill in Niagara Falls, had sent a note demanding payment for McGrath and McCarthy before a
certain date.136 Flanagan spoke to both McGrath and McCarthy who stated that they both had
taught at Mt. Carmel in Chicago during the entire time of their studies there. Flanagan felt this
paid their way. He had sent $300 to Chicago for McGrath but when he learned he was teaching,
he regretted this action. As he summed up the situation, "I am sorry that I feel compelled to write
this letter. However, we must do unpleasant things at times. New York will keep this matter
open until we consult with Father General when he comes here next summer."137 Here the
matter died.

Robert Murphy served in Chicago in the Haffert exchange until 1940. His return for the 1940-1
school year was not desired.138   Flanagan promised to bring the matter up at a definitory

  II Monte Carmelo 25 (Feb, 1939) 42-6, (March, 1939) 73-9, (April, 1939) 109-12, (May, 1939) 133-40, (June, 939)
168-73, (July, 1939) 197-203, (August, 1939) 232-6, (Sept, 1939) 262-7.
      O'Neill to F, Joliet, Jan 18, 1938, ANYP.
      F to O'Neill, Bronx, Jan 26, 1938; O'Neill to F, Joliet, Jan 28, 1938, ANYP.
      Piper to /F/, Niagara Falls, Feb 25, 1938, ANYP.
      Cahill to F, Niagara Falls, Sept 24, 1928 /sic, is 1938J; F to Cahill, Bronx, Oct 17, 1938, ANYP.
      Cahill to F, Niagara Falls, Nov 28, 1938, ANYP.
      F to Cahill, Middletown, Dec 3, 1938, ANYP.
      O'Neill to F, Joliet, July 23, 1940, ANYP.

meeting.139 There is no record of any such discussion and Hilary Grahame was sent west as the
exchange man towards the end of the summer of 1940.140 At the end of his second year there,
Grahame expressed his disappointment to Flanagan that he had not visited him on the way home
from one of his west coast trips. Grahame knew that he would be coming back at the end of the
1941-2 school year and so he suggested to Flanagan that he remain until he had his vacation for,
as he reasoned, he had worked there and the house should give him a vacation. He also had the
good news that he had done his retreat, passed his clergy exams and was the vicar prior during
the Chicago chapter.141

Flanagan wrote him, "You have been now a long time away from your Province and I think it is
only fair that you are recalled where you will be among your own." He promised to have him
recalled at the end of the summer.142 Grahame then sent a cryptic message, "Leaving on
vacation. Will report back August 2."143 Flanagan then made arrangements for Denis Murphy to
take Grahame's place. This received the approval of O'Neill.144

The switch of Denis Murphy and Grahame was made at the end of the summer of 1942.145
Murphy had mixed emotions after a few days in Chicago. While he was relieved to be free of the
financial worries he had at St. Albert's, he was not happy with his quarters as he was staying in a
visitor's room while the priory was being redecorated.146         Flanagan wrote him words of
encouragement.       Murphy went from Chicago to Los Angeles and was replaced by Columba
Staunton who seems to have been the last to serve in the exchange program.148

      F to O'Neill, Bronx, July 28, 1940, ANYP.
      F to O'Neill, Bronx, Aug 9, 1940; O'Neill to F, Chicago, Sept 5, 1940, ANYP.
      Grahame to F, Joliet, June 6, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Grahame, Bronx, June 12, 1942, ANYP.
      Grahame to F, Joliet, July 12, 1942, ANYP.
      F to O'Neill, Bronx, Aug 3, 1942, ANYP.
      O'Neill to F, Joliet, Aug 6, 1942, ANYP.
      Murphy to F, Chicago, Sept 25, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Murphy, Bronx, Sept 30, 1942; Murphy to F, Chicago, Dec 16, 1942, ANYP.
      Krause to Father (?), Chicago, Feb 6, 1946, PO.

Brendan Hourihan wrote Flanagan that Bishop McGucken had told him army reports had singled
out two schools for providing outstanding recruits: Notre Dame and Mt. Carmel in Chicago.
This good news, Flanagan passed on to O'Neill.149

With the advent of World War II, it became difficult to ship anything from Europe to the United
States. The Chicago Province decided to print in this country the Carmelite ordo, used each day
in the recitation of the breviary and celebration of Mass, rather than take chances with European
shipments. Flanagan heard of this and ordered a hundred copies for his province.150 Raphael
Kieffer, in charge of the project, quoted him a price of $58.75 per hundred and expressed the
thought that this edition followed the Roman one too closely and thus contained some errors. He
asked Flanagan his opinion.151 He wrote in reply that there was too much in the ordo for the
various feastdays. He thought that in the older type of editions, one could tell at a glance what
was to be said for the various hours.152 Still he ordered them.

Flanagan also cooperated by ordering copies of Lawrence Diether's Scapular booklet.153

Andrew Weldon wrote Flanagan about becoming a cooperator in The Carmelite Review. He
offered him a New York publication office, post office and business office. The back cover was
available to him for advertising and "Carmelite News" would feature New York items
prominently. The cost was reasonable and Weldon pointed out that any magazine which was not
published for both provinces had failed. He honestly stated that his own advantage would be a
cheaper cost per thousand from an increased press run. He saw his only drawback as the inability
to offer Flanagan a different name.154

A tentative plan was drawn up. It offered to place people from New York on the staff. Two
plans for mailing with price splits were established.155

Gabriel Pausback became involved in the negotiations and this seems to have obfuscated the
various points under negotiation.156 An agreement was worked out under the original conditions

      F to O'Neill, Bronx, Nov 16, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Kieffer, Bronx, Dec 24, 1940, ANYP.
      Kieffer to F, Chicago, Feb 11, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Kieffer, Bronx, Feb 18, 1941, ANYP.
  F to Anderson, Bronx, Apr 3, 1941; Anderson to F, Chicago, Apr 10, 1941; F to Anderson, Bronx, Apr 28, 1941,
      Weldon to F, Tenafly, May 28, 1941, ANYP.
      "Tentative Plans for an Interprovincial Magazine Use of The Carmelite Review," ANYP.
      Weldon to F, Tenafly, June 19, 1941; Pausback to F, NY, June 20, 1941, ANYP.

establishing a mailing address at Middletown. Lists, publicity and pulpit announcements were
also agreed upon.157 Flanagan seems to have begun operation of the joint venture in late 1941
and was enthusiastic about the venture.158

William S. Bradley became the New York business manager of the publication. He handled
mailing complaints, promoted subscriptions and supplied articles and pictures for the
magazine.159 By fall of 1944, the original print order had declined to the point of 300 from one
of 1300.160

Losses from subscriptions amounted to only $467.49 in August, 1942. Exactly a year later, there
was a loss of $28.42 but $405 had been raised in Mass stipends and contributions to the St.
Albert's Fire Fund. A year later, August, 1944, the magazine alone had a profit of $95.06 and
$85 was received by St. Albert's. It would seem that at this time, the joint venture ended.161


The relations between the Carmelites in Ireland and their offspring in New York were concerned
with two things that are the bane of every religious group: money and manpower. A
documentary look at the conflicts leads one to consider them superficial but conversation with
some of the participants takes one to the firm conclusion that wherever money is involved in a
conflict, the wound is deep.

Elias Magennis, in Rome in 1927, wrote a seemingly friendly letter to Vincent Coffey. In a
philosophical manner, he set up the principle that in missionary work, when a man stays too long
in one place and then returns home, he is too old to do anything. In the case of the Irish working
in New York, the Irish Province then complains. Magennis seems to be telling Coffey to go back
to Ireland and let the province who paid for his education get some of the good years of work out
of him. Then later on, he suggested a return to the United States,162

      Weldon to F, Tenafly, July 18, 1941, ANYP.
      Manion to F, Chicago, Oct 30, 1941; F to Manion, Bronx, Nov 5, 1941; Definitory Minutes, Sept 16, 1941, ANYP.
      Bradley to D. Murphy, Bronx, Dec 5, 1941, ANYP.
      Clohessy to Lynch, Bronx, Sept 14, 1944, ANYP.
      "Carmelite Review Statistics," Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
      Magennis to Coffey, Rome, July 7, 1928, ANYP.

Whether Magennis' advice was taken or not, the situation indicates there was some difficulty
brewing concerning the shuttling back and forth of Carmelites across the Atlantic. In 1933,
Hilary Doswald issued an edict in a style that indicates it was addressing substantial problems.
Concerning priests from Ireland working in New York, none could travel to Ireland or to any
other province without the general's permission in writing. For a priest to do so resulted in
suspension and for a professed, there would be a suitable penalty. In the gravest necessity, the
provincial could presume on the general's permission but he incurred the grave obligation to
report this to the general. The superiors who did not follow this regulation incurred the same
penalty as the one traveling without permission.163 About a month after the issuance of this
decree, Flanagan responded to the general. He asked, perhaps facetiously, whether or not it
abrogated a decree made by the Irish definitory at the time of the establishment of the
commissariate and later approved of by Magennis as General. Flanagan asked because,
whatever the decree was, it was in direct contrast. Magennis, he felt, was generous in allowing
transfers and vacations across the Atlantic because there was no sympathy for the missions -
presumably New York and Australia - among the influential members of the Irish Province. He
went on, "To them America and Australia were just convenient dumping grounds for
undesireables." He also called them sites of exile for political opponents and attributed the
existence of the New York Province only to the efforts of Magennis and the curia.

Flanagan also saw the decree as meaning there was no turning back. The province would have to
be built up. He then could not resist taking a few shots at Doctor Brocard Taylor, a favorite
jousting partner. Taylor had blamed the "arbitrary action" of Flanagan for men returning to
Ireland, Flanagan cited in his own defense that Metcalf and McCaffrey had returned home from
Chicago and that Raphael Doran had gone to the Eucharistic Congress in Dublin and had just
never returned to New York.164

Kilian Lynch had come to Marymount College in 1931 to teach philosophy for one year and then
was to return to Rome to teach at Collegio Pio Undecimo. He would actually spend sixteen
years at the Tarrytown school leaving only when he was elected general in 1947.165 The
arrangement made for his salary was that $2000 a year was to be sent to Rome in exchange for
his services. This sum was to be applied towards the expenses of the Irish students at San
Alberto.166 The Irish owed 11,426 lire to San Alberto for students' expenses. Doswald wrote
Berchmans Devlin, the Irish provincial, pressing for payment but stated that Kilian Lynch's
salary could be applied towards the bill. This he had expected to be done and as he said, "But for

      Doswald to F, Rome, Apr 18, 1933, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, May 21, 1933, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Interview with Kilian Lynch, Tadcaster, Nov 15, 1976.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Jan 9, 1934, ANYP.

a year and a half we have not received the amount in question from New York." After two years,
Flanagan had sent only $2000.167 Devlin replied concisely that his province was owed £400 by
Australia and New York.168

In this whole matter Brocard Taylor, in Ireland, seems to have been the provacateur. Doswald
was aware of this and sent him a sizzling letter. Taylor had sent a telegram asking that Kilian
Lynch be allowed to be the prior of Kinsale. Doswald was irritated by this as it arrived as he was
about to leave for Los Angeles to investigate a new foundation and "make contact with the
diocesan authorities." He phoned Flanagan who had phoned Lynch. "The latter, as I expected,
flatly refused to accept the priorship of Kinsale." He acknowledged that Devlin had told him the
Irish could not afford to pay the students' bill. Doswald then telegraphed Flanagan to send all or
part of Lynch's salary. He sent $1000. Doswald told Devlin that in the circumstances it was
better to allow Lynch to remain in the United States. Devlin accepted this situation but asked for
more money. He added, "Thus, if the Irish Province all at once wants Father Lynch back in
Ireland, it must do so through pressure from you." Doswald pointed out that before the arrival of
Taylor in Ireland, the Irish were content to allow Lynch to remain in the United States where he
was badly needed especially in view of the new California foundation. He asked why there was
a change especially since the Irish had plenty of men. He cited the return of Lynch to Ireland
would bring far less gain to Ireland than the harm that would be done to the United States. In the
meantime, the issue was complicated by the fact that Lynch had been elected first definitor and
the prior of Tarrytown.

Then as a sort of sally set forth at Taylor, Doswald told Devlin that the New York Province is not
what Taylor had seen on his visit in 1932. "There is peace, good will and a remarkable
earnestness among the men," said Doswald. He also added that after personal investigation he
could say of the California foundation, "Never in the history of the foundation of our Order in
America, in North America, have time and place been more opportune and more auspicious to
insure eventual success."169 Nothing more seems to have been done by correspondence but
Doswald must have sat down with all the interested parties for an agreement was issued that fall
to settle this thorny problem,

According to the agreement of October 6, 1934, Cogan, then the provincial, was to leave in New
York the Irish domiciled there especially Smyth, McGouran, Kevin Flanagan, McGleenan and
Russell for a period of five years. Kilian Lynch was to be under the full jurisdiction of New York
until July 1, 1937 when he would be at the disposal of the Irish. He could not be a superior in the
St. Elias Province during this time without the permission of the Irish provincial. Flanagan was
to pay the Irish $10,000 for this five year period.

      Doswald to Devlin, Rome, Mar 25, 1934, CG, Hib (1922-38); Doswald to F, Rome, Jan 9, 1934, ANYP.
      Devlin to Doswald, Dublin, Mar 30, 1934, CG, Hib (1922-38).
      Doswald to Taylor, Bronx, July 30, 1934, in ibid.

Before the end of 1934, each of the fathers mentioned, except Lynch, had to make a decision
choosing their province, Ireland or New York. If New York was chosen, then only the above
$10,000 was to be paid for the above men. All other obligations would cease but after July 1,
1939, $500 would have to be paid each year to Ireland for each man remaining in New York. A
rider was added concerning Dominic Hastings. He remained a member of New York and the
Irish would provide for his food, clothing and shelter but would have no responsibility for any
debts he may have contracted.

At the end of the agreement, there is added that the full honorarium of Kilian Lynch was to be
paid directly to the Irish provincial.170 It seems to have been, judging from its position in the
document, the final matter agreed upon. This meant that the Irish would receive his salary each
year and the above $10,000 for the five year period for the services of the other Carmelites.

Ailbee McNamee was in Pittsburgh in 1935 engaged mainly, as he said, in the Little Flower
novena. He felt that his problem in his two years at Terenure College was that he was too
popular, took too much advice, that his zeal was seen as ambition and was too simple. These
caused him to fall for petty scheming. After this analysis, he asked Brocard Taylor to get him a
place in England if the proposed house in Wales did open.171 Cogan, the provincial, felt it better
to leave him in the United States if use could be made of him there. His return, he was ready to
accept, "However if he must return then, so be it."172 Writing to the general, McNamee repeated
the same things he had told Taylor but accented his own popularity, good work and holiness. He
asked that he be sent to England.173 In the fall of that year, McNamee returned to Ireland. This
caused Cogan to remark that he never received anything from the Chicago Province for his
services though they had informed him such return would be sent. He could only observe, "I am
afraid we have been badly treated by someone."174

From 1935 to 1937, Flanagan regularly sent Cogan sums of money to fufill the obligations of his
agreement with the Irish. Sending $1500 in November, 1935, Flanagan noted that McGouran
and McGleenan had decided to return to Ireland in 1939 - the end of the five year period - and
that Kevin Flanagan had decided to remain. Russell and Smyth had not decided.175 Sums also

  Irish and Province of St. Elias Agreement, Oct 6, 1934, ANYP and also in CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38) and PO. Cf.
Definitory Minutes, Feb 23, 1935, ANYP.
      McNamee to Taylor, Pittsburgh, Feb 27, 1935, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Cogan to Doswald, Dublin, June 9, 1935, CG, Hib (1922-38).
      A. McNamee to Doswald, Pittsburgh, July 13, 1935, in ibid.
      Cogan to Doswald, Dublin, Sept 20, 1935, in ibid.
      F to Cogan, Bronx, Nov 2, 1935, PO.

sent were £300, £1500, $1000, an unspecified sum and $1500. This latter is probably including
£72 owed Terenure for the last postulants Flanagan had there.176

Despite the regular reception of these sums of money, Cogan was not happy. He told Flanagan
that the "Angel" he had returned home had to be placed in a hospital for recovery.177 He also
complained to Doswald how two returned from America were hospitalized. Of one of them,
Vincent Smyth, he had to say, "He was a nice gift to us. Himself and Metcalf were strong
Americans who looked down on us poor Hibernians and after all that were mean enough to
throw themselves on our charity.178

Kilian Lynch went home to Ireland for a visit in the summer of 1936. 179 While there, he
completed an agreement with John Cogan for the services of Celestine Fitzpatrick. He was
committed for a period of four years during which the Irish Province would receive £ 400 per
year for his services.180 Though he had signed the agreement, Cogan was not happy with it.
Writing to Doswald, he claimed that he had returned from a visit to Aberyswyth to find that
Kilian Lynch had "wrangled" Fitzpatrick into volunteering for the United States. Clery in
Australia had been negotiating for Fitzpatrick1s services. Bitterly, Cogan observed, "Whatever
hope there is for him waking up in U.S.A. Australia in my opinion would have been hopeless."181
Cogan sees Fitzpatrick going to the United States as the best solution for the three parties
concerned but still is bitter and ventilates against the weakest party concerned, Fitzpatrick.

Despite the problems raised between the provinces by money, relations in other areas continued
to be cordial. When Philip McGouran was in Ireland on holidays, he visited a young man at
Terenure College who was interested in joining the New York Province. After he was set to
leave for America, he changed his mind and decided to join a diocese in Ireland.182

  Coogan to F. Dublin, Dec 12, 1935; same to same, Dublin, June 17, 1936; same to same, Dublin, Oct 12 [1936];
ANYP; F. to Cogan, Bronx, Dec 22, 1936, PO; O’Shea to F., Dublin, Apr 4, 1937; Cogan to F. Dublin, June 11, 1937,
      F to O'Shea, Bronx, July 22, 1942, PO.
      Cogan to Doswald, Dublin, Aug 16, 1936, CG, Hib (1922-38).
      Whitefriars 2 (Sept, 1936) 299.
      Agreement, Cogan, Fitzpatrick and Lynch, Dublin, Aug 5, 1936, PO and also in CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Cogan to Doswald, Dublin, Aug 16, 1936, CG, Hib (1922-38).
  McGouran to F, Dublin, May 30, 1937; O'Shea to F, Dublin, June 6, 1937; Kavanagh to O'Shea, Carlow, May 9,
1938; same to same, Ferns, Sept 6, 1938; O'Shea to F, Kinsale, Sept 23, 1938; Kavanagh to F, Wexford, Nov 5, 1938,

Carmel O'Shea had been a delegate to the general chapter of 1937 and Flanagan invited him to
come to the United States to give the province's retreats.183 He came in the spring of 1938 and
enjoyed his visit, especially renewing the acquaintance of those he had studied with in Rome.184

The Irish Province offered hospitality to an American student, Paschal O'Brien, whom Flanagan
wanted to study theology at Miltown Park on the completion of his college work at Niagara
Falls.185 After one week in Ireland, O'Brien decided to return home. He borrowed money from
people he had met on the boat over and sent Flanagan an address to send his dispensation to.186

In sending payments for 1937 and 1938, Flanagan was prompt.187 Since Philip McGouran had
died in August, 1937, Flanagan deducted $250 from the payments for that year citing as his
justification the fact that he had paid McGouran's hospital bill and funeral expenses.188

In 1939, William Tyndall was in the process of rebuilding the Carmelite Church, Whitefriars
Street, Dublin. He remembered an offer of Flanagan to assist in this. He sent him a set of plans
and mentioned the cost being £25,000. Tyndall knew that the parishes of the province couldn't do
much but thought that if the plans were displayed, perhaps some friends of Ellas Magennis
would be prompted to donate towards the high altar which would be a memorial to him.
Berchmans Devlin had suggested missions and retreats, which he would do with Flanagan's
permission. The funds raised would go towards the church.189 In reply, Flanagan mentioned that
he was purchasing a house in Washington, buying land in Middletown and celebrating the
golden jubilee of the 28th Street parish. Despite these, he promised to support the Dublin project
as soon as he could and as well as he could. He suggested that some of the Irish Province come
over for the World's Fair. Whether this was in connection with the fund raising or not is hard to
gauge. He had to add that the plans had never arrived.190

      Interview with J. Carmel O'Shea, Dublin, Sept, 1976.
      O'Shea to F, Kinsale, Apr 12, 1938; same to same, Kinsale, May 13, 1938, ANYP.
  F to Cogan, Bronx, Aug 19, 1938; Cogan to F, Faversham, telegram, Sept 3, 1938; same to same, Dublin, Sept 16,
1938; F to Cogan, Bronx, Sept 16, 1938, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Washington, Oct 19, 1938, ANYP.
  Cogan to F, Dublin, Jan 14, 1938; same to same, Dublin, Apr 25, 1938; same to same, Dublin, Dec 12, 1938,
      F to Cogan, Bronx, Dec 29, 1937, ANYP.
      Tyndall to F, Dublin, Jan 23, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Tyndall, Bronx, Mar 6, 1939, ANYP.

Cogan was not happy with Tyndall's rebuilding. He felt it was hurting the novitiate and intended
him to "cough up" money as needed.191 Berchmans Devlin asked Gabriel Pausback, assistant
general, for permission to collect funds for the Whitefriars Street project in the United States.
Doswald assured Flanagan that he would never give such a permission without the approval of
himself and the Chicago provincial.192 No other documentation exists about this project but
Flanagan did donate $388 to the Fathers in Dublin and $250 for a memorial to Elias Magennis in
1940.193 These seem to have been the extent of his support for the rebuilding.

Flanagan continued to send his payments to Ireland and also the news that Stephen McGleenan
resigned as prior and pastor of 28th Street after a spat with himself. He would return to
Ireland.194 McGleenan was not allowed to travel to Europe because of the war and so Flanagan
sent him to Los Angeles. He also sent a small check for Vincent Smyth from an old estate
account. This one would close out the account and Flanagan requested that he either cash the
one from the previous year or countersign it and return it to him.195

The war at this time was beginning to be felt in Ireland. The students had returned from Rome
and Doswald, unable to attend the chapter of 1940, had appointed Carmel O'Shea the preses.196

With the outbreak of World War II and trans-Atlantic mail uncertain, there begins the long and
complicated episode of Mass arrangements between the two provinces. It seems, that at first, the
number of the excess Masses of the Irish Province were being sent to Doswald for distribution to
provinces needing Mass intentions. He would also give this number to Flanagan who would send
him a check from the New York Province funds in return. The money Flanagan sent Doswald
would credit for the curial tax of the Irish Province.197 The amount would also be deducted
from the payments Flanagan owed the Irish Province for the services of its priests. Carmel
O'Shea, then provincial, promised that if the amounts sent the general were more than the money
Flanagan owed the Irish Province, then he would make good on the difference at the earliest

      Cogan to F, Dublin, June 3, 1939, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Chicago, July 3, 1939, ANYP.
      Provincial Financial Report, July 1, 1937 - June 30, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Cogan, Bronx, Aug 20, 1939; Devlin to F, Dublin, Oct 19, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Devlin, Bronx, Nov 21, 1939, PO.
      Cogan to F, Rathgar, Dec 16, 1939; O'Shea to F, Kinsale, June 11, 1940, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Chicago, Oct 2, 1940, ANYP.
      O'Shea to F, Rathgar, Oct 2, 1940; F to O'Shea, Bronx, Nov 4, 1940, ANYP.

The Irish Province could keep the money received for Masses; the Masses would be offered by
those to whom the general distributed them and as conditions permitted, the general would have
money to send to Rome. This arrangement went on through 1940 and 1941.199

In January, 1942, Doswald changed the arrangement so that Flanagan would pay him 50 cents (2
1/2 shillings) for each Mass sent. This was not the figure Cogan worked out but the international
situation made this new arrangement necessary.200 Flanagan said he was unable to continue
paying the stipends to the general. He was willing to help the Irish but cited this burden as too
much at that time.201

O'Shea promised to send Flanagan jt 1000 to make up for the arrears in the Mass accounts when
he could obtain government permission. He hoped the arrangement could continue. He
questioned whether Flanagan was subtracting the amounts for the Masses from what he owed the
Irish Province each year, O'Shea cited the arrangements made between the provinces as far back
as 1934. He promised to have his Father Buckley send the Irish version of accounts according to
the mutually agreed upon conditions.202 This version came and according to it, the Irish had a
credit of $617.06 plus £200 with Flanagan.203

Flanagan told O'Shea in a letter of October 19, 1942, that a telegram sent by Doswald had been
misunderstood. It was not intended as a bill but meant that the funds given the general for the
Irish Masses were far beyond what Flanagan owed the Irish for the services of their priests.
Flanagan cited that O'Shea was due $2000 a year for the services of Russell, Lynch and
Fitzpatrick but the costs of Lynch's auto and other expenses had to be subtracted from this sum.
Flanagan went on to attack the original agreements:

            “At first I hesitated about signing that rather too clever agreement drawn
            up by Dr. Taylor. I would not have signed it at all only I knew that Father
            General and Father Cogan understood that my protest was not so much
            against the financial clauses as against the general tone of the agreement.
            I had previously without any written agreement helped whenever Father
            Magennis asked for a contribution towards the upkeep of the Irish students
            in Rome.”

      Cf. correspondence, Flanagan-Irish Province; Doswald to F, Washington, Jan 22, 1941, ANYP.
      Doswald to O'Shea, Bronx, Jan 2, 1942, PO.
      F to O'Shea, Bronx, July 22, 1942, PO.
      O'Shea to F, Rathgar, Sept 10, 1942, ANYP.
      Buckley to F, Dublin, Sept 23, 1942, ANYP.

He then told O'Shea not to send his offered check for Jr 1000 but to place it in an interest bearing
account under the names of Flanagan, Sean Reid and Mel Daly. Any other money to satisfy
0'Shea's obligations in the future could be deposited there and Flanagan then could use these
funds to satisfy his own obligations to the general. McGleenan had refused to join New York in
1934 and should have returned to Ireland in 1939. Flanagan said, "We do not consider that we
have any obligations to reimburse the Irish Province for his services since it was his own fault
that he did not get back to Ireland."204

This statement of Flanagan concerning McGleenan illustrates the position of Flanagan in this
controversy. The agreement between the two provinces ended on July 1, 1939. Before that date
each of the ones covered by the agreement were to have chosen either the Irish or the New York
Province. Those who remained in New York after that date but chose to remain in the Irish
Province would warrant S500 per year being sent to Ireland for their services. Of the five
concerned, Smyth had returned to Ireland, McGouran was dead, Kevin Flanagan had opted for
New York, McGleenan was dealt with above and Russell had not decided. Lynch was a special
case since a decision should have been made over him by the Irish on July 1, 1937, Fitzpatrick
was working in New York under a special agreement. So Flanagan felt he had almost no
obligation to pay.

The situation narrated above changed even more to Flanagan's favor by a decision of Doswald.
He told O'Shea that Russell and Lynch had chosen New York and declared that Fitzpatrick was
now the only one for whom yearly payment was due.205

O'Shea meanwhile was unable to send the £1000 and placed it in an account as Flanagan had
suggested. He also declared that he wanted to avoid making finances the cause of any
differences between them. He awaited the proposal of Flanagan with good will, He was always
aware that Flanagan's attitude was one of sympathy and help and knew this had not changed. He
also confessed that he was unaware Taylor had authored the agreement but had inferred it from
internal evidence.206

With matters till unsolved, Doswald, unaware of this letter of O'Shea, wrote O'Shea that
Flanagan could not accept his 1600 Masses from the month of December. He said that Flanagan
wanted to help but was seeking credit for what he had done in the past. Doswald then made a
number of statements that he obviously wanted O'Shea to accept. Up to June, 1940, Flanagan
had paid in full for all Irish on loan including Kilian Lynch. Buckley, on the contrary, said he
owed for Kilian since 1934. O'Shea was to write Flanagan and accept the arrangement Doswald

      F to O'Shea, Bronx, Oct 19, 1942, PO and ANYP.
      Doswald to O'Shea, Bronx, Oct 20, 1942, PO.
      O'Shea to F, Rathgar, Dec 29, 1942, ANYP.

proposed: that only for Fitzpatrick was money due. Once O'Shea did this, Doswald was sure
Flanagan would accept Masses again.207

O'Shea replied to this letter but to Flanagan. He trusted the arrangements placed forward in his
letter of December 29 were satisfactory. Those were simply that Flanagan would continue to pay
for the Masses as before. The general had cabled him cancelling the 1600 Masses of December
in an effort to correct the finances between the provinces. O'Shea was convinced that with good
will on both sides, this would not be a difficult matter. He was willing to adjust the amount of
each stipend because of new exchange rates. He was willing to place the funds in the newly
opened bank account. He wanted at all costs to keep the channel opened for the transfer of the
Masses to the general because of the Irish financial need in caring for their students. Whitefriars
Street's construction had cut their contribution in half and this made matters difficult for the
provincial administration.208

Almost a month after this letter, February 15, 1943, O'Shea wrote again to Flanagan. He assured
him he was not trying to best him. He tried to explain Buckley's calculations of the amount due.
His bottom line was $4500 due against the Mass stipends sent. He felt Flanagan should
reconsider paying for McGleenan and if he agreed, then money would be expected only for
McGleenan and Fitzpatrick. Shea also presented as a test of his sincerity his promise that he
would place all money for Masses in the recently established account in Ireland. He hoped the
transfers could resume.209

Still there was no reply from Flanagan. At the beginning of March, O'Shea cabled Doswald,
"Any possibility accepting Masses? Have given Fr. Flanagan every assurance. Hope he will
consent. Matter urgent."210 Doswald gave his consent to one more transfer and promised that
new arrangements would be made.211 1500 Masses were then sent directly to Doswald.212 On
March 11, 1943, Flanagan told O'Shea to send what Masses he had but no more as he was trying
to make an arrangement with Chicago.213 Flanagan went out of office in July, 1943 and Kilian
Lynch was elected his successor. That August, Doswald wrote O'Shea that the arrangements

      Doswald to O'Shea, Bronx, Jan 1, 1943, PO.
      O'Shea to F, Dublin, Jan 20, 1943, PO and ANYP.
      Same to same, Dublin, Feb 15, 1943, ANYP.
      O'Shea to Doswald, Dublin, Mar 2, 1943, cable, PO.
      Doswald to O'Shea, NY, Mar 8, 1943, cable, PO.
      Buckley to Doswald, Dublin, Mar 12, 1943, cable, PO.
      F to O'Shea, Bronx, Mar 11, 1943, PO.

made by himself and Flanagan must be kept. He could continue to send Doswald Masses but 50
cents had to be deposited for each in the New York bank account in Ireland.214

Lynch received a copy of this letter and wrote O'Shea. He told him that Flanagan felt he had
been treated unjustly. At the recent chapter, it was decided to continue the arrangement but that
the "whole stipend for every Mass" had to be deposited in the bank account. After the war, a
meeting would be held to decide what would go to the Irish Province in payment for New York's
debt to it.215 O'Shea acknowledged that he would place 50c in the account for each Mass sent
and credit this for the Irish priests working in New York. 216 Doswald tried to help again in the
situation but Lynch was content to let matters go until after the war.217 He told O'Shea that
Flanagan was the only one who knew the New York position, that he was now the provincial
treasurer and would go to Ireland after the war and settle the whole affair.218 The transfer of
Masses continued under the administration of Lynch.

After the war, in 1946, Flanagan was sent to Ireland to settle the matter.219 The position of New
York was the following: $11,467.50 was the difference between the amount of money for the
sent Masses and the salaries owed by New York. O'Shea felt that $12,000 was due for the past
salaries of Lynch, Russell, Fitzpatrick and McGleenan.220          Some sort of compromise was
reached. Records of negotiations are not extant but there is an income item of $1500 in the New
York financial report covering this period listed as "Irish Province Account."221 Flanagan came
home with some prize regardless of whether he won or not.

O’Shea's recollection of the whole matter was that he banked money for the Masses during the
war and that when it was over, Flanagan came to Ireland and he paid him what was due. He was
not anxious to recall actual details or the bitterness that was brought about.222

      Doswald to O'Shea, Bronx, Aug 9, 1943, PO.
      Lynch to O'Shea, Tarrytown, Aug 14, 1943, PO.
      O'Shea to Lynch, Dublin, Sept 30, 1943, ANYP.
      Doswald to Lynch, Bronx, Nov 7, 1943, ANYP.
      Lynch to O'Shea, Tarrytown, Nov 19, 1943, PO.
      Definitory Notes, Oct 19, 1945, ANYP.
      Financial Statement, Irish and P.S.E. Provinces, £1.9467, PO.
  Three Year Statement of Income and Expense, Carmelite Fathers Province of St. Elias, July 1, 1943 - May 31,
1946, ANYP.
      Interview with J. Camel O'Shea, Dublin, Sept, 1976.

Government permission had to be secured for the transfer of funds from Ireland after the Second
World War. There is in the Provincial Office in Ireland a form called, "Purpose of Payment."
The amount is not specified but the purpose is. It states that the money had to be transferred for
the education of Gabriel Kearney for 1940-1945, the care of Christopher Slattery - an invalid and
the maintenance of Fitzpatrick, Bradley, Hugh Devlin and Farrington. None of these were ever
mentioned in the conflict over the Mass money as liabilities except Fitzpatrick. So with this
trumped up certificate, Flanagan was able to bring his money home.223

In the wake of the Mass imbroglio, another arrangement was made to have Jerome O'Dwyer
teach in Marymount for two years at the request of Kilian Lynch, then general. The Irish
Province would be paid $2000 a year for his services.224 Fortunately, the same mess did not rise

Throughout the whole affair, the sincerity of O'Shea appears consistently as well as his desire to
do what he felt was necessary for his province. Flanagan had this latter feeling for his own
province. It was an unfortunate incident and the slowness and uncertainty of trans-Atlantic mail
during wartime did not assist but probably contributed to the problem.

Afflicted with heart trouble, John Cogan died after a fairly long illness on September 25, 1941.
Flanagan had Sean Reid write up his life and this draft went through two revisions before it was
sent to Andrew Weldon, the editor of The Carmelite Review. 225 It was published but in the
Sword and under the name of Flanagan.226

Flanagan cooperated with Carmel O'Shea in a problem concerning the names on the deeds of
Terenure College. Individual names were used but because of problems created by death,
O'Shea was trying to change this. Flanagan had powers of attorney drawn up for himself and
Christopher Slattery by James Duross of Tarrytown and sent them on to O'Shea, 227 For this
cooperation, O'Shea was indeed very grateful.228

At the Irish chapter of February, 1929, Elias Magennis gave the reasons why he had postponed
the meeting from May, 1928. These, however, are not revealed in records. Berchmans Devlin
was elected provincial but perhaps the matter having the most bearing on the New York

      Purpose of Payment, PO.
      Agreement, Fitzgerald, Russell and Lynch, Terenure, June 27, 1947, PO.
      F to Weldon, Bronx, Dec 3, 1941, ANYP.
      Weldon to F, Tenafly, Dec 5, 1941, ANYP; Sword 6 (1942) 60-2.
      F to O'Shea, Bronx, Mar 11, 1943, PO.
      O'Shea to F, Dublin, Apr 26, 1943, ANYP.

Carmelites was a discussion on establishing novitiates in both Australia and New York, an idea
that had been decreed by chapters since 1909. New York's novitiate had been in existence for
some five years by the time of the chapter and so why it would have been discussed is puzzling.
An exchange of American and Irish priests with the commissariate was spoken of and seen as
being beneficial to both. It was decided that for each priest returning from America, a
replacement would be sent.229

It was at the chapter of 1934, presided over by Brocard Taylor, that Kilian Lynch was elected the
prior of Kinsale. A telegram of this news was sent to the general so he could dispatch Lynch to
Ireland as soon as possible, consenting to the unanimous vote of the definitory. 230 We have
seen how this event did nothing conducive to good relations between the two groups and also
how Lynch firmly turned down the honor, if we might call it such. Cyril Murphy was elected in
place of Lynch, the following year.231

The question of whether the Irish Province's priests working in New York and Australia should
remain there or return to Ireland came up at the Congregatio Annua in 1936. No decision was
recorded but the observation was made that their return without a fitting notification justly called
for some comment.232


When Elias Magennis was at the Chicago chapter in 1927, he made a plea for financial help for
San Martino. From there he was going to the commissariate in New York to make another plea
of which he was confident since they had helped him in the past.233 On that same trip, he was
concerned about Robert Murphy, then a student in Rome and ill. He wanted to know his actual
condition as he would probably meet Murphy's aunt. Because of her generosity to the

      Acta Capituli Provincialis Feb 4, 1929, Dublin, CG, Hib, Cap et Cong (1900-64); AOC, 6, 541-2.
      Acta Capituli Provincialis, July 2, 1934, Dublin, in ibid.
      Congregatio Annua, July 10, 1935, Terenure, in ibid.
      Congregatio Annua, July 6, 1936, Dublin, in ibid.
      Magennis to Franco, NY, /J927 £/, CG, General 2.

Carmelites in the past, he wanted to give her the real state of affairs.234 The Chicago province
was unable to help him because of their own debt but the New Yorkers gave him $5000.235

On that trip to the United States, he complained that the students at San Alberto looked to him
rather than the house prior. One instance was Kieran Hickey in the hospital and cabling him that
his doctor wanted him to go to Switzerland. As Magennis said, "I was ashamed of a student in
the hospital paying for a cable and obviously over the head of his superior." His word was to
leave all in the hands of the prior.236

Magennis preached the July 16th novena at St. Simon Stock that year and continued to be
concerned about the health of both Rickey and Murphy.237 He was back in Rome by September
and received a complaint from Albert Schwartz, studying in Nablus, about the food. It was so
poor, according to Schwartz, that he had to get his food outside.238

The Irish Province had complained that only the sick and the aged came home, a matter that was
discussed at a triennial meeting. Magennis used this for leverage to try to get Vincent Coffey to
return to Ireland in good health and comparative youth to be replaced by a younger man. After a
period in Ireland, he could return to America.239

When Flanagan had to seek a dispensation from age to make Patrick Russell novice master in
1929, Magennis complained this was the third dispensation requested and he had to make such
petitions at the Holy See for the entire order. He also asked Flanagan to push his new life of St.
Albert. Magennis felt the book would bring the saint more devotion and some sympathy for the
college. He confessed that he did not ask Albert Dolan to promote the book as he only pushed his
own material, Magennis added a further gripe, "I see where he stole nearly all my Scapular book
and contents himself with saying I am sure you do not mind. I may not but Gill's may. He did
not sell many of mine, you bet." 240 Gill was Magennis's Irish publisher.

In 1930, Stephen McDonald of the Chicago Province wrote Doswald, then assistant general,
insinuating that a Carmelite division of the United States was imminent. New York and New
Jersey would be the eastern province and the rest of the country another province. Doswald
      Same to same, NY, [1927 ], in ibid.
      Magennis to Wessels, NY, June 6, [1927], CG, Generali 2.
      Magennis to Franco, Niagara Falls, June 29, 1927, in ibid.
      Same to same, Bronx, July 13, 1927, in ibid.
      Same to same, Rome, Sept 18, 1927, in ibid.
      Magennis to Coffey, Rome, July 7, 1928, ANYP.
      Magennis to F, Rome, Oct 12, 1929; dispensation, SCR, Oct 7, 1929, Reg. Fol. 189, ANYP.

replied that, "Our growth and development are not yet ripe for the harvest of such a division." He
said the New York Commissariate would probably be a province in a year. He thought the time
may come for such a division but not at that moment.241 Doswald seems to back this idea of a
division and writes in a rather grandiose manner but from an ivory tower.

Replying to another Chicago priest, Boniface Hund, Doswald stated that his only information
about a division in the United States was from McDonald and assured Hund that the erection of
the New York Province the next year would in no way affect "our Province" unless the men
themselves insisted on such an amalgamation and division.242          To Lawrence Diether, the
provincial, inquiring of the same division, Doswald wrote that the province was not large enough
for a division and concerning an amalgamation, "not sufficiently attuned to an understanding of
our mutual interests..." He also cited Magennis as being against an amalgamation.243 The last
one to write Doswald was Sebastian Urnauer. Doswald denied Urnauer's accusation that he was
behind an amalgamation and division. He only learned of it from McDonald and assured
Urnauer that in a previous case in Spain a referendum was taken among the men before any
action was taken. He then got rather sharp with Urnauer:

           A division, according to your view, is like the destruction of the work of
           many years, and a personal injury to many of the members of the
           province. Well, - the birth of a son is surely not eh [sic] of the father; on
           the contrary, it is a source of a better and happier life for the father.
           Almost all the Orders in the United States have divided their original
           provinces, and in spite of it, have kept themselves much alive.

           What we need is just a little more sense. Sapere est principatum et fons
           recte vivendi.244

The division plan here ended.

Re-establishing the order in its birthplace, then called Palestine and under British mandate, was a
cause close to the heart of Hilary Doswald. When the opportunity arose, he seized the chance to
open a house in a village called Nablus. Dionysius Flanagan was not of the same opinion and in
fact was very much against the venture. Hearing of this opposition via Magennis, Doswald
wrote Flanagan hoping to convert him. He cited the establishment of the house at Nablus as a
homecoming and international in scope since Magennis as general vas the honorary prior. He

      Doswald to McDonald, Rome, Mar 13, 1930, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Doswald to Hund, Rome, Mar 26, 1930, in ibid.
      Doswald to Diether, Rome, Mar 27, 1930, in ibid.
      Doswald to Urnauer, Rome, Apr 2, 1930, in ibid.

said it could be a province right away as the order was offered two more schools. Men and
money were the only obstacles, Going to Nablus was conditioned on the immediate
establishment of a secondary school which demanded a full community. Subsequently, there
was to be a theology school. The task could not be undertaken by any province so the curia had
promised aid to whomever would staff the facility. He pointed out that the Chicago Province
gave $60,000 and three men. The curia assembled a good theological faculty so that Flanagan's
men would lose nothing studying there. On the front of the carbon he retained, Doswald wrote,
"Flanagan was not edified by Magennis sending two of his students to Nablus."245

Magennis was delighted to receive a letter from Kevin Morrissey studying at Nablus, and whom
he described as "a sharp little one of the students in Nablus and a person in whom we can trust."
He told Magennis of a conflict between the bishop, the Discalced and a group of nuns, Magennis
wished he did not know English as the Morrissey letter was a good exposition of the Carmelites'
miserable state in Palestine.246    When Albert Schwartz, a student, sought to return to Rome
from Nablus, Magennis felt he ought to dump the whole matter in Doswald's lap.247

Another difficulty with Nablus was the appointment of a prior, Doswald wanted Simon Schmitt
which upset Magennis and compelled him to think of Doswald as simple. Particularly did his
long Latin quote in praise of Schmitt bring this home to Magennis. Magennis himself wanted an
American as prior.248 He felt that Schmitt spoke English like he spoke Italian, poorly, and was
determined to get an American as the Nablus prior.249 Magennis went on in every letter he
wrote Antonio Franco to run down Schmitt. He was also faced with the problem of finding a
community for Nablus.250         About ten days later, he acknowledged he could do nothing for
Nablus but said at the same time that Doswald thought Schmitt a panacea for every ill.
Magennis hoped this true but did not believe it.251 He was frustrated with his inability to get the
kind of man he desired for Nablus and furious that Doswald was pushing Schmitt, who, on the
basis of availability, received the post.

      Doswald to F, Rome, Nov 9, 1929, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38); AOC 20, 200.
      Magennis to Franco, Rome, July 30, 1930, CG, Generali 2.
      Same to same, Rome, Aug 2, 1930, Aug 4, 1930, in ibid.
      Magennis to Franco, Dublin, Aug 21, [1930], in ibid.
      Same to same, Dublin, Aug 29, £19307, in ibid.
      Same to same, Dublin, Aug 31, [1930] in ibid.

      Same to same, Dublin, Sept 8, 1930, in ibid.

In the fall of 1930, Flanagan wrote Magennis telling him how he was working on a bazaar which
was essential to pay the $18,000 in interest each year on the debt of St. Simon's. He then made a
formal request that the commissariate be made a province.252

This was the beginning of a series of steps that would lead to the establishment of the province.
On March 5, 1923, a first draft petition had been prepared for the Sacred Congregation of
Religious seeking to establish the New York houses as a commissariate. It seems never to have
been submitted. On the 20th of that same month, a petition was submitted to Pius XI for the
erection of the commissariate. The decree was granted and the erection was signed by Hubert
Driessen as vicar general on May 10, 1923.253

In 1927, a rather lengthly and repetitious report was prepared giving the state of the
commissariate. The picture was that there were still the same four houses as at the time of the
establishment, 28th Street, St. Simon Stock, Transfiguration and Our Lady of Mt. Carmel in
Middletown. St. Albert's was included as part of the parish and it was stated that the college
there cost $100,000 and was entirely paid for. The ten churches of the four parishes included
Greenville, Otisville, Bulville [sic], Blumenburg [sic] and New Hampton, It was stated that the
fathers in Middletown were really missionaries as their ministry covered a vast territory forcing
them to travel for two or three weeks at a time. The population of the commissariate was listed
as fifty: seventeen priests, fourteen clerics, eleven novices and the eight postulants soon to enter
the novitiate. The Third Order was listed as flourishing and there were no nuns to care for as
none existed in the area.254

Hilary Doswald made application to the Sacred Congregation of Religious in February, 1931 and
told Flanagan he would cable when word was received.255 The rescript establishing the province
was granted on March 24. Flanagan was provincial with Christopher Slattery, Dominic Devlin,
Stephen McGleenan and Patrick Russell as definitors for three years.256

April 5, Doswald wrote Flanagan telling him what he had previously given as instructions, that
he should choose an assistant provincial, call a definitory meeting and appoint the other officials

      F to Magennis, Bronx, Nov 14, 1930, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Curia Souvenir, 50th Anniversary of Province, 1981, two documents, ANYP.
      Report, [1927], CG, Hib, Hist, Statuta, Statist, Rhod.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Feb 17, 1931, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
  Rescript, SCR, Mar 24, 1931, no 1319/31 dated Mar 31, 1931, A. Franco, Reg Gen, 1919, ss., f.ll; Definitory
Minutes, Mar 24, 1931, ANYP; AOC 7, 408.

of the province. He also told Flanagan, "You are the founder not only of the province but also of
its traditions, that will live long after our death. A steady tradition is a steady discipline.257

What is really the first chapter of the new Province of St. Elias took place at St. Albert's, Elias
Magennis presiding, on April 28, 1931. Elias Varglien and Simon Farrington were made Roman
socii, Dominic Hastings the custos and assistant provincial, Mel Daly the provincial treasurer.
Three Masses were to be offered by each house for each of the following intentions: for divine
help for the province, in thanks to God and for the Irish Province as a sign of brotherly love for
those to whom we were joined. All houses were to contribute according to their income towards
the education of students and $10,000 was to be given to building "S. Martini" as a sign of
gratitude. A mission in the Philipphines was accepted. This was to be a joint venture with the
Chicago Province. They would supply a prior, New York the other members of the community
plus a replacement for the Chicago prior.258        These acts were approved that June 19.259
Congratulations and gratitude for what Flanagan had done arrived. 260 Cardinal Hayes was
informed of the new province,261told of the officials262 and returned his blessings on the new
venture as he approved of Patrick Russell as the pastor of St. Simon Stock.263

That fall Flanagan left for Rome via Ireland to attend the general chapter. He wrote Magennis
enroute that all was well at home and that the Carmelite Sisters, later to be those of the Aged and
Infirm, were grateful for all Magennis had done for them. They were at St. Elizabeth's Convent
in Manhattan but would soon move into their first foundation, St. Patrick's in the Bronx.264

At that chapter of 1931, Hilary Doswald was elected general. He found that the problems of his
predecessor had become his own. He had to write Flanagan asking for financial help. Stipends
had run the college but these were hard to obtain. He bluntly asked for $5000 to $6000 to restore
the reserve fund that ran the college. Diether in Chicago, Doswald mentioned, was going to
furnish the money to finish San Martino.265 Flanagan promised to bring up the matter before the

      Doswald to F, Rome, Apr 5, 1931, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
  Acta Capituli Provincialis, Middletown, Apr 28, 1931, CG, Cap et Cong, Am Sti Eliae (1931-64); Definitory
Minutes, Apr 28,1931, ANYP.
      Brenninger, Rome, June 19, 1931, ANYP,
      Devlin to F, Dublin, Apr 8, 1931, ANYP.
      F to Hayes, Bronx, June 4, 1931, ANYP.
      Same to same, Bronx, June 15, 1931, ANYP,
      Hayes to F, NY, June 18, 1931 (two letters), ANYP; F to Hayes, Bronx, June 27, 1931, AD, Hayes Papers,
      F to Magennis, SS Stuttgart, Sept 9, 1931, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Doswald to F, Rome, Nov 25, 1931, ANYP.

definitory but cautioned Doswald that the province had already given to San Martino that year
far in excess of the taxes. He called it not fair to expect this sum in Rome since New York was
one of the few pulling their weight. Missions to be established in the Philippines and the large
parochial debt precluded any fund raising. In typical Flanagan language, he promised to do his
best.266 In reply, Doswald seems to have been caught in a position he did not like. It was as
though he thought the position of general would automatically bring the funds rolling in at a
mere request. He wrote Flanagan telling him why each province could not help him. He placed
his request as a mere asking for a fair sharing of the expenses of San Alberto. After all this, in
the tone of plea, he asked that his request not be placed before the definitory but that Flanagan
just send Mass stipends.267

Doswald’s letter to Flanagan followed one of Brocard Taylor in which he gave the opinion that
the obligation, set at the 1931 chapter, of each priest to say twelve Masses a year for San Alberto
could be satisfied by sending the money for these. The Masses would then be offered in Rome.268

Elias Magennis came to New York in December, 1931, but was back in Rome the next summer
and wrote some newsy and friendly letters to Flanagan. In one he told how Mother Angeline and
Sister Colette of the Carmelite Sisters for the Aged and Infirm had arrived in Rome after a
stormy crossing. They had lost his address but were able to find him. He attributed this to Elias.
He secured places for them with the Madams of the Sacred Heart but they had gone to the Blue
Nuns and he allowed them to remain there rather than slight those sisters. Through a friend, he
had obtained an anticamera audience with the Pope, something he noted that Doswald could not
have done. After telling the sisters to give the Holy Father a gift, Magennis had to supply them
with the money to fulfill his instructions.269

In another letter, he told Flanagan that Bishop Dunn had told him sub secreto that there was a
problem with the service given in Bellevue. Though the men in 28th Street would not believe
him when he told them, he wanted Flanagan to know this. If the sisters returned to Flanagan the
money Magennis had given them in Rome, Flanagan should accept it as it was given "out of my
poverty." He gave him some news about his students in Rome and then bolstered him with the
news that when he told the pope the New York Province had helped him the most with San
Martino, "He smiled and said that was right." Magennis was having trouble with his teeth,

      F to Doswald, Dublin, Dec 10, 1931, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Jan (?), 1932, ANYP.
      Taylor to F, Rome, Dec 27, 1931, ANYP.
      Magennis to F, Rome, July 25, 1932, ANYP.

apparently false ones. He regretted not having got them in the United States. As he said, "There
is only one place for the teeth - America."270

Part of the reason for financial need in Rome was a swindle that took place in the construction of
San Martino. Del Giudice, either the architect or the builder, had tricked Father Jaccarini and
cheated the Carmelites out of 850,000 lire. The engineers had also forced the Carmelites to pay
them 26,000 more lire over the estimated cost. This would in Magennis' estimation force the
total cost up to almost four million lire instead of three million. So Doswald asked for a loan of
$5000. This Flanagan sent.271

Flanagan was the American agent for Doswald 's funds. Hearing that the United States was to go
back onto the gold standard, he told Flanagan to buy 100,000 lire if it did. The cost would be
$5000 and he was to keep 50,000 lire and send the other 50,000 to the curia. The money
Flanagan put up would go towards his bills in Rome. Doswald assured him this was not
speculation but simply the paying of bills.272

With the fear that the full sanctions of the League of Nations would be applied against Italy for
its invasion of Ethiopia, Doswald tutored Flanagan on the importance of his New York bank
account. He asked Flanagan to be very careful about his instructions concerning transactions
since they may turn out to be the curia's only source of funds.273

Flanagan opened a new account for Doswald in 1937 and transferred to it $76 left over from
Magennis’ time and placed $5000 there himself.274

The breviaries for the order were printed by Desclee in Belgium and in 1937, they were about to
be finished. With Doswald, there was a fear of the devaluation of the dollar and so he suggested
that Flanagan buy Belgian francs and pay his entire debt of 60,000 Belgian francs rather than the
initial payment of 20,000.275     Flanagan had only the money to pay the 20,000.276            When
Flanagan paid a bill in lire, Doswald had to caution him that the importation of lire into Italy was

      Same to same, Rome, Aug 15, 1932, ANYP.
      Magennis to Doswald, [Rome], Jan 7, 1933, CG, Generali 2; Definitory Minutes, Aug 6, 1933, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Milan, Jan 17, 1935, ANYP.
      Same to same, Rome, Oct 19, 1935, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Sept 7, 1937, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Nov 2, 1937, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Feb 25, 1938, ANYP.

forbidden and that he should in the future pay in dollars.277 Flanagan also sent pounds sterling to
Malta from the New York account to pay a curia debt.278

By the beginning of 1939, Flanagan had only 11,915 Belgian francs due on his breviary bill. 279
By March, he was unable to send it but found the cash by the end of the month. This he sent
with the instructions to keep his remaining 150 unbound breviaries in Rome until he would need
them.280    This Doswald did not think a good idea and suggested they be sent to the United
States where they would be safe in case of war. As the breviary was published, Doswald sent
Flanagan specially bound copies as a gift.281 For these he was grateful and responded, "... I
have in my heart a great feeling of gratitude for the many evidences of your esteem.”282

There was a Father Peter Delia Giustina in Italy who had shares in the Banca Commerciale
Italiana Trust Company that he was trying through some finagling to sell. Apparently, he gave
them over to Doswald who asked Flanagan to be the New York agent for them.283 The shares
amounted to $6000 and Flanagan sent on the papers needed for him to have power of attorney.284
Delia Giustina also had shares in the Massachusetts Investors Company and Flanagan eventually
received them and placed them for Doswald's keeping in the province's safety deposit box.285

When Titus Brandsma made his tour of the United States, he visited the New York houses and
spoke at St. Albert's in Middletown.286

Doswald visitated the New York Province in the summer of 1933. 287 The following year was
the time for a provincial chapter and Flanagan, anxious to give an account of his stewardship,
asked Doswald to set a date. As he confessed,

      F to Doswald, Bronx, Feb 25, 1938, ANYP.
      Same to same, Rome, Oct 5, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      Same to same, Rome, Jan 19, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Mar 9, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65); same to same, Bronx, Mar 23, 1939, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Apr 13, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, May 19, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Mar 31, 1938, ANYP.
      Same to same, Bronx, May 2, 1938, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Zurich, Mar 17, 1939; F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 14, 1939, ANYP.
      AOC 8, 356-7.
      Doswald to Padre (?), NY, July 30, 1933, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).

           I have always tried to give honest service to the Order, I realize very well
           how unfitted I have been for the high offices I was called on to assume,
           and so I look forward with a certain satisfaction to passing the reins on to
           someone else. I promise Your Paternity to give as loyal service to the
           Order under my successor as I have tried to give since I first received the

Little did he realize that his reign would endure for nine more years. That fall, after the chapter,
Flanagan took a vacation in Ireland.289

Doswald was the conveyor of information about Flanagan's students in Rome. When Baptist
Alfano showed he was unable to do the Roman studies and asked to leave, Doswald became
involved. Certainly something we would not see a general do today. 290 He was also concerned
about the health of Peter Thomas Beck.291

When Benedict Short died of pneumonia brought on by a poor heart condition, Flanagan sent
word to Doswald.292 There was other mail like feastday greetings sent by the novices, who
described themselves as "seeking to become brave soldiers of Mary's own regiment, the 'Queen's

Flanagan asked that the chapter of 1937 be held the last week in June but then worried about the
delegates to the general chapter since they would not be elected six months before the opening of
the 1937 chapter.294 It was held at his requested time. After the chapter, Flanagan did the acts
himself working from the notes of Patrick Russell, the secretary.295

Just after the chapter, Flanagan sent a census of the province to Rome. He listed the following:

                     Priests – 43               Novices – 5

      F to Doswald, [Bronx,] Jan 12, 1937, ANYP.
      Same to same, Galway, Nov 18, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).

      Doswald to F, Rome, Jan 18, 1934; F to Doswald, Los Angeles, Feb 10, 1934, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Jan 30, 1936, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Apr 21, 1937, ANYP; same to same, Middletown, June 4, 1935, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Novices to Doswald, Middletown, /Jan, 1937}, in ibid.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 3, 1936, ANYP.
      Same to same, Bronx, Aug 21, 1937, ANYP.

                      Clerics – 14               Mariani – 27

                      Brothers - 3

The next year he sent four to Rome for theology studies: Emmanuel Hourihan, Alphonsus
Galligan, John Howe and Columba Staunton.296 These would be the last to go until after World
War II.

When Columba went to Ireland to visit his ill mother after he had been in Rome but a short time,
there developed a problem that illustrates how Doswald would give permissions, as he did for
Columba, and then when things went bad, would tell the problem to Flanagan so as to throw it
into his lap. This occured when Staunton overstayed his time in Ireland.297

In the summer of 1939, as war in Europe seemed more and more likely, Doswald wrote from
Zurich, "Again we are facing a political crisis. Our first duty is not to lose our heads, but to keep
a balanced state of mind even under the most trying circumstances." He himself was going to
remain in Switzerland, a neutral country, so he could have a free hand helping wherever he
could.298 After he had closed San Alberto as a school and sent the students home, Doswald
gave his reasons. He could not be responsible for all the foreigners especially when no one knew
what would happen.299

To help the Spanish recover from the damage of the Civil War, collections were made
throughout the order. Flanagan did his part and by November, 1939, had sent $800.300

Gabriel Pausback was appointed to take care of Analecta Ordinis Carmeli tarum. He wrote
Flanagan for the subscriptions of the province to be paid in advance and wanted a correspondent
named.301     Then he had qualms for he wrote again that prepayment for good payers like
Flanagan was ill advised and said he would simply add the amount to his annual bill.302
Flanagan did not appoint the desired correspondent and Pausback had to get information from
Cyril Conroy, a student.303 He had to do this again the following year.304 Then he placed a

      Same to same, Bronx, July 11, 1937, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Same to same, Bronx, Sept 5, 1938, ANYP.

      Doswald to F, Rome, Jan 9, 1939; F to Doswald, Bronx, Mar 23, 1939, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Zurich, Aug 31, 1939, ANYP.
      Same to same, Rome, Oct 5, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, NY, Nov 9, 1939, ANYP.
      Pausback to F, Rome, May 3, 1938, ANYP.
      Same to same, Rome, May 15, 1938, ANYP.

notice in the Analecta praising Flanagan for sending him information.305 What did appear in
those days was a census of the province,306 the naming of Elias Holland as missions procurator
and Celestine Fitzpatrick as "Colegii Liturgici Socios."307 Finally, agents were appointed: John
Maher as director, William Bradley as "recensor" and John McGrath as historiographer.308

Desirous of knowing the date of the 1940 provincial chapter, Flanagan wrote Doswald
suggesting late June or early July when schools would be closed. 309 Flanagan himself later set
the first week of July and also asked Doswald to give the annual retreat.310 The time would be
no great difficulty for Doswald as he left Rome in March, 1940 followed by Pausback that
June.311 He came to New York at the end of that month to stay at St. Patrick's Home in the
Bronx, at the invitation of Mother Angeline. She had also arranged for him to see a dentist and
he said this was the only reason for his going to St. Patrick's.312 Actually, once ensconced at St.
Patrick's, he would remain there for the duration of the war though his stationery would carry the
address of St. Simon Stock, His residence in the Bronx is the end of much correspondence
between himself and Flanagan as they called on or phoned each other and conducted their
business in person.313

While he was in Chicago in 1940, Doswald received an SOS from San Alberto for funds.
Writing Flanagan, he told him that he owed his taxes for 1937-40 but left to him the amount he
would send to Rome. He also sent a certificate that would enable the funds to get through to
Rome. Doswald felt it would soon not be possible to send money.314 Flanagan sent $1000 and
Doswald attributed the Roman problem to the fact that no one sent out any bills.315 In addition,

      Same to same, Rome, Aug 8, 1938, ANYP.
      Same to same, Rome, Nov 3, 1939, ANYP.
      ADC 10, 122.
      Ibid., 10, inserted page.
      Ibid.. 10, 167.
      Ibid., 10, 143.
      F to Doswald, NY, Mar 11, 1940, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      Same to same, Bronx, May 9, 1940, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Washington, Mar 19, 1941, ANYP.
      Doswald File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Chicago, Oct 15, 1940, ANYP.
      Same to same, Chicago, Oct 30, 1940, ANYP.

money was paid out by the Carmelites but never reached the builder of San Martino. The court
decision was against the Carmelites so Doswald had to come up with $25,000. Flanagan
adavnced tax money and bought some securities from Doswald.316 In 1942, Doswald was in
need of 700,000 lire for Rome and sold the Delia Giustina stock, probably to Flanagan, to make
the payment.317

Things were very difficult in Rome during the war. John Brenninger resigned as prior in 1943
after twelve years in the post. Gabriel Couto succeeded him.318 In December, 1945, Brenninger
became the procurator general.319 He died in November, 1946, after three heart attacks. When
Doswald wrote Flanagan this news from Rome, where he had returned, Doswald mentioned that
Couto had been made a bishop in Brazil and Kenneth Leahy a professor at the Propaganda. He
saw both of these appointments as refuting the vicious calumny that the work of his curia was

In the wake of the war, Doswald arranged for a Polish Carmelite, Albert Urbanski, to come to the
United States and be accepted into the New York Province.320

With Anthony Dressel ill at Allentown where he was the chaplain for the Carmelite Sisters,
Doswald tried to get Flanagan to supply a chaplain for about six months as Doswald did not want
to lose the post. Flanagan did not honor the request.321

Doswald also had a Mexican clerical student with his degree in philosophy who was anxious to
join the order.322 He asked Flanagan to accept him but after much consultation with John
Haffert, he decided no.323

After doing a stint with the Scapular Militia, Gabriel Pausback went off to visit the Carmelites in
Australia. He was there in late 1944 when he got the bug to visit Portugal and revive the Order

      Definitory Minutes, Sept 21, 1942, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Chicago, June 3, 1942, ANYP.
      Chronica Coll., 51.
      Notes, Dec 12, 1945, CG, Generali 2.
      Doswald to Brenninger, Bronx, Aug 12, 1945, CG, Generali 2.
      Doswald to [F], Bronx, Jan 11, 1943, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      Same to same, New Baltimore, Aug 23, 1941, ANYP.
  F to Doswald, Bronx, Sept 2, 1941; Doswald to F, New Baltimore, Sept 4, 1941; F to Doswald, Bronx, Sept 11,
1941; Doswald to F, Bedford, Sept 13, 1941, telegram; Franco to Doswald, Rome, Oct 14, 1941, ANYP.

there.324 This was early 1945 but Dolwald wanted him in Rome and so ordered. He arrived in
Rome in the fall of 1945.325

In the wake of the war, the Carmelites in Italy and Germany were in a state of desperation.
Food, clothing, hard cash and personal articles were in great scarcity. Most of the relief came
from the Chicago Province which is understandable in view of the ambitions of Matthew O'Neill
as told in the section on the general chapter of 1947. In this surge of fraternal charity, over forty
habits were sent to Rome and many others to Naples.326

After the provincial chapter of 1946, Patrick Russell, the preses, sent a candid report to Doswald.
Two matters all agreed on were that St. Albert's was the most suitable place for the chapter and
that no one should hold two offices especially be a definitor and a prior. Whether this should
apply to John Maher was a problem because his house was not a formed one. Some were
dissatisfied with the election of Berthold Forrester as Roman socius but Russell said in his favor
that he was the socius to the general at the 1943 chapter and had been the prior of St. Elias in
Washington. Another faction was opposed to John Haffert as novice master merely on the basis
that the province should have one of its own as master.

Formation received attention by the statement of the need for formation beyond the novitiate.
This was an argument given for the establishment of a provincial house of studies for the
professed. Along the same lines, Kilian Lynch paid tribute to the fine spirit and discipline
existing at Whitefriars Hall under Kilian Healy as prior.

The chapter insisted the land in Washington be kept. The attitude towards the California houses
was more friendly and favorable. It was decided to apply for St. Raphael's to be a formed house
instead of an annex of Mt. Carmel. Kilian Lynch placed more observance and more vocations as
his goals. A meeting of vocation directors was to take place to implement the latter. Finally, all
wanted to do everything for the best intersts of the province "in all things spiritual and

      Doswald to Pausback, Bronx, Jan 5, 1945, CG, Generali 2.
  Doswald to Brenninger, Bronx, July 15, 1945; same to same, Bronx, Sept 16, 1945; same to same, Bronx, Dec 28,
1945, CG, Generali 2.
      CG, Generali 2, passim.
      Russell to Doswald, Middletown, July 9, 1946, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).

                                                            Chapter 4


The personnel problems of a religious order attract a lot of interest and form good topics of
conversation. We all have experienced in varying degrees the promptings and tendencies that
have brought about these difficulties. We can relate to them, understand and be compassionate,
Perhaps the experience of others will reinforce some when they face the same problems. Writing
of these matters comparatively close in time, we face the danger of breaking confidentiality or
embarrassing relatives and friends of these men. Yet to omit this area would create a lacuna in
our history and leave out an important factor faced by Dionysius Flanagan in his rule of the
province. We will try to narrate briefly and carefully the tales of these men.

                                                       Joseph Borg

Joseph Borg was professed on April 28, 1914 and ordained on November 28, 1914 and ordained
on November 28, 1920.328 He had been born in Malta, April 13, 1894.329 He had been
stationed at St. Albert's then Transfiguration in Tarrytown in 1925.330 In 1927, $6500 in
securities was given to the Carmelites by Dr. Lucy Bannister through the efforts of Borg and
these funds were to establish the "Father Joseph Borg Scholarship" for the education of
students.331 He was prior of St. Albert's, 1930-33332 and then was appointed provincial treasurer
at the chapter of 1934.333 In Flanagan's lists of 1938-39 and the 1941 provincial directory, Borg
was listed as being stationed at St. Simon Stock.334

In 1935, Borg was seeking an assignment in a warmer climate.335 Nothing seems to have been
done to fufill his request until 1938, when Flanagan wrote Jeremiah O'Mahoney, Newman Club

      Catalogus, CG, Hlb, Historici, Statuta, Stat, Rhod.
      Carmelite Directory, Province of St. Elias, North America, 1941,
      O'Farrell to Borg, Bronx, Jan 15, 1925, ANYP.
      Note from L. Bannister, Aug 29, 1927; F to Bannister, NY, Aug 29, 1927, ANYP.
      Isacsson, A History of St. Albert's Jr. Seminary (Maspeth, 1978) 15.
      Acta Capituli Provincialis, Bronx, June 4-8, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64); AOC 8, 240-1.
      Lists, Flanagan Papers; Carmelite Directory, Province of St. Elias, North America, 1941, 10 .
      F to Doswald, Tarrytown, July 1, 1935, ANYP.

chaplain at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Flanagan said that doctors had recommended
a warmer climate for a year or two for Borg to aid his serious sinus condition. He asked
O'Mahoney to see if Bishop Barry in St. Augustine would give him a temporary post.336
O'Mahoney replied that Barry would not depart from his rule not to take in any priests but
suggested that Flanagan contact a friend of O'Mahoney who needed a priest. Borg could go there
and the pastor would get faculties for him. At this time, Borg was in North Carolina.337

 Joseph Borg was able a month later, December 1938, to secure a parochial post in Elkton,
Florida.338 Almost a year later, he was back in the Bronx because Flanagan would not allow
him to remain in Florida beyond six months. He was willing to allow Borg to seek a bishop.339
After a hospital stay in December, 1939, Borg, through the intercession of Mel Daly, was
allowed to go to Florida again where he was able to secure a post in a Miami parish.340 In 1940,
Borg secured permission to remain outside the community for two years 341 which was extended
in 1942.342 His incardination into the Diocese of St. Augustine was completed in 1945.343
Three years later, he was sent to St. Francis of Assisi, Riviera Beach, to begin this new parish.344
It was there amid his completed parish plant that Joseph Borg died on June 28, 1973.345

                                                   Vincent Smyth

Vincent Smyth was one Carmelite who was absolutely incompatible with Dionysius Flanagan.
He was appointed pastor of 28th Street after Flanagan had gone to Australia for the Eucharistic
      F to O'Mahoney, Bronx, Nov 4, 1938, ANYP.
      O'Mahoney to F, Gainesville, Nov 21, 1938, ANYP.
      Borg to F, Elkton, Dec 22, 1938, ANYP.
  F to Borg, Bronx, Oct 13, 1939; F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 14, 1939, ANYP; Borg to Franco, Bronx, Nov 10, 1939,
CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
  Borg to Franco, Miami, Dec 12, 1939, in ibid.; Borg to F, St. Augustine, May 22, 1940; F to Barry, Bronx, May 28,
1940, ANYP.
      Rescript, SCR, June 20, 1940, no, 4257/40; Franco to F, Rome, June 24, 1940, ANYP.
   Borg to Franco, Miami, Apr 28, 1942, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65); rescript,SCR, June 7, 1943, no. 4257/40 [sic];
Franco to F, Rome, June 15, 1943, ANYP.
  Borg to Lynch, Miami, July 3, 1944; Love to Lynch, St. Augustine, May 28, 1945, ANYP; Libro per i Conti della
Curia Generalizia, Provincie, 1943, CG.
      Borg to Bradley, Riviera Beach, Dec 30, 1948, ANYP.
      Borg to Bradley, Riviera Beach, Dec 30, 1948, ANYP.

Congress in 1928.346 He was remembered there for his preaching ability.347 At the chapter of
1934, Smyth was made pastor of Transfiguration in Tarrytown.348

Smyth constantly fought with Flanagan. On one occasion, he was sent to give a mission at a
diocesan parish. When he returned, he gave Flanagan and the assembled community a great
report. Later, when Flanagan met some pastors confirmation, he asked how the mission was.
One of them replied that Smyth had never showed up.349

In Tarrytown, Smyth continued his sorties with Flanagan. He made up a long list of abuses in
1934350 and a few months later, protested a charge he said Doswald, the general, had made
against him.351 In July, 1935, Smyth made a formal accusation that some of the fathers were
spreading stories about him.352 An investigation was initiated by Flanagan at the behest of
Doswald.353 A committee of three did the work and concluded that any charges spoken against
Smyth were unsubstantiated.354 Shortly afterwards, Doswald returned him to Ireland.355 The
following year, he was in a nursing home in Ireland.356

                                                  Francis Charles Ronayne

Francis Charles Ronayne was born in Dublin, made his profession as a Carmelite on June 23,
1907. He studied in Rome and was ordained on June 6, 29 1914. After obtaining his STD from
the Gregorian in 1915, he went to Australia.357 An instance of his skill was his translating of

      Interview with Harold Dempsey,1980.
      Acta Capituli Provincialis, Bronx, June 4-8, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64); AOC 8, 240-1.
      Interview with Kilian Lynch, Tadcaster, Nov 15, 1976.

      F to Doswald, Bronx, Dec 29, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Smyth to Taylor, Tarrytown, Apr 4, 1935, in ibid.; £f_.Cogan to Doswald, Dublin, June 9, 1935, CG, Hib (1922-38).
      F to Doswald, Tarrytown, July 1, 1935, ANYP; Smyth to F, Tarrytown,
      Doswald to F, Rome, Jan 4, 1936, ANYP.
      Report, n.d., CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 3, 1936, ANYP.
      Cogan to Doswald, Dublin, Mar 5, 1937, CG, Hib (1922-38).
      Resume, F. C. Ronayne, CG, Hib (1900-5).

French letters for Robert Power.358 In 1920, he went to Rome where he taught at San Alberto,
was a consultor for the Sacred Congregation for Religious (1922-29) and was assistant general
(1921-25).359 He became ill in Rome and took a year and a half of rest before returning.360
Magennis sent him to the United States in late 1927.361

Flanagan was invited by Magennis to go with him to the 1928 Eucharistic Congress in Australia.
He turned down the general's offer. Flanagan went to Ireland that spring with the intention of
establishing a postulancy there. He ended up with two proposals: take over an Irish priory or
establish a postulancy in cooperative effort with the Irish Province. In writing of this to
Ronayne, it is clear that before he left New York, Flanagan had made Ronayne his vicar. He was
also head of the Little Flower Society and prior of St. Simon Stock.362 Flanagan had not planned
on going to Australia but when he was in Ireland, Magennis importuned him into going with
him. Flanagan's comment was in his usual, humble style, "It is certainly very kind of him to ask
me knowing as he does that I am a rather uninteresting companion."363 While at the Eucharistic
Congress, Magennis stayed with some sisters in Lewisham Hospital.364 It had been arranged by
Robert Power for Magennis to stay with the Passionists.           As he wrote Magennis, "The
Provincial is an old and true friend and he and his community look on it as an honor to entertain
Fr. General."365 Flanagan was sent to stay with the Passionists. Imagine their surprise when
Flanagan arrived instead of the general.

With Flanagan traveling the seas from Europe to Australia, Ronayne took full control of matters
in the United States. He accepted the resignation of Elias Vella as prior of 28th Street.366 He
signed the contract for the construction of O'Connor Hall at St. Albert's and went ahead with the
preparations for a loan to finance the building. Plans for this had been completed by Flanagan
before his departure.367 When he learned of all this, Flanagan wrote instructions from Rome

      Power to [Cogan], Alberton, Mar 7, 1916, CG, Hib (1906-21).
      Resume, cit.
      Magennis to Franco, SS Ormonde, Mar 11, £1920.7; same to same, Bronx, July 13, 1927, CG, General 2.
      Ronayne to Barry, Rome, Sept 11, 1927, ANYP.
      Definitory Minutes, Apr 13, Oct 13, Oct 27, 1927, ANYP.
      F to Ronayne, Rome, May 31, 1928, ANYP; Magennis to Franco, SS Orama, Aug 10, [1928], CG, Generali 2.
      Magennis to Franco, Lewisham, Sept 4, 1928, in ibid.
      Power to Magennis, Middle Park, Mar 28, 1928, in ibid.
  Ronayne to F, Bronx, June 22, 1928; "Statement of Financial Condition," n.d.; Definitory Minutes, Apr 13, 1927,
      F to Ronayne, Rome, June 23, 1928, ANYP.

how Ronayne should gather funds from the various accounts Flanagan had set up to finance
O'Connor Hall. He also suggested that he place an article in the Irish papers telling of the
construction and that the building would be dedicated to O'Connor. Many had already given
money in O'Connor's memory and this had decided Flanagan to name the building in his
honor.368 Flanagan was hoping this trend would continue.

Ronayne held a consultors meeting, assigned Vella as novice master replacing him at 28th Street
with Vincent Smyth and made a few other changes.369 He also arranged for Vincent Coffey to
return to Ireland,370 sought faculties for Kieran Hickey,371 tried to secure sisters for the domestic
work at St. Alberts, took care of the students’ expenses and their promotion of studies,372 hired
Joseph Roy, a layman, to teach math and French at St. Albert's, 373 continued negotiations about a
mission in the Philipphines,374 and tried to secure a foundation in Detroit for the Maltese
province.375 Finally, he wired Elias Lynch to profess a student for the commissariate that the
Irish were leery about giving vows to because he was a convert.376

All this is mentioned because there is a well-founded story that Magennis took Flanagan to
Australia to interest him in being the superior there while Ronayne would take his place in New
York. Ronayne actually wrote this to Robert Power in Australia who passed the information on
to Magennis. He, since the story was out, told Flanagan who is supposed to have embarked on
the first available ship.377

      Ronayne to F, [Bronx], July 3, 1928, ANYP.
      Ronayne to Coffey, [Bronx], July 21, 1928, ANYP.
      Ronayne to Carroll, [Bronx], July 28, 1928, ANYP.
   Ronayne to Mother Clare, [Bronx], Aug 29, 1928. When the sisters were not able to take the position, Ronayne
hired a manageress at $80 a month, Definitory Minutes, Oct 23, 1928, ANYP.
      Ronayne to Colfer, [Bronx], Sept 5, 1928, ANYP.
  Roy to Ronayne, No. Westport, Aug 31, 1928; Ronayne to Roy, [Bronx], Sept 18, 1928; Roy to Ronayne, No.
Westport, Sept 20, 1928; Ronayne to Roy, Bronx, telegram, Sept 22, 1928, ANYP.
      Ronayne to Jurgens, [Bronx], Sept 21, 1928, ANYP.
      Ronayne to Gallagher, [Bronx], Sept 21, 1928; Doyle to Ronayne, Detroit, Oct 2, 1928, ANYP
      E. Lynch to Ronayne, Ardavon, n.d.; Ronayne to Lynch, Bronx, Sept 27, 1928, cable, ANYP.
      Paul Clery, "Father of the Province: Recollections of Father Robert Power," Nubecula 30 (1979), no 3, 175.

Ronayne made a list of the securities in the commissariate's safety deposit box and noted some
were missing.378 According to an account, Ronayne went to St. Simon's and gave two of
Flanagan's account books to one of the housekeepers with the instructions to burn them. In her
simplicity, she kept them thinking they were of some value to Flanagan. On his return from
Australia, the woman gave him the books. He urged her to silence about the matter. Ronayne
held a meeting of his supporters in a New York hotel and then believing the account books were
destroyed, accused Flanagan of misappropriation of funds, Flanagan whipped out the books,
refuted the charges and saved his position as commissary general.379

An assessment of Ronayne by Kilian Lynch who knew him well was that he was ambitious and
lacked common sense. He brought eleven novices to St. Albert's but they were so unsuited that
McGouran, the novice master, had to hide a sixty-five year old hired hand named Matt, when
Ronayne visited the place, lest he put him, too, into the novitiate.380

Flanagan's return was in November, 1928.381 To his surprise a new priory was being built at
28th Street and Vincent Smyth had been authorized to borrow $60,000 for its construction.
Flanagan then had to thank Cardinal Hayes for this permission to build.382 At a consultors
meeting, Ronayne gave a report of his stewardship. He cited how Smyth had contributed $10,000
to the Commissary Fund as a result of his retrenching in 28th Street. With Magennis present,
Ronayne asked that the commissariate be made a province. The group was divided on this and
Magennis felt that two years would be a good time for this. He also used the occasion to point
out that at least two consultors be heard by the commissary general before making changes. This
was a matter being pushed by Ronayne.383 Magennis urged Ronayne to accompany him back to

Flanagan, once he had cleared himself of all charges, assumed control again. He had to face the
loss in the Bronx of Elias Vella who was elected a prior in his province of Malta. He gave a
parishoner, Anna Hart, the Ford sedan Ronayne had purchased.385 He removed Kieran Hickey
      Lists, Flanagan and Ronayne Papers, ANYP.
      Interview with William S. Bradley, Terenure, Sept, 1976.
      Interview with Kilian Lynch, Tadcaster, Nov 15, 1976.
  Ronayne to Doswald, [Bronx], Oct 26, 1928, ANYP; Magennis to Franco, Middle Park, Sept 16, 1928, CG,
Generali 2.
      F to Hayes, Bronx, Dec 4, 1928; Hayes to F, NY, Dec 6, 1928; Definitory Minutes, Oct 23, 1928, ANYP.
      Definitory Minutes, Nov 29, 1928, ANYP.
      Magennis to Antonio, Bronx, Nov 23, 1928, CG, Generali 2.
      Definitory Minutes, May 30, 1929, ANYP.

from 28th Street and sent him to Tarrytown to finish his studies under Christopher Slattery. He
transferred Patrick Russell from the priorship of St. Albert's to the Middletown parish because he
was close to tuberculosis and unable "to deal sternly with some of the buccos." He looked
forward to the opening of St. Simon Stock High School that September of 1929 and then would
build additional classrooms and saw it as a source of vocations and a place "where we can give
our postulants from the city a High School education without having to support them for years in
Middletown," He felt he had been mild in his confrontation with Ronayne but would not allow
his return to New York. Saying that he advocated Ronayne for commissary general when
O'Farrell had died, he went on, "In return I got from him opposition instead of support before I
went away, an endeavor to shanghai me when I went away, and an effort to make my
government of the Commissariat impossible when I returned."386

Ronayne did not go to Rome with Magennis.387 He left the Carmelites and the priesthood. In
1930, Dominic Hastings heard another former priest, Boyd Barrett, allude to a former priest only
by his qualifications. Hastings thought it was Ronayne and learned this to be true when he went
to visit Barrett. Ronayne was seeking some financial assistance and Hastings offered through
Barrett the $11 he had in his pocket. Ronayne had been thinking in the range of $200 - $300.
Hastings offered Ronayne through Barrett a place in Tarrytown at the parish and offered to help
generally if Ronayne would see him. Nothing came of Hastings good intentioned gestures.388

Because of past practices, the property of the Carmelites in Ireland was registered in individual
names of the members of the province. Ronayne was one of the names used for Whitefriars
Street, Dublin. John Cogan's was the other. Flanagan at the request of the Irish Province arranged
a meeting with a lawyer and Ronayne at the Irish Consulate in New York to ask him to sign over
his “property.” When they met in December, 1934, Ronayne remarked that if Cogan died, he
would be the sole owner and his nuisance value quite considerable. After discussion, he signed
on the condition that Flanagan would be a witness. As a result of a long talk they had afterwards,
Flanagan was convinced that he had no intention of resolving his situation.389

Ronayne became the literary editor for the New York Sun, reviewed books for the American
Review, collaborated with Edward J. Edwards, SVD, on his first two books, translated two books
from French for Herder of St. Louis and worked as an outside editor for Sheed and Ward from
1934 to 1941, preparing for publication many of the popular Catholic books of that period.390 In

      F to Magennis, Bronx, June 13, 1929, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Ronayne was absent for the Feb 19, 1929 Definitory Meeting, Cf_,Minutes, ANYP.
      Hastings to Magennis, Tarrytown, Apr 7, 1930, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Dec 28, 1934, in ibid.
      Resume, Ronayne Papers, ANYP.

1941, he secured a position at Benziger Brothers where he worked until 1949. During this time,
he worked on all their Latin liturgical books and edited the catechisms of both Fathers McGuire
and Connell.391

In 1950, Ronayne sought to return to the order and the priesthood. Patrick Russell accepted him
with kindness and engineered the process for his regularization. While this was in progress, he
lived at St. Albert's where he also completed his required retreat under the direction of Dominic
Devlin.392 His regularization was completed and he died six months later at a rest home in
Cranford, Rhode Island on September 11, 1950.393

                                                   Henri Simon Vital

Henri Simon Vital, a thirty-seven year old school teacher in Montreal, applied to the Carmelites
in 1924. He had been born in Saint Servan, France, spent five years with the Brothers of
Christian Instruction and another five in the British army during World War I serving in the
infantry and as an interpreter.394 He was decorated for this war service and pictures of him exist
wearing a number of decorations on the capuce of his white cloak.

Writing to Gerard O'Farrell in December, 1924, Vital said he had intended to report to St.
Albert's in October but could not get through immigration at Montreal.395 O'Farrell was not
convinced of the seriousness of his efforts but told him to report to St. Albert's. 396 He entered
the novitiate and was professed on June 3, 1926.397 He then went on to Rome to study theology.
He made his solemn profession there398 and was ordained priest. He was stationed in 28th Street
but due to his inability to get along with the community, he was called to Rome by Hilary
Doswald who had the idea of using him as an archivist and a curate at Santa Maria

      Ibid.; Resume, CG, Hib (1900-05).
      Devlin to Russell, Middletown, July 4, 1950, ANYP.
      Rescript, Santo Offizio, Mar 31, 1950, no 164/50; M.-L. Cougherty to Devlin, Cranford, Sept 11, 1950, ANYP.
      Student Application, Catholic Church Extension Society, Vital, Personal File ANYP.
      Vital to O'Farrell, North Lonsdale, Dec 26, 1924, ANYP.
      O'Farrell to Vital, Bronx, Jan 16, 1925, ANYP.
  "Novitiate Register, 1923-66," 8; "Liber Professorum, Irish- American Commissary, May 11, 1924 - Sept 8,
      Doswald to F, Rome, June 7, 1929, ANYP; Registrant Professorum San Alberto, 1906-37.

Traspontina.399 Vital took a long time to travel to Rome going via Ireland with the proper
permission.400 Once in Rome, Doswald could not give him the intended positions and dallied
over sending him to Nablus. He sent him to Ireland where he thought Vital could be a
compensation for some of the Irish priests serving in New York.401

In 1935, Vital was working again in 28th Street and created an incident by refusing to preach or
read announcements during Mass.402 After being campused, he left the house and went to Mt.
Carmel, Niagara Falls, Canada, from where he wrote the general placing the whole matter before
him.403 Flanagan, at this time, was visiting Los Angeles and had left Kilian Lynch as his vicar.
Lynch, when informed of Vital's presence at Mt. Carmel, ordered him under penalty of
suspension to return. Vital argued that he could not due to immigration laws. 404 The next step
was that Flanagan asked Richard Haag, the prior of Mt. Carmel, todiscontinue his hospitality to
Vital.405    The next we hear of Vital he is in Haiti seeking a position.406 He arrived there
directly from Canada using for his passage the funds Flanagan had sent him for his return to New

Vital returned to New York in the fall of 1936 via Puerto Rico whose Carmelites had sent him to
New York in a $130 stateroom. When Flanagan discovered that a first class ticket cost only $70,
he remarked, "I intend to send the check to Father Raphael [Banon] after a while, but just at
present I am a bit angry about our prodigal son traveling home in a millionaire's suite."408

In the summer of 1937, the Viatorians in Rigaud, Quebec, offered Vital a teaching position at
College Bourget.409 Flanagan readily gave his consent and a six month's leave of absence.410

      Doswald to F, Rome, Nov 1, 1933; same to same, Rome, Nov 16, 1933, ANYP.
      Same to same, Rome, Jan 18, 1934; F to Doswald, Los Angeles, Feb 10, 1934, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Feb 17, 1934, ANYP.
      Vital to [F], NY, Nov 17, 1935, ANYP.
  McGleenan to [F ], NY, Nov 25, 1935, ANYP; Vital to F, Niagara Falls, Dec 6, 1935, Vital to Doswald, Niagara Falls,
Dec 6, 1935 with seven documents (copies), CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Vital to [F], Niagara Falls, Nov 27, 1935; Vital to Lynch, Niagara Falls, Nov 28, 1935, ANYP.
      F to Haag, Los Angeles, Dec 10, 1935, ANYP.
      Collin to F, Port au Prince, Jan 10, 1936, ANYP.
      F to Collin, Bronx, May 20, 1936, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 3, 1936, ANYP.
      Senecal to F, Rigaud, July 8, 1937, ANYP.

In 1938 and 1941, Simon Vital was given permission for exclaustration.411 Nothing further was
done either towards incardination or return to the Carmelites until 1964, when Richard Nagle
wrote Vital offering an opportunity to return or be incardinated into some diocese.412 Vital
chose the latter and this was accomplished with his incardination into the diocese of Bathurst,
New Brunswick.413

                                                  William S, Bradley

William S. Bradley was pestered with a situation in Ireland whose solution was either a court
case or his removal from Ireland. The Irish Provincial, John Cogan, insisted on the latter. He
also recommended him as a fine person and priest who would be of good use to Flanagan.414
Bradley left Ireland on the SS Corinthia on April 23, 1938.415 Hilary Doswald casually heard of
his coming to America and wrote Flanagan that such an action without his permission could
create difficulties as happened in the past. He told Flanagan to come to some agreement with
Cogan and then Doswald would transfer Bradley to the New York Province.416 Doswald later
approved of the transfer but left Bradley a member of the Irish Province "and as such may
eventually return to it."417 Bradley was not well for his first years in New York but eventually
recovered.418 He was stationed at St. Simon Stock and 28th Street until he returned to Ireland in
1967. He was stationed at Terenure College until his death in 1978.419

      F to Senecal, Bronx, July 17, 1937; F to Vital, Bronx, Aug 23, 1937, ANYP.
      Rescript, SCR, Feb 7, 1938, no. 1969/38; Extension, La Puma, Mar 15, 1941, ANYP.
      Nagle to Vital, NY, Mar 24, 1964, ANYP.
      Rescript, SCR, Aug 6, 1964, no. 1234/64, ANYP.
      Cogan to F, Dublin, Apr 25, 1938, ANYP.
  Interview with William S. Bradley, Terenure, 1968.
      Doswald to F, Rome, June 14, 1938, ANYP.
  Cogan to F, Faversham, June 18, 1938, ANYP; Cogan to Doswald, Dublin, June 23, 1938; Doswald to Cogan,
Rome, June 26, 1938, in CG, Hib (1922-38).
   F to Dos, NY, Feb 21, 1940; same to same, NY, Mar 11, 1940, CG, Am Sti Ellae (1939-65); F to O'Shea, Bronx, July
22, 1942, PO.
      Sr. Mary to Doswald, Sligo, Oct 19, 1937; Doswald to F, Rome, Oct 30, 1937, ANYP.

                                                  Columba Downey

Columba Downey was a member of the Chicago Province who was not satisfied with its level of
religious spirit. His sister, an Irish nun, wrote Doswald of the matter and he in turn sent the
correspondence to Flanagan.420 Surprised by this mail, Flanagan protested that he knew nothing
of the man especially since he did not belong to his province.421 At the time, Downey was in
Michel, British Columbia, working in a parish. In 1940, he asked Flanagan to allow him to
transfer to his province. To this Flanagan agreed sending Downey to Los Angeles for July and
August and then he would report to St. Simon Stock.422 It seems that he did not leave Michel on
this occasion. Later, Flanagan agreed, along with his definitory, to accept Downey into the
province.423 It was at this point that Downey did report to the New York Province where he
was assigned to vocation work, the first such man so designated in the province. 424 Later, he
returned to British Columbia where he apparently was incardinated into the Diocese of

                                                  Dominic Hastings

Dominic Hastings was assistant provincial, prior and pastor of Transfiguration, Tarrytown.
While pastor, a robbery took place. The time happened to be during prohibition and the only
loss to the thieves was Hasting’s cache of liquor stored in the basement.426 One day in 1933, he
left for vacation taking with him a checkbook and all available cash from the parish and house.427
Without funds and in the absence of one priest, these were difficult days for the parish. The
collection each Sunday carried the place until the next week. Christopher Slattery had to assume
the functions of prior and Dominic Devlin those of pastor. One evening, Slattery made the

      F to Doswald, Dublin, Nov 15, 1937, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Same to same, NY, Feb 21, 1940, in ibid., (1939-65); F to Downey, Bronx, June 2, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Sept 17, 1941, ANYP.
      Downey to Doswald, Michel, Oct 7, 1941; Doswald to Downey, (?), Oct 20, 1941, ANYP.
      Doswald to Lynch, Bronx, May 7, 1944, ANYP.
      Doswald to Lynch, Bronx, May 7, 1944, ANYP.
      Interview with Berthold Forrester, 1980.
      Interview with Kilian Lynch, Tadcaster, Nov 15, 1976.

distinction perfectly clear telling Devlin, "In this house, I'm in charge and over there, you're in

During the summer of 1933, Hastings had been located in Ireland and Mel Daly sent him $500
probably for passage home.429 When Hastings did not return, Flanagan began a search for him
through his family, the police and the Department of Immigration. Throughout this search,
Flanagan maintained there was poor keeping of accounts for a year in Tarrytown but that no
funds were missing.430

With a chapter coming in the summer of 1934, Flanagan was reluctant to appoint anyone as
assistant provincial or to the priorship of Tarrytown, both of which Hastings held. He feared he
would be accused of packing the forthcoming chapter.431

Through the efforts of Mother Butler of Marymount, Hastings was finally located. 432       He
showed up at Sittingbourne in early 1935.          Flanagan saw him at Faversham where he
explained that he took his trip with accumulated gifts. He admitted that he did return to New
York from Ireland at one point but went to Philadelphia seeking work. Then he went to France
where he was located by the sisters in Paris.434

       Hastings went to a rest center for recuperation and then returned to work in the Irish
Province.435 He served until his death in 1959.

                                                   Kieran J. Hickey

Kieran J. Hickey was a member of the 28th Street parish who entered St. Albert's as one of its
first students in 1917.436 He did some schooling in Ireland and entered the novitiate there.
  Ibid.; F to Doswald, Middletown, Dec 6, 1933, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38); same to same, Bronx, Jan 12, 1934,
      Receipt, July 5, 1933, ANYP; B. Devlin to Doswald, Dublin, Jan 21, 1934, CG, Hib (1922-38).
   Doswald to F, Rome, Oct 22, 1933; F to Doswald, Tarrytown, Nov 11, 1933; Doswald to F, Rome, Nov 14, 1933; F
to Doswald, Bronx, Jan 12, 1934, ANYP,
  F to Russell, Bronx, Mar 5, 1934; same to same, Middletown, Mar 13, 1934; F to Doswald, Bronx, Mar 26, 1934,
      Interview with Kilian Lynch, Tadcaster, Nov 15, 1976.
      Definitory Minutes, Feb 23, 1935, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Dublin, Nov 7, 1934, ANYP.
      Whitefriars 4 (May, 1938) 138.

Professed on October 18, 1922, he went to Rome to study philosophy and theology. He suffered
from tuberculosis during his theology years. Having made solemn vows on November 8,
1925,437 he was ordained at the end of his third year of theology on April 7, 1928 and returned
to the United States.

He had obtained his doctorate in philosophy from Academia S. Thomae in 1925-26.438

On his return to the United States in 1928 and until his death in Tarrytown on June 25, 1963 at
the age of fifty-nine, Kieran Hickey was a constant problem. Three successive provincials,
Dionysius Flanagan, Kilian Lynch and Patrick Russell, transferred him constantly, sent him to
the best places available at that time for treatment all with no success. Personality conflicts,
mental problems and alcoholism afflicted this priest. After each lapse, he would be sent to a
house where he would perform work well for a time and then lapse again. Perhaps his best
performance was at Whitefriars, Auburn, where he functioned beginning with the 1949-50
school year for about seven years teaching philosophy. His last post was at Transfiguration,

                                                 Stephen A. Piskurich

 Bishop John McCort of Altoona-Johnstown wrote Flanagan in 1933 to offer of St. Rochus in
Johnstown to Stephen Piskurich. The bishop feared giving another parish in Johnstown to a
religious community and asked Flanagan that Piskurich be released for a few years, dress as a
diocesan priest and run the parish.440      In reply, Flanagan stated the conditions as being
impossible and that he could not allow any of them.441 After McCort had received a petition
signed by over 500 members of the parish, he wrote again to Flanagan.442 He seems to have
withdrawn his original conditions and said that if Piskurich would rule the parish quietly, then
objections from the local clergy could not arise. He could not give the parish to the Carmelites

      Isacsson, A History of St. Albert's Jr. Seminary (Maspeth, 1978) 10.
      Registrum Professorum, San Alberto, 11.
      Acta Facultatum, San Alberto, 11.
      Hickey File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP; Lynch to Doswald, Tarrytown, Apr 14, 1947, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      McCort to F, Altoona, Sept 14, 1933, ANYP.
      F to McCort, Bronx, Sept 18, 1933, ANYP.
      Petition, Sept 28, 1933, ANYP.

without the permission of the Holy See but felt he could do this afterwards. McCort wanted
Piskurich as soon as possible and felt that he had removed any objection Flanagan had.443

Piskurich on his own, somewhere in these negotiations, had applied to be pastor of St. Rochus
but McCort had to turn him down unless he could obtain Flanagan's permission.444           After
hearing Piskurich at a definitory meeting, that body concluded the offer was unacceptable unless
provision for a community was provided.445            Flanagan, writing to McCort, would not
recommend Piskurich because of "his inexperience" and cited nationalism as the sole reason for
his application. He also had imposed a general order of silence on Piskurich.446

Stephen Piskurich apologized to the bishop for his "superfluous zeal." In his defense, he stated
that the general had promised permission.447

A Father J. Sostaric was appointed to the parish and this caused Piskurich to protest to the bishop
his handling of Croatian affairs as illustrated in the filling of the pastorate of St. Rochus.448

                                                   Leonard Potrykus

Leonard Potrykus was born in Danzig and did his novitiate at San Alberto in Rome.449 During
his theological studies, he was accepted by Flanagan for the newly founded New York
Province.450 He was ordained on July 15, 1934 and came to the United States to work after a visit
to Danzig, In this visit he failed to declare his funds on entry and so could not take them from

      McCort to F, Altoona, Sept 28, 1933, ANYP.
      McCort to Piskurich, Altoona, Oct 9, 1933, ANYP.
      Definitory Minutes, Oct 6, 1933, ANYP.
      F to McCort, Bronx, Oct 11, 1933, ANYP.
      Piskurich to McCort, (?), Oct 16, 1934, ANYP.
  F to Sostaric, Tarrytown, Dec 10, 1933; McCort to F, Altoona, Oct 22, 1934; F to McCort, Middletown, Dec 12,
1934, ANYP.
      Registrum Professorum, San Alberto, 1906-37.
      F to Potrykus, Dublin, Nov 5, 1931, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38); Definitory Minutes, Jan 7, 1932, ANYP.

the country. Doswald and Flanagan both had to send him money and Doswald warned Flanagan
to have someone meet Potrykus at the pier in New York lest he "pull another boner."451

In the fall of 1938, serious and scandalous charges were made against Potrykus by a woman.
Potrykus became absent without leave and by lying obstructed Flanagan's investigation of the
charges. Flanagan suspended him and then, on Potrykus' request, sent him to Our Lady of Mt.
Carmel, Middletown. His arrival was two days after his departure from 28th Street. Flanagan
then asked the general to expel him from the order.452

After some consideration, Doswald wrote Flanagan telling him expulsion from the order had to
be eliminated because it would mean washing Carmelite laundry before the Congregation for
Religious.453 He proposed four possible solutions to the Potrykus problem after meeting with
the curia.454 Potrykus stayed in Middletown into the spring of 1939 when he left and was seen
about New York City in civilian attire.455 After this departure, Doswald mentioned to Flanagan
that it was too bad he had accepted him. Flanagan was quick to remind the general that he had
done so only on the general's recommendation and after he had checked out with him the details
of this recommendation.456

Throughout the remainder of 1939 and into the spring of 1940, Potrykus remained out of the
order.457 In March, 1940, he was the subject of the general's letter to Flanagan. He called for
unconditional surrender, two weeks in a religious house, a thirty day retreat and then assignment
in Puerto Rico. Doswald did think the best solution was secularization.458 That May, Potrykus
was in a hospital in St. Louis but intended to make a retreat on his release.459

   Doswald to F, Rome, July 14, 1935; same to same, Rome, July 29, 1935, ANYP; Potrykus to F, Danzig-Langfuhr,
July 26, 1935, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
    F to Doswald, Bronx, Sept 5, 1938; same to same, Bronx, Sept 14, 1938, ANYP; Potrykus documents, CG, Am Sti
Eliae (1922-38); F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 1, 1938; same to same, Washington, Oct 19, 1938; same to same, Bronx,
Oct 25, 1938, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Merkelbeek, Nov 30, 1938, ANYP.
      Same to same, Rome, Nov 18, 1938, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
  F to Doswald, Bronx, Nov 30, 1938; same to same, Bronx, Mar 9, 1939, ANYP; same to same, Bronx, May 19,
1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Mar 23, 1939, ANYP.
  F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 14, 1939, ANYP; same to same, NY, Feb 12, 1940; same to same, NY, Feb 21, 1940;
same to same, NY, Mar 11, 1940, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      Doswald to F, Rome, Mar 14, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, May 9, 1940, ANYP.

The next news we have is that he was leaving for Pernambuco, an arrangement made by
Doswald.460 He did go there461 but in June, 1941, he was collecting funds for Pernambuco in
Milwaukee.462    From Milwaukee, he seems to have gone on to Corpus Christi, Texas.463
There Potrykus found a benevolent bishop and was finally incardinated into the diocese in
1946.464 He served there until 1950 when he was murdered.465

                                                  Albert Schwartz

Albert Schwartz was another native of Danzig accepted into the New York Province by
Flanagan. He made his solemn profession in Rome on December 28, 1926466 and was ordained
June 23 three years later. He spent at least two more years in Rome for he received his lectorate
on June 15, 1931 defending the thesis, De Vulneratione Naturae Humanae per Peccatum
Originale.467 He was allowed a year's trial in the province beginning in 1933 and went to Mt.
Carmel, Los Angeles, to teach in 1935.468         There is no documentation of any difficulties
concerning him but he did ask for incardination into the Diocese of San Diego.469        He was
granted a second three years in the diocese in 1945 and there any documentation of him ends.470

      F to Doswald, ZTBronx ?J, Oct 16, 1940, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Chicago, Oct 30, 1940; same to same, Chicago, Nov 12, 1940, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Bronx, June 3, 1941, ANYP.
  Potrykus to F, Rome, Nov 14, 1941; same to same, Skidmore, Jan 21, 1942; Doswald to F, Washington, Jan 10,
1942, ANYP.
  Ledvina to Potrykus, /Corpus Christ£7, Dec 1, 1945; Doswald to Vicar General, Bronx, Jan 6, 1946; SCR to
Doswald, Rome, Jan 28, 1946; Doswald to Vicar General, Bronx, Mar 20, 1946; Procurator General to SCR,
Rome, Apr 16, 1946, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      Interview with Berthold Forrester, 1980.
      Registrum Professorum, San Alberto, 1906-37.
      Acta Facultatum, San Alberto, 24-5.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, June 18, 1935; Definitory Minutes, Mar 21, 1933, ANYP.
      Petition, Schwartz, San Bernadino, June 27, 1945, ANYP.
      Buddy to Doswald, San Diego, Sept 21, 1945; same to same, San Diego, Sept 22, 1945, ANYP.

                                                     Francis Bartolo

A member of the Maltese Province, Francis Bartolo had worked with the Carmelites in Australia
for six years, serving for a time as novice master. In return for his labor, the Australians sent
money to support his aged father in Malta. They felt in 1936 that they could not continue this
arrangement and so Bartolo sought to establish a similar arrangement with Flanagan.471 Flanagan
wrote the provincial in Australia, Paul Clery, for his approval of such a transfer and asked his
opinion of Bartolo. Probably this was done verbally at the suggestion of Flanagan during Clery's
trip to Rome in late, 1937.472 Flanagan asked Bartolo for the financial terms. These were stated
as £4 per month for his father.473 Nothing further was done despite a good recommendation
from Clery and the fact that Bartolo had made his way as far as Philadelphia.474

                                                       Gabriel Nalty

Gabriel Nalty of the Australian Province had a personal difficulty in which Doswald thought a
new environment would be of assistance. He asked Flanagan if he would accept him.475
Memebers of the New York Province who studied with Nalty in Rome testified to his
character.476 Flanagan agreed to accept Nalty as arrangements were being made in late 1941 for
him to come to the United States by ship.477 He did arrive in Los Angeles in late November or
early December, 1941 and worked with the Carmelites there for a while.478 He was then called
to the Bronx where he functioned at St. Simon's for a while.479

      Bartolo to F, Melbourne, Oct 25, 1936, ANYP.
      F to Clery, Bronx, Jan 8, 1937, ANYP.
      F to Bartolo, Bronx, Jan 8, 1937, ANYP.
      Bartolo to F, Melbourne, Feb 25, 1937, ANYP.
      [Clery] to F, Middle Park, Mar 12, 1937, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Bronx, June 7, 1941, ANYP.
      Clery to F, telegrams, Sept 24, 1941 to Nov 18, 1941, ANYP.
      Nalty to F, Los Angeles, Dec 4, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Nalty, Bronx, Dec 9, 1941; F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Jan 9, 1942; Gaffney to F, NY, Jan 15, 1942, ANYP.

                                                    John R. Galvin

John Richard Galvin was an Irishman who had completed his philosophy and theology at the
seminary in Waterford, Ireland, before he came to New York to join the Carmelites. He was
professed on August 30, 1925.480 Having completed his studies, he was ordained apparently
without solemn vows on March 28, 1926.481

In 1939, he was admitted to New York's St. Francis Hospital where he was diagnosed as an
active tubercular case.482 He was sent to the sanitarium at Gabriels, New York, where his
condition was always considered poor. He became worse in March, 1941 and died at Gabriels on
the 18th of that month.483 He had been the first ordained for the New York Carmelites.

                                                   Philip McGouran

Philip McGouran, a member of the Irish Province who intended to remain such,484 died in New
York on August 7, 1937.485 He had spent all his priesthood in the United States and was novice
master for some eight years. His poor health lead to his appointment as the chaplain on a liner
making the first direct crossing from New York to Dublin. It was only a few weeks after this
tour that he died.486

                                                   Elias F. Holland

Elias Francis Holland, an assistant at St, Simon Stock, was taken ill in the summer of 1941.
After an operation, his condition worsened because of internal infection. He died at the age of
thirty-seven on December 12, 1941. He had been stationed at 28th Street for eight years, was the

      Novitiate Register, 1923-66, 5; Liber Professorum, Irish-American Commissary, 1924-67,
      Isacsson, Carmel in New York, 1906-26 (Maspeth, 1982) 228-34.
      Schweitzer to Daly, NY, Apr 6, 1939, ANYP.
  F to Doswald, NY, Feb 21, 1940; same to same, NY, Mar 11, 1940, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65); McCauley to F,
Gabriels, telegram, Mar 14, 1941, ANYP.
      McGouran to F, Bronx, July 16, 1935, ANYP.
      AOC 9, 146.
      Whitefriars 3 (Sept, 1937) 270.

chaplain of the Tyrone Men's Society and had been named assistant provincial at the chapter of
1940.487 His untimely loss was felt throughout the province.

                                                 Ailbee McNamee

Ailbee McNamee, a member of the Irish Province, wrote Flanagan asking for a transfer to the
New York Province.488      Citing the fact that he had only recently worked in both American
provinces, Flanagan called it unfair to the New York Province, and to McNamee himself to have
him return.489    Surely a devious answer for Flanagan's own reasons. Another request of
McNamee remained unanswered.490

                                                 Kevin Morrissey

Kevin Morrissey, while stationed at 28th Street, had what was referred to as a "Monster Bingo"
at Manhattan Center. Due to the pressure of the preparation and the actual event itself, he was
given ten days vacation. He left for this on December 26, 1940 and did not return. He lived in
New York and worked on the docks. Through the efforts of his cousins, the Gallaghers of Paoli,
Pennsylvania, he returned to the Carmelites in August, 1941. After doing a retreat at Auriesville,
New York, that October, he was sent to Mt. Carmel in Los Angeles where he served for many
years achieving fame for his annual entertainment, Showboat, for the benefit of the school. When
the houses in California were joined to the Chicago Province, he chose to remain there and lived
in California until his death on January 11, 1975.491

                                                   Some Others

Celestine Gerard Fitzpatrick had served two years in Dublin and three in Faversham when he
came to work in the New York Province in 1936.492

      New York Times, Dec 14, 1941, 69; Catholic News (New York) Dec 20, 1941.
      McNamee to F, Knocktopher, Jan 14, 1936, ANYP.
      F to McNamee, Bronx, Feb 18, 1936, ANYP.
      McNamee to F, Knocktopher, Mar 10, 1936, ANYP.
      Morrissey File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
      Fitzpatrick File, ANYP.

An offer to have Louis Gerhard, a native Australian, back in the United States was flatly turned
down by Flanagan on the grounds that Gerhard did not have a high regard for authority.493

A great loss to Flanagan was the Maltese Carmelite, Elias Vella. He had been novice master and
one of the founders of St. Simon Stock Parish. On a visit to his native Malta, he was elected
prior of Notabile. Flanagan was distressed at this event calling it a "severe blow." His request
for Vella's return has no answer extant.494

      F to Magennis, Bronx, June 13, 1929, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      F to Azzopardi, Bronx, May 29, 1929, ANYP.

                                                         Chapter 5

                                                    Student Education

From the school year of 1933-34 to the school year of 1937-38, the New York Province's college
students resided at the Carmelite College, also called St. Therese House of Studies at 1600
Michigan Avenue in Washington. Doswald even proposed a joint house for both provinces in
Washington, It was customary for the students on the completion of college to go to Rome for
theology. Flanagan delegated Hastings to investigate the Roman education and also check into
the possibility of doing their novitiate in Ireland, The 1934-35 school year saw Columba
Staunton, Emmanuel Hourihan and John Howe among those attending Catholic University, The
fall of 1936, Brendan Hourihan, having obtained his degree at the university, left for Rome and
the study of theology.495

Flanagan at the beginning of 1937 was thinking of some other arrangements for the students in
Washington. Matthew O'Neill wrote him saying he was trying to sell his excess land in
Washington and hoping to raise $250,000 to $300,000. He wrote Flanagan since Doswald had
told him he was interested and asked him such.496 Nothing was done but Flanagan did obtain
permission in January, 1938, to purchase a place in Washington provided he incurred no debt
and obtained the necessary ecclesiastical permissions.497 When he asked George Klasinski, the
prior of the Carmelite College, if he could send five for residence the next year, the reply was
that the college had room only for two.498 Flanagan knew something had to be done before the
school year.499 He determined to get a place in Washington because of the promise of the
students. He had no difficulty with the theologians as they would all go to Rome.500

James Sullivan, a Washington realtor and lawyer, located a house for him at 1225 Randolph
Street, NE, for the rent of $74 a month. By the end of August, arrangements were made.501

      Washington File, Flanagan Papers; Definitory Minutes, May 23, 1933, Aug 6, 1933, ANYP.
      O'Neill to F, Chicago, Feb 20, 1937, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Jan 3, 1938, ANYP
      F to Klasinski, Bronx, June 24, 1938, ANYP.
      O'Neill to F, Joliet, July 23, 1938; Klasinski to F, Washington, July 14, 1938, ANYP.
      F to O'Neill, Bronx, July 28, 1938; F to Doswald, Bronx, Aug 11, 1938, ANYP.
  Sullivan to F, Washington, Aug 10, 1938; F to Sullivan, Bronx, Aug 12, 1938; Sullivan to F, Washington, Aug 24,
1938; F to Sullivan, Bronx, Aug 27, 1938, ANYP.

Fortunately, he was able to obtain permission for the house from the Baltimore chancery.502 He
named Celestine Fitzpatrick as the prior.503 The story of the 1938-39 school year in this house
has been told elsewhere. The one thing that appears from this narration and the regimen of the
house is that it must have been a difficult year attending class and following a strict house

Flanagan realized that the Randolph Street house was a solution for an emergency and sought a
larger and more permanent place. Fitzpatrick located one near the university and the Michigan
Avenue bridge. The price was around $40,000.505 Flanagan went to Washington with William
Bradley and they saw the house Fitzpatrick had in mind. It belonged to Dr. Leo Stock, a history
teacher at the university. An apartment was built just next to him and he was in a sense prepared
to hold out for a good price as his real estate had become a good prospect. Meanwhile, Flanagan
was seeking permission from Doswald for the purchase, was making offers and looking for other
places.506 He obtained permission from the general507 and finally located a large house that
suited his purposes and purse. It was located at 1300 Newton Street, NE. Mr. and Mrs. Lorenzo
Di Guilian, the owners, accepted Flanagan's offer of $27,500 and procedures for purchase

In the title search, it was discovered that the title carried a covenant lasting until 1947 forbidding
the rental or sale to anyone of "negro blood or race.509 Between March and May, 1939, the
students gradually moved into the new residence.510

  F to Nelligan, Bronx, Aug 30, 1938; Nelligan to F, Baltimore, Aug 31, 1938; F to Nelligan, Bronx, Sept 3, 1938,
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Sept 5, 1938, ANYP.
   Fitzpatrick to F, Washington, Sept 15, 1938, ANYP; Isacsson, "St. Elias House of Studies, Washington, DC, 1938-
40," 0ccasional Papers, 3.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Nov 15, 1938; Fitzpatrick to F, Washington, Nov 9, 1938, ANYP.
    F to Doswald, Bronx, Nov 30, 1938; Fitzpatrick to F, Washington, Dec 5, 1938,          ANYP; Doswald to Padre
(?), Paris, Dec 12, 1938, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38); F to Doswald, Bronx, Dec 19, 1938; Fitzpatrick to F, Washington,
Jan 4, 1939, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, (?), Dec 21, 1938, telegram, ANYP.
   Sullivan to F, Washington, Jan 27, 1939; F to Curley, Bronx, Jan 16, 1939; Nelligan to F, Baltimore, Jan 20, 1939;
F to Fitzpatrick, Bronx, Jan 15, 1939, ANYP.
  Sullivan to F, Wasington, Feb 17, 1939. Deed was signed Mar 2, 1939 and recorded Mar 8, 1939, DC, Lib 7322, p
      Washington File, Flanagan Papers, passim, ANYP; AOC 10, 408,

In an attempt to avoid paying taxes on the new house, documents were submitted to the district
government.511 This petition was turned down and the lawyer of the Carmelites, John Sullivan,
thought a letter to the proper Bronx congressman would be of some help but he wanted to see
Flanagan in person before he wrote such a letter.512

The Carmelite students proposed a procession on the campus of Catholic University for the Feast
of Our Lady Of Mt. Carmel. The idea was approved especially in conjunction with the fiftieth
anniversary of the university.513 Fitzpatrick, searching for a preacher for the occasion, suggested
John Maher.514 Flanagan apparently nominated William Bradley and he was approved for the
occasion.515 The procession took place on July 16 with over 800 participants followed by Mass
according to the Carmelites' Ancient Rite, benediction and enrollment in the Scapular. Hilary
Doswald was present and gave the Papal Benediction.516 Perhaps prompted by this cooperation,
Flanagan gave $250 to the university's Golden Jubilee Fund.

After attending summer school, the students went to St. Albert's for a period of vacation.517

John Matthias Haffert wanted to spend the school year of 1939-40 at St. Elias House of Studies
and give classes in scapularia. Flanagan thought it not prudent to allow him and thought his
presence, since he had been a professed student with the Chicago Province, might cause ill
feeling between the provinces.518

The year of 1939-40 began with seven students at the house519. With war in Europe looming, it
was feared that the students there might have to return.520 Fitzpatrick began preparations for this
influx, making room at the house and alerting the university. He saw the possible difference in
the teaching cycle as a problem but borrowing a phrase from Flanagan, promised to do the best

      Fay to F, Washington, June 24, 1939; affadavit, Fitzpatrick, [1939], ANYP.
      Fitzpatrick to F, Washington, June 7, 1939, ANYP.
      McCormick to Fitzpatrick, Washington, May 19, 1939, ANYP,
      Fitzpatrick to F, Washington, June 7, 1939, ANYP.
      Nelligan to Fitzpatrick, Baltimore, July 11, 1939, ANYP.
      Norman G. Werling, "Scapular Feast Echoes," Sword 3(1939) 455-6,
      Fitzpatrick to F, Washington. Aug 1, 1939; F to Fitzpatrick, Bronx, Aug 6, 1939, ANYP.
      Same to same, NY, Sept 11, 1939, ANYP.
      Report of Marks, Washington File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP,
      Doswald to F, Rome, Sept, 20, 1939, ANYP.

he could.521 Doswald decided on their return without regret and was grateful that Flanagan was
prompt in depositing money in the New York account to provide for their transportation.522 The
Roman students arrived in New York on October 15 on the Rex and went to Washington to
resume their studies.523

Flanagan suggested to Fitzpatrick that he engage someone to teach elocution in the house. Not
only would this provide needed preachers but Flanagan thought that having class in the house
might assist in obtaining tax exemption.524

With the influx of the Roman students, building that had been planned by Flanagan for 1941 had
to be done in 1940.525 He told Fitzpatrick to see John Sullivan and get his ideas about an
addition to the house.526 Sullivan also began to look for a larger house and alerted Flanagan that
the Atonement Friars wanted to dispose of twenty of their thirty acres. It was located near the
university and he feared that competition for the land would be keen.527 A Mr. Parkhill came to
St. Elias to plan some remodeling. His plans were turned down by the district because they
included wood.528 He then came up with a plan that would enclose a porch for an estimated

Meanwhile, Flanagan learned that the Atonements were asking $10,600 an acre, a figure he felt
rather high and he planned to let the matter go. It was a chapter year and he wanted to leave the
matter to the new administration, at least that's what he told the Atonements.530 The Atonement
general, Bernard Foley, agreed the price was too high but that was what their board had
established and was reluctant to sell for less. He would meet after the Carmelite chapter and try
to reduce the price. As he said, "It seems that we ought to do business. In Washington you have

   F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 2, 1939, CG, Am, Sti Eliae (1939-65); Fitzpatrick to F, Washington, Sept 27, 1939; same
to same, Washington, [Sept, 1932], ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Oct 5, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      F to Doswald, NY, Oct 14, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Fitzpatrick, NY, Oct 17, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Dec 15, 1939;, ANYP.
      F to Fitzpatrick, Bronx, Oct 25, 1939, ANYP.
      Fitzpatrick to F, Washington, May 8, 1940, ANYP.
      Same to same, Washington, June 3, 1940, ANYP.
      Same to same, Washington, June 14, 1940; Parkhill to Fitzpatrick, Washington, June 12, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Foley, NY, June 11, 1940, ANYP.

not enough land and we have too much, and when all is said and done we are all Religious and a
few thousand dollars should not concern us too much."531

In July, Flanagan wrote Fitzpatrick that an addition would not be required as he was going to
place some students in the newly opened Whitefriars Hall. He would not even enlarge the
chapel. He told him Berthold Forrester was appointed prior of St. Elias and to remain there until
he arrived.532 That August, Parkhill asked what he should do with his plans especially since he
would soon have a building permit.533        Flanagan told him to go ahead with the chapel

Preparing for school in September, 1940, turned out to be quite a problem. In conversation with
Doswald, Flanagan told him he was sending the students to Whitefriars Hall and Doswald in turn
told Matthew O'Neill, the Chicago provincial.535 Flanagan then told Klasinski at Whitefriars that
six would be staying with him.536 Doswald then told Flanagan that there was limited room at Mt,
Carmel in Niagara Falls and so he should send his college students to live at Whitefriars and
attend Catholic University.537 Flanagan wrote O'Neill that if he had known this in advance, he
could have rented the Newton Street house. So he would leave six theologians there and send his
seventeen other students to reside at Whitefriars. Then he announced his intention to sell the
Newton Street house by the end of the school year and have all his students reside at
Whitefriars.538 This was agreeable to O'Neill and he said he would relay the information on to
George Klasinski. It seems that eventually, fifteen did reside at Whitefriars that year.539 This
resulted in some additional costs, as Flanagan, seeing his students, thought some looked shabby
in their habits. So he wanted them to get new habits and also ordered outer cloaks for walking to
the university in the winter.540

      Foley to F, Garrison, June 15, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Fitzpatrick, NY, July 8, 1940, ANYP.
      Parkhill to F, Washington, Aug 14, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Parkhill, Bronx, Aug 16, 1940, ANYP.

      F to O'Neill, Bronx, Aug 9, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Klasinski, Bronx, Aug 20, 1940, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Chicago, Aug 27, 1940, ANYP.
      F to O'Neill, Bronx, Sept 1, 1940, ANYP.
  O'Neill to F, Chicago, Sept 5, 1940; Klasinski to F, Washington, Sept 22, 1940; bill, Catholic University, Oct 15,
1940, ANYP.
      F to Daly, Bronx, Oct 15, 1940, ANYP.

Worried because he had never paid any taxes on the Newton Street house, Flanagan told
Berthold Forrester to investigate the matter.541 He learned that $855.72 was due.542 This he
paid under protest.543 Early that fall, the renovation of the chapel was completed.544

With the students taken care of for the immediate future, Flanagan turned to establishing a
permanent foundation in Washington. His feeling was that the province should have its own
house in Washington where the students would feel more at home.545              Gabriel Pausback
suggested to him that he buy land near Whitefriars where the price was $3000 to $3500 an
acre.546 The Atonements modified their price to $9000 an acre for four acres with an option to
buy two or three more within the next three years, Bernard Foley, the general, defended the
price by saying they had paid $5750 an acre for thirty-three acres. As a selling point, he
suggested to Flanagan that he make an offer of $35,000 for four acres and that this would
probably be accepted.547 This, however, was turned down by Flanagan and his definitory.548
The Paulists were interested in selling land and Flanagan went to look it over. They were willing
to sell two acres and possibly more. An appraisal was suggested so that an offer could be made.
The Atonements appeared not very anxious to sell since they merely accepted Flanagan's refusal
and stated their reluctance to sell for a price Flanagan offered to them verbally.549 Flanagan
promised to consult his definitory indicating that negotiations had not broken down.550

The Paulists asked for $30,000 an acre for land between Fourth and Hamlin Streets.551 This was
rejected by Flanagan.552 Perhaps prompted by the Paulists' high price, Flanagan offered the

      F to Forrester, Bronx, Oct 21, 1940, ANYP.
      Forrester to F, Washington, Oct 23, 1940, ANYP.
      Tax bill, Washington, Nov 11, 1940, ANYP
      Bill, Oct 23, 1940, ANYP.
      Definitory Minutes, Sept 21, 1942, ANYP.
      Pausback to F, Washington, Aug 31, 1940, ANYP.
      Foley to F, Garrison, Sept 16, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Foley, Bronx (?), Oct 1, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx (?), Oct 16, 1940, ANYP.
      Foley to F, Garrison, Oct 18, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Foley, Bronx (?), Oct 21, 1940; same to same, Bronx (?), Nov 13, 1940, ANYP.
      Forrester to F, Washington, Nov 20, 1940; plot plan enclosed, ANYP.

Atonements $7000 an acre with a total expendiure of $35,000.553 The offer was accepted and
Flanagan took five acres.554 Flanagan's lawyer would allow payment only on the transfer of the
deed and at that time, he promised to pay in cash the entire amount.555 He then set about to
gather his funds tapping John Maher, for one, for assistance.556

The ordination class of 1941 - John Howe, Columba Staunton, Emmanuel Hourihan and
Alphonsus Galligan - realizing that 175 were to be ordained at the crypt of the National Shrine,
asked Flanagan if they could be ordained at St. Patrick's Cathedral with the Dunwoodie group.
Their reason was that there was little room at the shrine and not much chance for their relatives
and friends to view the ceremony. Flanagan did not reply by mail but simply noted at the bottom
of the letter, "No! Told Berthold Forrester."557

Forrester then had to request $60 for the printer for ordination invitations. Advanced payment
was required.558 Flanagan was reluctant to send the needed money. Writing back, Forrester
assured the provincial that he had obtained the lowest possible price and would not have asked
for the money if the price was not reasonable. He confessed that he had never heard of deacons
paying for their invitations. Concluding, he stated that if he did not have the money, then the
friends of the ordinandi would have to pay.559 Flanagan eventually did give the funds but added
an instruction:

           For your information and instruction, I wish to call your attention to the
           fact that the parents of these boys have contributed very little to their
           education and up-keep during the past eight or ten years that they have
           been with us, and now after the Order expending approximately $5000 for
           their education, we are expected to go to the further expense of inviting
           their parents and friends to their ordination and first Mass. I believe this is
           the least the parents should do if they want to attend. A little common

      F to Renton, Bronx (?), Dec 16, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Foley, Bronx (?), Nov 25, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Forrester, Bronx, Dec 2, 1940, ANYP.
      Same to same, Bronx (?), Dec 5, 1940, ANYP,
      F to Maher, Bronx, Dec 4, 1940, ANYP.
      Ordinandi to F, Washington, Mar 4, 1941, ANYP.
      Forrester to F, Washington, Apr 26, 1941, ANYP.

           sense would be a valuable asset when considering the demands of the
           young men with whom you have to deal.560

With the prospect of the students all being in residence at Whitefriars Hall the following year,
Flanagan sought and obtained permission to sell the Newton Street house.561            Benignus
Gallagher of the Third Order Regular of St. Francis of Hollidaysburg, PA, came to see the house,
was pleased with it and offered to buy. When told the price was $35,000, he stated that this was
a large sum for his order and asked the lowest price.562 In reply, Flanagan said he wanted to
dispose of the property because of the larger accommodations at Whitefriars. Saying that the
house was a good building and that he had spent much in improvements, he cited $30,000 as his
lowest price. He confessed that he would be making no profit at that figure.563 After he had all
ready for the purchase, including his deposit check, Gallagher was turned down for permission
by the Archbishop of Baltimore. He asked Flanagan not to mention this denial to save him

The Franciscans offered later $27,500 and because this would be a loss, Flanagan refused.565 He
did this despite the fact that Gallagher had sent a contract for $27,500 and a deposit of $500. He
also felt that most of the furnishings would be left in the house.566 The Franciscans increased
the offer to $30,000 which Flanagan quickly accepted.567 The terms were $10,000 cash with the
balance to be paid within three years at 4% interest. Sullivan had set up the terms and offered to
take the mortgage himself if Flanagan was not interested.568

Correspondence ensued between Flanagan, Gallagher and Forester concerning the furnishings.
Gallagher sought these and Forester was agreeable but with the understanding that Flanagan

      A moderate rending of Flanagan's letter in possession of B. Forrester and seen by author.
      Forrester to F, Washington, Apr 30, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Forrester, Bronx (?), May 1, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Gallagher, Los Angeles, May 20, 1941, ANYP.
      Gallagher to Forrester, Hollidaysburg, May 19, 1941, ANYP.
  F to Forrester, Los Angeles, May 23, 1941; Sullivan to F, Washington, May 23, 1941; F to Sullivan, Los Angeles,
May 23, 1941, ANYP.
      Gallagher to F, Hollidaysburg, May 23, 1941, ANYP.
      Forrester to F, Washington, May 26, 1941, telegram; F to Forrester, Los Angeles, May 26, 1941, ANYP
      Sullivan to F, Washington, May 28, 1941, ANYP.

approved.569 Gallagher then denied that he had asked for the furnishings and would not consider
buying them. He told Flanagan to remove all he wanted.570 Flanagan, saying that he had
consulted his definitory, agreed to leave all there except the bed clothing and vestments.571 He
arranged for the students to go to Whitefriars572 and agreed to take back the mortgage.573 On
July 8, 1941, the Franciscans took over the premises.574 Throughout July and August, the
signing of the deed was completed by mail. There was a delay due to the fact that the
Franciscans owed Sullivan fees for the transfer and he would not send them the deed until these
were paid.575

The Franciscans were able to make the final payment for the Newton Street house in early
January, 1942. Sending the money to Flanagan, Sullivan expressed the regret they had made
payment so soon as the deal arranged was a good investment.576

A difficulty arose over the property purchased from the Atonements. Flanagan had paid taxes for
1943 and half of 1944 but had not paid the taxes for 1942. When any yearly tax was not paid,
the land could be bought for the taxes owed. This was a regulation of the district, C. B. Rout
bought up the Carmelite property and would actually take possession of it on January 19, 1945.
With this loss in sight, Flanagan sent the $727.02 due and the problem was solved. It was no
oversight on his part as the Atonements had promised to pay the taxes for the period of 1942.
With the payment, the problem was solved.577

  F to Gallagher, [Bronx], June 18, 1941; F to Forrester, Bronx, June 20, 1941; Forrester to F, Washington, June 22,
1941, ANYP.
      Gallagher to F, Hollidaysburg, June 23, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Gallagher, [Bronx], June 26, 1941; same to same, Bronx, July 3, 1941, ANYP.
   F to O'Neill, [Bronx], June 25, 1941; O'Neill to F, Chicago, June 28, 1941,
telegram, ANYP.
      F to Sullivan, [Bronx], July 7, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Sullivan, [Bronx], July 7, 1941, ANYP.
  Sullivan to F, Washington, July 22, 1941; F to Sullivan, [Bronx], July 25, 1941; Sullivan to F, Washington, Aug 23,
1941, ANYP.
      Sullivan to F, Washington, Jan 19, 1942, ANYP.
      O'Callaghan to F, Washington, Jan 4, 1944; Wray to F, Washington, Dec 30, 1943, ANYP.

Beginning with the 1941-42 school year, tuition at Catholic University for theologians rose from
$150 to $300 and in an attempt at economy, theology classes were begun that September at
Whitefriars Hall. Some of the New York students did continue their studies at the university.578

Exaggerating somewhat the costs, Flanagan wrote to the pastors of each of his parishes telling
them of the definitory's decision to take up a collection at each parish for the support of the
students.579 The returns recorded were far from satisfactory.580

That same year, there was some discontent on the part of the students at Whitefriars but the prior,
George Klasinski, faced a provincial visitation with confidence and equanimity.581

The Chicago chapter of 1939 had agreed to accommodate New York students for a period of
three years. Since that time was drawing to a close, Flanagan was anxious to know if the
arrangement would continue. He was pleased with the past three years and sought a renewal.582
O'Neill promised his support at the forthcoming chapter in June, 1942, but had to confess, "I can
not say at this time just what policies or regulations will be introduced.”583 Apparently, the
proposal to continue the arrangement carried and the Hall was set to receive the students for

There were two students doing college at Niagara Falls in 1941-42, Maurice Hogan and James
Reilly.585 Getting the tuition payments from Flanagan required a bit of correspondence but
eventually, all was paid.586 The next year, he had five to send to Niagara Falls and this was
agreeable to the community there. That September, he would have six theologians and nine
college men at Whitefriars.587 One of the 1942-43 students, Raphael Webster, was found to be
deficient in Latin and the faculty at Niagara Falls thought it better he return to St. Albert's for the

      Flanagan Papers, Washington File, passim, ANYP.
      F to pastors, Bronx, Jan 15, 1942, ANYP.
      O'Dowd to F, NY, Feb 24, 1942; Lynn to F, Los Angeles, Feb 19, 1942, ANYP.
      Klasinski to F, Washington, Feb 17, 1942, ANYP.
      F to O'Neill, Bronx, May 13, 1942, ANYP.
      O'Neill to F, Joliet, June 4, 1942, ANYP.
      Same to same, Joliet, Aug 6, 1942, ANYP.
      Hogan to F, Niagara Falls, Jan 18, 1942; Haag to F, Niagara Falls, Jan 22, 1942, ANYP.
  F to Haag, Bronx, Jan 17, 1942; same to same, Bronx, May 19, 1942; Haag to F, Niagara Falls, May 29, 1942;
Cahill to F, Niagara Falls, June 15, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Haag, Bronx, Aug 20, 1942; Haag to F, Leavenworth, Aug 25, 1942; F to O'Neill, Bronx, Aug 28, 1942, ANYP.

completion of his high school Latin.588                   Flanagan wired, "Fr. Albert Daly is writing you
concerning studies of Raphael Webster."589                Apparently, the student remained.

One of the students had an uncle being married in Transfiguration in Tarrytown. His permission
to attend was denied by Flanagan despite the offer of his father to pay the fare.590 The petition
of another student to visit his brother, whom he had not seen in four years and was now entering
the service, received the reply, "It is altogether contrary to our customs."591

Looking forward to the summer, Emmanuel Hourihan visited the students and told them of the
vast amount of work to be done at St. Albert's. So in a rather veiled fashion they asked Flanagan
for summer plans mentioning this possibility.592 He ordered them to report to St. Albert's as
soon as they could after exams.593 Flanagan had to send the fare as American funds were not
obtainable because of currency regulations.594

From the time of the first vocations among the New York Carmelites, the students were sent to
Rome for their philosophy and theology studies. The schedule at San Alberto began with
meditation at 5:30 AM. There were three hours of class each day, an hour siesta and about three
hours of study. Silence was always observed in certain parts of the house. There was a required
walk of about two hours each day except Friday when there was choir practice.595

In those days there was no actual vocation recruitment but certain friends of the New York
Carmelites were on the lookout for likely prospects. The Carmelites in Moate, Ireland, and a
friend of Patrick Russell in Inverness, Quebec, were two such prospectors.596

During his 1927 vacation, Stephen Piskurich was allowed to go from Rome to Croatia to visit
relatives. While there, he was robbed of his funds and sent an urgent appeal to Ellas Magennis in

      Cahill to F, Niagara Falls, Sept 6, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Cahill, Bronx, Sept 9, 1942, telegram, ANYP.
      Le Blanc to F, Niagara Falls, Feb 9, 1943; F to Le Blanc, Bronx, Feb 12, 1943, ANYP.
      Hogan to F, Niagara Falls, Nov 22, 1942; F to Hogan, Bronx, Nov 30, 1942, ANYP.
      Fratres to F, Niagara Falls, Easter Tuesday, 1943; F to Fratres, Bronx, Apr 29, 1943, ANYP.
      Haag to F, Niagara Falls, May 16, 1943, ANYP.
      F to Haag, Los Angeles, May 24, 1943, ANYP.
      Schedule, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
  Doohan to F, Moate, Nov 30, 1930; Egan to F, Moate, July 2, 1932; Beaudoin, to Russell, Inverness, Jan 20, 1932,

Rome. He described his situation, "la mia condizione e desperata," Through a friend at the Irish
College, Ivor O'Hare, Magennis was able to get the necessary funds to Piskurich.597

Kevin Morrissey, Albert Schwartz and Joseph Larsen spent some time studying theology under
Simon Schmitt at Nablus, Palestine. Morrissey and Larsen were ordained there with one of the
Chicago Province's men on May 21, 1932. They both wondered if they were to go to the United
States.598 Both Larsen and Morrissey seem to have been sent to Rome for their final year of
theology. Disappointed at this prospect, Larsen wrote Flanagan saying he thought he was to visit
his mother in Denmark and return to the United States. He told how each was given only $37,50
from the $100 Flanagan had sent each. On complaint to Schmitt, Larsen was told to keep quiet.
He told Flanagan how horrible the two years before ordination were at Nablus and he did not
view the prospect of going to Rome and Doswald with any pleasure. As he put it, "I was not
glad when I learned that another year is in store for me under men who - salve reverentia -
sanctioned this."599 Life in Nablus was not pleasant and was complicated by the warfare of the
Moslems and Jews that kept the students indoors for periods of time.600

On their return from Rome, Sean Reid, Albert Daly, Bernard Daly and Kevin Morrissey seemed
to have been able to secure permission to visit Ireland, something not to be granted in the

Richard Nagle did his novitiate at Kinsale (1932-33).602 At his profession on October 19, 1933,
he was sent to Rome to do his philosophy at San Martino also known as Pio Undecimo.603

In the fall of 1934, Flanagan sent Hilary Grahame to Rome stating that he had had five years of
philosophy. The reason for the delay seems to have been the objections of John Maher to him.
But as Flanagan noted, "Vehemence of his accusations destroyed their effectiveness,"604 When
he had made his solemn profession in Rome, Grahame wrote Flanagan that he was trying to be
good to prove himself. Admitting his wrongs of the past, he stated he was the victim of
circumstances in Middletown. He recalled with some obvious fondness Flanagan's last words to

      Magennis to Antonio, Rome, Sept 18, 1927, CG, General! 2.
      Morrissey to F, Nablus, July 21, 1932; Schmitt to F, Nablus, Apr 12, 1932, Larsen File, ANYP.
      Larsen to F, Rome, Aug 21, 1932, ANYP.
      Morrissey to F, Nablus, n.d., ANYP.
      Daly to F, Rome, Apr 27, 1933; Reid to F, Rome, May 4, 1933; Daly to F, Rome, May 11, 1933, ANYP.
      Nagle, Personal File, ANYP.
      Nagle to F, Kinsale, Oct 18, 1933, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Sept 14, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).

him, "I will save you in spite of yourself."605 Ordained in December, 1937,606 Grahame wrote
Flanagan, as he was about to return to the United States, asking that because he had been away
from home for seven years, could he visit his family as long as possible so that he might try his
utmost to convert his brothers to the true faith.607 Flanagan replied that the best he could do
was give five weeks.608 Returning at the same time and asking for the same Irish visit was
Richard Nagle. He was told to come home directly,609 The manly and religious attitude with
which he accepted this order was observed and complimented.610

There were problems with the students in Rome. Louis Ulzheimer was suffering from a stomach
ailment and the suggestion was that he return to the United States.611 Flanagan suggested that
he be sent to Germany or Holland to continue his studies.612        Instead, he was sent back to
America and in the course of this negotiation, Flanagan invited John Brenninger to visit the
United States. He replied simply, "But there will never be the possibility."613

John McGrath was sent home from Rome for smoking and not doing as well as he could in his
studies. His appetite was seen as an expression of his materialism.614 McGrath spent some time
in Middletown but eventually was sent to Chicago to finish theology with the Chicago Province's
students and was ordained before Christmas, 1937.615

Gerard McCarthy tried to visit Ireland on his return from Rome but was told to return directly so
he could register for summer school at Fordham.616

      Grahame to F, Rome, Apr 8, 1936, ANYP.
      Whitefriars 4(Jan, 1938) 19.
      Grahame to F, Rome, May 2, 1938, ANYP.
      F to Grahame, Bronx, June 1, 1938, ANYP.
      F to Pausback, Bronx, June 1, 1938, ANYP.
      Pausback to F, Rome, June 18, 1938, ANYP.
      Brenninger to F, Rome, Mar 11, 1935, ANYP.
      F to Brenninger, Bronx, Apr 16, 1935, ANYP.
      Brenninger to F, Rome, May 4, 1935, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Oct 15, 1935; Driessen to F, Rome, Nov 16, 1935, ANYP.
      McGrath to Doswald, Middletown, Feb 12, 1936, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38); McGrath, Personal File, ANYP.
      McCarthy to F, Rome, May 9, 1935, ANYP; F to McCarthy, Bronx, May 28, 1935, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).

Stating that he had enough dead wood, Flanagan instructed the general in Rome not to advance
any of his students unless they improve in studies and observance. He called one student home
and asked that another repeat a year, so firm was he in his resolve.617

On his return to the United States, Albert Ward was given permission to visit his family in
England and then stop in Ireland. It was only after repeated requests that he was able to get the
funds to carry out his plans.618 He left on his tour June 30, 1937.619

Dionysius Murphy was ordained in Rome, July 10, 1938. During his fourth year, he became ill
but continued on through the year.620 He left Rome for Ireland where he rested until coming to
the United States.621

Brendan Hourihan was afflicted in Rome with some stomach trouble. During his first two years,
he was frequently ill but felt all right after that period. He had hopes of completing his course in
Rome.622 He did and was ordained there on July 9, 1939.623

John Howe and Columba Staunton also suffered from illness in Rome and sought to return to the
United States, To Howe, Flanagan wrote saying he was unduly worried and would write his
superiors to get him another doctor.624 To Staunton, he sent another type of letter. He blasted
him for obtaining permission from the general to visit his family in Ireland and overstaying his
time. Flanagan wondered why the illnesses he had did not appear when he was visiting Ireland.
He even attributed his doleful descriptions of his illness to his poor exam marks.625 Staunton
replied with a detailed defense of himself and his Ireland visit. He told Flanagan he would obey
his order to remain but resented his lack of trust.626 The end of the episode was that Flanagan
wrote Gabriel Pausback, assistant general, that he obtain a doctor to examine the two students

      F to Brenninger, Bronx, Aug 8, 1936; F to Doswald, Bronx, Aug 29, 1935, ANYP.
      Ward to F, Rome, Apr 15, 1937; same to same, Rome, May 25, 1937; same to same, Rome, June 21, 1937, ANYP.
      Chronica Coll., 19.
      Whitefriars 4(July, 1938) 218; (Aug, 1938) 254; AOC 10, 107; Hourihan to F, Rome, June 22, 1939, ANYP.
      Murphy to F, Moate, July 11, 1939; Brenninger to F, Rome, June 19, 1939, ANYP.
      Hourihan to F, Rome, June 22, 1939, ANYP.
      AOC 10, 336.
      Howe to F, Rome, July 20, 1939; F to Howe, Bronx, Aug 8, 1939, ANYP.
      Staunton to F, Rome, July 20, 1939; F to Staunton, Bronx, Aug 8, 1939, ANYP,
      Staunton to F, Vico Equesne, Aug 21, 1939, ANYP.

and then keep them there. As he said, he could not be paying for trips back and forth across the

As the fall of 1939 approached, conditions in Europe grew more and more ominous. Assurances
were given by the Vatican that in case of war, those foreigners who wanted to leave would be
allowed to go. As September began, there were some doubts whether school would start at San
Alberto.628 That October, Doswald sent all the students to their home countries.629

In 1936, a report was made to Rome on the vocation situation and the education of students in
the province. Four students were doing theology in Rome, one in Chicago; five were doing
college at Catholic University, one in Middletown and one at Niagara Falls. Maher, who made
up the list, stated that there were two other theologians in Rome and perhaps as an indication of
his anti-Irish attitude, stated that he knew nothing about them. They were Eugene McCallen and
Denis Murphy. Dionysius McCarthy, having finished third theology, was listed as domiciled in

St. Albert's had a faculty of seven and fifteen students not counting first year of high school.
They had five periods each morning and a half hour of religion each afternoon. Music and
Physical Training helped fill out the rest of the afternoon. The curriculum was strictly college

As a result of encouragement from one of his professors, Donald O'Callaghan undertook the task
of writing the history of the Carmelites in the United States. Flanagan allowed him-to spend the
summer at St. Simon Stock and do research. That same summer, Alphonsus Galligan asked to
attend summer school rather than go to St. Albert's. Openly, this was his ploy to avoid the
regime of John Maher at the seminary. When he learned that Maher was going to Europe that
summer, he gladly went to St. Albert's for the vacation period.631

When quieried by Thomas Ingrisano about the province's efforts towards establishing a mission
overseas, Flanagan replied that he had spoken to Archbishop O'Doherty [sic] of Manila in 1930

      F to Pausback, Bronx, Aug 17, 1939, ANYP.

      Pausback to F, Rome, Sept 5, 1939, ANYP.
      Chronica Coll., 28.
      [Maher] to Lynch, Middletown, Nov 29, 1936, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1931-64).
  Klasinski to F, Washington, May 20, 1938; F to Klasinski, Bronx, May 30, 1938; O'Callaghan to F, Washington,
May 30, 1938, ANYP.

and corresponded with Bishop Jurgens of Tuguegarao. Not willing to admit failure, Flanagan
said that Los Angeles was a halfway house to the Philippines.632

1944 saw Gregory Smith, Thomas Ingrisano and Gabriel Kearney ordained.633 A doubt about
third year ordination was fortunately dispelled634 and 1946 saw Philip Dolan and Leonard Love
ordained.635 The next year, they were followed by Jerome Bauer, Vincent McDonald, Francis
Donohue, James Reilly and Lawrence Mooney.636 The number of priests ordained these years
allowed the province to improve its manpower situation, Especially were they an aid, with their
degrees from Catholic University, in staffing the training facilities of the province.

In the commissariate days, there was no person actually working on vocations. All applications
came to the commissary general who with his advisors made the decision on admission,
Jeremiah O'Mahoney, on his apostolate work with the Catholic Church Extension Society, was a
valuable source of prospects.637 Padraig Quinn of East 19th Street did many of the medical
exams required in the application process, A number of men from St. Simon Stockwere among
those interested and accepted. In the time that he was Flanagan’s vicar, Francis Ronayne seems
to have literally hustled around for vocations.638

The war did cause a decrease in the number of prospects due to conscription but no student had
to serve and in this sense, the war did not injure the vocation picture.639

It was not until 1943, that Flanagan sent Alphonsus Galligan traveling through New England and
upstate New York to talk in schools and recruit students. He also tried to raise funds for the
missions where he was able to get in on the Mission Cooperative Plan, In the spring of 1943, he
was taken from this work and Albert Daly did some of the bookings he had made. In late 1943,
Galligan entered the service as a chaplain and his vocation work ended.640

      F to Ingrisano, Bronx, Nov 24, 1938, ANYP.
      Sword 8(1944) 223-4.
      Doswald to Brenninger, Chicago, May 22, 1945, CG, General. 2.
      Sword 10 (1946) 207-8, 216.
      Ibid., 11(1947) 180-3.
      Isacsson, "Msgr. Jeremiah P. O'Mahoney," Occasional Papers.
      Ronayne Papers, ANYP,
      Vinculum 1, 68.
      Vocation File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.

In that same year, Columba Downey was stationed at Tarrytown and did vocation work. He
advertised and spoke in schools. He received many favorable responses and his efforts
accounted for the rise in enrollment at St. Albert's. In 1945 and 1946, Donald O'Callaghan and
Gregory Smith spoke in schools recruiting for St. Albert's. They assisted Finbar Lynn who had
been assigned as vocation director for the province.641

      Vocation File, ANYP; Vinculum 1, 69.

                                                         Chapter 6

                                                  The Scapular Militia

In 1938, Donald O'Callaghan, as a student, wrote an article for the Sword called, "A Scapular
Bureau." The article was concerned with establishing in each country a bureau that would collate
Scapular miracles and publish them as a means of fostering Scapular devotion. The second
recommendation of the article was that each parish should publicize each week the indulgences
that could be obtained by Scapular wearers on various feasts.642

This idea took the form of reality but not for the above purposes. A scapular bureau, called the
Scapular Militia, was established at the 28th Street parish in the spring of 1941. There is no
documentation to establish the exact date or the people who originated the idea. Hilary Doswald
said four years after the foundation that "Pausback and I" conceived the idea of giving a Scapular
or Scapular medal to every Catholic in the armed forces. The venture was approved by
Archbishop Spellman and the Militia achieved its goal and reawakened Scapular devotion in the
United States. He further said that John Matthias Haffert became the head of the Scapular
Militia after the departure of Gabriel Pausback to Australia.643

John Matthias Haffert had been a student with the Chicago Province and after leaving the order
when he was not promoted to solemn vows, he was hired by Dionysius Flanagan to teach French
at St. Albert's. He was grateful to Flanagan for this position and dedicated an issue of the
students' publication, La Presse de St. Albert to Flanagan.644 While at St. Albert's, Haffert taught
a course on the Scapular. From his notes for this course, he intended to write a book. He sent an
outline to Doswald for his approval.645 The book, Mary in Her Scapular Promise, was published
in 1940 and went through a number of editions and printings. That same year, Haffert began
lecturing on the Scapulr to various groups.646

In that spring of 1941, Gabriel Pausback began the Scapular Militia with $400 by publucizing its
institution and purpose. He sought letters of support and approval from the bishops of the

      Sword 2 (1938) 441.
   Doswald to Brenninger, Bronx, Apr 29, 1945, CG, General! 2; Norbert Piper, "The Scapular Militia," Sword 6
(1942) 46-7.
      Haffert to F, Middletown, June 5, 1939, ANYP.
      Haffert to Doswald, Middletown, Feb 9, 1940, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      Haffert to F, Sea Isle City, Sept 30, 1940; F to Haffert, Bronx, Oct 7, 1940, ANYP.

country and received these from at least fifteen bishops. That July 16, the Scapular shrine at the
28th Street church was rededicated and the then Monsignor Fulton Sheen preached for the
occasion. Volunteers were sought to make Scapulars, purchasing the panels, cloth, strings ans
sewing instructions from the Militia. The finished Scapulars were sent to the Militia who offered
them gratis to chaplains. Each Scapular was inserted into a printed leaflet. John M. Haffert
began working for the Militia and also promoted his book through the organization.647 Flanagan
obtained approval for a new translation of the Flos Carmeli for use by the Militia.648

April 7, 1941, Haffert wrote Flanagan to say that he had been working on the idea of a magazine,
getting ideas, training and planning. He intended to see both Flanagan and Pausback to explain
the venture to them. He was also appreciative of Flanagan's encouragement in the venture.649
Within a few days, he sent Flanagan an outline of the editorial plan of the publication. He
planned a circulation of 5000 with expenses estimated at $8000 and income at $9500. His salary
would be $25 a week and he had already solicited articles. He also had the personnel he planned
to sign up.650 Flanagan held a meeting of his definitory and they were so opposed to the
magazine idea, expressed by their negative votes, that Flanagan could do nothing.651

Haffert then proposed a Marian magazine that would be published by a number of orders. Each
order would have four pages for itself and 4000 subscriptions would easily pay the costs. The
Scapular Press, founded by Haffert for his book, would be the publisher. In presenting this
proposal to Flanagan, he recalled to him that he had brought him to New York to begin a
magazine.652 Though the Marian Fathers were interested in the venture, Flanagan said he could
do nothing because only he on the definitory was in favor of the proposal.653 Pausback was
opposed to the joint magazine apparently on the grounds that without territorial division among
the orders, the different editions would conflict in distribution.654

  Whitefriars 3(Sept-Oct, 1941) 187; New York Times, July 17, 1942; Scapular Militia Scrapbooks; Definitory
Minutes, Apr 15, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Apr 1, 1941; Mclntyre to F, NY, Apr 12, 1941, ANYP.
      Haffert to F, Sea Isle City, Apr 7, 1941, ANYP.
      Same to same, Sea Isle City, Apr 10, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Haffert, Bronx, Apr 15, 1941, ANYP.
      Haffert to F, [Sea Isle Citv], Apr 17, 1941, ANYP.
  Same to same, [Sea Isle City], Apr 19, 1941; F to Haffert, [Bronx]. , May 2, 1941; Definitory Minutes, Apr 15,
1941, ANYP.
      Haffert to F, Sea Isle City, May 4, 1941, ANYP.

Though Haffert at one time seems to have abandoned the idea of the cooperative magazine, he
was still working on it. He also found time to deliver a mixed complaint. He expressed to
Flanagan that the Scapular Militia was going ahead like an express train without "the greatest
possible care about track-laying.655

Kilian Lynch was opposed to the magazine because he felt a religious ought to be in charge.
Haffert had the Montfort Fathers interested and was still working on other orders.656 Within a
few weeks, he had to abandon the magazine idea because of his work at the Scapular Militia.657

While working at the Militia, Pausback also was involved in Third Order work. On one occasion
in 1942, he received 500 at Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Church in Brooklyn raising the chapter's
enrollment to 1183.658

The May, 1941, issue of Ecclesiastical Review had an article by John M. Haffert entitled,
"Scapular or Scapular-Medal." In the article Haffert stated that a grave reason was needed to
substitute the medal for the cloth Scapular.659

That fall, Pausback sent a Scapular medal to Rome asking for an opinion on its validity. It was
being distributed by a non-Carmelite group to the military.660 No reply is extant but this request
shows the concern of the Militia over such matters and a desire to control the Scapular business.

A press release sent out by Gabriel Pausback covered an interview with Hilary Doswald on the
material needed to make a valid Scapular. Doswald called the sale of invalid felt Scapulars a
"grave injustice to millions of Scapular wearers throughout the United States."661 The Militia
also sent out a general letter citing, but not giving the specific source - the Ecclesiastical Review
to the effect that Scapulars must be made of wool. Felt Scapulars, especially those in some First
Communion sets, were classed as invalid.662 Francis Mclntyre, vicar general, sent a handwritten
memo to Flanagan suggesting it would be better to see the makers of such invalid Scapulars

      Same to same, [Sea Isle City], May 6, 1941, ANYP.
      Same to same, Sea Isle City, May 8, 1941, ANYP.
      Same to same, NY", May 27, 1941, ANYP.
      Vinculum 3, 198.
      Ecclesiastical Review (May, 1941) 104.
      Pausback to Couto, NY, Oct 22, 1941, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      Press release, Scapular Militia, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
      General letter, Scapular Militia, Apr 13, 1942, ANYP.

rather than injuring the good faith of so many.663 Flanagan pointed out to Mclntyre that the
companies making such invalid Scapulars had been seen but they persisted in their course and
hence the interview with Doswald as an attempt to correct the problem. He then rather boldly
told Mclntyre that he could have phrased his comments a little more delicately.664

The conflict over the Scapular material seems to have ended at this point but there was a
continuing debate over the Scapular versus the Scapular medal though the course of the war.
The Militia, it would seem, did distribute the medals for use especially in warm climates like the
Pacific area. The curia was slow in deciding whether the medal could replace the Scapular but a
statement was finally issued by Doswald and Pausback on December 25, 1946. This reprinted an
article by Bartholomew Xiberta from II Monte Carmelo. The decree of Pius X allowing the
medal extended the indulgences and favors of the cloth Scapular to the medal but expressed the
wish to maintain the traditional use of Scapulars. The medal substituted for the cloth but only the
latter embodied perfectly the spirit of the devotion. To say the medal is only tolerated was cited
as an error; it substitutes for the Scapular. Xiberta's article was cited as the sensus communis of
the order. "Consequently, it is the duty, the sacred duty, of a Carmelite to stress and preach the
cloth Scapular. It is also the duty of a Carmelite to give the medal freely to whosoever asks for
it." Provincials were then made responsible for any article on the Scapular and medal published
under their jurisdiction. Articles on the Scapular and medal, presumably by Carmelites, must be
sent first to the curia for approval.665 So with this, the position of the order on the Scapular and
medal was clearly stated.

Haffert in his work was the principal catalyst for such a statement. By his language and
emphasis, he presented the medal as something less than the Scapular. His statements in the early
days of the Militia were very strong and really not in accord with the decree of Pius X.

The Scapular Militia, beginning in the spring of 1941, composed a series of leaflets stating the
purpose and goals of the organization. "A Scapular and Medal for Every Catholic Service Man,"
was the motto.666 Degrees of membership in the Militia were according to the number of
Scapulars made. Instructions on making Scapulars and an explanation of the devotion were
also made up.667 Into that fall, the work went on to the point where in October, 50,000
Scapulars were completed with another 100,000 in process. Pausback also tried to preach in

      Mclntyre to F, NY, n.d., memo, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Nov 29, 1941,(third version) ANYP.
      "The Scapular and the Medal," (Rome, 1947), CG, Generali 2.
      O'Hara to F, NY, May 2, 1941; Scapular Militia Scrapbooks, ANYP.
      Pausback to F, NY, July 11, 1941, ANYP.

every Carmelite parish to raise funds for the Militia.668   From St. Raphael's, where he did not
preach, $25 was sent as a contribution.669

Haffert wrote Flanagan a potentially dangerous letter. He stated that he had heard a rumor
Flanagan wanted to make the Scapular Press, the organization Haffert had created as the
publisher of his Scapular book, the official organ of the province to distribute the work Haffert
was doing.670 Flanagan seemingly did not reply.

The fact that Haffert, a layman, was giving lectures on the Scapular was a problem for the vicar
general of New York, Francis McIntyre. One lecture at the Assisium was supposed to have been
attended by McIntyre but he had to leave before the lecture. Haffert regretted this absence
saying that if McIntyre had heard this simple essay on the Scapular, he would have urged Haffert
to repeat it as "frequently and ubiquitously" as possible.671 This letter, sent to McIntyre and a
similar one sent to Archbishop Spellman, were forwarded to Flanagan for his comments.672

Flanagan regretted that Haffert was persisting in his Scapular lectures and that these were a
source of annoyance to the archbishop. Flanagan also saw McIntyre and mentioned in his
comments that he had told Haffert the Carmelites would not sponsor or approve any lectures in
New York. Flanagan had known nothing of the Assisium lecture which Haffert had arranged on
his own though he did use the Militia's stationery. He then assured McIntyre that as long as
Haffert was associated with the Carmelites, he would not lecture in New York on any subject.673
Haffert also went to see Mclntyre and reported that he was at first antagonistic but did give him
permission to lecture in New York.674 His version, if true, was never put into practice. Haffert
would give many Scapular lectures outside of New York, but it seems he never gave any more in
New York during Flanagan's time.

The Scapular appeared first under the date of January-February, 1942 as an 8 1/2" by 11" four
page publication. It was totally concerned with the work of the Scapular Militia and contained a
list of "Unit Builders."675

      F to pastors, [Bronx], Oct 16, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Russell, £Eronx7, Oct 29, 1942, ANYP.
      Haffert to F, NY, Sept 1, 1947, ANYP.
      Haffert to McIntyre, NY, Dec 17, 1941, ANYP.
      Mclntyre to F, NY, Dec 18, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, [Bronx], Dec 23, 1941, ANYP.
      Pausback to F, NY, Dec 31, 1941, ANYP.
      Scapular Militia Scrapbooks, ANYP.

Augustine Carter, then the student body president at Mt. Carmel in Los Angeles, sent the Militia
a donation of $100 that had been raised by a St. Patrick's Day dance.676

As the Scapular Militia grew in its work, a number of problems developed concerning personnel
and living arrangements. Pausback, for instance, was living at 28th Street but was not offering
the house intention. He appealed that curia funds are separate and that he did a lot of supply
work in the parish. The community, however, was going to bring the matter to the general's

John Haffert conceived a plan by which the organization would be divided into the Scapular
Bureau and the Scapular Militia. The Bureau and the Militia would each have separate accounts
and functions. Pausback would direct the Bureau; Haffert would be its co-director. Haffert would
be the director of the Militia and Pausback the Religious Director. He thought the time ripe for
such a division as Pausback would be returning to Rome after the war. Another reason was that
both divisions were in their infancy and could be corrected and amended in their operations.
Haffert also enclosed a contract for himself.678

The day after he wrote this letter to Flanagan, Haffert issued a press release stating that Pausback
would take care of all problems relating to the Scapular brought up by the clergy and would care
for the shrine. Haffert would take charge of the Militia. The announcement made an
accomplished fact what he had proposed to Flanagan. Pausback sent this release to Flanagan
with the request that the two of them talk before the forthcoming definitory meeting.679

Almost a month later, nothing had been done about the proposal sent Flanagan by Haffert.
Pausback wrote telling how much work the Militia was doing, what the assets were and how
much the organization had done for the parish. He then got down to the real business by saying
that because he was not in charge, Haffert was going to work for the Militia only three days a
week for $20 a week. Pausback feared this amount of time would not be sufficient to defer him
from the draft as an essential worker. Pausback approved the plan submitted by Haffert for the
division saying that character and temperment inclined him to the position where he had to be in
charge. He suggested a trial period for this division when he would be absent from the office,
August 15 to September 12.680 Flanagan was not moved and insisted that he would do nothing

      Carter to F, Los Angeles, Mar 18, 1942; F to Carter, [Bronx], Mar 23, 1942, ANYP.
      Pausback to F, NY, May 11, 1942, ANYP.
      Haffert to F, NY, July 8, 1942, ANYP.
      Pausback to F, NY, July 9, 1942, ANYP.
      Same to same, NY, Aug 3, 1942, ANYP.

about Haffert's place in the Militia until he had spoken with Pausback. He told Pausback he
would be meeting with the definitory around the end of August.681

Meanwhile, the Chicago Province, in order to cooperate more fully with the Scapular Militia,
asked that one of their members be on the Board of Directors.682 Doswald nominated Silverius
Quigley for the post. To this Flanagan agreed.683

The definitory meeting was held on September 21, 1942. It approved of a board composed of
Pausback, Quigley, Sean Reid, Mel Daly and, of course, Flanagan. The plan advanced by
Pausback and Haffert was approved but the provincial and the board of directors were to write
the job descriptions. Haffert was to be paid $35 a week and would receive ten percent of the
gross above $15,000 and also ten percent of the net profit.684

Pausback passed these decisions on to Haffert who was not pleased by them. He saw as the
problem that power was not in the hands of guiding director - himself - but in the hands of the
on-looking co-director, Pausback. Haffert said he earned the Militia's money but had no say in
spending it. He wanted to build up a working capital of several thousand to organize self-
supporting units. He also wanted to be able to spend the funds he amassed with the co-agreement
of another but not at the total disposition of another. The Bureau funds were separated from
those of the Militia and he had started a separate fund for the shrine to further conserve the
Militia's funds. Haffert would take care of the Militia fund and he said Pausback could have the
other two for his "general hobbies." He also said that he loved Pausback so much that he would
limp along with a debt rather than hurt him. That, he said, was the reason he sought a new
course through the definitory.685 Haffert was not satisfied with the way things were going under
the direction of Pausback's leadership and sought more control to develop the Militia in the
direction he wanted.

Daly, Reid and Flanagan, members of the board of directors of the Militia, met on October 6. A
suggestion by Mel Daly that Haffert be on the board was tabled until Flanagan could get the
definitory's consent. The bank accounts and the signatures required on checks were also
discussed. The agreement with Haffert was reviewed and it was agreed that he could be
dismissed only for incompetence. The financial arrangements were also restated.686 Two days

      F to Pausback, /Bronx/, Aug 4, 1942, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, New Baltimore, Aug 20, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Aug 24, 1942, ANYP.
      Definitory Minutes, Sept 21, 1942; F to Doswald, Bronx, Sept 22, 1942, ANYP.
      Haffert to F, NY, Sept 24, 1942, ANYP.
      Minutes, Oct 6, 1942, ANYP.

later, another meeting of the board was held with the same three members present along with
Haffert himself. Previous decisions of the definitory on the separation of functions at the office
were approved, Haffert's salary was reviewed and the basis for dismissal was gone over. To this,
however, six months notice was added. One new item established was board membership. It
was to be composed of the provincial, the religious and lay directors of the Scapular Apostolate -
a new term, one appointee of the Chicago Province and two by the New York definitory. The
religious director was to be appointed by the definitory. The vote, should it occur for Haffert's
incompetency, had to be two thirds. Two signatures were required on each bank account. The
activities of the Bureau and the Militia were listed.687 The ownership of the Scapular Press was
later transferred to the Carmelites in 1943.688

The work of the Militia continued on during the war. Haffert also promoted Mary in Her
Scapular Promise through his work and Flanagan sent many copies to various sisters and
convents.689 A new in-house organ, Scapular Militia Leader's Bulletin, was begun to effect
better organization and communication.690

As Donald O'Callaghan was finishing his theological studies in 1944, it was apparent that he was
to become the replacement for Pausback at the Scapular Apostolate. Pausback had left in 1944
to visitate the Australian Province. A misunderstanding had arisen between Flanagan and
Haffert earlier that year.691 Pausback also wrote from Australia to impress upon Flanagan the
need for O'Callaghan to work full time at the Scapular Apostolate in order to keep John Haffert
in line and the whole movement within the confines of Catholic theology and philosophy. As a
Marian movement, it was important to have a Carmelite involved.692 In replying to Pausback,
Flanagan mentioned that it would be that May, 1944, that Donald O'Callaghan would take over.
Flanagan saw difficulties but he and Kilian Lynch were going to talk with Haffert about them
before O’Callaghan would take over.693

The Scapular had begun as a newsletter for the Scapular Militia. Haffert expanded and
developed it until it became a bi-monthly magazine. All of this was done without any
authorization by the definitory and in a period when the province was committed to publishing a

      Minutes, Oct 8, 1942, ANYP.
      Definitory Minutes, Sept 20, 1943, ANYP.
      Haffert File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
      Scapular Militia File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
      Haffert to Haffert (Fr. J), NY, Mar 20, [1944], ANYP.

      Pausback to F, Melbourne, Mar 28, 1944, ANYP.
      F to Pausback, Bronx, May 11, 1944, ANYP.

co-operative edition of The Carmelite Review. After 0'Callaghan was assigned to the Militia
office, he asked that The Scapular be the province's official publication. No answer was apparent
at that definitory meeting but the magazine did become this in actuality. At the time, the
Militia's financial report showed it with a $14,000 profit but this was mostly assets.694

Two years later, it was acknowledged that The Scapular had become the official publication of
the province when the arrangements with The Carmelite Review ceased.695

With the war ended and the demand for Scapulars declined, the income of the Scapular Militia
just about ceased. A meeting of what seems to be a few more than the board of directors was
held on January 28, 1946, to discuss this problem of income. No conclusion was reached at the
meeting but another session was scheduled for the end of February.696

With the arrival of Donald 0*Callaghan on the scene, the days of John M. Haffert at the Scapular
Apostolate were numbered. The reason for bringing Donald into this work seems to have been
to control Haffert. So from the very reason for his presence, forgetting the two personalities, a
conflict was inevitable. The actual conflict and its culmination cannot be gone into at this time.
Some beginnings can be seen in a letter of Haffert to Flanagan in which he states that he had
been offered a house in the Bronx for a year, rent free. 697 Then in another to 0'Callaghan, he
complained of office inefficiency and pointed out three areas that three men should be
promoting: Christmas cards, Scapular manufacturing and the Pilgrim Virgin.698 It would seem
that Haffert had already decided to expand into these areas and this was his way of informing
O'Callaghan. This was the beginning of a great war.

      Definitory Minutes, July 5, 1944, ANYP.
      Ibid., Jan 28, 1946, ANYP.
      Minutes, Jan 28, 1946, ANYP.
      Haffert to F, (?), Aug 16, 1947, ANYP.
      Haffert to O’Callaghan(?). Aug 16, 1947, ANYP.

                                                        Chapter 7


Records of the finances of the commissariate and the province are quite complete. From them,
we have a good idea of how hard the Carmelites worked in this period and how much they
contributed to the general welfare of the order. The system followed in the early days of the
commissariate was that the surplus of each house was sent to the Commissary Fund. In some
years, there was a quota for each community. Gradually, this formalized system faded and the
surplus simply was sent or requested for this commissary/provincial fund,

A twenty year statement made in 1946 gives us a view of the major sources of income and the
expenses of the group.

Income from the Little Flower Society: $232,035,69

Purchase of four parcels at St. Albert's: $26,250.00

O'Connor Hall: $228,996.08

Contributions to Rome (San Alberto, San Martino, General): $34,197.88

Mt. Carmel High School construction, Los Angeles: $101,249.00

New kitchen facilities at St. Albert's:

$29,831.26 Renovation of The Thistles, St. Albert's: $45,603,03

Purchase and repair of Whitefriars, Auburn: $34,864,65

St. Raphaels' Los Angeles, made a contribution of $2500 in 1936 and Mt. Carmel a total
contribution of $8730.26 in 1943 and 1945.699

In 1926 there was a quota for each house and the surplus from the fathers' account was sent to
the Commissary Fund. Even though $11,000 was spent on maintenance at St. Albert's, there was
a surplus of $20,000 that year.

With the Little Flower Society contributing $45,000 in 1927 and a donation of $14,500 to San
Martino, that year ended with a surplus of $72,160 plus $24,850 in securities. 1928 ended with a
surplus of a little over $25,000.

1.         Twenty Year Statement, 1926-46, P.S.E., N.Y., CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).

The Little Flower Society contributed almost $57,000 in 1929 and this was fortunate because
$102,643.17 was spent on O'Connor Hall in addition to $18,705.72 for seminary maintenance.
The surplus that year was only $9000 but $17,000 was paid off a construction loan of $19,754.

The contributions of the houses in 1930 were as follows:

St. Simon Stock: almost $12,000             Transfiguration: $3450

28th Street: $10,000                        Our Lady of Mt. Carmel: $3200

That year, $23,000 was paid off on loans and the Little Flower Society brought in $45,000
leaving $43,197.34 in savings remaining that year.

The savings in 1931 grew to almost $63,000 despite a contribution of $10,000 to San Martino.
$19,042.22 was loaned to Tarrytown in 1932. In this year, the accounts are difficult to follow
because the surplus is placed among the expenses as a "bank deposit." Despite the Tarrytown
loan, the savings seem about the same as at the end of the previous year.

The general received $5000 in 1933 and there was almost $30,000 in savings at the end of that

The expenses for 1931-34 were $137,711.89 with an income of $161,606.59 for the same period.
The surplus of $23,894.70 combined with the savings of $43,197.34 at the start of the period
gave a total surplus of $67,092.04 for the three years.

$91,000 was spent for Mt. Carmel, Los Angeles, from July, 1934 to June, 1935. July, 1935 to
June, 1936 saw a loan of $20,000 to St. Raphael's and in the following year, $7109 was spent for
building at Mt. Carmel. Despite these expenses, there was a balance of $32,044.50 for this three
year period plus over $42,000 in loans made by the province.

In 1937-38, $8000 was loaned to Tarrytown. From 1937 to 1940, $42,267.55 was spent to
purchase property in Washington and at St. Albert's. Despite these major outlays, the balance at
the end of the fiscal year in 1940 was $41,353.17.

The period of 1940-43 ended with $138,038.35 in cash, securities and loans outstanding in Los
Angeles and the Bronx.

Quotas for the parishes disappeared from reports in 1943-46 and despite this, $157,268.26 was
the reserve fund at the close of this time.

The first time that buildings and property are figured into assets is in 1949. The total then was
$1,933,422.80 and of this amount, $135,797.80 was in liquid assets.

In 1947, at the beginning of the provincialate of Patrick Russell, the province was in good
financial condition. The Auburn purchase and renovations, the purchase of Mt. Carmel,

Williamstown and the subsequent building there, the purchase of Tamaqua and subsequent
expenditures, the building program at St. Albert's all reduced the savings of the province and
created large debts that placed the finances of the province in a precarious position.700

   All financial reports cited can be found in Financial Reports, Houses and Province, ANYP and CG, Am Sti Eliae

                                                       Chapter 8

                                                    To the Other Sea

Bishop John Cantwell of Los Angeles and his superintendent of schools, Monsignor McNichols,
were friends of the Carmelites. They were acquainted with Elias Magennis, his successor as
general, Hilary Doswald and, of course, Dionysius Flanagan. Cantwell was desirous of
obtaining religious priests for his diocese especially for the work of education. Magennis visited
him in Los Angeles in the fall of 1933 and shortly afterwards, Cantwell visited Flanagan at St.
Simon Stock and offered him a high school in Los Angeles. 701 Flanagan was interested and
intended to visit Los Angeles early in 1934 to look over prospects. At this point Rome was
encouraging. Flanagan's definitory was ambivalent. McGleenan thought it should be left to the
chapter in case there was a new superior and Magennis advised caution.702 Before he left for the
west, Flanagan wrote Cardinal Hayes seeking an interview with the purpose of seeking his

Flanagan left with Patrick Russell by train for Los Angeles around the middle of January.
Reading what Flanagan wrote Doswald before he left New York, it would seem that he had
already made up his mind to accept the new foundation. Cantwell was to give the Carmelites a
piece of property he had paid $42,000 for and the order would build and staff the school.704
Flanagan and Russell met with eleven priests and Bishop Cantwell at Holy Cross Rectory in Los
Angeles on January 30. The need for the school to develop leadership and counteract communist
meetings for youth were the reasons for the school. It was brought out that Elias Magennis had
asked to start a college for men. This was changed to a high school on the advice of the bishop
who assured Magennis of their cooperation though they could not render financial assistance.

The bishop would give the Carmelites the property, tuition would be collected by the Carmelites,
the school would begin with the ninth and tenth grades and the diocese would give the
Carmelites $3000 a year for the upkeep of their residence.705 This last condition was changed to

      F to Cantwell, Bronx, Dec 16, 1933; Definitory Minutes, Oct 6, 1933, ANYP.
  McNichols to Doswald, Los Angeles, Jan 3, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38); Doswald to Flanagan, Rome, Jan,
1934, ANYP.
      Definitory Minutes, Dec 12, 1933, ANYP.
      Flanagan to Hayes, Bronx, Jan 11, 1934, DA.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Jan 12, 1934, ANYP.

a period of three years in the contract. Flanagan and Russell had met with Bishop Cantwell on
January 25 and Flanagan had learned the price of the property had been $57,000 and Cantwell
promised to buy two more lots. Flanagan insisted on meeting with the neighboring pastors and it
was at a dinner with them that the bishop announced the high school. In a moment of weakness
that he would later regret, Flanagan let out that he could allot $80,000 to $90,000 for the school
without burdening the province too much.706

February must have been spent by Flanagan and Russell looking for builders. Around the
middle of the month a firm had been chosen and its estimate for the school was $85,000 against
an appropriation of $75,000 that Flanagan had given. Russell and Flanagan were staying at the
Savoy Hotel but towards the end of that month, Flanagan returned east and Russell moved to St.
Mary Magdalen Rectory, He also requested power from Flanagan to act in the name of the
corporation should it be decided to begin construction immediately.707

Flanagan's efficiency in keeping Rome informed of his plans was a bit of his own undoing. It
did at least cause him a problem, Doswald wrote Flanagan that he was in favor of expansion and
realized the province needed places outside of New York but he questioned this first expansion
being so far away. He was aware it would be a pity to lose this opportunity for the order. He
had two principal objections: "Man power" and "Money power," Because the school would have
to be run according to the educational system of California, men qualified for that state would
have to be available. If not, a bad reputation would result and such was almost impossible to
remove. Doswald thought much money would be needed to go beyond the initial period. The
school must become self-supporting and this was not true generally of educational institutions.
Another source of income should be present to supplement the school. He suggested a parish but
Flanagan, he noted, did not mention such. Doswald suggested that Flanagan study these two
points carefully and then investigate how much school $100,000 would build. Hold the province
chapter and let them make the decision was his advice. The responsibility would then be shared
by many and there would be enthusiastic cooperation in the province.708

With Flanagan back in the east and Russell alone on the coast, the stage was set, principally due
to the lack of today's speed in communication, for a number of problems and misunderstandings.
Russell sent the school's blueprints east709 and at a meeting in Tarrytown on March 6, they were
approved.710 Meanwhile Russell had to sign a contract on the west coast without the proper

      Minutes, Jan 30, 1934, ANYP.
   Agreement, Bishop of Los Angeles and San Diego and the Missionary Society of Our Lady of Mount Carmel of
the State of New York, Feb 14, 1934; F to Doswald, Los Angeles, Feb 10, 1934, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Feb 27, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      F to Russell, Bronx, Mar 5, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, NY, Mar 7, 1934, telegram, ANYP.

authorization because Flanagan had not sent it. He also made minor changes on the first floor of
the school.711

It was only on March 13 that Flanagan sent Russell a copy of Doswald’s "manpower and money
power" letter. He called it a cold shower that would do no harm but cautioned Russell not to go
beyond the plans.712 That same day there was

a meeting in Middletown about the whole Los Angeles project. Flanagan wrote that very day to
say the plans and contract were approved and that the cost should be kept to $75,000 or less and
that it could not go over $80,000. Magennis was present at the meeting and Flanagan described
him as being more enthused than he had recently seen him.713 Then Russell's letters began to
arrive in the east. He wrote Flanagan to say that he agreed with Doswald's "manpower and
money power" letter but wanted to know why he waited so long to send it. Now he, Russell, had
to face the clergy and laity to whom immediate progress had been promised.714 Writing
Flanagan again the next day, Russell pointed out that if the general's letter got out, he would be
seen as having no authority and representing nothing. This situation Russell saw as of their own
making as Flanagan acted without authority.715 Russell also wrote Doswald saying that he had
signed the contract, the plans were approved by Flanagan and his definitory and that he had the
sad duty of facing the bishop and priests and telling them that there would not be a September
opening because of Doswald's letter. He then answered each of Dosald's objections. Unknown to
Russell, Flanagan wrote in the same vein to the general.716

 Flanagan in the east seems to have become aware of the terrible situation in which Russell saw
himself. He and Magennis wrote and telegraphed Russell to encourage him to continue on, that
all needed approval had been given and that the letter of the general changed nothing.717 In
reponse to this small barrage, Russell rejoined that he had taken caution from Flanagan's own
letter to him curtailing expenses. If Doswald's idea of getting chapter approval was accepted,
then the promised September opening would not be possible. He also let on to Flanagan that he

      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Mar 10, 1934, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Mar 13, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, Middletown, Mar 13, 1934, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Mar 19, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angles, Mar 20, 1934, ANYP.
  Russell to Doswald, Los Angles, Mar 19, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38); F to Doswald, Bronx, Mar 26, 1934,
   Russell to F, Los Angeles, Mar 21, 1934; F to Russell, Bronx, Mar 23, 1934; Magennis to Russell, Tarrytown, Mar
23, 1934, ANYP.

had written Magennis for advice because it was through his influence that the foundation became
possible.718 He seemed to be trying to explain the source of his upset.

In early April, the approval of Rome was given and sent on to both Flanagan and Russell. In his
covering letter, Doswald just about apologized for his "manpower and money power" letter. He
said it was meant as a help and not to stop the school. He repeated the place must have another
source of income besides the school's tuition.719 Russell in his own gentlemanly way thanked
both Flanagan and Doswald and expressed his own happiness. He expected construction to begin
May 1.720

Baker and Low, architects for the school, received and opened the bids. All came in over
$100,000 because of soil conditions and the fact that a basement was being built. The architects
revised the specifications. Theycalled for deeper footings and a wooden structure to serve in
place of the basement cafeteria, hoping to keep the construction within the range of $75,000.721
The new bids were opened and the best price was $78,500. Patrick Russell telegraphed Flanagan
to ask if he should accept.722 In a reply telegram, the provincial told Russell, "Don't hurry."
Then he went on to write Russell if he had checked out a hot water system that a man named
Dixon had come to see Flanagan in the Bronx about.723 It is easy to imagine Russell on the
receipt of this telegram. With a September opening confronting him, he is given a caution flag
by the provincial. Flanagan seemed to place all kinds of obstacles in the way of achieving a goal
he himself had told Russell to achieve. Russell explained that the lowest bid was by Petley of
Santa Monica and that heating was separate. He did see Dixon about the new method of hot
water heat and the matter was being taken up by the chancellor and the bishop. He confessed
that he had so many disappointments in the past months that he was set for the worst but he did
need a decision from Flanagan.724 His fears materialized. Flanagan telegraphed on May 4 that
he should not sign a contract as the definitory was not happy with the elimination of the
cafeteria.725 Around the time of the arrival of the telegram, Flanagan's letter of May 2 must have

      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Mar 26, 1934, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Apr 5, 1934, two letters, Doswald to Russell, Rome, Apr 5, 1934, cable and letter, ANYP.
   Russell to F, Los Angeles, Apr 9, 1934, ANYP; Russell to Doswald, Los Angeles, Apr 11, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae
   Report, Barker & Low, Los Angeles, n.d.; Barker to F, Los Angeles, Apr 18, 1934; Russell to F, Los Angeles, Apr
30, 1934, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, May 3, 1934, telegram, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, May 3, 1934, telegram; same to same, Bronx, May 3, 1934, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, May 4, 1934; same to same, Beverly Hills, May 4, 1934, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Tarrytown, May 4, 1934, telegram, ANYP.

arrived. In it, he told Russell how Magennis was sailing that day for Ireland and would try to get
two Irish Carmelites to come and teach in the school. That day, he was further promoting the
school by sending Russell the needed authorization to act in the name of the Carmelite
corporation despite the fact that Hastings had disappeared and Smyth was resting in a sanitarium,
both being trustees.726 At this point Russell must have wondered what he was supposed to do in
view of receiving such conflicting signals.

Flanagan wrote that the problem, as he saw it, was that he and the definitory both wanted the
cafeteria not only as an eating site but also for use as a hall. Putting in the cafeteria would mean
going over the estimated cost, contracting a debt and having mortgage payments to make. He
blamed the architect, Ott, whom he accused of misleading the Carmelites on the cost. He then
instructed Russell to see Ott and tell him to solve the difficulty or Flanagan would get an
architect in New York.727 While this letter was in transit, telegrams were exchanged. Russell
wanted definite news in what he called an embarrassing situation. Flanagan told him the plans
would have to be referred to the chapter and that Philip McGouran was coming out to take his
place for the chapter.728 The architect, meanwhile, stalled the builder with the lowest bid.729

Russell was very discouraged at this time and wrote Flanagan. The Los Angeles clergy wanted
to know what was to happen, the builder with the lowest bid, Petley, had taken a thirty day
option on materials and finally, he was depressed that McGouran was the one sent to take his
place.730 While this missile was on its way, Russell sent another denying that the architect had
deceived the Carmelites citing a new building code as the reason for the change in plans. He also
did not appreciate the criticism of a wooden structure he had proposed as a cafeteria. It was what
others were doing and suited to the good weather of the west coast. He had cleared McGouran to
take his place despite his own personal feelings and then wrote a little sermon on confidence and
trust to Flanagan. He told him that if things were actually the way Flanagan had depicted them,
then the Carmelites should not have come out to Los Angeles. He then asked for a definite
course of action.731

Once again, while Russell's letter was in transit, Flanagan wrote on May 12 with his
recapitulation of the whole situation. He commented that each seemed to not have been reading

      Same to same, Bronx, May 2, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, Bronx, May 6, 1934, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, May 8, 1934, telegram; F to Russell, Bronx, May 9, 1934, telegram, ANYP.
      Barker to Petley, Los Angeles, May 9, 1934, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, May 9, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, May 11, 1934, ANYP.

the other's letters. This makes it imperative to bring the matter before the chapter. When all of
the gremiales sat down and discussed the matter, all difficulties would disappear. Los Angeles
was composed of reasonable people and they would understand. Russell also knew about
McGouran coming and Flanagan took him to task for objecting to him as his replacement.732
Russell replied apologizing for all his importunities and stated his willingness to accept
instructions.733 Flanagan then wrote Bishop Cantwell to bring him up to date on matters and
explained that the chapter would decide on the extent of construction.734 On May 27, Russell left
for the east and the chapter.735

The chapter opened June 4 at St. Simon Stock. Patrick Russell spoke to the delegates on the Los
Angeles foundation. Six others also spoke on this matter indicating some were opposed to the
concept. Doswald spoke of the need for a house outside of New York but his idea of it being so
far away had to be in the minds of those present. Citing how the foundation was already
approved by the definitory, the chapter gave its approval and allotted $84,000 for the high school
with an additional $1000 being sent immediately for a temporary structure so the school could
open that September.

While Russell was east for the chapter, the architect sent revised plans utilizing the second floor
of one wing as a cafeteria, planning later to convert the space into classrooms.736 Returning
with the backing of the chapter, Russell set about with McGouran and Father Noel Dillon, a
diocesan priest, to organize the Carmelites legally in the state of California.737         Then he
proceeded, probably at the start of July, to sign the contract for the school. He wrote Flanagan
this good news and told him he was going to inspect a heating plant at a closed Catholic school
in Fresno. This, if good, could be bought and used in the Carmelite school. Father Dillon, pastor
of St. Raphael's, spoke to Russell who was then residing there of the transfer of that parish to the
Carmelites. Dillon mentioned that such was not a problem to him.738 This seems to be the first
mention of the transfer of a parish to the Carmelites, something that was not in the original
contract with the diocese.

      F to Russell, Bronx, May 12, 1934, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, May 15, 1934, ANYP.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, May 20, 1934, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, May 26, 1934, ANYP.
      Acta Capituli Provincialis, Bronx, June 4-8, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64).
      Articles of Incorporation, Fathers of the Order of Mount Carmel, June 25, 1934, filed on June 30, 1934, ANYP.

      Russell to F, Los Angeles, July 3, 1934, ANYP.

As the construction of the school began, Hilary Doswald arrived unexpectedly in California.
Bringing him to his various visits took a lot of Patrick Russell's time. Russell also had a bill
from the contractor and began a process that would continue throughout the school's
construction. When a bill was presented, he gave the amount to Flanagan who sent him that sum
for bank deposit. Then the same amount was sent to the contractor.739

As summer turned into August, no directions were sent west to Russell, He still had McGouran
with him but he was to return to New York around the middle of the month. What troubled
Russell most was whether or not the school would open that fall. The Jesuits were to begin the
year in their school on August 28 and the public schools on September 11. He had no place for
classes but Father Dillon had offered him the use of his hall until the construction of the high
school was completed. He had run into union troubles in the construction. He had no personnel.
He did have a letter saying that George Klasinski was coming for reasons of health but Russell
wondered what use he would be if sick. He had asked for Bernard Daly but had no word whether
or not he was coming.740 A week later, he had Flanagan replace McGouran as a trustee of the
California corporation. This was done before McGouran returned to New York via the Panama
Canal. He still waited word from New York on personnel and whether there would be a
September opening.741

Finally, Flanagan sent a wire instructing Russell to open in September with one class. Russell
set an opening date of September 10 and asked for a decision on two matters. The cafeteria:
would it be a separate building or above the library? Equipment for September: should the cost
be taken out of construction funds or would separate money be sent for it?742

Meanwhile, Doswald called the foundation the most promising of all the foundations of the order
in the United States.743

Bernard Daly arrived in Los Angeles on September 8, 1934 and spent his first night in the
rectory of St. Raphael's where Patrick Russell had been staying. The next evening, the two
Carmelites moved two blocks to their new home, a white cottage on 71st Street near Hoover. As
planned, Mt, Carmel High School opened on September 10 with sixty freshmen divided into two

      Same to same, Los Angeles, July 17, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Aug 11, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Aug 16, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Aug 23, 1934, ANYP.
41.           Definitory Minutes, Aug 2, 1934, ANYP.

classes. The site was the hall of St. Raphael's which had been divided into temporary
classrooms.744 That October, the community was formally established.745

Construction of the school went along at a pace that allowed moving to the new structure on
November 19. Russell, writing a week before that date, told Flanagan of the recent expenses he
had incurred. $21,000 was due the builder. School desks, furniture for the cottage as well as
$600 in taxes were the main ones.746 After moving into the school, more bills were incurred,
Russell and Daly, sensing the need of a football team, hired a coach on their own incentive. Boys
supplied their own equipment and managed to win one of their first four games. A chapel was on
Flanagan's mind but Russell cited the lack of need as he and Daly went to a church and convent
for Mass each day, a supply that paid for their cook and the school janitor.747 Flanagan decided
to build a chapel with a planned cost of $2000.748

While the two Carmelites were working each day in the school, there was interest in the school
in high places. McNichols, the superintendent of schools, was a friend of Hilary Doswald.
Writing him after the move to the newly constructed building, he told the general that he thought
the school would be the biggest in the diocese. Doswald had recently entertained Cantwell in
Rome and McNichols realyed the information that he had had a good time. He wrote Doswald to
have Russell drop in to see the bishop from time to time. He said he did this because Russell
seemed timid.749 Russell also wrote the general to request a letter, a papal blessing and a picture
of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, all for the dedication. He used the occasion to bring the general up
to date on all that had gone on.750

The dedication of the high school took place on January 6, 1935. Bishop Cantwell, nearly all the
monsignors of the diocese and a "big number" of priests were present. The bishop spoke
enthusiastically and complimentarily of the Carmelites for which Dionysius Flanagan thanked

    Mt. Carmel High School, Los Angeles, Silver Jubilee, 1934-1959, n.p.; Matthew Sprouffske, "Carmel in California," Vox Eliae (1949) 16.
This latter was written while Sprouffske was a student at Whitefriars, Auburn, NY, and seems from internal evidence to depend heavily on
the recollections of P. Russell. Thus is is a primary source. Vincent McDonald, "New York Province Is Diamond Jubilarian," Sword 24
(June, 1964) 19 cites a basement as the site of classrooms. St. Raphael's does not have below ground space or rooms.

  Rescript, SCR, Oct 5, 1934, no. 6857/34; decree, Doswald and Xiberta, Rome, Oct 10, 1934, Reg. Fol. 202, ANYP;
AOC 8, 243.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Nov 12, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Nov 24, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Dec 8, 1934, ANYP.
      McNichols to Doswald, Los Angeles, Nov 28, 1934, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Russell to Doswald, Los Angeles, Nov 29, 1934, in ibid.

him. The bishop had previously said the first Mass in the chapel. Joseph Scott, a prominent
lawyer, was the speaker of the occasion. Taking the opportunity to rub the general the right way,
Flanagan told Doswald of the great impression he had made in California. Flanagan hoped he
could uphold the Carmelite name like Doswald "but as God did not make me that way I can only
carry on as best as I am able."751

When present for the dedication, Flanagan deputed Russell to see Mother Butler about a school
in the area of Mt. Carmel. She would open a girls high school there but not a grammar school.
She was no longer interested in the latter.54

As that first year went on, a card party profiting $206, the first monthly First Friday communion
breakfast and the reception of $2000 from Bishop Cantwell with a promise of the remaining
$1000 were events notable enough for Russell to write his provincial. He also searched and
negotiated for another house across the street so that, in Flanagan's plan, the current priests'
residence could be turned into a cafeteria. Albert Schwartz arrived in Los Angeles in June and
Russell put him to work assisting with the finances. Expenses were high that year and he had to
use some money from the building fund.752 That first year of Mt. Carmel saw an income of only
$2908 with $1400 of this coming from tuition and book rentals. With no teachers to pay and a
staff of only a janitor, coach and music teacher, the year ended with a credit of $143.72 showing
how the subsidy from the diocese was needed to provide some salary for the Carmelites.753

When he was about to send Albert Schwartz and Albert Daly to the coast, Flanagan wrote
Cantwell describing their fitness. He told how Daly had a MA from Catholic University and a Ph
D from Rome; Schwartz a Doctor of Theology from Rome.754

During the summer, Russell had not received a decision about the house he had searched and
negotiated for, so he wrote Flanagan that he presumed the deal was off and had gone ahead and
furnished two rooms in the school to accommodate the two Alberts. He did have the good news
that taxes had been reduced through the efforts of Cantwell.755 Writing in reply, Flanagan gave
a little sermon to Russell. He told him that though he had not written, Los Angeles was in his
mind and prayers every day. He preached to him about strict observance and told him to divide

  F to Doswald, Los Angeles, Jan 16, 1935, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38); AOC 8, 337-8; Whitefriars (Dublin) 1 (Apr,
1935) 21.
   Russell to F, Los Angeles, Mar 2, 1934 £Tsic is 193^7; Apr 27, 1935; May 25, 1935; June 10, 1935; June 25, 1935;
5 letters, ANYP.
      General Statement, Sept, 1934 to May, 1935, ANYP.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, June 18, 1935, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Aug 24, 1935, ANYP.

the duties of the school. Finally, he had him resign from the Carmelites' corporation of New
York State.756

Perhaps in response to the sermon-like letter, Russell told Flanagan that the morning rise was at
5:45 and that the men were in chapel until almost 7:30. He had also divided the offices as
Flanagan had requested. The school enrollment was 130 with sixty-seven in ninth grade and
sixty-three in tenth. He also reported a local rumor that the nearby parish of St. Raphael was
without a pastor and would be turned over to the Carmelites.757

Shortly after the report of this rumor, Bishop Cantwell came to see Russell and offered the
Carmelites St. Raphael's immediately if they would accept it. The parish had a debt of $85,000
and Cantwell wanted Flanagan to raise or borrow $20,000 in New York towards the reduction of
the debt. This would be repaid by the parish. The school faculty would also reside in the parish
house.758 Telephone or telegraph must have been used by Flanagan because ten days later,
Russell was able to telegraph him that the conditions were accepted and the transfer was public
knowledge.759 That same day Cantwell wrote Flanagan spelling out the conditions. His council
had made the decision, not an easy one as this left one less place for priests waiting for
promotion. The Carmelites were to pay $20,000 of the indebtedness which Flanagan could
liquidate anyway he wanted. Because of the parish transfer, Cantwell would no longer give the
yearly subsidy to the school. Cantwell stated that he had never promised Doswald a parish but
felt that a request for such would come sooner or later from the order.760

Russell wrote the following day with his version. The debt was $76,000 with a monthly interest
payment of $360. This plus approximately $500 towards the principal had been paid regularly.
Weekly collections were $130 and the Christmas and Easter collections about $600. Flanagan
had telegraphed Russell that he was the acting pastor but Russell relayed the opinion of the
community on the situation. The suggestion was that the pastor be a different person from the
school principal, that an assistant be named and the Carmelites presently be one community and
be divided into school and parish communities later on.761

      F to Russell, Bronx, Sept 15, 1935, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Oct 1, 1935, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Oct 7, 1935, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, telegram, Oct 17, 1935, ANYP.
      Cantwell to F, Los Angeles, Oct 17, 1935, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Oct 18, 1935, ANYP.

Flanagan reported the good news to Doswald in Rome giving the debt as $85,000 but added "we
can take care of that all right." He also stated the property would be transferred to the Carmelites
and cited the benefit to the Carmelites from being able to live together.762

Russell was able to correct Flanagan's understanding of the conditions by informing him that no
property would be transferred to the Carmelites except the rectory. The advice given Russell by
local priests was that the Carmelites should accept the parish now and once in possession, make
a stand and try to have the property and buildings turned over.763 In writing Cantwell to thank
him for the parish, Flanagan seems to have taken this advice. He merely recalled to Cantwell
that he had promised a parish but Flanagan never realized it would come so soon.764 He told the
bishop he was making Russell the pastor and would name an assistant soon.

Soon after the transfer, Albert Schwartz wrote Flanagan on the very first day of the Carmelites'
actual possession of the facilities, October 24, 1935. He cited the presence of many Germans in
the parish and their happiness at having himself, a German priest there. He called good the news
that Flanagan was sending a pastor as the men were tied up in school all day. He suggested that
there be two communities.765 It is hard to figure the motive behind this letter as Schwartz did
not promote himself as pastor or as prior of either suggested community.

With the parish of St. Raphael's added to the burden of the high school, it is understandable that
manpower was stretched a bit thin. Flanagan planned to go to Los Angeles that fall and would
bring Eliseus Duffy with him to be stationed as Russell saw fit. Then when he returned home, he
was going to send Carmel Lynn.766 To the provincial of the Irish Province, John Cogan, Flanagan
said he was going to send three or four men, perhaps a bit of braggadocio.767             Russell,
meanwhile, was changing as little as possible in the parish until Flanagan's arrival. He and
Schwartz were living at the school while Bernard and Albert Daly lived in the rectory. He was
able to report that the Sunday attendance was 500, about the usual number.768 Once Flanagan
arrived and was present for a Sunday, he calculated 72 the attendance as between 1200 and

      F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 19, 1935, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Oct 20, 1935, ANYP.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, Oct 20, 1935, ANYP.
  Schwartz to F, Los Angeles, Oct 24, 1935, ANYP; Golden Jubilee, St. Raphael (1925-75) Los Angeles, $9757, 8;
Shane Tahney, "Carmelite Parishes in the Province," Sword 38 (Feb, 1978) 3-4.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, Oct 26, 1935, ANYP; F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 29, 1935, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      F to Cogan, Bronx, Nov 2, 1935, PO.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Nov 5, 1935, ANYP.

1300.769 Perhaps the inflated figure was prompted by the fact that he had to obtain curia
approval of his contract with Cantwell. Doswald reminded him piously that only with the curia's
approval would the contract be valid. He also warned him that he must show the parish could
carry the debt; else he would not get approval for the loan. Doswald was still under the
impression that the property would be given to the order, something he was surprised at.770

After he had been at St. Raphael's three weeks, Flanagan wrote Doswald that he had a good idea
of the parish. He saw the rectory as accomodating both the school and parish staffs. He would
then not have to build or buy a house. The next church was a twenty-five minute walk away.
The parish had a debt of $75,000 at five percent interest. He repeated the Sunday attendance
figure of 1300. The bishop wanted Flanagan to borrow $20,000 in New York at three and a half
or four percent. This would be a parish loan aimed at making the large debt more bearable.
Flanagan felt that if he insisted on parish boundaries, Cantwell would have cut down the parish's
size. His successor might even want to put in more parishes so he was in a quandry. Finally, he
informed the general the property could not be deeded to the Carmelites.771

Once he returned to New York, Flanagan reported to Bishop Cantwell he could not obtain a four
percent loan from Central Hanover Bank. He was sending Robert Murphy to Los Angeles and
would send Carmel Lynn in about a month when he finished writing his master's thesis at
Fordham. He had more good news in that he was able to use on the Union Pacific a pass that
Cantwell had given him for his return trip.772

In Los Angeles, a Miss Feen approached Russell with an offer. She would give a lot and three
small houses to the Carmelites with the intention that their proceeds be used for the education of
a boy to the priesthood. The houses would go to the order at the time of her death.773 Flanagan
told him to proceed with the deal and also advised him to take a parish census. He imagined
Schwartz would be a help with the Germans in the parish, "He might be able to rally them
around St. Raphael's. They are a good people and would be a big help to your work." 774 Russell
was able to ascertain that the Feen houses were worth a total of $4000 to $5000 but that Miss
Feen and her sister did not show up at an appointment with the Carmelite's lawyer.775 The

      F to Canary, Los Angeles, Nov 26, 1935, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Nov 10, 1935, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Los Angeles, Dec 5, 1935, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, Jan 11, 1935, ANYP.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, Jan 11, 1935, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Feb 14, 1936, ANYP.

      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Feb 14, 1936, ANYP.

reason was they had obtained a lawyer who wanted the Carmelites to pay their taxes and their
hospital bills should they be taken sick. Russell thought it best not to sign under these
circumstances.776 The matter seems to have been abandoned.

In the midst of all his problems in Los Angeles, Russell was asked for his opinion by Flanagan
on the offer of Price Memorial College by Bishop Lucey of Amarillo, Texas. The school had
been built by Katherine B. Price in memory of her husband and she provided the funds for its
maintenance and operation. Flanagan had to turn down the offer because of the lack of
manpower. Russell had conveyed to him the status of the school was poor because of the lack of
decent teachers. Some local clergy advised Russell it could be developed; others disagreed.777

With only two years in the school in that year of 1935-36, work would have to be done before
the next school year to accommodate an additional class. An estimate was sent Flanagan by the
builder. Finishing the corridor and six classes 1 rooms on the first floor would cost $8140.778
Flanagan told Russell to complete the classrooms he would need and seems to have lost interest
in the project for he says he got an estimate "something in the neighborhood of $9000." Along
with this important news for the men in Los Angeles, he was able to relate a more humorous
event. Brocard Whelan had gone to Ireland on vacation and had been reported as being too ill to
return. Then he wrote he was returning and did indeed show up a few days later. Between the
two reports Brocard had allowed his name to be used in an ad by a quack doctor endorsing his
remedy for bad legs. The Irish Carmelites were disturbed by his actions. As Flanagan related it,
"Once he made the bunogue they discovered he could travel.779

Work proceeded with the classrooms during the latter part of the school year but Russell was
worried about hiring a science teacher. When the general made his visitation, Russell asked him
if the Chicago Province could send him one. Doswald said he would ask and Russell sought
Flanagan's advice.780 The answer came, hire a layman. He did say that Carmel Lynn would
come in a few weeks. It was then early August.781

In the midst of looking for a science teacher and trying to finish the classrooms, Russell had
another difficulty to face. Flanagan was unhappy with the financial return from Los Angeles.

      Same to same, Los Angeles, Mar 30, 1936, ANYP.
      Isacsson, "A college in Amarillo, Texas," Occasional Papers 9; Russell to F, Los Angeles, July 13, 1936, ANYP.
  Barker to F, Los Angeles, Dec 20, 1935; Barker and Ott to F, Los Angeles, May 4, 1936, ANYP, gives the bid as
      F to Russell, Tarrytown, Feb 25, 1936, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, May 24, June 30, 1936, two letters, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Aug 3, 1936, ANYP.

Citing his need for $1000 to set up a laboratory, Russell said he was trying to contribute as much
as possible to the provincial fund. He was not happy that it was so little, only $1213 so far that
year, but he had difficulties he wanted to discuss with Flanagan.782 He did find a science teacher
for the start of school and was happy to report that the 1936-37 year started with 205 students,
larger than anticipated.783

In the wake of these financial problems, Flanagan wrote that the Carmelite Fathers of St.
Raphael's should give Bishop Cantwell $500 on his elevation to an archbishop. This was
announced in July, 1936 but he would not be installed until that December 3. Flanagan thought
the high school should give nothing since "It is well known that it is quite the reverse of being a
gold mine." He then went on to list the province's contributions: $100,359 for the school and a
loan of $20,000 to St. Raphael's.784 When the bank had turned him down, Flanagan loaned the
$20,000 from the province's funds.

Flanagan went out to Los Angeles for Cantwell's installation on the archbishop s insistence.785

It would seem that St. Raphael's was also not a "gold mine." The parish had an income of
$15,625.26 in 1936 and after expenses, the parish ended the year with a surplus of $643.26.786
One indication of the cause of the financial difficulty can be seen in the fact that Monsignor
McNichols asked the Carmelites to supply in his parish. Just for Sunday Masses, he would pay
$400 a year. In relaying this information to Flanagan, Russell mentioned that the usual fee was
$10 including confessions on Saturday.787 Hardly a sum to sustain expenses and pay off a debt.

Cantwell told Russell that Flanagan insisted on tuition payments, a position that had some of the
clergy upset. Cantwell was understanding saying that if priests wanted to send poor boys to the
school, then let them pay for them. Russell felt insistence on tuition was the cause of the
enrollment being only 251.788

      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Aug 27, 1936, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Sept 17, 1936, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Oct 24, 1936, invitation, ANYP,
      F to Doswald, Los Angeles, Dec 8, 1936, ANYP.
      Financial Report, St. Raphael's, 1936, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Mar 14, 1937, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Sept 9, 1937, ANYP.

By error, the community in Los Angeles elected its socius to the provincial chapter in advance of
the sixty permitted days. Questioning the election's validity, Flanagan placed the problem before
the general who advised electing again eight days before the chapter.789

Robert Murphy had been in Los Angeles a short time when he received a letter from Flanagan to
go to Chicago for one year as the replacement for John Haffert, a member of the Chicago
Province who was serving as novice master in the New York Province. He had no problem with
the obedience but desired to see his relatives in the east before going to Chicago. Flanagan
replied that as of September 1, he was under the jurisdiction of Matthew O'Neill, the Chicago
provincial, and advised asking for his trip east later on.790

The Chicago Carmelites wanted to send Father Herman, afflicted with a heart condition, to Los
Angeles for a year.791 Russell seemingly agreed but once he arrived, found the priest unable to
be of any assistance. This was not a problem but the attitude of Matthew O'Neill leaving all the
responsibility on the Los Angeles men bothered him.792 Herman had arrived in January but left
sometime in March to live with an ill Carmelite lay brother in Phoenix.793

Richard Nagle came to Los Angeles to begin teaching in September, 1938. Albert Ward went
back east from St. Raphael's to Tarrytown and Peter Thomas Liebeau came west to take his

As the 1937-38 school year came to a close, Russell asked Flanagan for a picture of himself
along with a letter to be placed in the first yearbook. Despite Russell sending a telegram, the
letter did not arrive in time. Carmel Lynn then had to put a picture of the school opposite
Flanagan to fill out the yearbook.795 What is surprising is that Russell related all of this to
Flanagan in an obviously peevish letter.

The school showed a net of $1431.51 that year but taxes had necessitated the Carmelites loaning
the school $2350 so there was a deficit. The fathers earned $2100 in supply work including

      F to Doswald, Bronx, May 6, 1937, cablegram; Doswald to F, Rome, May 10, 1937, cablegram, ANYP.
      Murphy to F, Los Angeles, Aug 5, 1937, ANYP, Answer is written on letter.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Dec 29, 1937, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Jan 28, 1938, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Mar 13, 1938, ANYP.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, Sept 5, 1938; F to Russell, Bronx, Sept 5, 1938, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, May 21, 1938, ANYP.

retreats, conferences and novenas.796                  This figure, because of the low pay scale, represented a
great amount of work.

June, 1938 was the first graduation of the high school. Kilian Lynch gave the address at the

Archbishop Cantwell was not happy with the service being given at St. Raphael's, He
complained to Flanagan the parish was not keeping abreast with its neighbors because no priest
was devoting full time to ministerial work. He wanted one priest to be in charge and work full
time in the parish.798 Flanagan's remedy was to have Peter Thomas Liebeau work full time in
the parish.799 Russell was not enthused about this assignment for Liebeau. Father Herman had
returned and Russell, thinking the man was in need of medical care and a proper diet, was
disturbed at the laissez faire attitude of the man's superiors. These problems plus the fact that
almost all the Carmelites were teaching eight periods a day for the enrollment of 305 removed
his usual placid mood.800

A month later, Russell sent Flanagan a list of the debt payments from the school and the parish
for the past three years. The total was $8707.70 but he was not sure whether this was towards the
$20,000 loaned to St. Raphael's or just repaying the province for the school's construction. 801 A
month later, Russell's question was not answered but the contribution from Los Angeles was
addressed. Flanagan complained he had received only $1400 that year and figured there must be
$7000 in the fathers' account.802 Russell was understandably hurt by these remarks. He was
anguished by the low pastor's salary of $500 which he then did not have. He blamed himself for
not producing the expected revenue. He also cited the primitiveness of their situation, the need
for a gym, a locker room and a large room to be used for fund raisers. 803 To no surprise, there
was no answer from the east.

To add to the problems of Los Angeles, John Cogan wrote from Ireland saying he had met
Cantwell who told him he wanted a grammar school at St. Raphael's. This reminded Cogan of a

      Financial Report, Sept, 1937 - June, 1938, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, July 1, 1938, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Oct 14, 1938, ANYP.
      Cantwell to F, Los Angeles, Sept 9, 1938, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Sept 20, 1938, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Oct 22, 1938, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Nov 24, 1938, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Nov 26, 1938, ANYP.

similar situation in Tarrytown when Farrelly [sic] was the archbishop of New York.804
Flanagan did not reply but he did tell Doswald some seven months later that Cantwell wanted
Russell to build a grammar school but did not say where the money would come from. Flanagan
stated his opinion, "I believe that the Carmelites have done enough in the archdiocese for the

In March, 1939, the debt of St. Raphael's stood as follows: Carmelites - $20,000; archdiocese -
$10,844; to two banks - $38,704.806

Flanagan visitated Los Angeles in the spring of 1939. As he described it, "All this was done
within the space of four weeks." He was edified by the observance and the extraordinary amount
of work being done. He reported that the high school was not yet on a paying basis but there was
an improvement in the financial picture and expected a fair return on the investment that year.807

At his visitation, the community must have presented Flanagan with a strong case for a gym for
that July, 1939, he wrote Russell that the definitory gave preliminary approval for a $30,000 gym
with the reservation that they would see plans and a description before final approval would be
given. Flanagan told him to obtain plans and bids.808         The same day that Flanagan wrote,
Russell sent him measurements and descriptions of the gym and cafeteria which also included a
pool. He explained the latter by saying that it could be done cheaply, for $3000 to $4000, and
would be an attraction for recruiting.809 Flanagan in reply said that his last letter authorized
borrowing $30,000 which was $2500 more than Russell's estimate for his designs. So he saw no
reason why the pool should not be included. He instructed Russell to borrow the money in
California as it could not be gotten in New York for a project in California.810            Rome,
meanwhile, gave permission for incurring a debt of $40,000.

As school opened for 1939-40 with an enrollment of 355, Russell told Flanagan he was turned
down by banks in Los Angeles for the loan. Cantwell sent him to the Hibernian Savings and
Loan Society in San Francisco where he was able to obtain $30,000 at four and a half percent.

      Cogan to F, Dublin, Aug 17, 1938, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Mar 9, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      List in Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, May 19, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      F to Russell, Bronx, July 25, 1939; Definitory Minutes, July 23, 1939, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, July 25, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Aug 8, 1939, ANYP.
      Franco to F, Rome, Aug 18, 1939 including rescript SCR no. 3665/39 of same date.

He had tried for four percent but R. M. Tobin turned him down on the excuse that he charged the
sisters four and a half. The lowest bid for the gym was $36,887 exclusive of the architect's fee.
He urged Flanagan to prompt action which was the architect's request. 812 The bid news caused
Flanagan to calculate the final bill coming in around $43,000. He felt he would have to consult
the definitory again but at the same time, he told Russell to proceed asking also if he could cut

Russell obtained $30,000 from Hibernian on September 5, 1939 and on February 7, 1940 another
$12,000 was borrowed. Both these debts were paid off in 1944.814

To build the gym, a cottage had to be transported to one edge of the property so construction
could begin in September, 1939.815 As the work proceeded, Russell tried to curtail the cost but
was unable and had to use the additional $12,000 from the Hibernian.816 The structures were
finished in February, 1940 at a total cost of $36,887.817 Archbishop Cantwell dedicated the
gym and cafeteria along with the swimming pool on February 29, 1940.818

Flanagan sent Stephen McGleenan west when he resigned from the 28th Street parish. Flanagan
gave him a fine recommendation to Cantwell and said he was about 122 to return to Ireland but
could not get a passport from the United States government819 When he was in California about
a year, McGleenan asked permission through Russell to go east for his brother's wedding. The
brother would pay the fare.820

Flanagan was surprised at this request and commented that the distance was so great that people
in ordinary circumstances would not even think of traveling that far for a wedding but since his
brother was paying, Flanagan gave permission on the condition that he stay in Tarrytown.821

      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Sept 19, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Russell, NY, Sept 21, 1939, ANYP.
      Mortgage Certificate with Debt Cancellation, Sept 5, 1939 and Feb 7, 1940, ANYP.
      Sprouffske, op. cit., 16.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Oct 14, 1939, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Feb 3, 1940, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Apr 6, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, Oct 4, 1939, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Oct 10, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Oct 19, 1940, ANYP.

McGleenan planned on staying with his brother and Russell had to convey this message.822
Flanagan approved but wanted to see McGleenan before he returned.823

In spring, 1940, Archbishop Cantwell came to St. Raphael's for confirmation. He used the
occasion to appeal to the people to reduce the debt and spoke of the need for a parish school. He
told of the difficulty of finding priests to do the work needed but said he would soon be looking
for a regular pastor.824 In August of that year, Flanagan proposed Carmel Lynn as the pastor.
He was taking Albert Daly to be the prior of St. Albert's but was sending Brendan Hourihan and
Eugene McCallen to teach at Mt. Carmel.825 Cantwell approved of all the changes, perhaps
with a sigh of relief that now he had a fulltime pastor.826

Hilary Doswald visitated Los Angeles as school began in September, 1940. Russell was happy
that he had an additional priest and also Brother Lawrence Brown for the registration of 440-450
was the highest so far. He hoped he would have more time for supervision but this was not
possible with his load of six classes.827 With the general's approval, five were staying at the
rectory and seven at the school.

That year saw Russell and Bernard Daly going to school,828 a fact that received the approval of
Flanagan. Flanagan also wanted $448 reimbursement for transportation for the new staff
members. Stating that he was looking for a student house in Washington, Flanagan mentioned
the need for extra income and said that California was somewhat backward in its support to the

Russell passed this message on to Albert Schwartz, the treasurer, and also expressed his resolve
that California would contribute to the province as well as it could. He also brought up a
problem that was to plague the province for some years. Schwartz and Nagle would join himself
and Bernard Daly in attending school the following semester. Nagle and Daly had the problem
of having attended in-house colleges and ending up without an undergraduate degree. Russell

      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Oct 26, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Oct 29, 1940, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Apr 6, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, Aug 3, 1940, ANYP.
      Cantwell to F, Los Angeles, Aug 6, 1940, ANYP.
  Russell to F, Los Angeles, Sept 19, 1940, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Oct 10, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Oct 19, 1940, ANYP.

thought that if he made up a list of their courses and sent it on to Flanagan for certification, some
university might take this in lieu of a BA and admit them to graduate school.830

Keeping his aim on finances, Flanagan wrote Schwartz hoping that he would collect more tuition
from the higher enrollment. He could not continue to furnish men without more return for the
student houses. Mentioning that he had received only $1000 so far that year, he opinioned that
Mass stipends alone should be $3000. There were also two salaries from the parish as well as
supply money.831 He also wrote Russell saying that he had written Carmel Lynn, St. Raphael's
pastor, and Schwartz concerning the financial contribution to the province. He classed financial
help from California as imperative for the $36,000 house he was purchasing in Washington.
Impossible to conduct the business of the province without it was the way he classified the need
for financial contribution.832

Within a few days of each other, Russell and Schwartz both replied. Russell cited his failure to
insist that Schwartz take him into his confidence and blamed himself for the failure of the houses
to contribute more. One solution would be to change both himself and Schwartz. Calling
himself weak in finances, he offered to serve the province anywhere.833 Schwartz cited his own
zeal in collecting tuition but mentioned the indifference of others. Some, he said, had not paid
the previous year and were still in school. He suggested Flanagan ask for a complete report and
he would send a list of those not paying.834

In 1940, Carmel Lynn, director of athletics, and Jack Bouchard, coach, inaugurated the
Southwest Catholic High School Basketball Tournament using the Mt. Carmel gym. In
September of that year, Richard Nagle took over the directorship of the tournament and later was
to be succeeded by John Howe. The tournament outgrew the Mt. Carmel gym and became the
stellar event of Catholic schools in lower California.

When Eugene McCallen, Brendan Hourihan and Lawrence Brown had arrived in Los Angeles in
September, 1940, the community's number became thirteen. They lived in four buildings, one of
which was two blocks from the others. This difficult living situation would exist until the parish
and school communities became separate in 1946. The high school community would not have a
decent residence until 1950 when a new priory was completed.835

      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Oct 26, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Schwartz, Bronx, Nov 6, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Dec 4, 1940, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Dec 9, 1940, ANYP.
      Schwartz to F, Los Angeles, Dec 11, 1940, ANYP.
      Sprouffske, op. cit., 16-7.

Within a few months of assuming the pastorate of St. Raphael's, Carmel Lynn wrote Flanagan to
say that a parish census indicated people attended the church where their children went to school.
118 St. Raphael's children attended school in other parishes. Carmel wanted a parish school and
the chancellor, Monsignor Cawley, told him he should build one.836          Flanagan replied that
Carmel should tell Cawley the Carmelites have put $20,000 into the parish and had been returned
little in interest and principal. He was not against the school but stood for responsibility to the
province and the education of its own students. Promising to visit in May, he planned to settle
the matter then.837

Carmel checked his books and discovered that salaries and interest on the province loan had been
paid every year. Russell had informed Carmel that Flanagan did not want the principal on the
loan paid but Carmel was willing to do this. Carmel also pointed out that the parish afforded a
residence for some of the school fathers. He also wanted to talk to the archbishop about a school
but would wait until after Flanagan's visit if he so wished.838

Sending three Gregorian Mass Series to Russell, Flanagan told him to keep Mass money separate
and send it to the province at regular intervals. In May, he would straighten out all finances in a
satisfactory manner.839

Flanagan was not finished with finances. He made up a seven page list of all the province's
money spent in California as well as the Los Angeles contributions to the province going back to
September, 1933. He even listed Elias Magennis' fare for his trip to see Cantwell. The expense
was $124,339.50 and $12,744.17 the income. In his covering letter, Flanagan pointed out that
the Carmelites had also given a large amount of their own income to the school. The parish had
not paid its interest in 1939 and 1940. The $800 Carmel had recently sent seemed too small to
him for two parish salaries. However, he told Carmel to proceed with plans and obtain estimates
for the parish school but also stated that Los Angeles must do more for the province.840

Carmel went to see the archbishop and learned that the parish debt had to be reduced before a
school could be built but told him to start a building fund. Carmel pointed out to Flanagan that
for every year the Carmelites had St. Raphael's, $1500 in salaries had been paid to the fathers

      Lynn to F, Los Angeles, Jan 29, 1941, ANYP.

      F to Lynn, Bronx, Feb 1, 1941, ANYP.
      Lynn to F, Los Angeles, Feb 5, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Jan 29, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Lynn, Bronx, Feb 7, 1941, list and letter, ANYP.

account in Los Angeles and $800 in interest was sent to Flanagan.841 Flanagan acknowledged
the correctness of Carmel's calculations.842 He then took another tack on finances. He wrote
Albert Schwartz asking for a list of tuition delinquents.843

After his spring visit to Los Angeles, Flanagan was able to report to the general that the
community was in good shape. He attributed their financial problems to the fact that thirty-seven
percent of the students did not pay full tuition or were delinquent in payments. This loss was
$5000 and much of it would not be collected by the end of the year. He said he had given rules
to prevent a repetition844 but was still working on these rules the following month.845

In that summer of 1941, Russell wrote Flanagan that unpaid bills and uncollected tuition made
their financial situation very precarious. Carmel Lynn, soon to come east, would fill in the
details. Russell cited the need for a person to run the business part of the school. He had let two
teachers go in an economy move and Eliseus Duffy would be teaching business that coming
year. The archbishop gave his hopes to the whole problem.846             An increase in tuition that
September would cut the enrollment by 100.           After seeing Carmel, Flanagan wrote Russell
expressing the appreciation of the province for what the Los Angeles men were doing despite the
smallness of their financial contributions.848 This is the first such recorded expression.

Stephen McGleenan, working in St. Raphael's, suffered hemorrhages and subsequently had an
ulcer operation.849    Letters flew back and forth across the country testing the waters for a
replacement. Kevin Morrissey eventually came to the coast but Russell put him to work in the
school. Gabriel Nalty from Australia came to work in the parish. Amidst all this, Flanagan was
able to ask that the "dead list" money be sent as well as any "loose money" from the parish.

      Lynn to F, Los Angeles, Mar 5, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Lynn, Bronx, Mar 10, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Schwartz, Bronx, Mar 5, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Los Angeles, May 25, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, June 25, 1941, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Aug 18, 1941, ANYP.
      Definitory Minutes, Sept 16, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Sept 8, 1941, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, June 21, 1941, ANYP.

Cantwell was also asked for another foundation so there could be an exchange of priests in an
emergency. Flanagan considered it too expensive to be sending men from the east. 850

In February, 1942, Russell wrote Flanagan that according to his decree made at the last
visitation, he would have to transfer from the school ninety-four students who had not made all
their tuition payments. He was simply checking with Flanagan before he went ahead.
Mentioning his growing consciousness of his own shortcomings and weaknesses, Russell cited
the loss of Albert Daly. He felt he would have made a splendid principal.851 Not really helping
Russell in his soul searching, Flanagan told him to write the parents of the delinquent students
threatening transfer if they did not pay. Then he simply said that with such a strong stand, results
would come but some may be lost. Then he delegated Russell to see Monsignor Cawley telling
him of the inconvenience resulting from having only one community on the west coast and to ask
for another foundation.852

After seeing Cawley, Russell was able to report that the best chance for a new foundation was to
take a Mexican mission. There was a problem in supporting priests in this work but Russell
learned that if the Carmelites undertook such a mission, then there would probably be the offer
of a self-supporting foundation.853 Doswald, residing for the war at St. Patrick's Home in the
Bronx, heard of Flanagan's move for another foundation in Los Angeles. He cautioned him and
recalled that many of 28th Street's problems were due to the lack of manpower. 854 After a visit
that May to Los Angeles and Cantwell, Flanagan wrote the archbishop but mentioned nothing
about a new foundation.855

Columba Downey, a member of the Chicago Province, was sent by Flanagan to Los Angeles for
the summer of 1942. In the course of the summer, he decided to have him remain there working
in the school. That same summer, Downey asked to join the New York Province.856

Of fifty-six in the 1942 graduating class, only two had not completed all their tuition payments.
These received blank diplomas. The previous year had ended with $5000 in unpaid bills but

  F to Russell, [Bronx], Oct 29, 1941; same to same, Bronx, Nov 15, 1941; F to Cantwell, Bronx, Nov 24, 1941;
Russell to F, Los Angeles, Nov 25, 1941; F to Russell, Bronx, Dec 9, 1941, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Feb, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Feb 13, 1942, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Mar 12, 1942, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Bronx, Apr 11, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, May 1, 1942, ANYP.
  F to Russell, Bronx, June 8, 1942; Downey to F, Los Angeles, July 25, 1942; F to Russell, Bronx, July 29, 1942;
Russell to F, Los Angeles, Aug 9, 1942; same to same, Los Angeles, Aug 21, 1942, ANYP.

1942 resulted in a balance of $600 and $1400 in tuition outstanding. Those owing could not
receive report cards or transcripts so the sum was felt to be collectible.857

That summer, the cafeteria cook resigned. Her profit of $60 a month and the need to hire an
assistant prompted her decision. Russell thought that if he had a lay brother to run the cafeteria
and sell candy, there would be a large profit. He asked Flanagan's advice.858 Flanagan was a bit
upset at being consulted about the cafeteria. He told Russell the community should be able to
decide this and that he had no brother to send them.859

Summer, 1942, Russell went into the hospital for a checkup. Heart problems were feared.860
Nothing beyond nervous tension was discovered and he was ready for the opening of school that
September. Schwartz graciously surrendered his charge of finances to Eliseus Duffy and Russell
assured the provincial that promises about finances would be kept. Science teachers were
difficult to hire and Russell asked for Patrick Murray, repeating at the same time Duffy's
suggestion that the school send an extra $1000 a year to the province if Murray did come.861

With Duffy controlling the finances and Brendan Hourihan serving as sacristan, that 1942-43
school year, money came regularly to Flanagan. Besides the contributions, all the bills were
paid.862 Flanagan was grateful and complimented Duffy on his good will and efficiency.863

When school opened in September, 1943, two teachers failed to report. The registration was 429.
One of the missing teachers taught science. Until they were able to enlist a chaplain at a local
convent to teach science, Lawrence Brown and Columba Downey took over the classes. The
priest was transferred that February and Russell had to ask Bernard Daly be returned from his
studies at Notre Dame University.864 Bernard had gone there for summer school and remained
for the fall semester. The plan was to have him obtain a degree in science. That February,

      Schwartz to F, Los Angeles, June 25, 1942, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, July, 19427, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, July 29, 1942, ANYP.
      Same to same, Bronx, Aug 28, 1942; F to Doswald, Bronx, Sept 22, 1942, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Sept 3, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Oct 5, 1942; same to same, Bronx, Jan 8, 1943; Russell to F, Los Angeles, Apr 12, 1943, ANYP.
      F to Duffy, Bronx, Apr 20, 1943, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Sept 23, 1942; same to same, [Jan, 1943], ANYP.

Flanagan contacted Daly who understood the situation and expressed his willingness to return to
Los Angeles.865

Just before he went out of office as provincial, Flanagan paid a last visit to California. While
there, he proposed by mail to Kilian Lynch and the rest of the definitory that he purchase a house
across the street from the school for $5250. This would afford housing for the men living in the
school and would permit more men to be sent to teach.866 Prostrate trouble, causing Flanagan
to be hospitalized and operated on, interfered with this plan.867 A hospital recuperation of about
three weeks followed.868 The house, it seems, was purchased but not until a year later.869

At the chapter of 1943, Kilian Lynch was elected provincial because, as Lynch said, Flanagan
resigned. Lynch wrote Cantwell to inform him and thanked him for the offer of a new
foundation in his archdiocese, Rancho San Antonio, a boarding school run by the Catholic Big
Brothers.870    Lynch had decided to keep Carmel Lynn in New York since he was elected a
definitor at the chapter and was replacing him as pastor of St. Raphael's with Kevin Flanagan.
Albert Daly he was returning to Mt. Carmel as prior.871

Russell told how three monsignors had visited Rancho San Antonio and thought $50,000 would
be needed to put it into shape. They felt a layman should be in charge as religious usually turned
such places into private boarding schools. A parish in Chatsworth seems also to have been
involved as Russell reported that it was dropped as a parish site due to the scarcity of Catholics
in the area. Cantwell insisted he would give the Carmelites another parish elsewhere.872 Saying
that he could release no one from the school because of the high enrollment of 530, Russell
mentioned that Cantwell had cited the need to proceed carefully with Rancho.873

  Russell to F, Los Angeles, Dec 15, 1942; F to Daly, Bronx, Feb 22, 1943; Daly to F, Notre Dame, Feb 24, 1943; F to
Russell, Bronx, Mar 3, 1943; B. Hourihan to F, Los Angeles, Mar 12, 1943, ANYP.
      F to Lynch, Los Angeles, May 22, 1943, ANYP.
      F to Fitzpatrick, /Los AngelesJ, May 27, 1943, ANYP.
      F to Clohessy, Los Angeles, June 23, 1943, ANYP.
      Duffy to F, Los Angeles, Apr 25, 1944, ANYP; Sprouffske, op. cit., 17.
      Lynch to Cantwell, Tarrytown, July 24, 1943; Cantwell to Lynch, Los Angeles, July 27, 1943, ANYP.
      Lynch to Cantwell, Tarrytown, July 27, 1943, ANYP.
      Russell to Lynch, Los Angeles, Aug 6, 1943, ANYP.
      Russell to F, Los Angeles, Sept 19, 1943, ANYP.

Rancho San Antonio was a tract of thirty-five acres located in the San Fernando Valley near
Chatsworth. Adequate buildings were on the property but more were needed to fufill the main
purpose of the institution. A correctional facility for first offenders, forty-two were housed there,
three-fourths were of Mexican descent. Running espenses came from the county of Los Angeles
and charitable institutions. The parish of twenty-five to thirty families in nearby Chatsworth was
involved in the original offer.      The matter was discussed at the chapter of 1943. There,
questions about its benefits and expenses were asked and the idea in genere was approved
provided it was not to be a financial burden to the province.874

Flanagan went to see the property. The matter was not mentioned again in definitory notes and it
seems to have quietly faded away.

Kilian Lynch as provincial was concerned with reducing the Los Angeles debts and running the
school and parish on a sound financial basis.

Albert Daly thanked Lynch for leaving Richard Nagle in the west as he was running many
activities that would have to be taken over by others should he be moved. There was the
opportunity to buy the Church of the Nazarene. The asking price was $15,000 but a community
friend had appraised it at $12,000. Its acquisition would square out the property, give more land
to the school and prevent a contractor from crowding the school by erecting houses.875 Nothing
further is extant about this and the church still stands.

During 1943 and 1944, Kevin Flanagan paid off the entire debt of St. Raphael's to the province
along with interest. The principal alone was $7500.876

Eliseus Duffy, treasurer of the community, was anxious to clear the debts incurred with the
Hibernian Savings and Loan Society. He tried a bond house in St. Louis but this was not
feasible.877 Then a plan was conceived whereby the province would pay off the debt and the
school would repay this at a rate of three percent. $12,000 was paid in February, 1944 leaving a
remainder of $28,000. Between money from the community and the province, this remainder
was paid during that school year of 1943-44 and the following summer.878 Duffy was still able
to make payments to Flanagan lamenting it could be more but they had to turn away Freshmen

      Rancho San Antonio File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
   Acta Capituli Provincialis, Middletown, June 18-23, 1943, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64); F to Cantwell,
Bronx, July 15, 1943; Cantwell to F, Los Angeles, July 19, 1943, ANYP.
      Daly to Lynch, Los Angeles, Dec 13, 1943, ANYP.
      K. Flanagan to Lynch, Los Angeles, Dec 30, 1943; same to same, Los Angeles, Sept 19, 1944, ANYP.
      Duffy to F, Los Angeles, Jan 21, 1944, ANYP.

for September, 1944, due to the lack of teachers.879 After this grueling task, Duffy was relieved
of the treasurer's job, a fact he was glad of except that he missed the importance the post carried
with it.880

In the spring of 1946, Lynch wrote Archbishop Cantwell asking that the Carmelites be given
charge of a small parish outside the city.881 Cantwell offered the Carmelites an area in which a
high school as well as a parish was needed. Judging from previous conversations with Lynch,
Cantwell thought the school could be opened in September, 1947. He wanted Lynch to see the
area and suggested that he appoint one of the fathers at Mt. Carmel to work with the chancery
office on the project.882

Lynch had to reply that the school could not open in 1947 and that it would take from five to
eight years before priests or capital would be available. He clarified his original request by
saying that he had a small parish in mind that would develop to the point where in the future a
high school would be needed. 883 Bishop McGucken seemed anxious to have the school for he
proposed to Lynch that he would explore financing if Lynch could furnish the staff for the
school. The area named was Pasadena but McGucken cautioned that a religious community
would not get the parish except according to the proposal the archdiocese was making.884
Hedging a bit, Lynch said staffing was the problem because of opening the new novitiate in
Auburn, NY. He mentioned the possibility of getting staff from Ireland and proposed placing the
matter before that June's chapter.885

In the midst of these negotiations, McGucken was sent to Fresno as the apostolic administrator
and Timothy Manning, soon to be named a bishop, took his place as chancellor. This was not
seen as affecting the venture.886

   F to Duffy, Bronx, Jan 26, 1944; same to same, Bronx, Feb 2, 1944; Duffy to F, Los Angeles, Feb 23, 1944;
Release of Mortgage, Hibernia Savings and Loan Society, Feb 14, 1944, Los Angeles County, Lib 17313, p 207; F to
Duffy, Bronx, Feb 28, 1944, ANYP.
   Duffy to F, Los Angeles, May 11, 1944; F to Duffy, Bronx, June 15, 1944; same to same, June 24, 1944; Duffy to F,
Los Angeles, July 12, 1944 enclosing Release of Mortgage, Hibernia Savings and Loan Society, July 3, 1944, Los
Angeles County, Lib 16942, p 123, ANYP.
      Duffy to F, Los Angeles, Aug 31, 1944, ANYP.
      McGucken to Lynch, Los Angeles, Apr 26, 1946, ANYP.
      Lynch to McGucken, Tarrytown, May 2, 1946, ANYP.
      McGucken to Lynch, Los Angeles, May 7, 1946, ANYP.
      Lynch to McGucken, Tarrytown, May 18, 1946, ANYP.
      B. Hourihan to F, Los Angeles, n.d., ANYP.

Lynch sent Flanagan to California that summer after the chapter had supported the proposal of a
new California foundation. 887 His initial report was that the foundation looked promising. The
Carmelites in California were anxious about the size of the land but Flanagan thought twenty
acres would be large enough.888

Negotiations proceeded to the point that Flanagan signed a preliminary agreement with Cantwell
in which the Carmelites were given the parish. He asked Lynch for his ideas on the final draft.889
Within a few days, Flanagan met with the archbishop again and signed a document giving the
Carmelites the parish in Pasadena and a site for a high school which the Carmelites would build
and staff. The parish would be conveyed immediately and the school would open in September,

Lynch wanted Flanagan to remain in California to care for the new parish and plan for the
school. Then the following summer, 1947, a permanent pastor would be appointed. Since it was
Lynch's idea to separate the parish and school men in Los Angeles, he also asked Flanagan to
obtain from Cantwell a nihil obstat for the second community.891

Flanagan did not remain in California to await the new parish. He returned east and discussed
the whole proposal with Lynch. Flanagan then wrote Cantwell that since there was trouble
finding a good site for the school, he proposed using the parish site for the school and then
finding a more central location for the church. He pledged to open the school no later than
September, 1950, provided Cantwell accepted this proposal and a beginning could be made in
the near future.892

Both of Flanagan's proposals ran into trouble. Cantwell could not change the parish site until his
council had redrawn parish boundaries and he wanted the school open before 1950.893 Sensing
the deal was in trouble, Flanagan said he realized the urgency and could open the school in
September, 1949.894 Cantwell, meanwhile, had appointed a committee to work on the parish
boundaries of Pasadena and was glad to hear that the school would open in 1949.895

      Acta Capltuli Provincialis, Middletown, June 30 - July 3, 1946, CG, Am Sti Eliae, Cap et Cong (1931-64).
      Lynch to F, Tarrytown, n.d., ANYP.
      F to Lynch, Los Angeles, Aug 14, 1946, ANYP.
      Same to same, Los Angeles, Aug 19, 1946, ANYP.
      Lynch to F, Auburn, Aug 23, f\94£/, ANYP.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, Oct 24, 1946, ANYP.
      Cantwell to F, Los Angeles, Nov 7, 1946, ANYP.
      F to Cantwell, Bronx, Nov 21, 1946, ANYP.

Here all correspondence on Pasadena ends. There is also no further mention of the matter in the
definitory accounts. Faced with the impossibility of providing the manpower, it would seem that
the matter of the Pasadena foundation died from careful neglect.

Cantwell gave his approval to the idea of two communities in Los Angeles.896 The separation
became final later that year.897 At the same time, a proposal was made to enlarge the size of the
school and also build a monastery. Purchase of lots for this was approved and the funds were
being gathered. This priory was completed in 1950.898 The addition of a second story to an
existing building and a new building of two stories with basement were proposed at an estimated
cost of $104,800.899

As a summary, it might be well here to list the officials of the Los Angeles communities:

1934-46 Principal, Patrick Russell                      1943-46 Prior, Albert Daly

1934-43 Prior, Patrick Russell                          1946-49 Prior, Albert Daly

                                                        (Mt. Carmel only)

1935-40 Pastor, Patrick Russell                         1946-49 Principal, Albert Daly

1940-43 Pastor, Carmel Lynn                             1946-52 Prior, St. Raphael's Brendan Hourihan.900
1943-50 Pastor, Kevin Flanagan

As we have seen, there was talk of a grammar school at St. Raphael's for some time. Kevin
Flanagan had plans drawn up and sent them to the Arch-diocesan Building Committee. Changes
were suggested and the plans were returned to him. He did not send the plans back, consult the
chancery about estimates or have his financing approved of. He simply went ahead with
construction which Cantwell estimated would cost $400,000, an amount he felt the parish could
not afford. He estimated Flanagan had put the parish into serious trouble and wanted Lynch to
look into the matter.901 When Lynch received this information in April, 1947, he was preparing

      Manning to F, Los Angeles, Nov 23, 1946, ANYP.
      Cantwell to Lynch, Los Angeles, Sept 9, 1946, ANYP.
      Rescript, SCR, no. 10227/46, signed by Doswald, Dec 28, 1946, ANYP.
      Definitory Minutes, Jan 3, 1945, Jan 28, 1946, ANYP; B. Hourihan to author, NY, Aug, 1983.
      McNeill to Mount Carmel, Los Angeles, Sept 20, 1946, ANYP.
      Mt. Carmel High School. Los Angeles, Silver Jubilee, 1934-59; B. Hourihan to author, NY, Aug, 1983.
      Cantwell to Lynch, Los Angeles, Apr 26, 1947, ANYP.

to go to Rome for the chapter that would elect him general. Saying that he was under the
impression that matters had been conducted in the proper manner, he decided to send Dionysius
Flanagan out to investigate. Lynch also expressed his readiness to follow any suggestion
Cantwell would make to Flanagan.902

Bishop McGucken wrote Dionysius Flanagan at St. Raphael's suggesting various ways of
reducing the cost of the school already in progress. They included a less expensive roof and the
leaving of some sections "in the rough.903

After meeting with Cantwell and McGucken and doing his own investigation, Dionysius
Flanagan wrote Lynch in Rome that the prelates were emphatic in stating that the parish could
not bear even a scaled down version of a school. Kevin Flanagan had estimated the school at
$150,000 but when this rose to $400,000, he never told the chancery. McGucken scaled the
construction costs down to $361,000 but even this was too much for the parish. Despite
McGucken telling him to postpone an auditorium, Kevin went ahead with its construction.
McGucken did not seek the removal of Kevin but wanted another in charge of construction. He
called for talks with the builder and the architect to reduce costs further. Loans had to be
arranged from the chancery but Kevin had obtained one from a bank, with Manning's
permission, an indication of some lack of uniformity in the chancery itself.

Dionysius Flanagan had seen the architect and told him to reduce costs. He also appointed the
two priors, Albert Daly and Brendan Hourihan, as well as Bernard Daly as a committee to
oversee the construction. Brendan was to be the contact man with the chancery, builder and
architect. Dionysius Flanagan wanted to return east but remained until the architect and builder
had given him figures. Additionally, Kevin had obtained no sisters for the school. Dionysius
Flanagan then enumerated all figures and hope that the parish would begin 1948 with a debt not
exceeding $260,000.904 He also sent these results to McGucken.905

The parish school was finished and opened in September, 1947. The Adrian Dominican Sisters
were obtained to staff the school.906

      Cantwell to Lynch, Los Angeles, Apr 26, 1947, ANYP.
      Lynch to Cantwell, Tarrytown, Apr 30, 1947, ANYP.
      F to Lynch, Los Angeles, May 9, 1947, ANYP.
      F to McGucken, Los Angeles, May 10, 1947, ANYP.
   Golden Jubilee, _S_t. Raphael (1925-75), (Los Angeles, 1975) 9, 14; Vinculum 1, 188; Shane Tahney, "Carmelite
Parishes in the Province," Sword 38 (Feb, 1978) 3-4.

                                                     Chapter 9

                                           The Houses of the Province

In dealing with the houses of the province, it must be remembered that especially under the
administration of Dionysius Flanagan, life went on as usual. There was meditation, the recitation
of the breviary, the performance of work and the absence of any great scandals. Unfortunately,
what are recorded are the problems, the extraordinary events and matters of an unusual nature.
Reading about these matters, we must realize they take place against a background of regular

                                              The 28th Street Parish

As a start, it might be well to list the pastors of the mother parish:

1926-28 Philip McGouran              D. Flanagan served the interregnum

1928-34 Vincent Smyth                1940-43 Kevin Flanagan

1934-37 Elias Holland                1943-64 Sean Reid.907

1937-39 Stephen McGleenan

In many of these cases, the pastor was not always also the prior.

The Little Flower Society was situated in 28th Street. Its contribtions to the province are found
in the chapter, "Finances." When Francis Ronayne was in charge during Flanagan's trip to the
Eucharistic Congress in 1928, he negotiated with the same society of the Chicago Province. He
felt advertising in New York papers by the Englewood Carmelites created confusion among
people, infringed on the rights and income of New York, created rivalry and prevented the
devotion from growing at the pace it could. The outcome of the negotiations was that both
provinces were equal in this work, Chicago was to handle all paper work and New York would
have exclusive rights to both New York and Brooklyn.908

907                                                                    th
   Harold Dempsey, conversation with author, 1981; Appreciation, 50 Anniversary Souvenir, 28th Street (New
York, 1939); Elias Holland, "The First Carmelite Foundation in New York," Sword 3(1939) 205-6.
      "Advantages of Amalgamation with the Society of the Little Flower," Flanagan Papers, ANYP.

When this amalgamation had taken place, the Chicago office discovered the duplication of
names, shoddy paper work and poor office management. All of this cost the Chicago office
money. The careless packing of material and the return of the same was also an expense.909

Chicago prepared a report after the amalgamation and the discovery of the above. It was stated
that no further financial concessions could be made to New York. Three financial plans were
proposed and the first of these was presented as favored. In it, 40c would be given to New York
for the present Greater New York members with a retention of an old formula for the split on
renewals. New members would be sold to New York for 60c each and there would be a fifty-fifty
split on bulletin mailings.910

An agreement was signed to take effect on April 1, 1928. New York was sold 19,741 members
held in Englewood for $9879.50 and for each new member New York received, it would retain
35cents and send 15 cents to Chicago. The money owed Chicago was asked for immediately.911

After the departure of Ronayne, Flanagan was made head of the society. 912 He drew up a list of
matters that he thought unfair to New York. He sought new office procedures, addition of more
territory like Middletown and Tarrytown and a larger share of membership funds.913 Flanagan
received the territory he asked for and a new split of membership funds. Fifty-five percent was to
go to Chicago and forty-five percent to New York for all memberships and fees.914 In June,
1931, Hugh Devlin was appointed the head of the society.915

In a rather strange note written by Robert Green, himself, he left his assets to many including the
Carmelite Church. The will was composed in such complicated way and with so many
conditions, it was litigated through the 1920's. None of the benefactors benefitted from the will.
Lawyers were the only gainers.916

      Untitled report in ibid.
      Another untitled report in ibid.
      Dolan to Ronayne, Rome (NY), Feb 6, 1928, ANYP.
      Agreement, Consultors Meeting, Feb 19, 1929, ANYP.
      F to Diether, Bronx, Nov 3, 1930, ANYP.
  Agreement, New York Shrine and the Society of the Little Flower, Chicago, Anderson and Flanagan, Feb 12,
1931, ANYP.
      F to Anderson, Bronx, June 19, 1931, ANYP.
      Will of Robert Green, Wills, Flanagan Papers, ANYP; Hennessy to author, Bronx, July 15, 1981, ANYP.

John McCarthy, a member of the 28th Street parish, died and left his house at 315 East 30th
Street to the parish for a convent for the school's sisters. It would take effect, however, only after
the death of his nephew, a man whom Flanagan called amazingly healthy. 917 The nephew,
James A. Roach, died in 1933 without natural heirs but had assumed the relations of his late wife
as heirs. Flanagan's lawyer gave the opinion that the house would not be marketable because the
title was clouded. The lawyer felt the title was the church's, such as it was.918

Flanagan tried to have the house occupied by the Corpus Christi Carmelite Sisters as a center
from which they could work.919 No apostolate was forthcoming from the archdiocese so without
a means of support, the idea was abandoned by the sisters.920

The house remained under the complications created by the will and Roach. In 1941, Flanagan
said he needed the sisters' convent on 29th Street to house the overflow from the priory. He
wanted the McCarthy house for the sisters.921 Flanagan's lawyer recommended that he use
another lawyer, James Duross, to have the house vacated and then obtain tax exemption since it
would be used as a convent.922

Flanagan wrote Francis Mclntyre explaining the whole case and asking that the house be used for
the sisters so he could use their convent for a provincial residence.923 Bishop Joseph Donohue
was to inspect the house as a step towards making a decision.924

Duross was of the opinion that the house had to be used as a convent. He had previously tried all
sorts of solutions and had to take title in 1939 from the estate to the Carmelite Church. He had
also been managing the property, collecting rents and paying out all expenses. He now had an
excess of $2428.95 in the account which he could turn over the Flanagan when he took
possession of the house. Rather than use it as a convent, he suggested a fast move in disposing
of the property as it was rapidly deteriorating.925

      F to Magennis, Bronx, Nov 14, 1930, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Canary to F, [Brooklyn] July 21, 1934, ANYP.
      F to Hayes, Bronx, Sept 4, 1934, ANYP.
      Mclntyre to F, NY, Oct 4, 1934, ANYP.
      F to Canary, Bronx, Sept 26, 1941; Definitory Minutes, Sept 16, 1941, ANYP.
      Canary to F, Brooklyn, Oct 4, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Jan 22, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Duress, Bronx, Jan 29, 1942, ANYP.
      Duross to F, NY, Jan 30, 1942, ANYP.

Later that year, Duross conferred with the New York Title Company. They were willing to
guarantee the title and would furnish a policy to anyone who bought the premises. This would
effectively clear the title.926

Then, after he had become provincial in 1943, Kilian Lynch wanted to have the house occupied
by a group of sisters who would do parish work from there. He saw Archbishop Spellman who
was not willing to give the sisters any work in New York.927 Another attempt to clear up the
McCarthy problem had failed.

The house, it seems, was sold by the parish at a later date. 1939 was the fiftieth anniversary of
the parish and Flanagan planned a celebration worthy of the event. In preparation, he wrote to
Eamon De Valera inviting him to the celebration.928 Before the event, he received a letter of

congratulations from the general, Hilary Doswald. The letter recalled the occasion and said it
looked to the past, to those pioneers "worthy of a niche in the hall of Carmelite progress in New
York." He recalled the many obstacles overcome in present days and said that the Carmelites had
developed in Bellevue a standard for priests in hospital work. Then Doswald expressed the wish
this work would be such that in the future, Carmelites would look back on it as a solid

Also before the event, Flanagan was anxious and wrote to Washington for a copy of the rubrics
for the Ancient Rite. He also allowed the students to come to New York the day before the event
but only allowed to come those singing for or serving the Mass.930

Archbishop Spellman cast a damper on the celebration by not being able to attend the clergy
luncheon at the Hotel Commodore afterwards.931 The new vicar general, Monsignor Lavelie,
spoke at the luncheon and was "wonderful" in his talk.932

      Same to same, NY, June 26, 1942, ANYP.

  Lynch to F, Tarrytown, n.d.; Definitory Minutes, July 22, 1943, ANYP. The latter states that the chancery office rejected the
McCarthy house as a suitable convent.
      F to De Valera, Bronx, Feb 1, 1939, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Rome, Oct 31, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      F to Fitzpatrick, Bronx, Oct 25, 1939, ANYP.
      Casey to McGleenan, NY, Nov 3, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, NY, Dec 28, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).

The Mass for the anniversary was held on Sunday, November 12. Spellman presided. Students
from St. Albert's joined those from Washington in singing the Mass. Flanagan was the celebrant
with John Maher and Kieran Hickey as deacon and subdeacon. Monsignor Courtney, pastor of
St. Stephen's, spoke. The archbishop talked at the end of the Mass. A souvenir program with
pictures of the ceremony and a history of the Carmelites in the parish was published later.933
The Franciscans from 24th Street were notable for their absence but Epiphany parish had a
dinner for the community.934 The church had also been embellished for the occasion. Eamon De
Valera sent a telegram recalling the place of the parish in the Irish freedom movement, the
hospitality given him and the many Irish meetings held there.935

A gala dinner dance was held in the spring subsequent to the religious celebration. Flanagan was
able to use the Irish Press mailing list for the affair.936 Held on May 3, 1940 at the Riverside
Plaza Hotel, the dance was also promoted by radio announcements. Stars of stage and vaudeville
entertained with Morton Downey acting as the master of ceremonies. Judge Owen Bohan was
the chairman of this event and Flanagan spoke giving thanks to all who brought about this
event.937 The occasion was also noted in print.938

Sean Reid, as pastor, achieved some note when the parish basketball team, coached by himself a
hurling expert, won the East Side CYO championship.939 This fame became more noted when
William O'Dwyer was running for mayor. Reid said to the Daily News that if anyone doubted
the moral fitness of O'Dwyer to be mayor, the person could get in touch with him. Many did,
some abusively but some in favor of the candidate. This furor came about because the American
Labor Party, acknowledged communists, backed O'Dwyer who also had attended the wedding of
Adam Clayton Powell and Hazel Scott. At a Mass for the VFW on September 5, 1945, Reid
spoke in a veiled manner against slandering politicians. This was reported in the press and
Francis Mclntyre got in touch with Flanagan over the matter.940

      Appreciation, 50th Anniversary Souvenir, 28th Street (New York, 1939).
      F to Russell, Bronx, Dec 15, 1939, ANYP.
      De Valera to F, Dublin, Nov 23, 1939, telegram, ANYP.
      Healy to O'Rourke, Washington, Mar 27, 1940, ANYP.
      50th Anniversary File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
      Donald O'Callaghan, " Ad Multos Annos," Sword 3(1939) 312-3; 4(1940) 27-8.
      Irish World (NY) May 11, 1942.
      Reid Papers, ANYP.

Reid sent a copy of the talk to Mclntyre, stated that he did not know in advance O'Dwyer would
be there and said his talk was not written for publication. He stated that he had Alfred E. Smith
in mind and spoke only for the VFW. He then apologized for any problems caused.941

Reid was very active in civic and Irish groups. He frequently had Gaelic services at the parish.
He was present at the Normandie fire to aid the victims.942 At the O'Dwyer inauguration, he
spoke of improving life in the city. He specifically mentioned equal rights for blacks and more
welfare for the needy.943 This drew the ire of Mclntyre again and Reid sent him a copy of a talk
he gave on station WMCA that was very much like the inaugural speech. Even though he quoted
the popes, Reid asked if he could have his talks cleared in the future to avoid any problems.944

When the IRA resorted to violence in Dublin, De Valera, apparently at Reid's request, sent a
telegram whose contents Reid was obviously expected to disseminate. De Valera stated that he
could not permit a hunger strike or the murder of citizens by their fellows.945

The Irish efforts of the Carmelite parish had continued along through the twenties. When Eamon
De Valera, for example, was returing to Ireland in 1928, a meeting was held at the Carmelite
School to plan a farewell reception for him at the Mecca Temple that February 5.946

In a meeting of the 28th Street community on August 11, 1928, after approving of Benedict
Short for solemn vows, the matter of renovating the priory was brought forward for discussion.
Vincent Smyth considered any renovation work a waste of money and proposed gutting and
remodeling the priory or building a new one on 28th Street next to the church. He estimated the
first at $40,000 and the second at $50,000. The community vote for a new priory carried and
they instructed Smyth to proceed with the work. Ronayne, vicar general in Flanagan's absence,
approved of the project as did the commissariate's consultors when Smyth explained it to

Smyth wrote to the consultors of the New York archdiocese explaining the poor living conditions
at 28th Street and the need for sufficient bathrooms. He said renovation would cost $40,000 and
require rented space while the work was in progress. He doubted that such a rented facility could
      Reid to Mclntyre, NY, Sept 11, 1945, ANYP.
      Reid Papers, ANYP.
      Catholic Interracial Review (Jan, 1946) 10-1.
      Reid to Mclntyre, NY, Feb 6, 1946, ANYP.
      De Valera to Reid, Dublin, May 6, 1946, telegram, ANYP.
      Post card, ANYP.
      28th Street Meeting Book, Box 25, ANYP.

be found and stated that renovation would still leave the parish with an old structure. The
architect and builder he consulted recommended a new building and its construction would mean
the erection of a suitable ecclesiastical building on a line with the church. The new building, he
argued, would cost only $10,000 more and would allow the older priory to be used for other
purposes. He also asked for an interview to present the plans. As a final persuader, he recalled
the thirty-five years of work in Bellevue and the unsatisfactory conditions the fathers had lived
under for that time.948

As Smyth described the meeting with the consultors, "After a very cursory look at the rough
plans...", he was given permission for a loan of $60,000 and was commended for trying to
improve living conditions for the staff.949 Surely, the account of events was somewhat slanted
to sway opinion towards the new priory built in the absence of Flanagan. It so irked him that for
many years, he would not use the elevator in the 28th Street priory.

The building of the new priory did not turn out as predicted. The actual cost was $105,000
including furnishings. The remodeling of the old priory for use as a convent for the Sisters of
Mercy cost $12,500. This gave the parish a debt of $98,000 at the end of 1930. That year's
report also listed $13,500 for remodeling the church. Salaries totaled $10,146 and $16,729.58
was spent in running expenses for the school. Between the annual bazaar and entertainments,
$15,672.27 was raised that year.950

The parish had taken out a mortgage in 1902 for $116,000 and another one for $58,000.951
There was a third in 1905 for $72,000.952 The money was used for the parish school, completed
in 1904. These loans were consolidated in 1931 by Dominic Hastings into one loan of $200,000
at a rate of five percent.953 In 1933, the rate was lowered to four and a half percent.954 This
loan was not satisfied until 1946 when Sean Reid was pastor.955

      [Smyth] to Consultors, Aug 16, 1928, ANYP.

      28th Street Meeting Book, Box 25, ANYP.

      Financial Report, Our Lady of the Scapular, 1930, CG, Am Sti Eliae, BTMNY.
      Mortgage, Emigrant to Our Lady of the Scapular, Apr 25, 1902, two documents, no liber information, CONY.
      Mortgage, Emigrant to Our Lady of the Scapular, June 27, 1905, Lib 140, Sec 4, p 4, CONY.
   Agreement, Emigrant and Our Lady of the Scapular, Dec 21, 1931, ANYP; Mortgage, Emigrant to Our Lady of the
Scapular, Dec 21, 1931, Lib 4141, p 457; Lib 4154, p 156, CONY.
   Agreement, Emigrant and Our Lady of the Scapular, June 27, 1933, ANYP; agreement, Emigrant and Our Lady of
the Scapular, July 8, 1933, Mort Lib 4198, p 9, CONY.
      Mortgage Satisfaction, CONY.

A "Grand Reunion of the Church of Our Lady of the Scapular" was held at the Waldorf on
March 29, 1932 with an elaborate program picturing all the Carmelites in white cloaks including
Simon Vital with all of his war medals. It featured a comedy in three acts, "Horses Prefer Hats."
The next year, the school children put on a "Grand Irish Night" in the school auditorium. In
1935, the "Grand Annual Reunion" was held at the A.W.A. Club House on February 15 and
featured song and dance routines.956

With the difficulty of a large debt over his head, Vincent Smyth wrote Mel Day in 1932 stating
his sorrow that he could not send more when Mel had to make a determined demand for money.
He said this despite the fact that he had contributed $3800.38 in 1931.957

A year later, there existed a problem between the Little Flower Society and the fathers at 28th
Street. So a society employee, Teresa Fleming, made up a set of guidelines about the novenas
illustrating their benefits and disadvantages to the parish. She sent this on to Flanagan with the
notation that he might find the information useful in the meeting he was planning to have over
this problem.958

Flanagan heard a rumor in March, 1934 that Cardinal Hayes was going to take the Carmelites
from 28th Street and give them another parish.959 It seems that a Monsignor Brady had spoken
to Smyth about giving up Bellevue if another place in the city were offered to the Carmelites.
Three definitory meetings were held the previous year over this proposal while Flanagan was in
California. Flanagan was amazed at the rapidity of the Carmelites' action and his not being
consulted. He felt the speed showed the archdiocese the Carmelites would take anything and thus
weakened the order's hand. His opposition to the proposal can be seen in his own comment,
"They [the Carmelites] were surprised that I did not clap them on the back for their wonderful
astuteness.”960 Looking back on the incident, Flanagan supposed the archdiocese wanted their
own men in Bellevue but couldn't until they had taken care of the Carmelites. The monsignor
involved was in the hospital apostolate. Flanagan had no contact with the chancery on this
matter.961 The whole affair seems to have been an informal and unauthorized deal conceived by
Monsignor Brady, a matter which Smyth grasped at.

      Programs, ANYP.
      Smyth to Daly, NY, Apr 6, 1932, ANYP.
      Fleming to F, NY, June 5, 1933, ANYP.
      F to Russell, Bronx, Mar 5, 1934, ANYP.
      Same to same, Middletown, Mar 13, 1934; Definitory Minutes, Feb 15, 1934, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Mar 26, 1934, ANYP.

The parish school of Our Lady of the Scapular had forty-three graduates in 1929 but by 1937,
this number had decreased gradually to twenty-nine.962

Elias Holland succeeded Vincent Smyth as pastor in 1934. Flanagan boasted that Holland paid
all the bills left by Smyth and would pay some of the debt which he listed at $108,000.963 At the
chapter of 1937, Stephen McGleenan replaced Holland.964 McGleenan had been the prior in
Holland's pastorate and before the chapter sent a glowing report of his accomplishments to the
general. He cited improvement in the hospital's atmosphere and work. This was praised by
Monsignor Lavelle in public. This acknowledgment by authority showed it to be an
accomplishment of his term. In finances, he was able to pay interest, current expenses and also
reduce the principal of the debt by several thousand. Then he stated he was looking forward to
seeing the general that summer.965

When the parish of St. Gabriel was demolished for the construction of the Midtown Tunnel, the
territory of the parish had to be distributed among its neighbors. Sacred Hearts, 33rd Street, was
changed from a national parish to a territorial one and given the south side of 33rd Street which
had belonged to Our Lady of the Scapular. Mclntyre announced this to McGleenan asking if he
had any comment since the matter would have to be presented to Rome. He regretted there was
no compensation for the loss of 33rd Street.966 All McGleenan did was send the letter on to
Flanagan and so told Mclntyre.967 Flanagan wrote Mclntyre that his letter afforded no comfort
to the Carmelites. He cited how the Carmelites had served fifty years in the parish with many
problems including finances. The proposal of Mclntyre would render matters more acute.
Flanagan said he would not protest the decision but asked for a more generous consideration for
the Carmelites.968

During the summer of 1939, Hilary Doswald was visiting in 28th Street. He was present at a
meeting with Flanagan and McGleenan, the nature of which is not known. Flanagan though
described it in personal terms saying that McGleenan had a chip on his shoulder and in a
showdown at this meeting, resigned as pastor.969 That spring McGleenan had asked Flanagan

      Graduation Programs, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, May 16, 1936, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Aug 10, 1937; Mclntyre to F, NY, Aug 17, 1937, ANYP.
      McGleenan to Doswald, NY, Jan 4, 1937, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
      Mclntyre to McGleenan, NY, Mar 31, 1939, ANYP.
      McGleenan to F, NY, Apr 5, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, Los Angeles, Apr 12, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Cogan, Bronx, Aug 20, 1939, ANYP.

to invite De Valera to the parish's fiftieth anniversary. Flanagan did. When Flanagan would not
agree with McGleenan's plans for the celebration, McGleenan said he would not receive De
Valera. Reports of the discussion say McGleenan was antagonistic and the plans made for the
celebration were not to his liking.970        In writing to the chancery and naming himself as
administrator, Flanagan simply said that McGleenan was returning to the Irish Province.971
Mclntyre approved and mentioned that McGleenan had written for a testimonial letter which he
had sent him.972 Sean Reid was made head chaplain of Bellevue at this time.973 Despite the
conflict between Flanagan and McGleenan, it did nothing to prevent Flanagan from telling
Mclntyre, "He has always been a hard-working and excellent priest."974 McGleenan was one of
Flanagan's protagonists and while he was away at the Eucharistic Congress in 1928 went to the
chancery office and tried to trade away the 28th Street parish for another in Hell's Kitchen. 975
These memories had to linger on in Flanagan.

McGleenan could not travel to Ireland because American citizens could not go to Europe except
for grave reasons. Since Patrick Russell needed a man at St. Raphael's in Los Angeles, Flanagan
sent McGleenan there for the duration of the war.976 Flanagan felt hurt again because he
believed McGleenan had spoken to the people in the parish of this conflict with himself.977 John
Cogan was glad to hear that McGleenan was happy in Los Angeles saying that he would have a
bigger field and more opportunity there than he would ever have in Ireland. He admitted his own
inability to understand why someone would want to return to Ireland after being abroad for so

Doswald became involved in an imbroglio with Hugh Devlin while the latter was stationed at
28th Street. He claimed the general had made disparaging remarks about his religious conduct.

      Definitory Minutes, Apr 24, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Aug 6, 1939, ANYP.
      Mclntyre to F, NY, Aug 8, 1939, ANYP.
      Same to same, NY, Aug 17, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Aug 18, 1939, ANYP.
      Interview with Kilian Lynch, Tadcaster, Nov 15, 1976.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 2, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65); F to B. Devlin, Bronx, Nov 21, 1939, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Oct 14, 1939, ANYP.
      Cogan to F, Dublin, Dec 16, 1939, ANYP.

Doswald denied the charge and said he mentioned his name only once while examining the
books during visitation.979

While Flanagan was the administrator of the parish, he learned that two payments had been made
on the principal, $90,000 in 1931 and $50,000 in 1939 bringing the debt down to $38,499.82.980
Quite a lessening of the burden.

Flanagan traveled from the Bronx to give a two minute talk at the dedication of the synagogue at
Bellevue and also attended the dedication of the Protestant chapel there981

The chapter of 1940 made Kevin Flanagan pastor.982 One of the first problems he faced was an
examination by the Archdiocesan School Board. They found that unused classrooms were so
cluttered they presented a fire hazard, material under stairways presented the same and
extinguishers had to be refilled.983

In 1941, Cyril Conroy replaced Joseph Larsen at the parish.984 In the following year, Bernard
Godfrey whom Flanagan cited as "dependable and always faithful," came there replacing Brother
Albert Kenny.985

In 1941, Flanagan found some difficulties of a local nature at 28th Street. Doswald suggested
steps for him to follow even to the extent of asking the prior to resign.986 This seems not to have
been necessary.

Then in 1942, problems with Bellevue were brought to Flanagan's attention by Mclntyre.
Flanagan made some changes and wrote Mclntyre of these. When Flanagan met Archbishop
Spellman at St. Patrick's Home, Spellman told him he was pleased with the arrangements made
and cited Flanagan's letter to Mclntyre indicating he had read it carefully.987 Shortly afterwards,

      Doswald to F, Rome, Oct 5, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
      Hession to F, NY, Oct 18, 1939, ANYP.
   F to Oilman, Bronx, Sept 10, 1940; Oilman to F, NY, Sept 18, 1940; Sprenger to F, NY, Sept 16, 1940; F to
Sprenger, Bronx, Sept 23, 1940, ANYP,
      F to Mclntyre, NY, July 9, 1940; Mclntyre to F, NY, July 15, 1940, ANYP.
      Voight to F, NY, Oct 25, 1940, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, Bronx, May 6, 1941; Gaffney to F, NY, May 14, 1941, ANYP.
      F to Kenny, Bronx, Dec 29, 1942; F to Godfrey, Bronx, Dec 29, 1942, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, (?), Mar 13, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Doswald, Bronx, Mar 23, 1942, ANYP.

Flanagan invited Mclntyre to give benediction at a 28th Street service.988 He probably hoped a
meeting with the fathers would help heal any breech that had been opened.

In the spring of 1942, Flangan wrote Mclntyre he was bringing younger men to Bellevue, a
promise he had made in a previous letter to him. They were three: John Howe, Alphonsus
Galligan and Columba Staunton.989 Not much later, John McGrath went into the service from
his Bellevue post and Galligan was named to replace him as head chaplain until he returned.990

Mclntyre wrote Flanagan on February 20, 1943 to tell him he had obtained the services of
Conrad I. McCoy of the Bowery Mission for Bellevue's prison ward.991 Flanagan wrote both
McCoy and Mclntyre assuring that McCoy would receive a warm welcome from the
Carmelites.992 McCoy was grateful but cautioned Flanagan that day or night, he would take no
emergency calls but would visit the ward twice a week.993

In May of that year, there was another Bellevue complaint from the chancery. Flanagan, in Los
Angeles, replied saying that he had spoken to the fathers at 28th Street and they were seeking a
solution. Some matters would have to be left to the chapter that July but in the meantime, Sean
Reid had made up a list of all the activities at the hospital. He hoped it would give a clear picture
of the work being done. Three chaplains and three auxiliaries worked at the hospital but Reid
seemed to indicate the fathers also did some parish work. All calls were accounted for and the
fathers claimed everyone was taken care of. Some delay in calls was due to the size of the
hospital and the fact that calls came in bunches. Sodalities and all services were listed.994 Reid
thought the list would show what was being done and would show that complaints were not
justified or were exaggerated.995

Just a month later, Bellevue was a problem again. Flanagan was still in Los Angeles recovering
from his prostate operation. Kilian Lynch had to go to the chancery and face the chancellor,
Francis Mclntyre, who was upset that his recommendations were not put into effect. The Ladies
Committee of the hospital threatened to resign and this seems to have propelled Mclntyre into

      F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Mar 24, 1942, ANYP.
      Same to same, Bronx, May 26, 1942; Gaffney to F, NY, May 29, 1942, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Sept 9, 1942; Gaffney to F, NY, Sept 14, 1942, ANYP.
      Mclntyre to F, NY, Feb 20, 1943, ANYP.
      F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Feb 23, 1943; F to McCoy, Bronx, Feb 22, 1943, ANYP.
      McCoy to F, NY, Feb 26, 1943, ANYP.
      F to J. Donohue, Los Angeles, May 18, 1943, ANYP.
      Reid to F, NY, May 24, 1943, ANYP.

action. Kilian met with the fathers and Hilary Doswald. They worked out a plan Kilian felt
should receive approval. Mclntyre claimed a Carmelite report was not true and demanded more
cooperation from them with the Ladies Committee.996 Doswald also wrote Flanagan outlining
in more detail the plan worked out. Four fathers-chaplains were to work as assistants under the
pastor who was to be head chaplain. These four were to do only hospital work and no one was to
interfere with this rule. Mclntyre promised to obtain a fourth salary from the city and in its lack,
the chancery would pay. Doswald was worried that the Carmelites would lose Bellevue and the
parish. The men did not want this. He quoted them, "We must keep Bellevue at any cost, or face
disgrace - and worse." He also quoted Kilian Lynch, "I felt like a rat, when at the chancery I
heard justified complaints based on inefficiency."997 After this episode, the hospital was quiet
for a while.

With the advent of the Scapular Militia, Ariel Agemian painted the Scapular Vision in the 28th
Street church sanctuary and then finished the balance of the arched roof and walls with Carmelite
and Marian scenes.998

For the three years, 1940-1943, the church's collections totaled $35,000 and an additional
$54,000 was brought in from entertainments and bingo. The principal of the debt was reduced
from $81,000 to $49,000 during this time. The fathers gross income was $37,000 and they were
able to contribute $15,000 to the provincial fund.999

Some income came to the Carmelites from the sale of the original priory, the sisters convent, to
the parish for $7125, the very price the Carmelites had paid many years before.1000

                                                  Saint Simon Stock

The parish of St. Simon Stock was incorporated in 1920.1001      As background to see the
development of the parish in this period, we present what one of the participants, Dionysius
Flanagan, had to say about those days:

      Lynch to F, Tarrytown, June, 1943J, ANYP.
      Doswald to F, Bronx, June 19, 1943, ANYP.
      Contract, Agemian and Carmelite Fathers, Dec 28, 1943, ANYP.
      Financial Statement, 28th Street, July, 1940 - July 1, 1943, ANYP.
       Meeting of the Missionary Society..., Jan 28, 1946, ANYP.
       Certificate of Incorporation, Nov 23, 1920, CONY.

St. Simon Stock Elementary School was opened in February, 1926. At that
time Father O'Farrell was Commissary General of the New York
Carmelites, and Father Dominic Vella was pastor of St. Simon Stock
Parish. These two good priests were the pioneer Carmelites in the Bronx,
and between them laid the foundations of a very active and successful

The Sisters of Mercy came to take charge of the new school. The first
Principal was Sister Mary Borromeo, to whose genius, prudence, loyalty
and indefatigible efforts, the success of the Elementary School, (and later
of the High School), was in a great measure due. To the Sisters of Mercy
we owe a mighty debt of gratitude. Without their aid there would be no
St. Simon Stock High School.

Fr. Gerhard succeeded Fr. Vella as pastor in 1928. His first big work was
to run a drive to reduce the debt, which was above $300,000. He
succeeded in bringing it down by about $70,000. But still it was a very
heavy burden on the parish, especially as the financial crisis came upon
the whole country in the following year.

Father Gerhard left for his own Province in Australia in 1929. For a brief
time I administered the parish affairs, then Father Patrick Russell was
appointed Pastor. He remained Pastor until 1934.

As it was during Father Russell's pastorship that the High School was
brought into existence, a few words about our Very Reverend Provincial
are in order: High School opened with the first Graduating Class in Sept

In 1930 it was necessary to build the top story of the school, also the
Science room.

This expenditure brought the parochial debt back close to where it was
before 1928. This was a heavy burden to place on the shoulders of a
young priest who was at that time only 4 years ordained and less than that
time in America. However he faced the problem and did his job well.

We always had two Carmelite Priests on the High School Staff as we have
today. The Principal and most of the members of the teaching staff have
always been Sisters of Mercy.

In the beginning our High School got approval from the State Dept. of
Education from year to year, but in at the Graduation of our First Class

            Father Russell was happy to be able to announce that the State Dept. of
            Ed. had given full recognition to our school. That was in June 1933.

            1934 Father Russell and I went to look at some property offered to us as a
            high school sight [sic/]in Los Angeles.1002

Flanagan, on his election as Commissary General in 1926, moved from 28th Street to St. Simon
Stock. Louis Gerhard left for Australia in 1929.1003           and Flanagan began his time as
administrator that endured to his election as provincial in 1931. It was during this time that most
of the high school was built. The Sisters of Mercy had been living at 194th Street and the Grand
Concourse. A house was bought for them in the parish on Ryer Avenue and later on, another
was purchased and a bridge was constructed between them. These were 2248 and 2250 Ryer
Avenue.1004 So Flanagan in his modesty was not sufficiently factual of his


During these days, dances were held on the "Roof Garden" by sodalities and other parish groups.
The garden was simply the flat roof of the school. A shrine to the Little Flower was built and
Elias Magennis was present for the dedication. William T. Cosgrave, President of Ireland and
friend of Gerhard, visited the church and school.1005

Almost from the first days of the parish, Sister Mary Camillus of the Mission Helpers of the
Sacrd Heart worked in the CCD program directing it eventually for more than twenty-five years.
She also did parish visiting and took up the first census in 1925.1006

When Doctor Mannix, Archbishop of Melbourne and Irish patriot, visited the United States in
1926, a luncheon was tendered him on July 16 at St. Simon Stock. The menu was rather plain
featuring fish.1007 It probably took place on a Friday.

A financial report for 1926 is hard to decipher. No debt is mentioned except for a temporary loan
of $45,000 of which $35,000 was paid back that year. Over $15,000 was paid in interest and

       Notes, D. L. Flanagan, ANYP.

       Definitory Minutes, Feb 19, 1929, ANYP.
       St. Simon Stock Silver Jubilee (Bronx, 1945) n.p.
       St. Simon Stock scrapbook, ANYP.
       St. Simon Stock Silver Jubilee (Bronx, 1945) n.p.
       Luncheon program, ANYP.

$5000 on a principal. Entertainments netted almost $4000 and the bazaar almost $10,000. The
report gives a picture of debt without citing an amount but also one of incredible amount of fund
raising and contributions to meet the building expenses of those days.1008 The next six months
saw $8094.01 more interest paid and over $5000 raised from entertainments.1009 The end of
that year, 1927, saw an income of about $70,000 and $23,700 paid off the debt leaving it at
$326,000.1010 1928 saw a drive to reduce this debt. Its goal was $100,000.1011 The outcome
has not been preserved.

For the seven hundreth anniversary of the approval of the Carmelite Rule by Honorius III, a
congress of the Scapular Confraternity was held at St. Simon's on February 27, 1927. Vespers
and compline were recited, messages from Cardinal Gaspari, Hilary Doswald and Cardinal
Hayes were read. Hugh Devlin preached. A procession and benediction took place with an
entertainment following in the school hall. Films were made of the event to be shown locally
and be preserved for the next congress in one hundred years.1012

That June a plaque with Father O'Farrell in has relief was dedicated. Elias Vella promoted the
idea to honor the first pastor.1013

Flanagan wrote Cardinal Hayes in May, 1929, for permission to build an additional story on the
school for use as a high school. He had obtained the services of the Sisters of Mercy because he
stated they and the Carmelites would be the faculty.1014 He was given permission to expend
$50,485 on this project.1015 Almost a year later, he asked that another $4415 be permitted for a
lab and $2500 for the purchase of a lot adjoining the sisters' convent where seemingly he planned
to build to accommodate the increased staff the high school would require.1016 All this was

    Church of St. Simon Stock, Statement of Cash Receipts and Disbursements for the Year Ended Dec. 31, 1926,
CG, Am Sti Eliae, BTMNY.
     Church of St. Simon Stock, Statement of Cash Receipts and Disbursements for Six Months Ended June 30, 1927,
in ibid.
       Financial Report, St. Simon Stock, Jan 1 - Dec 31, 1927, ANYP.
       St. Simon Stock scrapbook, ANYP.
   Gaspari to F, Rome, Feb 22, 1927; General and Curia to F, Rome, [Feb ], 1927; O'Mahoney to F, Utica, Feb 26,
1927; Hayes to F, NY, Feb 26, 1927; St. Simon Stock scrapbook, ANYP.
       F to Hayes, Bronx, May 5, 1929; F to Daly, Williamstown, Feb 12, 1959, ANYP,
       Carroll to F, NY, June 11, 1929, ANYP.
       F to Hayes, Bronx, Mar 25, 1930, ANYP.

Writing to Magennis in Rome, Flanagan described how he had to assume the parish
administration and gave reasons for building the high school. He felt children should not be
traveling to other schools by subway. He also saw it as a source of vocations and a place "where
we can give our postulants from the city a High School education without having to support them
for years in Middletown."1018

Mel Daly returned from his studies in Rome and was appointed to St. Simon's in the summer of
1930.1019 In was in 1934 that he began his long term as pastor.

When Elias Magennis visited the parish in 1931, Elias Vella, the prior, gave a luncheon in his

For the school year of 1930-31, the parish had 466 students in the elementary school and ninety-
five in the high school. Mel Daly, Kieran Hickey and Patrick Russell were listed as faculty
members of the high school.1021 At the first high school graduation in 1933, Flanagan spoke.
He described how at one time there were extra classrooms in the school but that Patrick Russell
would now have to build more and asked for the listeners to help him do it.1022 For that first
graduation, a special publication in the style of a yearbook, The Mantuan, was published. It
featured material on Kieran Hickey and Berthold Forrester, faculty members.1023       Flanagan,
proud of the production, sent a copy to Cardinal Hayes as a token of the graduates' esteem and

The addition to the school mentioned by Flanagan at the 1933 graduation would prove to be
more difficult than envisioned. Patrick Russell received ten estimates for the addition of a fourth
story to the school. They ranged from $19,950 to $30,777.1025 One man, William Jones, had

       Carroll to F, NY, May 9, 1930, ANYP.
    F to Magennis, Bronx, June 13, 1929, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38). It would seem that Elias Holland did not fill
out Russell's term as stated in Mel Daly, "St. Simon Stock Church Marks Golden Jubilee," Sword 30 (Oct, 1970) 17.
    Faculty, Aug 14, 1930, ANYP. It seems that St. Simon Stock Silver Jubilee (Bronx, 1945) is not correct in citing
the appointment of Mel Daly in 1933 which is also given as the year Russell left for Los Angeles.
       Vella to Farrington, Bronx, Apr 29, 1931, ANYP.
       St. Simon Stock School, Report to Curia, 1930-31, ANYP.
       Speech, Flanagan File, ANYP.
       The Mantuan, ANYP.
       F to Hayes, Bronx, June 13, 1933; Hayes to F, NY, June 22, 1933, Hayes Papers, DA.
       Estimates, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.

taken over, he thought, the firm of Anthony Schmidt, the addition's architect, when the latter
died. Other architects, Jones claimed, had gotten hold of the plans and filed them with New
York City. When Jones filed his copy, it was rejected.1026      Flanagan did nothing, it seems,
about his complaint. Another man named Stanley actually took over the Schmidt firm and his
plans, too, were rejected by the city but he never informed Flanagan of this development before
submitting the plans to builders for bids. Flanagan ended the Stanley relationship and sought
another architect.1027

Flanagan wrote the chancery office in September, 1934, explaining that the building for which
permission had been received in January, 1933, had been postponed but that now it was
necessary to build. The cost was expected to be $30,000 and a loan would have to be made for
$25,000. He enclosed a form for Cardinal Hayes to sign paving the way for the loan from
Central Hanover.1028 A loan was approved for $25,000 on September 24, 1934 and another for
$10,000 on December 3, 1934 for a total of $35,000.1029

The following spring Flanagan wrote Hayes saying that the lowest bid for the addition was
$36,500 and sought permission to increase the loan amount to $35,000 if needed.1030 This was
actually the amount approved the previous fall. He was given permission.1031

Building was still going on in September, 1935 but it was expected to be completed by the end of
that month. The school enrollment that month had risen to 700 in the elementary section and 281
in the high school. The wearing of academic attire by the faculty seemed to impress the
students.1032 '     By the start of November, Flanagan was able to report the addition as
completed.        The contract for the work was for $37,339.1034      At completion, the architect
cited the cost at $45,673.      Loan certificates indicate that between August, 1935 and January,

       Jones to F, Yonkers, July 12, 1934, ANYP.
       F to Stanley, Bronx, June 29, 1934, ANYP.
       Carroll to Russell, NY, Jan 16, 1933; F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Sept 10, 1934, ANYP.
       Certificate, Central Hanover Bank and Trust, Sept 24, 1934; Clabby to Daly, NY, Dec 3, 1934, ANYP.
       F to Hayes, Bronx, Mar 30, 1935, ANYP.
       Mclntyre to Daly, NY, Apr 3, 1935, ANYP.
       F to Russell, Bronx, Sept 15, 1935, ANYP.
       F to Cogan, Bronx, Nov 2, 1935, PO.
       Walsh to Daly, NY, Nov 19, 1935, ANYP.
       McGill to Daly, Sept 24, 1935, ANYP.

1936, $30,000 had been borrowed at an interest of four percent.1036 Archbishop Spellman was
able to obtain a reduction of interest to three percent if three percent was paid each year on the
principal.1037 The way this worked out for Mel Daly, when pastor, was that the rate was three
and a half percent provided $680 was paid on the principal each quarter.1038

On September 1, 1936, the debt of the parish was listed as $211,000. 1039 A report of the fathers
for the period ending three months before that, shows the income of the priory was $8804.85 for
the previous year. In that same period, the priory contributed $5600 to the provincial fund.1040

There was always the idea of building a modern convent for the sisters at St. Simon Stock.
Obtaining a plot of land large enough for such a facility was the problem. Mel Daly asked
permission to buy two lots on Valentine Avenue as the two he had already assembled on Ryer
Avenue were next to a public school and would not be suitable for a convent.1041 He was given
permission to spend $9000 to $10,000 for these lots.1042 Daly, four years later, stated these two
lots were too small for a convent but could add to the plot by obtaining two adjoining lots. They
were available for $10,000. He asked permission stating he would not have to borrow and
bolstered his position by saying the site of the present convent could easily be sold to the city for
an extension of an adjoining playground.1043 No reply is extant and it appears that the lots were

       Certificates, Daly and Central Hanover Bank and Trust Co., ANYP.

       Spellman to [Dalv], NY, July 3, 1939, ANYP.

       Hoguet to Daly, NY, Aug 17, 1939, ANYP.
       Certificate, Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank, Sept 1, 1936, ANYP.
       Priory of St. Simon Stock, Financial Statement for the Year July, 1935 - June, 1936, CG, Am Sti Eliae, BTMNY.
       Daly to Hayes, Bronx, Apr 28, 1937, ANYP.
       Mclntyre to Daly, NY, May 5, 1937, ANYP.
    Daly to Mclntyre, Bronx, July 3, 1941, ANYP.
It might be well to list here St. Simon Stock property titles as preserved in the New York Chancery Office. They are:
Agreement, D. O'Connor and Isaac Roth, Dec 4, 1919, $24,000.
O'Connor to St. Simon Stock, May 1, 1920, $100, Lib 274, p 379, sec 11.
Quinn to St. Simon Stock, July 21, 1920, reg Oct 19, 1920, Lib 282, p 390
sec 11. Marshall to St. Simon Stock, Apr 27, 1923, Lib 420, p 180, sec 11.
Oct 23, 1923, Lib 425, p 7, sec 11.
Klockgeter to St. Simon Stock, May 12, 1926, Lib 560, p 238. Wurster to St. Simon Stock, Nov 17, 1927, Lib 669, p
446, sec 11. Walz to Flanagan, July 2, 1930, Lib 784, p 169.
Flanagan to St. Simon Stock, July 21, 1930, $100, Lib 784, p 171, sec 11. Verdon to St. Simon Stock, Nov 22, 1937,
no liber. Sheridan to Clohessy, Dec 4, 1944, $5000, 2220 Valentine Ave., reg Dec 11,
1944, Lib 1338, p 471, sec 11. Clohessy to Sheridan, Dec 4, 1944, $100, no liber.

not purchased.

Two Certificates of Satisfaction were issued for St. Simon Stock on September 20, 1939,
showing mortgages totaling $314,000 had been paid off. A financial report for July 1, 1940 to
June 30, 1943 shows that $137,743 was paid off on the debt in this period leaving a debt of
$49,000. In this same period, $38,000 was paid to the province in various forms.1044       It is
difficult to calculate the debt of the parish. It would seem that with constant additions being
made to the school, the debt never fell below $300,000

Each anniversary of the parish was celebrated principally with a fund raising event. The
eighteenth and twentieth anniversaries were entertainments at the Winter Garden. Journals of
ads and boosters were produced for the occasions.1045

For the high school graduation of 1939, Flanagan was able to obtain Sean T. O'Kelly, later the
president of Ireland, as the speaker. At the time, he was "Deputy Chief of the Government of
Ireland." 1046

An unusual parish mission, a three priest pulpit dialogue, was given at St. Simon's by the Paulists
in 1942.1047 The parish was so populated in the 1940Ts that two late Masses were held, one in
the church and one in the auditorium. When the latter was discontinued, the chancery office
received "comments" that the resulting crowded conditions in the church created a fire hazard.
Mel Daly was asked to check into the matter.1048 Here the matter ended.

To increase the province's income, a yearly collection was to be taken up in the parishes for the
students' education. Stating St. Simon's had so many men and so little pay, increased salaries
were proposed. $10,000 was asked for in back salaries and a payroll of $1200 for pastor, $5400
for assistants and $1000 for Brother Bernard Godfrey was proposed. After some debate, Mel
Daly accepted.1049 This was in 1941.

When the financial report for 1943 was done, St. Simon's had contributed only $600 to the
province. Kilian Lynch wrote Daly to check into the matter before the report was released. He
considered such a small sum coming from one of the largest and richest parishes incredible.1050

       Financial Report, St. Simon Stock, July 1, 1940 - June 30, 1943, ANYP.
       Journals, ANYP.
       Speech manuscript, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
       Publicity Notes, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
       Mclntyre to Daly, NY, Feb 18, 1943, ANYP.
       Definitory Minutes, Sept 16, 1941, ANYP.
       Lynch to Daly, Tarrytown, £19447, ANYP.

He wrote Daly again apparently when there was no response to the first letter to ask that the 1943
report be read at the next community meeting. He added, "If Middletown can contribute
$2400.00 your collection should be at least double what it is."1051

The silver jubilee of the parish was celebrated in 1945 with a. souvenir journal giving the history
of the parish in both words and pictures. Masses for the parishoners - living, deceased and
children - were held. A jubilee dinner took place at the Commodore Hotel on May 20, 1945.
About 700 were present.1052

That same year, finances had improved to the point where money was being gathered for a
convent. By the end of 1945, slightly over $21,000 was deposited in the archdiocesan bank.1053

Ailbe McNamee was stationed at the parish for a time in 1947.1054           While he was there, he
celebrated along with Mel Daly and Celestine Fitzpatrick the twenty-fifth anniversary of
profession. Accounts list the latter, unfortunately, as "Guthbert Fitzpatrick, Instr. Provincial."1055

At a visitation by Patrick Russell in 1948, the following items were pointed out: care of the
tabernacle key of the the community chapel, patience with penitents, share gifts, avoid drinking
at public functions. These, surely, were matters that could be brought up at any visitation in any
period. One matter was special, however. The general would reveal plans for missions for the
province when he came later that year.1056

                                                        St. Albert's

As O'Connor Hall was rising in 1928, Elias Magennis viewed it and used terms like spacious,
beautiful and magnificent to express the obvious pleasure he had in seeing this construction and
what it meant.1057 The architect was James O'Connor and the builder, James A. Meenan. The

       Same to same, Tarrytown, Jan 20, 1944, ANYP.
       St. Simon Stock Silver Jubilee (Bronx, 1945); seating list, jubilee dinner, ANYP.
       Spellman to Daly, NY, Dec 29, 1945, ANYP.
       Gaffney to Daly, NY, Jan 20, 1947, ANYP.
       Vinculum 1, 188.
       Visitation Report, St. Simon Stock, Jan 19, 1948, ANYP.
       Magennis to Franco, Bronx, Nov 23, 1928 and Nov 29, {1928J, CG, General! 2.

cost was not to exceed $154,000 with an additional $10,000 to the contractor for overhead and
profit. Another $3000 worth of walks and cloister work was done.1058 The actual work took
place during the trip of Flanagan to the Eucharistic Congress in Australia. Perhaps the fact that
this progress was made during Ronayne's vicariate accounts for some of Magennis' joy.

Pointing out to Cardinal Hayes that the building was almost completed, Flanagan asked if four or
five Corpus Christi Carmelite Sisters could take care of the domestic work. He promised they
would be no burden to the archdiocese and would have proper accommodations apart from the
college so they could live their "conventual" life.1059   Permission was given and the sisters
arrived on October 15 to begin work the first week in November. With Bishop Dunn's consent,
Joseph Borg was appointed their confessor.1060

The sisters were given The Thistles for their convent and within a few months they sought to use
its top floor as a novitiate. This was refused.1061 The fathers at St. Albert's complained about the
work of the sisters, their cleaning and the amount of electricity used. These were replied to and
some suggestions given in return to the fathers how they could run the seminary more
efficiently.1062    Though the fathers acted this way towards the sisters, Flanagan was their
champion. He helped secure their convent on Highland Avenue and when they were remodeling
this new facility, he loaned them $4000 interest free.1063

John Maher and Richard Haag, who had studied together in Rome, were friends. Anxious to
spend time together, Haag wrote Flanagan to ask if Maher could spend some time with him in
the "West" on vacation."1064 This was probably at Haag's Kansas home. Ronayne, then vicar,
turned the request down because of the annual retreat.1065 Maher also kept in touch with Hilary
Doswald who had named him the St. Albert's prior in 1933, a post he would keep until 1940. He
wrote him a letter appreciating all he had done for the province and told him how much his

   Contract, James A. Meenan, Inc. and Carmelite Fathers, Inc., June 26, 1928; F to Daly, Williamstown, Feb 22,
1957, ANYP.
       F to Hayes, Bronx, Jan 18, 1929, ANYP.
    F to Carroll, Bronx, Feb 18, 1930; Carroll to F, NY, Feb 26, 1929, ANYP; Brenninger to Borg, Rome, Jan 17, 1931,
CG, Generali 2.
       Mary of the Blessed Sacrament to F, Middletown, May 18, 1931, ANYP.
       Same to same, Middletown, Feb 15, 1932; same to same, Port of Spain, Nov 19, 1931, ANYP.
   F to M. Augustine, Bronx, June 1, 1942; same to same, Bronx, Aug 6, 1942; Mclntyre to F, NY, Nov 2, 1938,
       Haag to Ronayne, Niagara Falls, Aug 9, 1928, ANYP.
       Ronayne to Haag, (?), Aug 14, 1928, ANYP.

recent visit had meant. The he offered to do anything for him.1066 Another time, he told the
general how he was using one of his circular letters and Vita Carmelitana among the students.
Then he gave the general a sermon on the importance of the Carmelite spirit. The latter was
perhaps prompted by the news that Doswald would be in New York that year for the provincial

After visiting Niagara Falls and Mt. Carmel, Maher told the general it was his ideal. Citing the
tremendous burden of being the prior of St. Albert's, he said the post had not been easy but that
he had proceeded courageously. St. Albert's was following the program of Catholic University
and Maher had hopes of eventually being affiliated. Informing the general of the trip of
Flanagan and Russell to Los Angeles to begin Mt. Carmel High School, he added the comment
that though the venture had the approval of the definitory, some felt it was premature. Possibly
this was what brought about Doswald's initial opposition to the school. Finally he expressed his
desire to have Doswald at the provincial chapter. As he said, the province needed his "help,
advice and guidance."1068

Previously, Anthony Wholley had written Doswald telling how great life was at St. Albert's and
under Maher. His changes had made a new life there. The students, on their own, were building
their private chapel, for instance.1069

In the summer of 1934, the faculty of St. Albert's placed a number of considerations before the
definitory. They can be divided into three groups: candidates, money and faculty. Because they
considered older men useless for the brotherhood and because no such candidates had
persevered, they asked for a cutoff age of twenty-one for brother candidates. The Carmelites had
a separate account into which they placed their earnings. They asked that $2000 of its $8000 be
used for buying the "bare necessities" required for equipping the school. Then followed a list of
seventeen items considered needed. At the end of the list a statement was placed that the men
were aware of the financial drain on the province of the Los Angeles undertaking but they
pointed out that the success of Los Angeles depended on favorable results at St. Albert's. That
coming school year, St. Albert's was to have high school and one year of college. They asked
that in order to have a capable faculty, Bernard Daly be assigned there as a teacher and master of

   Maher to Doswald, Middletown, Dec 6, 1933, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38); Definitory Minutes, Aug 6, 1933,

       Same to same, Middletown, June 23, 1934, in ibid.
       Wholley to Doswald, Middletown, Dec 11, 1933, in ibid.

postulants. It was pointed out that ill men can be a help but it was not reasonable to demand of
them that they teach four or five hours a day and attend community exercises.1070

The novitiate with John Haffert, a member of the Chicago Province, as novice master was
located at St. Albert's. After his ordination by Bishop Colton of Buffalo in 1911, Haffert was sent
to the sanitarium at Gabriels, NY, where he was a patient for nearly a year. He taught at Mt.
Carmel, Chicago, for thirteen years and served as novice master from 1925 to 1933. He then was
placed in charge of the Washington house of studies until August, 1934, when Hilary Doswald as
general appointed him novice master for the New York Province.

Then novitiate was at St. Albert's in the building, now demolished, that the Carmelites
constructed as their first building on the property. In 1943, the novitiate was moved to The
Thistles and in 1946, the novitiate was moved to the new foundation in Auburn, NY. In 1949,
Haffert retired as novice master, being replaced by Finbar Lynn, and he went to live at St.
Cecilia's, Englewood, NJ, where he died in 1973.1071

Haffert was a good friend of Doswald's and so it is not surprising that he would write the general
a friendly letter telling how much he enjoyed the visit of Titus Brandsma and his lectures. He
then added a plug for Maher saying 168 he was the man for St. Albert's.1072 He praised him
again calling the years 1934-37 very ideal.1073 He was also grateful to the general for obtaining
permission for him to say Mass in his mother's home.1074

Haffert had translated the rule and constitutions of the order into English for the cloistered nuns.
John Gearon in Australia revised this translation and Haffert wrote Doswald criticizing Gearon's
version. Doswald sent Haffert's letter to Gearon and when Gearon responded, Doswald sent this
on to Haffert. So each knew what each thought about the other's work.

       Statement, St. Albert's Faculty, Aug 1, 1934, ANYP.
   Haffert to Hansen, Englewood, Dec 27, 1957, ANYP; AOC 8, 122; "Silver Jubilee of Father John Haffert, 0.
Carm.," Sword 1 (Jan, 1937) 39-40; Stephen McDonald, Golden Jubilee. 1911-1961, Rev. John J. Haffert,
Ch Carm.; "Rev. John Haffert, 0. Carm., 1887-1973," Sword 38 (Feb, 1978) 36-50. Articles written by Haffert while
novice master are: "Thoughts for the July Day of Recollection," Sword l(July, 1937) 47-51; "Answers to Scapular
Questionnaire," ibid. 3(1939) 183-5; "Scapular Sermons, " ibid. 3(1939) 525-8.
       Haffert to Doswald, Middletown, Dec 6, 1935, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
       Same to same, Middletown, Apr 1, 1937, in ibid.
       Same to same, Middletown, Jan 14, 1937, in ibid.

To the general Haffert called Gearon's comment on his version assinine. Gearon's ridicule he
called vulgar and because this was done before students, Haffert stated Gearon should not be
where young men were being trained.1075

Haffert wrote that same day to Gearon saying he did the translation because he was asked to. He
said concerning some phrases Gearon objected to, "I know that our American dialect sounds
foreign and barbarous to the trained English ear, but it is well understood by Americans, and
since the translation was made principally for the American convent of our nuns, the barbarisms
it contains will hardly be noticed."1076 It's a surprising exchange from the otherwise mild and
humble Haffert.

When Cyril Conroy, Dennis Rigney and Alphonsus Galligan were received as novices in July,
1934, with John Maher preaching and Monsignor Dubois Wood presiding, notice was published.
The occasion was also used to put in a plug for the seminary and its program even to the extent
of giving the address.1077

John Maher liked the general's questionnaire about academics at St. Albert's and used this
opportunity to tell him that he was not satisfied with the enrollment but cited his own inability to
get away for school talks. Maher saw the need for someone to do this but mentioned some found
it too embarrassing. Once again, he looked forward to the presence of Doswald at the provincial

Two years later, Maher answered another questionnaire by sending a booklet about St. Albert's.
He added that the enrollment was between twenty-five and thirty-five. Sometimes first year
college was taught but he himself preferred Catholic University for the students. Quite bravely
he stated he was ready for any visitation by the Congregation of Studies. As he put it, "... nothing
like being prepared for an emergency."1079

Music, particularly an annual concert and liturgical events, was an important part of the

Ninety-one acres of land, the Watts plot, were purchased in 1938 to enlarge the seminary's
       Same to same, Middletown, Nov 15, 1939, CG, Am Sti Eliae, (1939-65).
       Haffert to Gearon, Middletown, Nov 15, 1939, in ibid.
       Sunday Union and Catholic Times (New York) July 12, 1934.
       Maher to Doswald, Middletown, Dec 8, 1936, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
       Maher to Pausback, Middletown, Aug 14, 1938, in ibid.
       AOC 10, 37.

When John Matthias Haffert was teaching French at St. Albert's, he began a French periodical
written by his students and called, La Presse de St. Albert. An issue of November, 1938,
featuring an article on John of the Cross, was dedicated to the school's prior, John Maher.1082
Maher sent copies to Antonio Franco asking for a word of commendation for "my boys" and sent
a copy also to Doswald.1083 When the general opened the publication, he admitted that he was
enthused but his condition changed to consternation and then positive alarm. He cited his
surprise that such could be published by Carmelite students with Maher's approval. He then
stated he was silent when St. Albert's had hired John M. Haffert when he was refused solemn
vows by the Chicago Province. He insinuated that Maher was foolish to have done this. He then
sallied forth into Haffert citing what he considered his deficiencies.

What upset Doswald at La Presse were the following:

1. He questioned the statement that                          the    Scapular      was      not    propagated   from
1650 to 1927. He wanted proof for this.

2. He failed to see the purpose of a cartoon.

3. Concerning a review of Les Miserables, he asked, "Are you not aware that 'Les Miserables' is
in the Index?"

4. He thought the presentation of John of the Cross’ incarceration in a play presented on the
general's feastday had to make a bad impression of the students.

He warned Maher not to allow the spirit prompting these things to enter into his school. It
wounded him to see Maher's magnificent work spoiled by allowing such a spirit into St.
Albert's.1084 ' With no reply extant, we presume the episode ended here.

During the term of Albert Daly as prior, Kieran Hickey gave some vocation talks to recruit for
the seminary.1085     Daly tried to have Cyril Conroy temporarily assigned to the seminary in
place of Gerard McCarthy so the latter could study for his MA exams and work on his thesis. He
cited the importance of this English degree for the seminary.1086 Daly was quizzed by Flanagan

       F to Doswald, Bronx, Feb 25, 1938, ANYP; Isacsson, The Lands of St. Albert's Jr. Seminary , 9.
       La Presse de St. Albert, St. Albert's File, ANYP.
       Maher to Franco, Middletown, Dec 30, 1938, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
       Doswald to Maher, Rome, Jan 22, 1938, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
       F to Daly, Bronx, Apr 1, 1941, ANYP.
       Daly to F, Middletown, Apr 2, 1941, ANYP.

on the spending, not of the monthly provincial supplement, but of tuition, supply money and
donations.1087 This seemingly went unanswered.

During the night of February 13, 1943, the Grey house, which was used as the kitchen-dining
room burned to the ground.1088 To replace the facilities, plans were made for a two floored Y
shaped structure extended from the novitiate building.1089 The actual replacement was a one
story structure with basement.1090

Patrick Murray was a member of the Chicago Province taken under the wing of Flanagan who
assigned him to teach at St. Albert's.1091      He was quite ambitious, enrolling in Columbia
University and offering himself as a chaplain at the outbreak of World War II.1092 Murray tried
to equip the science lab at St. Albert's by raising funds from his friends. Through his efforts,
eighty percent of the equipment required for high schools by the Regents was acquired.1093

Murray sought to join a diocese to gain funds to support his mother but later changed this to a
military chaplaincy.1094 Kilian Lynch turned down this chaplaincy try in his general statement
to the Military Ordinariate that he had no one to send. Murray wrote the general seeking to enlist
without being attached to any province. This Doswald would not allow and pointed out to
Murray that he could not secularize once he was in the military.1095 The following year, Murray
was accepted by the bishop of Helena, Montana.1096

Flanagan sent Gerard McCarthy $125 in 1943 for a new team of horses for St. Albert's and
complimented him on being able to make such a good trade for the two old ones this new team

       F to Daly, Bronx, Oct 3, 1941, ANYP.
       Times Herald (Middletown) Feb 16, 1943.
       Plans, Henry Gill, ANYP.
       Isacsson, A History of St. Albert's Jr. Seminary, 43-4.
       Murray to F, Middletown, May 17, 1941, ANYP.
       Same to same, Middletown, Dec 9, 1941, ANYP.
       Flanagan Papers, St. Albert's File, ANYP.
       Murray to Lynch, Middletown, Sept 9, 1943; same to same, Middletown, Oct 29, 1943, ANYP.
       Doswald to Lynch, Bronx, Nov 11, 1943; Murray to Doswald, Middletown, Nov 4, 1943, ANYP.
       Gilmore to Doswald, Helena, Mar 7, 1944, ANYP.
       F to McCarthy, Bronx, Apr 20, 1943, ANYP.

A new agreement was made with the Corpus Christi Carmelite Sisters in 1943. Six were to be
employed with three given use of the Piatt House on the grounds. Laundry was to be done by the
sisters at their Middletown convent. Salary was raised from $20 to $35 plus $20 transportation
and $20 for doing the laundry.1098 Whether the latter figures are for the group or each sister is
not clear.

Andrew McHugh seems to have been stationed at St. Albert's for at least a brief period as he
received faculties under this domicile.1099

The Marian, in the format of a yearbook, was published in 1944. It gave a picture of life and
activities at the seminary and was aimed at fostering vocations. It replaced two other booklets
previously issued for this purpose. One was Saint Albert's College with twenty-two pages and
issued in the late 1930's. The other, Carmelite Preparatory College, St. Albert's, Middletown, NY
was issued in the late 1920's.1100

The Thistles was remodeled at the conclusion of World War II to expand its capacity,
accommodate the novitiate and modernize the structure. The cost was near $40,000.1101

When St. Albert's underwent a landscaping renovation beginning with the term of Kilian Lynch,
Vinculum reported the fact but stated the purpose as being to provide a fit residence for the
students attending Catholic University.1102

                                     Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Middletown

The parish of Our Lady of Mount Carmel had as one of its missions the Church of the Holy
Name, Otisville. When he was stationed at St. Albert's, John Maher acted as pastor of the church.
In 1931, he did some remodeling for the church s sixty-fifth anniversary installing a new altar
and new pews.1103 Financial reports of his years there indicate some social activity in the

       Definitory Minutes, Aug 10, 1943, ANYP.
       F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Apr 28, 1943; Mclntyre to F, NY, Apr 29, 1943, ANYP.
       Printed Materials, St. Albert's, ANYP.
   Doswald to Lynch, Bronx, Aug 6, 1945; bill, Margotta Construction, Tarrytown, June 26, 1946; Definitory
Minutes, Oct 19, 1945, ANYP.
       Ibid. June 4, 1945, Jan 28, 1946, ANYP; Vinculum, 1, 69.
       Hail, Holy Name, Otisville, New York, 1866-1966, 6.

number of entertainments, bazaars and hall rentals. From 1928 to 1932, $3627.37 was spent in
repairs to the church and hall. Maher also received a salary of $900 each year.1104

A petition was sent to Flanagan in 1932 to have Maher made the resident pastor of Otisville.1105
It was also sent to the chancery office as Monsignor Carroll, the local dean, received a memo
from the consultors stating that such a petition had been received and that the committee sending
it commended Maher for his work but wanted to know what happened to the money raised for
the church renovations.1106 Carroll passed this difficult problem on to Bishop Dunn asking him
to respond to the latter question after seeing the Carmelites. Cardinal Hayes got into the picture
by asking that heat be installed in the church.1107

Flanagan in his reply said with a bit of irony that he was glad to hear of the tribute to Maher's
work. He mentioned that Sunday School had been conducted there since his own time in 1910.
He also cited improvements in the missions and the Middletown church. All protested the
insinuation that nothing was done before Maher's time. He said there was no water in the
Otisville church but it did have forced air heat. Steam was not possible but promised to improve
the heating situation if Hayes so wished. He then turned around the argument of the committee
by saying that the praise of Maher is proof that good work can be done without a resident pastor.
Rather daringly, he said that if Hayes wanted the mission, he would give it to him along with all
in the bank belonging to it1108. This was the end of the committee's petition and of the attempt to
upgrade the Holy Name mission.

The seventy-fifth anniversary of Holy Name was in 1941. In preparation for the event, Joseph
Larsen, who was then serving the mission while Maher was the pastor of Our Lady of Mount
Carmel, completed the vestibule of the church and put running water into Lyceum Hall. The
event was celebrated on August 31 with Flanagan as the celebrant and preacher, a fact he was
very pleased with as it had almost been his first assignment in the United States. Maher and
William Travers, a local boy, were the deacon and subdeacon. There was also a parish supper to
celebrate the event.1109

       Financial Reports, Holy Name, 1928-32, ANYP.
       Petition to F, Otisville, Sept 8, 1932, ANYP.
       Memo to Carroll, NY, Oct 10, 1932, ANYP.
       Dunn to F, NY, Dec 15, 1932 enclosing Carroll to Dunn, NY, Dec 9, 1932, ANYP.
       F to Dunn, Bronx, Jan 7, 1933, ANYP.
    Hail, Holy Name, Otisville, New York, 1866-1966, 7, 17; Maher to F, Middletown, Aug 13, 1941; F to Maher, Aug
15, 1941; Flanagan's sermon, ANYP,

Later on, in 1944, Joseph Larsen drew up a landscaping plan for the church marking each
planting with its Latin name.1110

An article appeared in The Liberty Register in 1941 stating that a letter had been sent by John
Maher to the residents of Burlingham soliciting funds for chances in a raffle for a new church
and hall at Burlingham. Paul A. Rouis, the Sullivan County ABC investigator, was interested in
the success of the appeal. The article inferred that Rouis was interested because this type of
appeal puts pressure to contribute on those who have liquor licenses.1111

The people in the Burlingham area were going to Our Lady of the Assumption, Bloomingburg,
for Mass in the winter but in the summer, Mass was offered for them in the auditorium of R. H.
Macy's Camp. The drive's goal was $10,000 and the church was to be called St. Patrick's after
Patrick Tobin who donated land in Thompson Ridge for the church.1112

When he filled in for Stephen McGleenan at Mount Carmel in the summer of 1932, John Maher
took his responsibilities seriously. When an insurance agent sent the parish its policy, he
returned it to the man with the notation that he was in charge and gave no authorization for any
insurance and so was returning the policy with the admonition to wait until the return of

It seems the boundaries of Mount Carmel and Middletown's other parish, St. Joseph's, were a
perrenial problem. David O'Connor, pastor of St. Joseph's, complained in 1933 to Flanagan that
the Carmelites had in two instances brought communion to persons in his parish.1114 Flanagan
simply regretted the actions and promised they would not occur again.1115

In 1940, Dionysius McCarthy gave all of the sacraments - presumably last rites - to a St. Joseph's
parishoner without permission. As John Sheridan, the pastor, pointed out he did not even call as
was the custom of Simon Farrington and Kevin Flanagan. He also complained that Maher had
baptized a child without his permission which could not have been presumed as he was known as
not giving this permission.1116       Flanagan again regretted the actions and spoke to both

       Drawing, ANYP.
       The Liberty Register, Aug 21, 1941.
       Clipping, Scapular Militia scrapbook, ANYP.
       Maher to O'Brien, Middletown, July 19, 1932, ANYP.
       O'Connor to F, Middletown, Dec 11, 1933, ANYP.
       F to O'Connor, Bronx, Dec 12, 1933, ANYP.
       Sheridan to F, Middletown, Apr 15, 1940, ANYP.

McCarthy and Maher. He further pointed out that there should be a good spirit between the two
parishes and would do all in his power to prevent any recurrence in the future.1117

John Maher was appointed the pastor of Mount Carmel at the chapter of 1940.1118 Apparently
at Maher's request, Monsignor Gaffney sent him the archdiocese's understanding of the
boundaries of his parish. These were accepted by St. Joseph's and so, he told Maher, the parties
in a recent wedding and a baptism were all residents of St. Joseph's.1119 Maher replied the lines

not acceptable to him. He said the stated lines would place the State Hospital, now Middletown
Psychiatric Center, in St. Joseph's whereas the Carmelites offer Mass there and take care of all
calls. He said his predecessors insisted there were never any parish lines and so he, himself, had
considered the wedding and baptism parties as members of his parish.1120 Flanagan went to the
chancery where he met with Gaffney and Mclntyre. He reported to Maher that the chancery had
a city map with parish lines drawn in Cardinal Hayes' hand. Flanagan asked for the boundaries
written out. When this was had, then Maher, he reasoned, could petition a readjustment.1121
Apparently he did petition but it was rejected. John Sheridan published in his bulletin a notice
that the boundaries were the same as always.1122

Maher devised a novel method of doing a mixed marriage. The wedding party entered the
sacristy - the normal site then for such a wedding - through the church with the organ playing.
Gaffney told him this was contrary to current practice and asked him to check the legislation and
then call at the chancery. His undoing was the report of the wedding in a Monticello paper.1123
Maher was motivated by a desire to smooth the ground between Catholics and Protestants in
what was a Protestant town. He was far ahead of his time in his concern for people's sensibilities.

For his first Christmas as pastor, Maher redecorated the church.1124 He had received a promise
from Flanagan that he would send Berthold Forrester to the parish from St. Elias in Washington
when the 1940-41 school year was completed. As the school year was coming to a close, Maher

       F to Sheridan, NY, Apr 24, 1940, ANYP.
       F to Mclntyre, NY, July 9, 1940; Mclntyre to F, NY, July 15, 1940, ANYP.
       Gaffney to Maher, NY, Oct 23, 1940, ANYP.
       Maher to Gaffney, Middletown, Oct 25, 1940, two letters of same date enclosing a map, ANYP.
       F to Maher, Bronx, Jan 20, 1941, ANYP.
       St.. Joseph's Parish Monthly (Aug, 1941) 4-5.
       Gaffney to Lynch, NY, May 26, 1941, ANYP.
       General scrapbook, ANYP.

reminded Flanagan of his promise and recalled to him the fact that he had two assistants who did
not drive which created an impossible situation with Masses and instructions in the missions.1125
Flanagan was careful in replying to refer to their "conversation" and not promise.1126 He did
send Forrester to the parish but during the following school year, had him working in Bellevue
during the week and at Mount Carmel on Sundays. This was supposed to endure only until that
year's ordinations and Maher wrote Flanagan asking when the young priests would be arriving as
he needed Forrester in the parish. He also complained that Mount Carmel had paid all of
Forrester's travel and personal expenses but had not even received his 223 Mass intentions from
28th Street.1127     Flanagan promised to right the financial situation and assured Maher that
Forrester would be freed from this double duty by the end of that May.1128

When Maher had an article on the Scapular published in the Ecclesiastical Review, it brought
many requests from priests for Scapular faculties.1129

Maher thought that when Berthold Forrester came to the parish, it would mean the removal of
Simon Farrington. Flanagan, responding to this notion, told Maher he never had intended
removing Farrington. He also said he could not send him to St. Albert's though he attested to the
fact that he was a good priest and had done good work "notwithstanding his somewhat
unconventional ways”.1130 Maher responded that Farrington had driven many away from
Bloomingburg and Bullville and that it would take Forrester a long time to get the people back as
they were attending Montgomery and Pine Bush churches.1131 Still Flanagan stood firm. He
said Farrington was an old man, had a good record, was happy at Mount Carmel and he could not
think of moving him.

The YMCA in Middletown was located next to Mount Carmel Church on property that had been
left them in 1933 by Sarah Bailey. In 1944, they were left the Clemson mansion on Highland
Avenue. Maher was instructed to try and buy the old site for a rectory to be built after the war.

       Maher to F, Middletown, June 3, 1941, ANYP.
       F to Maher, Bronx, June 17, 1941, ANYP.
       Maher to F, Middletown, May 5, 1942, ANYP.
       F to Maher, Bronx, May 7, 1942, ANYP.
       "A Powerful Sacramental for Dying," Ecclesiastical Review 105(July, 1941) 43-5.
       F to Maher, Bronx, Oct 10, 1941, ANYP.
       Maher to F, Middletown, Oct 21, 1941, ANYP.

He was successful and once the parish had the property, the structure on it was razed and the
tract was used as a parking lot for the church.1132

The last of the parish's missions, Unionville, was acquired in 1945 when St. Paul's Methodist
Church in that village was purchased.1133

                                                    Transfiguration, Tarrytown

Transfiguration Church, Tarrytown, exists in the midst of the Sleepy Hollow country of
Washington Irving. Judging from the amount of evidence extant for this period of the parish,
one is inclined to think Sleepy Hollow an apt name. Perhaps it's a case of life going on through
its daily paces and not much notice being taken of events today we would consider important.

We know, for example, that in the period before World War I, the Almanac of the Sacred Heart
was distributed in the parish.1134 Then the next documentary material we have is a series of
correspondence between Dominic Hastings and a bank. Hastings wanted to enlarge the mortgage
slightly for some remodeling work. After negotiating, the bank told him he had to have the
chancery office's permission.1135 This prompted Hastings to postpone the venture.

Romaeus McCaffrey came to Tarrytown in 1929. In sending him his obedience, Flanagan
remarked that since he had not been teaching at St. Albert's for some time, Flanagan was sure he
would welcome this change where he could be of greater service to the order.1136 It was in
1931 that Kilian Lynch came to Tarrytown and his teaching assignment at Marymount

       F to Maher, Bronx, Nov 3, 1941, ANYP.
   Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Middletown, New York (Hackensack, 1976) 5; Lynch to Maher, Tarrytown, Apr 12,
1944, ANYP; deed is YMCA to Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Lib 976, p 26, Nov 1, 1945.
    F to Hastings, NY, July 28, 1927; Shields to F, NY, Aug 3, 1927, two letters; F to Hastings, NY, Aug 11, 1927; Allen
to Hastings, NY, Aug 25, 1927; same to same, NY, Aug 30, 1927, ANYP.
       F to McCaffrey, Bronx, Oct 30, 1929, ANYP.

       F to McCaffrey, Bronx, Oct 30, 1929, ANYP.

    Libro delle Proposte e Deliberazoni, San Alberto, n.p.; "Zelo Zelatus Est," Vox Eliae (1953) 11. Golden Jubilee,
Parish of the Transfiguration (1947) n.p.,is wrong in stating 1930.

The 1933 drive of Catholic Charities was the occasion for Brocard Whalen to write Hayes, the
Cardinal of Charity. He pointed out to the cardinal that he was appointed local director of the
charity drive but that Dominic Hastings was preventing him from doing his work. He had the
same situation at St. Simon Stock where Dionysius Flanagan reprimanded him for pushing the
charity drive while a Carmelite affair was in progress. On the first Sunday of the appeal, Whelan
was sent to the Mercy Sisters for Mass and Joseph Larsen read the appeal letter "in somewhat
school-boy style." Larsen, moreover, didn't have faculties yet and made no sermon on the drive.
All this Whelan was witness to, listening from behind the altar. "Sinister comments" were made
in the priory about Hayes' appeal letter.

Whelan went on to say that on the second Sunday of the appeal, he was sent to Marymount and
felt he would be sent away again for the third Sunday of the drive. He concluded this missile to
Hayes by inferring that Hastings and the other fathers kept the Children of Mary around too
much playing ping pong until the start of the lawn tennis season - a vague implication.1138 The
letter is preserved but there is no reply. Hayes probably saw it for what it was.

James Elliott of the Irish Province was a visitor to Tarrytown and Marymount in 1933.1139
When Doctor James Taylor, a longtime Carmelite friend, was married, Christopher Slattery was
thoughtful enough to obtain a papal blessing for him.1140

When the Carmelite Manual was published in 1937, Kilian Lynch, apparently its editor, sent
Cardinal Hayes a copy which was graciously acknowledged.1141 Kilian was named pastor of
Transfiguration at the chapter of 1937, while still retaining his Marymount post.1142

When Transfiguration Church was constructed, a loan for $35,000 had been taken out. This was
backed up in 1919 by a bond signed by the then Monsignor Hayes. 1143       This mortgage was
satisfied on January 20, 1938.    The parish also borrowed money from the province. When
Celestine Fitzpatrick sent a payment in 1937, it was acknowledged that $14,000 remained to be
paid on the loan.1144

       Whalen to Hayes, Tarrytown, Apr 30, 1933, Hayes Papers, DA.
       Elliott to Antonio, Tarrytown, Aug 21, 1933, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1922-38).
       Slattery to Antonio, Tarrytown, Oct 18, 1933, in ibid.
       Lynch to Hayes, Tarrytown, Dec 10, 1937; Secretary to Lynch, NY, Dec 31, 1937, Hayes Papers, DA.
       F to Mclntyre, Bronx, Sept 3, 1936; same to same, Bronx, Aug 10, 1937; Mclntyre to F, NY, Aug 17, 1937, ANYP.
       Bond, P. Hayes, Apr 26, 1919, ANYP.
       Mortgage, Mutual Life Insurance of New York and Transfiguration Church, Sept 19, 1898, Lib 1212, p 225.

1938 was the fortieth anniversary of the parish and it was marked with suitable celebrations.
There was a solemn Mass on May 15. Vespers that evening were followed by a social. The
celebration lasted three days concluding with a reunion at Rhineland Gardens where Judge
Edward Dore spoke and gave Kilian Lynch a check for $1500.1145 Celestine Fitzpatrick and
Anthony Wholley were the parish assistants at the time. Wholley was in charge of the
celebration's journal which included a short history of the parish and lists of the priests stationed
there and the parish societies.1146 Sending a copy of the journal to Flanagan, Wholley said he
expected to net between $1400 and $1500 from the journal and then asked Flanagan to pay the
$20 for his ad so he could give 245 Kilian Lynch the final results the next week.1147

Flanagan had located a house on Prospect Avenue in Tarrytown that he thought would be a good
house of studies, college and philosophy. The cost was $20,000 and was located close enough to
the priory so that the priests stationed there could assist in the teaching. He asked permission to
purchase from the chancery.1148 He was refused on the grounds that Hayes had made a rule that
no more religious property could be bought in Westchester. This was to avoid the placing of
more property on the exempt rolls.1149           Flanagan spoke to Mclntyre on the phone and
resubmitted his petition.       Again, he was refused but this time by the consultors.1151

A shrine to Our Lady of Lourdes was built on the grounds of Transfiguration. Bishop James
Kearney came to bless it and the James Durosses honored him with a dinner afterwards.1152

When Anthony Wholley was pastor of Transfiguration, the parish trustees held, at the request of
the chancery, regular meetings. The first was on October 9, 1943. At that time, James Duross
and Doctor Eugene O'Connor were the two trustees. The latter was concerned with youth
organizations and the Holy Name Society. At quarterly meetings, the future parish school, fund

       Tarrytown File; Fitzpatrick to Borg, Tarrytown, July 13, 1937, ANYP.
       Transfiguration Church, Tarrytown, New York (Hackensack, 1971) 13.
   Church of the Transfiguration, Fortieth Anniversary, 1898-1938. The only copy yet uncovered of this
publication is in the Carmelite Library, St. Albert's, Middletown, NY.
       Wholley to F, Tarrytown, May 28, 1938, ANYP.
       F to Gaffney, Bronx, June 23, 1942, ANYP.
       Mclntyre to F, NY, July 3, 1942, ANYP.
       F to Mclntyre, Bronx, July 7, 1942, ANYP.
       J. Donohue to F, NY, July 13, 1942, ANYP.

raising and the golden jubilee in 1947 occupied most of the agenda.                O'Connor died on August
7, 1947.1153

In March, 1946, Hugh Devlin celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his profession at
Transfiguration. He insisted on the entire Carmelite ritual of the time even to his being crowned
with a wreath.1154

The golden jubilee of the parish was celebrated in the fall of 1947. Kilian Lynch was general at
the time. A souvenir booklet including the history of the parish by Helene Margaret, pictures of
current and past Carmelite staff and scenes of the parish facilities and the Tarrytown village was
published for the occasion.1155

       Lynch to F, Tarrytown, Aug 3, 1942; F to Lynch, Bronx, Aug 4, 1942, ANYP.
       Trustee Minutes, ANYP.
       Golden Jubilee, Parish of the Transfiguration (1947) n.p.

                                                        Chapter 10

                                                  The Kilian Lynch Years

Kilian Lynch was elected provincial at the chapter of 1943 succeeding Dionysius Flanagan. Lynch was
born in Wicklow, Ireland, in 1902. He went to Rome for studies and was ordained there on June 17,
1928. There is some documentary confusion concerning the many degrees he received. He received a
doctorate from the Academy of St. Thomas in 19261156 and in June, 1929, received both the laurea in
theology from Venerabile Collegium Vaticanum and the lectorate in theology summa cum laude from
San Alberto with the thesis De Sacrificio Missae.1157 Lynch also received a Doctorate of Divinity from the
Gregorian and the honor Magister Aggregatus.1158

Lynch was the vicar prior at San Alberto from December 17, 1930 to January 2, 1931.1159 It was in that
fall, 1931, that he began teaching at Marymount College in Tarrytown. He was the community's prior
twice and had been elected a definitor preceding his election as provincial.1160

Kilian Lynch was a man of direct action. He made decisions very quickly and then carried them out
efficiently. His stand on many matters was well known and so needed no expression. He also answered
letters succintly writing many times on the bottom or the reverse of the letter sent him. Thus little
material exists from his years as provincial. What he did is well known but cannot be documented in the
manner that the actions of Dionysius Flanagan, who saved every bit of correspondence, can be. He led
by presence and inspiration rather than the written word.

After his election, there was the Mass stipend problem with the Irish Province.1161 This, as we have
seen, was quickly solved. When John Matthias Haffert, then working for the Carmelites in the Scapular
Militia, asked for a loan to buy a house, Lynch quickly loaned him $5000 at four percent interest
considering it a safe and good investment.1162

       Acta Facultatum, San Alberto, 11.
       Ibid.. 19, 20.
       Sword 11 (1947) 171-2.
       Libro delle Proposte e Deliberazioni, San Alberto, n.p.
       "Zelo Zelatus Est," Vox Eliae (1953) 11.
       Irish Province File, Flanagan Papers, ANYP.
       Lynch to F, Tarrytown, /J9437; Definitory Minutes, Sept 20, 1943, Apr 12, 1944, ANYP.

Lynch was a confidant of Flanagan though they were not close. An example of this trust is the mission
Flanagan gave Lynch to get Gabriel Nalty on his way to Australia after he had fallen out of favor with
Flanagan. The latter was anxious to learn what had happened. "I am anxious to get word of his final
departure from the U. S. A."1163

Trying to increase the financial resources of the province, Lynch set a quota for the Bronx, Tarrytown
and Middletown parishes. Middletown's was open ended and advanced payment of salaries was asked
for. Tarrytown was assessed $625 for a quarter and whatever else could be sent from the community
account. St. Simon's quota was $1900 for a quarter plus money from the community account.1164

Carmel in Europe was in sad condition after World War II. Lynch helped by sending a thousand
Scapulars to Germany. One of his men, Alphonsus Galligan, an army chaplain, was able to get through
to Doswald in Rome two letters describing the condition of the German houses and men.1165

Lynch was anxious to move the novitiate from its location at St. Albert's and establish it as a separate
facility. The department store, Macy's, had a camp in Sullivan County that they wished to sell. Lynch
wanted it for the novitiate. The problem was that the Archdiocese of New York, under Spellman, was
reluctant to have property on the public tax rolls become exempt. Flanagan had been turned down on
this basis when he asked to establish a student house in Tarrytown. While Lynch was visiting Los
Angeles, he delegated Mel Daly to convince Hilary Doswald to ask Spellman for permission to buy the
Macy property. Urging Daly to be persuasive, he said, "... it is a golden opportunity which may never
come our way again."1166 What happened to the Macy prospect is not apparent but Lynch did try James
Kearney, the Bishop of Rochester. Kearney approved of the request.1167 He then told Lynch he had
heard of a large house in Auburn that was "inherited" by the city and advised him to see a local pastor,
Frederick Straub, who would guide him.1168

Lynch must have been pleased with the Case Mansion in Auburn for a notice of an auction sale appeared
in the Auburn newspaper that February.1169 At the auction in early March, the Carmelites bid of

       F to Lynch, Los Angeles, May 22, 1943, ANYP.
       Lynch to Maher, Daly, Wholley, Tarrytown, Mar 24, 1944, ANYP.
       Doswald to Brenninger, Bronx, Apr 18, 1945; Doswald to Daly, Bronx, July 29, 1945, CG, Generali 2.
       Lynch to Daly, Los Angeles, n.d., ANYP.
       Kearney to Lynch, Rochester, Jan 26, 1946, Auburn scrapbook, ANYP.
       Same to same, Rochester, Jan 29, 1946, in ibid.
       Unidentified clipping in ibid. Cf. Definitory Minutes, Feb 16, 1946, ANYP.

$15,000 was accepted. The sale was hailed as a relief for the city from a headache. The sale received the
unanimous approval of the city council.1170

Doswald, meanwhile, gave permission for the new foundation presuming that Lynch had cash for the
transaction and thus would not have to go to the Sacred Congregation of Religious for permission to
contract a debt.1171 Edward Boyle, mayor of Auburn, expressed his happiness at the whole

The deed for the Case property had just two codicils that no structure could be erected nearer South
Street than the front of the existing house and no residential structure could be erected unless it had a
value of $15,000.1173 Despite the May 1 date of the deed, the city of Auburn and the Carmelites would
jointly use the premises until July 1. A title search went on through the summer as the students of the
province prepared the mansion for occupancy. The deed was finally delivered in September.1174

At the chapter of that summer, 1946, Kilian Lynch was elected to a second term. He hoped to have
seven clerical and two lay brother novices in the new Auburn novitiate that September. He had also
divided the Los Angeles community into two formed houses but could not do this canonically as
Archbishop Cantwell did not at first give his beneplacitum. He was also enthused about the prospect of
the new house in Pasadena.1175 He made Patrick Russell the prior of the new Auburn foundation.

Lynch was concerned that summer about the writings of Albert Dolan on the cloth Scapular versus the
medal but he was content to wait until a higher authority decided the issue of validity. He also had a
former Discalced professed who was eager to enter the order and sought a dispensation for him.1176
With the opening of the novitiate set for September 7, he was glad to receive the document of transfer
from Rome but still awaited the dispensation for his former Discalced. The recommendation of the St.
Albert's community, "He is a fine fellow and is well thought of by the priests in Middletown," only fueled
his anxiety.1177

       Post-Standard (Syracuse) Mar 8, 1946, 1; Courier Journal (Rochester) Aug 22, 1946.
       Doswald to F, Washington, Feb 24, 1946, ANYP; AOC 13, 47.
       Boyle to Lynch, Auburn, Mar 13, 1946, ANYP.
       Deed, City of Auburn to Carmelite Fathers, Inc., May 1, 1946, Lib 83, p 304.
   Leary to Lynch, Auburn, May 3, 1946; same to same, Auburn, Mar 21, 1946; same to same, Auburn, Sept 6,
1946, ANYP.
       Lynch to Doswald, Tarrytown, July 6, 1946, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
       Lynch to Doswald, Tarrytown, July 17, 1946, in ibid.
   Doswald to Lynch, Rome, Aug 9, 1946, ANYP; Lynch to Doswald, Tarrytown, Aug 15, 1946, CG, Am Sti Eliae

In Auburn, leading the work crews of students that were preparing the Case Mansion for the opening of
the novitiate, Lynch learned that his Discalced had changed his mind. Other good news that he was able
to convey to Doswald was that John Haffert and the novices were pleased with the Auburn house.
Matters were moving along well concerning the Pasadena foundation. The archbishop signed a
document giving the Carmelites the parish and high school. He was also going to give his nihil obstat for
a separate community at Mt. Carmel High School.1178

Many of the matters Lynch had been writing Doswald about that summer did not come to the general's
attention until late in August because the letters had been sent surface mail. On the Scapular matter, he
told Lynch the curia was studying the Scapular and the medal with the aim of putting out a circular letter
to establish uniform teaching. Doswald wanted no articles on the Scapular in The Scapular, Sword, The
Carmelite Review or any other journal. He delegated Lynch to inform John Matthias Haffert of this
decision.1179 Haffert's stock in Rome was declining as Gabriel Pausback, a former co-worker in the
Militia, thought he had not kept his imagination under control in his book on Blessed Nuno nor was his
historicity of a high degree.1180

All was prepared for the dedication of the Auburn novitiate on September 7, 1946. Bishop Kearney
made sure that all he needed would be available and he donated the crucifix to be used in the
ceremony.1181 Congratulations came from the curia, other Carmelites and friends.1182 Lynch was the
celebrant of the Solemn High Mass. Patrick Russell preached and Bishop Kearney addressed the
gathering to close the dedication. 1183 All present then signed the dedication book.1184 The next day
was an open house at the priory.1185

The bishop thanked the Auburn prior, Patrick Russell, for his "generous remembrances" of his visit to the
dedication.1186 Lynch also gave a watch to Kearney, who in his letter of thanks, said he saw the
Carmelites coming to Auburn as the crown of his years of friendship with Lynch.1187

       Lynch to Doswald, Auburn, Aug 23, 1947, in ibid.
       Doswald to Lynch, Rome, Aug 24, 1946, in ibid.
       Pausback to Lynch, Rome, Mar 9, 1946, ANYP.
       Kearney to Russell, Rochester, Aug 23, 1946; same to same, Rochester, Aug 30, 1946, Auburn scrapbook, ANYP.
       Doswald and Pausback to Lynch, Rome, Sept 5, 1946 and other cables and telegrams are in ibid.
    Vinculum 1, 69; Thomas McGinnis, "Whitefriars," Vox Eliae (1948) 6-7; Brocard Connors, "From the Provincial
Scrapbook," ibid. (1952) 22-3.
       Auburn scrapbook, ANYP.
       Kearney to Russell, Rochester, Sept 9, 1946, in ibid.

There were eight novices in that first Auburn novitiate and at least the first year of college was being
taught. Patrick Russell was one of the faculty.1188

Soon after the dedication, the community decided to remodel the upper floor of the house for more
accommodations.1189 The work went on during that 1946-47 school year. The estimated cost was
$20,000 but the builder, William Bouly, offered to do the work for cost plus ten percent.1190 It seems
that this was the basis for the construction.1191

That first year of the Carmelites in his diocese, Kearney asked Patrick 37 Russell to preach at the
cathedral's pontifical Mass on the feast of St. Patrick.1192 He accepted and glowing accounts of the event
indicate those in charge were pleased.1193

That same March, Hilary Doswald held his last meeting with the province's definitory. No serious
business was conducted at the session. In a little over a year's time Doswald would be out of office and
Lynch would be his successor. The motivation for the meeting is open to speculation.1194

John Matthias Haffert, a former Carmelite student, seemed unable to keep out of Carmelite affairs.
Hearing from a Chicago Carmelite that his province was pushing Matthew O'Neill for general because of
his knowledge of languages and administrative ability, Haffert stated his opposition. Calling the election
of O'Neill a spiritual disaster, he said the secularization of the order was his goal. His co-worker at the
Scapular Militia, Donald O'Callaghan, was going to the chapter and Haffert boasted, "I am schooling
him," He would also use him to carry four boxes of cigars for Doswald. Haffert's position on the Scapular
and medal question was that he was telling people not to take chances with the medal. An article of
Albert Dolan's pushing the medal had been reprinted in magazines and was causing a destructive
influence among Haffert's groups and workers. He conveyed his Uncle John's satisfaction with the
Auburn house but added, "... he hopes to make it sufficiently monastic."1195

       Kearney to Lynch, Rochester, Sept 9, 1946, in ibid.
       Russell to Doswald, Auburn, Sept 26, 1946, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
       House Meeting Book, Auburn, 1946, ANYP.
       Beardsley to Bouly, Auburn, Jan 9, 1947; Bouly to Beardsley, Auburn, Jan 28, 1947, ANYP.
       Beardsley to Russell, Auburn, Jan 29, 1947, ANYP.
       Kearney to Russell, Rochester, Mar 1, 1947, Auburn scrapbook, ANYP.
       Courier Journal (Rochester) Mar 20, 1947.
       Definitory Minutes, Mar 10, 1946, ANYP.
       Haffert to Doswald, NY, Aug 30, 1946, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).

While the controversy over the Scapular versus the medal went on, John Matthias Haffert wrote
Doswald cloth Scapular miracle stories to push him to favor the cloth over the medal. He also conveyed
the information his uncle, Father John, was also opposed to O'Neill becoming general.1196

Doswald asked Haffert about the last apparition of Our Lady at Fatima and particularly her garb. In
reply, he said:

            Yes, according to Sister Lucia's description, She was clothed in the entire
            Carmelite Habit. However, Sister Lucia said she could not give specific details,
            either as to the exact color of the Habit, because Our Lady was "all in light." In
            other words, it was not a well defined apparition.

Our Lady was more brilliant than previously and Lucia's recall "was a memory of shimmering light. Our
Lady did not hold the Infant in Her arms but She held the Scapular in her hands towards the crowd as
though expecting someone to take it from Her hands." Here, in the midst of what was to Haffert an
important controversy, he seems by his compostion and the accent of his style to be pushing the cloth
Scapular. Propelled as he was by a sense of promotion and possessed, as he thought, of a charism to
promote the Scapular, I think we see here an attempt to influence the forthcoming decision of the

Haffert then went on to mention to the general some apparitions of Our Lady at Kerrytown, Ireland. He
summed them up with the illogical conclusion, "It is obvious that Our Blessed Lady desires very much to
clothe the world in her Carmelite Habit."1197

Again, before the general's decision, Haffert wrote him. He had a twofold plan to tell the general. He
would send a million Scapulars to Europe through the Scapular Apostolate and then raise money
through this organization to purchase Aylesford and give it to the order.1198

Very conveniently, John Matthias Haffert had an article in press on the Scapular-medal controversy
when he learned of Doswald's injunction against any Scapular articles. He felt his article would reassure
the general especially the way "the article meets the necessity." Haffert then expressed shock that the
general was not receiving The Scapular. So he may never have read the article in question. Pausback's
remarks about Haffert1s book on Blessed Nuno must have gotten back to him for he explained to the
general that Pausback, himself, had done most of the work for the book, The Peacemaker. He did not
use his name as co-author because he could not show Pausback the completed manuscript. Because he
considered the book below standard, he was considering not even using his own name. He protested

       Same to same, Sea Isle City, Sept 18, 1946, in ibid.
       Same to same, NY, Oct 17, 1946, in ibid.
       Same to same, (?), Jan 4, 1947, in ibid.

that he had written every word but that Pausback had done the research. In the next edition, he
promised he would state, "Revised Edition by the V. Rev. Gabriel M. Pausback."1199

A Mr. Brennan of the Irish Consulate in Boston, a friend of Sean Reid, was importuned by the Carmelites
to request a Boston foundation from Archbishop Cushing. Gushing offered a high school in the Salem
area.1200 Lynch with the prospect of Pasadena in view, replied that he did not have the men at the
time to assume the obligation of a high school. He did ask for a site for a novitiate even though he had
just opened such a facility in Auburn.1201 Cushing replied that his consultors would not allow any more
novitiates in the archdiocese and so the school proposal must await a more normal time.1202

As he began what would be his last year as provincial and teaching at Marymount, Kilian Lynch was
optimistic about the new foundation in Pasadena and the fact that St. Albert's had opened the year with
ninety-three students. He welcomed the Scapular writing ban for he felt that Albert Dolan had done
much harm. He regretted that the ban was too late to stop an article by Donald O'Callaghan in the
current issue of The Scapular.1203

Pausback had written Lynch requesting some clarifications of the acts of the 1946 provincial chapter.
The custom for vacation had always been three weeks and the amount given to defray travel was
increased from $75 to $100. This increase was questioned and Lynch said, "It may seem much to
anyone who does not understand the cost of living and travel in America."

Since the chapter, it was decided not to enlarge Mt. Carmel High School in Los Angeles nor build a
monastery there. So the loan for $150,000, for which permission had been requested, was not needed.
Pasadena was being kept under discussion, a condition caused by the lack of manpower. Finances
would not be a difficulty as all debts would belong to the parish. A decision would soon be made. He
asked for a postulation for John Maher's third term as prior of Mount Carmel parish because he was the
pastor and with a community of only three, it did not seem opportune to split the two offices.1204

The curia would not sanction the increase in vacation expenses and Lynch promised to convey this to
the houses indicating that the action of the chapter would probably stand in practice. Concerning

       Same to same, Sea Isle City, Sept 9, 1946, in ibid.
       Brennan to Reid, Boston, Feb 3, 1947, ANYP.
       Lynch to Cushing, Tarrytown, Feb 22, 1947, ANYP.
       Cushing to Lynch, Brighton, Feb 24, 1947, ANYP.
       Lynch to Doswald, Tarrytown, Sept 16, 1946, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65)
       Same to same, Tarrytown, Oct 12, 1946, in Ibid.

Pasadena, the illness of Archbishop Cantwell was a problem but Lynch hoped this promising offer would

Lynch was happy with the general's stand on the Scapular-medal controversy. The position taken was
that the Church had approved of the medal and thus was a substitute for the cloth Scapular. The latter
had indulgences and symbolism that could not be conveyed by the medal. Added to the problem of
Cantwell's illness In the Pasadena foundation was the temporary transfer of Bishop McGucken to
Fresno. Lynch welcomed this standstill as it gave him time to assemble the needed manpower. His travel
plans for the general chapter were: boat from New York to Europe and then fly on to Rome. His arrival
date would be May 15.1206

The general chapter was held May 16-26, 1947. Donald O'Callaghan and Berthold Forrester represented
the New York Province as delegates. Kilian Lynch was elected general, the first member of the province
so to serve.1207 There are

many stories about the chapter in the oral tradition of the province. Most are traced back to the two
provincial delegates. The English speakers, allied through Elias Lynch and Donald O'Callaghan, were
solidly behind Kilian. Elias Lynch courted some of the foreign groups. He must have done yeoman work
for Matthew O'Neill had sent enough food and clothing packages to Italy to qualify himself as a relief
agency. Dressed in O'Neill's habits and shoes and filled with his food, they voted against him. Many at
the chapter felt that Doswald would have gladly served another term had he been elected but most did
not consider him a viable candidate because of his age and the poor condition of his health especially his
eyes. Throughout the caucuses, Berthold Forrester served the Lynch cause well by serving potions in
liquor scarce Rome and entertaining those coming to see the promoters of Lynch's cause.

With Lynch elected general and taking up residence in Rome, Jerome O'Dwyer was recruited from
Ireland to take his position as faculty member at Marymount beginning with the 1947-48 school year.1208

Doswald, apparently under inquiry from Lynch, clarified the whole policy on Mass stipends. All Masses
sent to him as general were sent at 50c each. When he could not distribute them in 1942, the price was
upped to $1.00 each. Doswald protested that he had never given a Mass favor to the Chicago Province
which he did not also give to the New York Province. He summarized by stating that each priest in the
order had to offer one Mass each month in favor of San Alberto's. Both he and Magennis had ordered all
overflow Masses, as he called them, to be sent to the general who alone had the right and privilege of
determining how much was to be sent for each of these Masses.1209

       Same to same, Tarrytown, Nov 15, 1946, in ibid.
       Same to same, Tarrytown, Apr 14, 1947, in ibid.
       ACG (Rome, 1947).
       Flanagan to Lynch, Bronx, Sept 7, 1947, CG, Am Sti Eliae (1939-65).
       Doswald to Lynch, Washington, Dec 23, 1947, CG, Generali 2.

                                                 A Postscript

This history of the New York Province of St. Elias began with the Carmelites in Ireland in the late
ninteenth century and concluded with the election of Kilian Lynch, the provincial of the time, as prior
general of the entire order in 1947. He was succeeded in office by Patrick Russell who governed the
province for a total of eight years.

These three volumes of Carmel in New York tell the story of the province from its small beginning of four
men and one parish in 1889 to the year of 1947 when the province had increased to six houses and
numbered seventy some members. What we have told is the recorded story of this growth. Much that
happened was never recorded. No Carmelite ever chronicled his tour of the wards of Bellevue. No
record of the assistance given to the sick or the consolation brought to the dying was ever made. The
human struggles to persevere and remain faithful lie in the cemetery of the province at St. Albert's.

Researching and writing these volumes brings home quite forcibly the truth that what exists in record
are seldom the deeds of good and loyal men. Unless some difficulty existed, a privilege or dispensation
was sought or a transfer was made, the lives of many members of the province remain unknown.
Perhaps this situation is in accord with the hidden life of virtue but it is frustrating to one trying to write
the story of an ecclesiastical institution. Much then remains known but to God.

"The past is but prologue." These words affront one as you enter the National Archives in Washington.
With the past of the Province of St. Elias known and studied, the future with its uncertainties looks to be
one that the province can launch out upon without fear. For the trunk from which we spring is sturdy
and secure.


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