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					    LAKE KISSIMMEE STATE PARK


       UNIT MANAGEMENT PLAN




                 APPROVED




           STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
         Division of Recreation and Parks


               APRIL 16, 2004
                                 Department of
                Environmental Protection

Jeb Bush                         Marjorie Stoneman Douglas Building                     Colleen M. Castille
Governor                       3900 Commonwealth Boulevard, MS 140                           Secretary
                                  Tallahassee, Florida 32399-3000




                                        August 13, 2004



Ms. BryAnne White
Division of Recreation and Parks
Office of Park Planning, M.S. 525
3900 Commonwealth Blvd.
Tallahassee, Florida 32399


Re: Lake Kissimmee State Park, Lease #2461


Ms. White:

On April 16, 2004, the Acquisition and Restoration Council recommended approval of the
subject management plan. The Office of Environmental Services, acting as agent for the Board
of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund, approved the management plan for the Lake
Kissimmee State Park on August 13, 2004. Pursuant to Section 253.034, Florida Statutes, and
Chapter 18-2, Florida Administrative Code this plan’s ten-year update will be due no later than
August 13, 2014.

Approval of this land management plan does not waive the authority or jurisdiction of any
governmental entity that may have an interest in this project.


                                               Sincerely,

                                               Paula L. Allen
                                               Paula L. Allen
                                               Office of Environmental Services
                                               Division of State Lands
                                               Department of Environmental Protection




                                    “More Protection, Less Process”

                                        Printed on recycled paper.
                               TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION                                            1

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF PLAN                               1

MANAGEMENT PROGRAM OVERVIEW                             3

Management Authority And Responsibility                 3

Park Goals And Objectives                               4

Management Coordination                                 6

Public Participation                                    6

Other Designations                                      6


                       RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COMPONENT


INTRODUCTION                                            7

RESOURCE DESCRIPTION AND ASSESSMENT                     7

Natural Resources                                       7

Cultural Resources                                     16

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM                            17

Special Management Considerations                      17

Management Needs And Problems                          18

Management Objectives                                  18

Management Measures For Natural Resources              18

Management Measures For Cultural Resources             23

Research Needs                                         24

Resource Management Schedule                           25

Land Management Review                                 25


                                            i
                                 LAND USE COMPONENT


INTRODUCTION                                                 27

EXTERNAL CONDITIONS                                          27

 Existing Use Of Adjacent Lands                              27

 Planned Use Of Adjacent Lands                               28

PROPERTY ANALYSIS                                            28

 Recreation Resource Elements                                28

 Assessment Of Use                                           29

CONCEPTUAL LAND USE PLAN                                     33

 Potential Uses And Proposed Facilities                      33

 Facilities Development                                      36

 Existing Use And Optimum Carrying Capacity                  37

 Optimum Boundary                                            37


                                          TABLE


TABLE 1 - Existing Use And Optimum Carrying Capacity         37


                                   LIST OF ADDENDA


ADDENDUM 1

 Acquisition History and Advisory Group Documentation   A 1 - 1

ADDENDUM 2

 References Cited                                       A 2 - 1

ADDENDUM 3

 Soil Descriptions                                      A 3 - 1


                                            ii
ADDENDUM 4

 Plant And Animal List                         A 4 - 1

ADDENDUM 5

 Designated Species List                       A 5 - 1

ADDENDUM 6

 Timber Management Analysis                    A 6 - 1

ADDENDUM 7

 Priority Schedule and Cost Estimates          A 7 - 1




                                        MAPS


Vicinity Map                                         2

Soils Map                                            9

Natural Communities Map                             11

Burn Zone Map                                       20

Base Map                                            30

Conceptual Land Use Plan                            34

Optimum Boundary Map                                39




                                         iii
                                        INTRODUCTION
Lake Kissimmee State Park is located in Polk County about 20 miles east from Lake Wales.
Access to the park is via State Road 60 east to Boy Scout Road to Camp Mack Road (see
Vicinity Map). The vicinity map also reflects significant land and water resources existing near
the park.

Currently, the park contains 5,933.58 acres. For this plan, park acreage has been calculated based
on the composition of natural communities, in addition to ruderal and developed areas.

At Lake Kissimmee State Park, public outdoor recreation and conservation is the designated
single use of the property (see Addendum 1). There are no legislative or executive directives that
constrain the use of this property.
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE PLAN
This plan serves as the basic statement of policy and direction for the management of Lake
Kissimmee State Park as a unit of Florida's state park system. It identifies the objectives, criteria
and standards that guide each aspect of park administration, and sets forth the specific measures
that will be implemented to meet management objectives. The plan is intended to meet the
requirements of Sections 253.034 and 259.032, Florida Statutes, Chapter 18-2, Florida
Administrative Code, and intended to be consistent with the State Lands Management Plan. With
approval, this management plan will replace the May 29, 1997 approved plan. All development
and resource alteration encompassed in this plan is subject to the granting of appropriate permits;
easements, licenses, and other required legal instruments. Approval of the management plan does
not constitute an exemption from complying with the appropriate local, state, or federal agencies.
This plan is also intended to meet the requirements for beach and shore preservation, as defined
in Chapter 161, Florida Statutes, and Chapters 62B-33, 62B-36 and 62R-49, Florida
Administrative Code.

The plan consists of two interrelated components. Each component corresponds to a particular
aspect of the administration of the park. The resource management component provides a
detailed inventory and assessment of the natural and cultural resources of the park. Resource
management problems and needs are identified, and specific management objectives are
established for each resource type. This component provides guidance on the application of such
measures as prescribed burning, exotic species removal, and restoration of natural conditions.

The land use component is the recreational resource allocation plan for the unit. Based on
considerations such as access, population, and adjacent land uses, an optimum allocation of the
physical space of the park is made, locating use areas and proposing types of facilities and
volume of use to be provided.

In the development of this plan, the potential of the park to accommodate secondary
management purposes (“multiple uses”) was analyzed. These secondary purposes were
considered within the context of the Division’s statutory responsibilities and an analysis of the
resource needs and values of the park. This analysis considered the park natural and cultural
resources, management needs, aesthetic values, visitation, and visitor experiences. For this park,
it was determined that cattle grazing and limited timber management could be accommodated in
a manner that would not interfere with the primary purpose of resource-based outdoor recreation
and conservation. These compatible secondary management purposes are addressed in the
Resource Management Component of the plan. Uses such as, water resource development
projects, water supply projects, stormwater management projects, linear facilities and sustainable
                                                 1
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                                                                                                                                                                    FDOT Local Roads
                                                                                                                                                                    FDOT State Routes
                                                                                                             Sumica/Lake                                            Interstates
                                                          Tiger Creek                                      Walk-in-the-Water                                        FDOT US Routes
                                                           Preserve                      Lake                     Tract                                             Lake Kissimmee State Park
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                                                                                                                                                               Public Lands
               Prairie                                            Lake Wales                                                                                         Federal Managed Areas
                                                               Ridge State Forest                                                                                    State Managed Areas
                                                                                                                                                                     Local Managed Areas
                                                                                                                                                                     Private Managed Areas
                                                                                                                                                                     Aquatic Preserve
                                                                                                                                                              Sources: Florida Natural Areas Inventory, 2003
                                                                                                                                                                       Florida Land Use, Cover and Forms
                                                                                                                                                                       Classification System, 1995, 1999 & 2000


                                                                                                            N

      Lake Kissimmee                                                             1         0        1       2          3        4
                                                                                      Florida Department Of Environmental Protection
                                                                                                                                        5 Miles
                                                                                                                                                                                              Vicinity
         State Park                                                                          Division Of Recreation And Parks
                                                                                                  Office Of Park Planning
                                                                                                                                                                                               Map
agriculture and forestry (other than those forest management activities specifically identified in
this plan) are not consistent with this plan or the management purposes of the park and should be
discouraged.

The potential for generating revenue to enhance management was also analyzed. Visitor feesand
charges are the principal source of revenue generated by the park. It was determined that cattle
grazing and limited timber management would be appropriate at this park as an additional source
of revenue for land management since it is compatible with the park’s primary purpose of
resource-based outdoor recreation and conservation.

The use of private land managers to facilitate restoration and management of this unit was also
analyzed. Decisions regarding this type of management (such as outsourcing, contracting with
the private sector, use of volunteers, etc.) will be made on a case-by-case basis as necessity
dictates.
MANAGEMENT PROGRAM OVERVIEW

                             Management Authority and Responsibility
In accordance with Chapter 258, Florida Statutes, and Chapter 62D-2, Florida Administrative
Code, the Division of Recreation and Parks (Division) is charged with the responsibility of
developing and operating Florida's recreation and parks system. These are administered in
accordance with the following policy:

   It shall be the policy of the Division of Recreation and Parks to promote the state park system for
   the use, enjoyment, and benefit of the people of Florida and visitors; to acquire typical portions of
   the original domain of the state which will be accessible to all of the people, and of such
   character as to emblemize the state's natural values; conserve these natural values for all time;
   administer the development, use and maintenance of these lands and render such public
   service in so doing, in such a manner as to enable the people of Florida and visitors to enjoy
   these values without depleting them; to contribute materially to the development of a strong
   mental, moral, and physical fiber in the people; to provide for perpetual preservation of historic
   sites and memorials of statewide significance and interpretation of their history to the people; to
   contribute to the tourist appeal of Florida.

The Trustees have also granted management authority of certain sovereign submerged lands to
the Division under Management Agreement MA 68-086 (as amended January 19, 1988). The
management area includes a 400-foot zone from the edge of mean high water where a park
boundary borders sovereign submerged lands fronting beaches, bays, estuarine areas, rivers or
streams. Where emergent wetland vegetation exists, the zone extends waterward 400 feet beyond
the vegetation. The agreement is intended to provide additional protection to resources of the
park and nearshore areas and to provide authority to manage activities that could adversely
impact public recreational uses.

Many operating procedures are standard system wide and are set by policy. These procedures are
outlined in the Division Operations Manual (OM) and cover such areas as personnel management,
uniforms and personal appearance, training, signs, communications, fiscal procedures,
interpretation, concessions, camping regulations, resource management, law enforcement,
protection, safety and maintenance.

In the management of Lake Kissimmee State Park, a balance is sought between the goals of
maintaining and enhancing natural conditions and providing various recreational opportunities.
Natural resource management activities are aimed at management of natural systems.

                                                        3
Development in the park is directed toward providing public access to and within the park, and
to providing recreational facilities, in a reasonable balance, that are both convenient and safe.
Program emphasis is on the interpretation of natural, aesthetic and educational attributes of the
park.
                                   Park Goals and Objectives
The following park goals and objectives express the Division’s long-term intent in managing the
state park. At the beginning of the process to update this management plan, the Division
reviewed the goals and objectives of the previous plan to determine if they remain meaningful
and practical and should be included in the updated plan. This process ensures that the goals and
objectives for the park remain relevant over time.

Estimates are developed for the funding and staff resources needed to implement the
management plan based on these goals, objectives and priority management activities. Funding
priorities for all state park management and development activities are reviewed each year as
part of the Division’s legislative budget process. The Division prepares an annual legislative
budget request based on the priorities established for the entire state park system. The Division
also aggressively pursues a wide range of other funds and staffing resources, such as grants,
volunteers, and partnerships with agencies, local governments and the private sector, for
supplementing normal legislative appropriations to address unmet needs. The ability of the
Division to implement the specific goals, objectives and priority actions identified in this plan
will be determined by the availability of funding resources for these purposes.
Natural and Cultural Resources
1.    Protect, restore, and maintain natural communities.
      A. Pursue restoration of pasture in the addition north of Lake Rosalie.
      B. Survey and map the cutthroat grass seeps.
      C. Pursue removal of the remaining spoil pile deposited on the park as part of the Lake
          Kissimmee restoration project.
2.    Protect, restore, and maintain native plant and animal diversity, and natural relative
      abundance.
      A. Continue and increase monitoring and tracking (color banding included) of the Florida
          scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) population as well as other designated species.
      B. Update the unit’s plant list.
      C. Efforts should be made to increase the number of scrub-jays on Buster Island by
          introducing more intense fires and/or pre-burn mechanical treatments if necessary.
      D. Scrub-jay habitats in the park should be evaluated to determine if they have sufficient
          coverage of open patches of bare sand for scrub-jay acorn caching (optimal habitat has
          10-50%). If needed, actions should be taken to increase bare sand coverage throughout
          the habitat.
      E. Seek funding for an OPS biologist/intern to assist in ecological monitoring at this park
          and Allen David Broussard Catfish Creek Preserve State Park, with primary emphasis
          being on the Florida scrub-jay and other rare species and their habitats.
3.    Maintain an effective prescribed fire program.
      A. Continue and increase efforts to restore fire-type communities with emphasis on
          growing season burns.
      B. Mechanically treat areas of the scrubby flatwoods and mesic flatwoods where needed,
          with particular attention to Florida scrub-jay habitat, including removal (by mowing or
          light roller chopping) of tall thickets that have developed along edges of the scrubby
          flatwoods burn zones.
4.    Maintain invasive exotic plant and destructive exotic animal removal programs.
                                                 4
     A. Continue exotic plant removal efforts with specific attention to Category 1 plants.
     B. Continue ongoing efforts to remove feral hogs from the park.
     C. Monitor areas for the occurrence of Old world climbing fern (Lygodium
         microphyllum) and Japanese climbing fern (Lygodium japonicum) and control where
         located.
5.   Protect, restore, and maintain natural hydrological regimes.
     A. Evaluate previous hydrological modifications and design restoration measures to
         enhance and maintain the marsh community in the addition north of Lake Rosalie.
     B. Pursue a hydrological restoration/feasibility study plan for the Rosalie marsh/Zipprer
         Canal area.
6.   Protect, restore, and maintain cultural resources.
     A. Inventory and access archaeological and historic sites and properties, including an
         archeological reconnaissance survey of the park.
     B. Seek funding for a research project to document the prehistory and history of the park
         and surrounding area.
     C. Improve public awareness and encourage protection and stewardship of the park’s
         cultural resources through education, interpretation, and enforcement of agency rules
         and regulations.
Recreation
7.   Continue to provide quality resource based outdoor recreational and interpretive programs
     and facilities at the state park.
     A. Continue the interpretation of Florida’s early cattle industry with an emphasis on
          historical accuracy.
     B. Continue to provide developed and primitive camping opportunities.
     C. Maintain a system of trails to provide hiking, biking and horseback riding
          opportunities.
     D. Interpret park resources through the provision of static interpretive displays, education
          materials and staff-led interpretive programs.
8.   Seek funding to expand recreational and interpretive opportunities through the
     improvement of programs and the development of new use areas and facilities, as outlined
     in this management plan.
     A. Expand opportunities for overnight stays at the park through the development of
          vacation cabins.
     B. Upgrade the group camp restrooms.
     C. Improve boating access and public safety by upgrading the bulkhead and dock
          facilities and providing additional boat docking capacity at the Marina.
     D. Modify the existing restroom building at the Marina to accommodate a park
          concession or interpretive center.
     E. Establish a spur hiking trail and marsh overlook north of Lake Rosalie.
     F. Increase and update natural and cultural resource interpretive signage in the park.
Park Administration/Operations
9.   Seek funding and staffing to meet park operational needs such as corrective maintenance,
     visitor protection, resource management and visitor services.
     A. Expand existing entrance station or construct new facility to enhance visitor services
          and administrative functions.
     B. Improve the park drive to provide a safer access route into the park for recreational
          vehicles, bicyclists and pedestrians.
     C. Develop partnerships and seek other funding alternatives to the legislative
          appropriation process.
                                               5
      D. Promote volunteer participation to assist with park operations, resource management,
         and interpretation.
      E. Conduct routine safety and maintenance inspections of facilities and public areas and
         correct deficiencies as needed. Assure compliance with state and federal safety
         guidelines.
      F. Continue to improve universal access to park facilities.
      G. Provide staff with appropriate training opportunities in visitor services, resource
         management, park operations and interpretation.
      H. Promote Lake Kissimmee State Park as a destination for nature and heritage based
         tourism groups.
      I. Develop and implement user education programs to promote responsible use of the
         park’s land and water resources.
      J. Pursue acquisition of remaining inholding properties to protect the integrity of the
         ecosystems of the park.
      K. Monitor land use activities outside the park that may impact park resources or the
         visitor experience, and increase public awareness of the resource management needs
         of the park.
                                  Management Coordination
The park is managed in accordance with all applicable Florida Statutes and administrative rules.
Agencies having a major or direct role in the management of the park are discussed in this plan.

The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Forestry (DOF), assists
Division staff in the development of wildfire emergency plans and provides the authorization
required for prescribed burning. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
(FFWCC), assists staff in the enforcement of state laws pertaining to wildlife, freshwater fish and
other aquatic life existing within park boundaries. In addition, the FFWCC aids the Division with
wildlife management programs, including the development and management of Watchable
Wildlife programs. The Department of State, Division of Historical Resources (DHR) assists
staff to assure protection of archaeological and historical sites. The Department of
Environmental Protection (DEP), Office of Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas (CAMA) aids
staff in aquatic preserves management programs. Public Participation
The Division provided an opportunity for public input by conducting a public workshop and an
advisory group meeting. A public workshop was held on June 26, 2003. The purpose of this
meeting was to present this draft management plan to the public. A DEP Advisory Group
meeting was held on June 27, 2003. The purpose of this meeting was to provide the Advisory
Group members the opportunity to discuss this draft management plan.
                                       Other Designations
Lake Kissimmee State Park is not within an Area of Critical State Concern as defined in section
380.05, Florida Statutes. Currently it is not under study for such designation. The park is a
component of the Florida Greenways and Trails System.

All waters within the unit have been designated as Outstanding Florida Waters, pursuant to
Chapter 62-302 Florida Administrative Code. Surface waters in this unit are also classified as
Class III waters by DEP. This unit is not within or adjacent to an aquatic preserve as designated
under the Florida Aquatic Preserve Act of 1975 (section 258.35, Florida Statutes).




                                                6
                        RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COMPONENT

INTRODUCTION
The Division of Recreation and Parks has implemented resource management programs for
preserving for all time the representative examples of natural and cultural resources of statewide
significance under its administration. This component of the unit plan describes the natural and
cultural resources of the park and identifies the methods that will be used to manage them. The
stated management measures in this plan are consistent with the Department’s overall mission in
ecosystem management. Cited references are contained in Addendum 2.

The Division’s philosophy of resource management is natural systems management. Primary
emphasis is on restoring and maintaining, to the degree practicable, the natural processes that
shape the structure, function and species composition of Florida’s diverse natural communities as
they occurred in the original domain. Single species management may be implemented when the
recovery or persistence of a species is problematic provided it is compatible with natural systems
management.

The management goal of cultural resources is to preserve sites and objects that represent all of
Florida’s cultural periods as well as significant historic events or persons. This goal may entail
active measures to stabilize, reconstruct or restore resources, or to rehabilitate them for
appropriate public use.

Because park units are often components of larger ecosystems, their proper management is often
affected by conditions and occurrences beyond park boundaries. Ecosystem management is
implemented through a resource management evaluation program (to assess resource conditions,
evaluate management activities, and refine management actions), review of local comprehensive
plans, and review of permit applications for park/ecosystem impacts.
RESOURCE DESCRIPTION AND ASSESSMENT

                                        Natural Resources

Topography
The topography is predominantly flat, and the elevation varies from 50 to 63 feet above sea level.
The highest areas occur in the northern sections and gradually slope downward towards Lake
Kissimmee to the east and to Rosalie and Tiger Creeks in the south. A low, inland sand berm
known as Gobbler Ridge occurs along the edge of Lake Kissimmee. The natural topography has
been altered by the construction of Zipprer Canal between Lakes Rosalie and Kissimmee and by
the construction of a berm and drainage ditches in the northwestern pasture addition.
Geology
Polk County’s major topographic features are several irregular, north-south tending ridges that
appear to be remnants of a previously widespread upland. These ridges are separated and
bounded by relatively flat lowlands. The park lies in such lowland, east of the Lake Wales Ridge.
The park is within the Central Highlands physiographic province and more specifically on the
Osceola Plain within the Central Highlands province (USDA 1990). The Osceola Plain is a
marine terrace that is bordered by the Lake Wales Ridge to the west and by lower-lying marine
scarps to the east. The Kissimmee River passes through the Osceola Plain with the lowest
elevations occurring in the Kissimmee River Valley. Generally, local relief is low with
elevations typically 60 and 70 feet above NGVD, although it is somewhat lower in the

                                                 7
Kissimmee River Chain.

The surface and near surface sediments throughout the county consist of quartz sand, clay,
phosphorite, limestone, and dolomite. These sediments range in age from Late Eocene to
Holocene (40 million years ago to present). Lake Kissimmee State Park is contained within the
Plio-Pleistocene geologic formation (Brooks 1981). This formation consists of preglacial
Pleistocene lagoonal and prograded unlithified coastal sand, shelly silty gray to greenish gray
sand containing the Pinecrest fauna.
Soils
The unit’s soils reflect the topographic features and elevations characteristic of the Kissimmee
River Valley (see Soils Map). Soils are generally poorly drained. A detailed description of each
soil type is included in Addendum 3.

Soil erosion is not a major concern on this unit at this time. Management activities will follow
generally accepted best management practices to prevent soil erosion and conserve soil and
water resources on site.
Minerals
The mineral resources of Polk County include phosphate, by-product uranium and fluoride,
limestone, and industrial and construction sand. No minerals of commercial quality are known to
occur within the park.
Hydrology
Regional hydrology. Surface drainage is poorly developed in the county, and the county has
nearly 500 lakes. Nine of the largest lakes in the county occur in the eastern lowlands, including
Lake Kissimmee and Lake Rosalie. In the flat areas characteristic of much of the county, there
are hundreds of perennial and ephemeral wetlands. In contrast, the three sand ridges found in the
county act as aquifer recharge areas with little surface runoff.

The Kissimmee River drainage system has been extensively changed. The Kissimmee Chain of
Lakes stretches from Orlando to Lake Okeechobee. Water quality in the chain is rated as fair in
the upper portions and good in the lower portions near the park. The system historically involved
water moving slowly through numerous small creeks and seeps, with the water being widely
dispersed from the river along an extensive floodplain. Numerous flood control projects have
resulted in the channelization of the entire Kissimmee River. Combined with the creation of
canals between the major lakes, this has resulted in a severely altered hydrology.

The Kissimmee Headwater Lakes Revitalization Project has been designed to provide water
storage and discharge characteristics to restore the Kissimmee River, while also providing a
wider range of water fluctuation in the Kissimmee Chain of Lakes. This project will result in
more frequent seasonal flooding and higher water levels within the park’s hydric communities.
When this project is completed and the water fluctuation changes are implemented, it will
contribute to the hydrological restoration of Lake Kissimmee State Park.

Park hydrology. In general, water flows from the higher areas at the north end of the park
towards the lower areas at the southern end of the park. Much of the park experiences sheet flow
during the rainy season with water slowly moving from wet flatwoods and seasonal ponds to the
floodplain marshes, blackwater streams, and lakes.

The original drainage pattern within the park was from Lake Rosalie to Lake Kissimmee through

                                                 8
                                           25




                                      70
                                                                                17
                                            74

                                                                                                                              26

                                                                                                                                             31



                                                                                                                                             87
                                                                                                            13




                                                                                                     23
                                                                                                                                        34
  LEGEND
      13 - Samsula muck
      17 - Smyrna and Myakka fine sands                                                   77
      19 - Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional
      21 - Imokkalee sand
      23 - Ona fine sand
      25 - Placid and Myakka fine sands, depressional
      26 - Lochloosa fine sand                                                                                                     35
                                                                                                                       21
      31 - Adamsville fine sand
      34 - Anclote mucky fine sand, depressional
      35 - Hontoon muck
                                                           19
      36 - Basinger mucky fine sand, depressional                                                                            36
      70 - Duette fine sand
      74 - Narcoosee sand
      77 - Satellite sand
      87 -Basinger fine sand
      Water

                                                        2000               0         N        2000               4000 Feet
LAKE KISSIMMEE                                                                    Prepared by:

  STATE PARK                                                                                                                                      SOILS MAP
                                                                Florida Department of Environmental Protection
                                                                        Division of Recreation and Parks
                                                                             Office of Park Planning
Rosalie Drain on the north side of Buster Island, and via Rosalie Creek, Tiger Lake, and Tiger
Creek on the south side of Buster Island. The surface of Lake Kissimmee is one foot lower than
Tiger Lake and four feet lower than Lake Rosalie. The majority of the flow was through the
southern drainage route with the northern route functioning during high water times. Before
1947, Rosalie Drain was a seasonally inundated open floodplain marsh that gradually released
water to Lake Kissimmee. In 1947, a canal was dug through Rosalie Drain to connect Lake
Rosalie and Lake Kissimmee in order to expedite runoff from the drain to create more grazing
area for cattle. This increased drainage has caused the marsh to become drier and has made it
susceptible to hardwood and pine invasion. In 1979, a weir was constructed in the park about
midway along the Zipprer Canal. This structure allows the park to hold some water back in order
to approximate historic water levels in Rosalie Drain. While this has been partially successful in
reflooding Rosalie Drain and reducing hardwood invasion, much of the water simply flows out
the west end of the Zipprer Canal into Lake Rosalie and does not stay on the drain for the desired
length of time. To remedy this situation, a second control structure should be constructed on the
west end of the Zipprer Canal so that the park could maintain higher water levels and an
extended hydroperiod within the park. Ideally, the Zipprer Canal should be restored to its natural
condition.

In the remainder of the park, the original drainage pattern was altered to some extent by facilities
construction. Ditches parallel the park drive for the first 3.25 miles, and two spur ditches fitted
with percolation culverts lead water from the main ditches into wet flatwoods. The park drive
was built at grade level so without these spur ditches, much of the park drive floods for extended
periods.

In the recently acquired pasture area to the west of the park entrance, ditches were built to drain a
large marsh area. The same marsh area has a berm around some of its eastern and southern sides
that was used to control water levels within the marsh for cattle grazing. The ditches in this area
should be removed to restore the marsh. The berm needs more study to determine whether it
should be maintained in order to flood the marsh to higher levels than what the altered hydrology
of Lake Rosalie will currently support.
Natural Communities
The system of classifying natural communities employed in this plan was developed by the
Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) FNAI Descriptions. The premise of this system is that
physical factors, such as climate, geology, soil, hydrology and fire frequency generally determine
the species composition of an area, and that areas which are similar with respect to these factors
will tend to have natural communities with similar species compositions. Obvious differences in
species composition can occur, despite similar physical conditions. In other instances, physical
factors are substantially different, yet the species compositions are quite similar. For example,
coastal strand and scrub--two communities with similar species compositions--generally have
quite different climatic environments, and these necessitate different management programs.

The park contains 12 distinct natural communities (see Natural Communities Map) in addition to
ruderal and developed areas. Park specific assessments of the existing natural communities are
provided in the narrative below. A list of plants and animals occurring in the unit is contained in
Addendum 4.

Mesic flatwoods. The mesic flatwoods within the park are highly variable in condition. The
present conditions are a reflection of past fire and grazing regimes as well as impacts related to
timber and turpentine operations and disturbances from feral hogs.


                                                 10
                                              26




                                      81



                                                                                                                           29




                                                                                                                           21

                                                                                                                      82                  23




                                                                                             8
                                                                                                                                32




    LEGEND
        8 - Mesic Flatwoods-637.42 ac.                                 37
        15 - Scrubby Flatwoods-485.83 ac.
        21 - Upland Mixed Forest-402.26 ac.
        23 - Xeric Hammock-16.38 ac.                                                                             15
                                                               41
        26 - Baygall-28.42 ac.
        29 - Depression Marsh-58.72 ac.                   31
        31 - Floodplain Forest-268.65 ac.
        32 - Floodplain Marsh-2032.23 ac.
        35 - Hydric Hammock-91.66 ac.                                                                            35
        37 - Seepage Slope-9.88 ac.
        41 - Wet Flatwoods-960.32 ac.
        53 - Blackwater Stream-26.81 ac.
        81 - Ruderal-767.61 ac.
        82 - Developed-47.39 ac.
                                                                                                                      53

                                                   2000         0                    N
                                                                                   2000                 4000 Feet
LAKE KISSIMMEE                                                                    Prepared by:
                                                                Florida Department of Environmental Protection
                                                                                                                                     NATURAL COMMUNITIES
  STATE PARK                                                            Division of Recreation and Parks
                                                                             Office of Park Planning                                         MAP
Much of the mesic flatwoods are typified by a mosaic of dense wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana)
and patches of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Mature longleaf pines (Pinus
palustris) are frequent, occurring in a clumped distribution. Species present include queen’s
delight (Stillingia sylvatica), Garberia sp., and gopher apple (Licania michauxii).

In contrast, there are other areas of mesic flatwoods where ground cover species are sparse, with
large area being more-or-less bare. Wiregrass is sparse to nonexistent and the most common
ground cover species include bottlebrush threeawn (Aristida spiciformes), broomsedge
(Andropogon virginicus), and occasional patches of saw palmetto. Coverage by young water
(Quercus nigra) and live (Quercus virginiana) oaks is common. Slash pine (Pinus e. elliottii) is
occasional, but longleaf pine and South Florida slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa) are absent.
Areas such as these may have been subjected to heavy grazing.

Scrubby flatwoods. Scrubby flatwoods in the park range from poor to excellent condition. The
majority, however, is in good condition. Areas in poor condition tend to be on the ecotones
where fire has been excluded. These areas typically have heavy fuel loading with dense clumps
of tall saw palmetto in open areas. They are dominated by mature scrub oaks, sand live oak
(Quercus geminata), and live oak with an overstory of occasional South Florida slash pine.
Lightered stumps and snags are common.

Areas with good to excellent scrubby flatwoods can be found on higher elevations where scrub
oaks, including sand live oak, Chapman’s oak (Quercus chapmanii), scrub oak (Quercus
inopina), and myrtle oak (Quercus myrtifolia), occur. An overstory of mature South Florida slash
pine is present. Other woody species include staggerbush (Lyonia fruticosa), gopher apple, shiny
blueberry (Vaccinium myrsinites), wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera), and pawpaw (Asimina
reticulata). Clumps of wiregrass are occasional. The Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma
coerulescens) uses these scrubby flatwoods areas.

There has been debate over the area on Buster Island as to whether it is dry prairie or scrubby to
mesic flatwoods. At present, it has been included under scrubby flatwoods in this plan. Buster
Island does have widely scattered pines while dry prairie typically has none. Earlier aerial photos
(mid 1940s - early 1950s) show more pines in the area than are now there; accordingly, the area
has been classified as scrubby flatwoods. There are a number of Florida scrub-jays that use
Buster Island as well as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that have nests in the area.

Upland mixed forest. The upland mixed forest community description has been used to describe
areas classified as mesic hammock at the park. These areas occur between mesic and wet
flatwoods. Before hydrological manipulations, these areas may have been hydric hammock. In
general, FNAI’s hammock classification system is difficult to apply to Lake Kissimmee State
Park. In general, the upland mixed forest community is in good condition; however, it is
probably more widespread than previously due to hydrological changes and suppression of fire
regimes. Some of these areas will be recovered to pine flatwoods with the park’s continued
prescribed burning program.

Xeric hammock. Xeric hammock is found on Gobbler Ridge. Gobbler Ridge is a berm along
Lake Kissimmee. This berm was formed by the accumulation of wind-deposited sand from dry
lake bottoms during drought periods. The xeric hammock is dominated by massive live oaks
supporting dense epiphytic growth of resurrection fern (Polypodium polypodioides), butterfly
orchid (Encyclia tampensis), and a variety of air plants (Tillandsia spp.). It is generally quite
open with few sub-canopy species such as cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto) or clumps of saw

                                                12
palmetto and sparse ground cover.

Hydric hammock. Hydric hammock occurs throughout the park. It mostly occurs on flatwoods
soils developed through successional forces located between the flatwoods and floodplain forest
and marsh communities. Although this hammock is well developed, the presence of lightered
pine snags in some areas indicates that some of the well-developed hammock sites were likely
flatwoods in the past. These areas are being restored using prescribed fire and over time, with an
active burn program, these areas will return to a flatwoods community.

Baygall. Baygall is largely confined to the new acquisition parcel. Since they occur nowhere else
on the unit, it is suspected that these areas occur because of the previous drainage activities
related to cattle grazing. These baygall have developed at the higher elevation dead-ends of
drainage ditches. Before drainage, these areas were most likely floodplain swamp or even
floodplain marsh.

Depression marsh. Depression marshes are scattered throughout the park’s flatwoods. The
conditions of the marshes are highly variable, ranging from poor to excellent. The factors that
determine the condition of an individual marsh include the continuity of native ground cover, the
level of hardwood encroachment related to fire exclusion, the length of the hydroperiod, and the
level of soil disturbance caused by hog rooting. Some marshes are being invaded by young slash
pine and other woody species - indicating a need for fire. Rings of broomsedge around marsh
perimeters likely indicate past disturbance by hogs. Even the better quality marshes often show
signs of rooting around marsh edges. Some marshes are dominated by maidencane (Panicum
hemitomon) and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and have a few buttressed swamp tupelo (Nyssa
biflora) at their centers and perimeters. Others are dominated by maidencane and sand cordgrass
(Spartina bakeri), with other species including meadow beauty (Rhexia sp.), pink sundew
(Drosera capillaris), pipewort (Eriocaulon sp.), bog-buttons (Lachnocaulon sp.), white violet
(Viola affinis), and a terrestrial bladderwort (Utricularia sp.).

Floodplain forest. Floodplain forest covers a band along the shore of Lake Rosalie. This
community is in good condition. Dominant trees include laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia),
occasional live oak, swamp tupelo, and cabbage palm mixed with buttressed slash pine. The
coverage of floodplain forest is increasing into new areas due to the disruption of the historic
hydrological regime. This community has encroached on the floodplain marsh community
because of the stabilization of Lake Rosalie levels and the construction of the Zipprer Canal. Red
maples (Acer rubrum) are invading a portion of the forest and into the adjacent floodplain marsh.
This encroachment could be slowed by the installation of a water control structure on the west
end of the Zipprer Canal that could be used to hold water on the forest longer. It would be further
slowed by restoring the Zipprer Canal. The application of prescribed fire will also slow the
spread of floodplain forest into floodplain marsh.

Floodplain marsh. The majority of floodplain marshes at the unit are in good condition despite
the fact that their hydrology has been severely impacted by water manipulations on the
Kissimmee Chain of Lakes. With dewatering and years of fire exclusion, woody species,
primarily wax myrtle, invaded the marshes. The woody invasion is primarily the result of the
disrupted hydrology but an irregular fire regime has also contributed to the woody invasion.

In recent years, restoration efforts have been undertaken to clear the invading woody species
from the marsh. Efforts have also been undertaken to burn the marsh on a regular basis, annually
over much of the marsh. Maidencane is now dominant and wax myrtle is absent over most of the

                                                13
marsh area. Water levels remain lower than they have historically been, and this is a problem that
has not been sufficiently addressed. In 1979, a weir was constructed across the eastern portion of
the Zipprer Canal. It allows for higher water levels in Rosalie Drain, a large marsh area in the
center of the park. The weir has had the desired effect but levels have still not been allowed to
reach their historic highs nor has inundation occurred for a sufficient duration. An additional
water control structure is needed on the west end of the canal. At present, the limits of restoration
have been reached using currently available resource management tools. There are additional
acres of floodplain marsh included in the new acquisition to the west of the park. Because this
marsh has been ditched and bermed and is in need of major restoration, it is presently included
under the description of ruderal areas.

Seepage slope. The seepage slope community is characterized by cutthroatgrass, a species listed
as threatened by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Only the area on
the western side of Buster Island was included in the seepage slope classification. Cutthroatgrass
(Panicum abscissum) also occurs in flatwoods in burn zone K-1, but this area does not seem to
fit the seepage slope community description. These seeps range in condition from fair to good
depending on the results of fire exclusion and the associated invasion by woody species.

 The cutthroat seeps of the park occur on minor elevational changes - often along ecotones
between community types. They appear to occur most often in the park at the edge of where
scrubby flatwoods drop off to mesic flatwoods and at the edges of depression marshes. The seeps
of the park are actually quite small, ranging from tens of square feet to <2 acres. All of the
cutthroatgrass seeps need to be located and included in burn zones if they are not already. Slash
pine has invaded some of the seeps due to hydrological changes and changes in fire frequency. If
prescribed burning does not remove these pines, mechanical removal should be undertaken.
Mechanical removal should be limited to efforts that will not significantly impact this fragile
natural community.

Wet flatwoods. Wet flatwoods occur as ecotonal areas between the floodplain marsh and mesic-
scrubby flatwoods communities. This community is influenced by cyclical periods of flooding
and drying periods accompanied by fire. The community has been impacted by the disruption of
the park’s hydrology related to manipulations of the lake levels and by periodic intense fires. The
community is also impacted by feral hogs with frequent rooting in some areas. Overall, the wet
flatwoods community is considered in poor condition.

Ground cover is sparse to lacking over extensive areas, and where it does occur it is of low
diversity. Slash pine is the typical dominant canopy species but it occurs intermixed with South
Florida slash pine that is most likely the original on-site pine. Water oak and laurel oak have
invaded large areas. Cabbage palm, live oak, and redbay (Persea borbonia) occur occasionally.
In more open sites, the dominant ground cover is maidencane. One of these open areas occurs in
an area of intense burning, and the ground cover in this area gives an indication of the species
diversity that may have formerly occurred in the wet flatwoods community before hydrological
alterations. The area is characterized by dense stands of maidencane, meadow beauties (Rhexia
sp.), white violet, blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium sp.), yellow-eyed grass (Xyris caroliniana),
bantam-buttons (Syngonanthus flavidulus), fetterbush (Lyonia lucida), gallberry (Ilex glabra),
and wax myrtle.

Blackwater stream. Both Rosalie and Tiger Creeks are classified as blackwater streams. Both
creeks occur on the unit’s southern boundary, although they do not completely form the southern
boundary of the park. Both creeks are characterized as having good water quality and are Class

                                                 14
III waters and Outstanding Florida Waters. Both creek systems drain to Lake Kissimmee, with
the flow through Rosalie Creek having been disrupted by the construction of the Zipprer Canal.
Both creeks are bordered by extensive floodplain forest and marsh.

Ruderal. Ruderal areas cover part of the park that was converted to improved pasture in the
1950s with clearing and planting of pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens). More recently, the
newly acquired portion to the west of the original park boundary is dominated by improved
pasture. The areas within the original park boundary are maintained for the herd of scrub cattle
and cracker ponies kept on the property for historical interpretation purposes. It is much
preferable to use these already disturbed areas for livestock grazing versus using the natural areas
of the park. No additional natural community should be converted to improved pasture for
livestock grazing. Consideration should be given to restoring natural communities in areas of
improved pasture that are not needed to maintain the cattle and horses used for historical
interpretation.

A portion of the original pasture was planted with improved slash pine in an effort to restore the
natural community. Such restoration efforts should continue, but South Florida slash should be
used and ground cover restoration should also be considered.

The newly acquired pasture west of the ranger station needs to be surveyed to determine what
portion is wetland. These areas need to have a restoration plan developed for them. The long-
term goal would be to restore this area to the extent possible to the original natural communities.
The park has a current short-term cattle lease on the improved pasture. This is a temporary
measure until restoration plans are developed. This lease includes the use of the marsh area
during certain times of the year at the discretion of the park manager. This large marsh area is in
need of restoration. The drainage ditches should be filled to restore the on-site hydrology. The
berm surrounding the marsh’s southeast and southern sides may need to be maintained to keep
sufficient water on this marsh area.

There are two spoil piles and one reconfigured spoil pile in the park. One is an old spoil area near
the cow camp from the dredging of the marina. The other spoil piles in the park are from the
drawdown and scraping of Lake Kissimmee. Both of these spoil areas created during the
drawdown are the responsibility of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
(FFWCC). One inland pile is west of Gobbler Ridge and the other pile was located a short
distance offshore of Gobbler Ridge and was slated to be left as a wildlife island. In 2002, the
park worked with the FFWCC in relocating the latter spoil pile and reconfiguring it along the
upland shoreline of Gobbler Ridge. This relocation project decreased the aesthetic disturbance to
the lakeshore landscape. The inland pile remains and needs to be dealt with. All these spoil areas
need to be dealt with as they are a disturbance to the landscape and a source of exotic plants.

Developed. Developed areas of the park and include a paved park drive, residence and shop
areas, entrance station, parking lots at the boat launch area, a picnic area, and a family
campground.
Designated Species
Designated species are those that are listed by the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI), U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
(FFWCC), and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDA) as
endangered, threatened or of special concern. Addendum 5 contains a list of the designated
species and their designated status for this park. Management measures will be addressed later in
this plan.
                                                15
Numerous designated species occur at Lake Kissimmee State Park. The floodplain marsh serves
as host to numerous wading birds such as the snowy egret (Egretta thula), little blue heron
(Egretta caerulea), tricolored heron (Egretta tricolor), limpkin (Aramus guarauna), Florida
sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis), and most recently whooping cranes (Grus
americana) from the experimental reintroduced flock. The park has several bald eagle nests
scattered throughout flatwoods areas. These nests have been very productive over the years and
have been used to supplement out-of-state eagle reintroduction programs. While the unit does not
have many of the rare Lake Wales Ridge endemics, the scrubby flatwoods at the park are host to
characteristic species such as the Florida scrub-jay, Florida gopher frog (Rana capito aesopus),
Florida mouse (Podomys floridanus), and possibly the bluetail mole skink (Eumeces egregius
lividus). The bluetail mole skink was last reported in 1979 and have not been since located. A
survey should be done to verify their presence. The park also has a limited distribution of
cutthroatgrass that is a grass with the bulk of its distribution remaining in Polk and Highland
counties.
Special Natural Features
The newly acquired parcel to the park’s west boundary contains a large marsh area that has been
bermed for water level management related to cattle grazing. This area, with restoration, has the
potential to provide a significant wetland marsh area for many bird species. Consideration should
be given to managing this area for wading birds. This might include installing a pump in order to
control water levels throughout the year. Originally, the area was connected to Lake Rosalie and
when water levels were high, water would back up into this marsh system. Further research is
needed to determine whether present day Lake Rosalie water levels are sufficient to support
higher water levels in this marsh system. If not, maintaining the berm and a pump may be the
only way to keep the area as good condition marsh. A restoration plan should be developed for
the site, and cattle grazing on the marsh should be carefully managed. This area could become a
popular wildlife viewing area.
                                       Cultural Resources
Evaluating the condition of cultural resources is accomplished using a three part evaluative scale,
expressed as good, fair, and poor. These terms describe the present state of affairs, rather than
comparing what exists against the ideal, a newly constructed component. Good describes a
condition of structural stability and physical wholeness, where no obvious deterioration other
than normal occurs. Fair describes a condition in which there is a discernible decline in condition
between inspections, and the wholeness or physical integrity is and continues to be threatened by
factors other than normal wear. A fair judgment is cause for concern. Poor describe an unstable
condition where there is palpable, accelerating decline, and physical integrity is being
compromised quickly. A resource in poor condition suffers obvious declines in physical integrity
from year to year. A poor condition suggests immediate action to reestablish physical stability.

The Florida Master Site File (FMSF) lists two sites (8PO5300 and 8PO5301) within the park.

8PO5300, Gobbler Ridge, is an earthen ridge along the eastern face of a small peninsula jutting
into the northwest corner of Lake Kissimmee. The ridge is on the shoreline of the peninsula, and
appears to be primarily a natural feature, probably formed by wave action from the lake. Several
unidentified prehistoric ceramic shards have been found on the site, and at this time, the site has
not been dated (Florida Department of State: 8PO5300). Erosion is a potential threat. The
condition assessment is good.

8PO5301, Cow Camp, is the site of a late 19th century cattle ranch, and the site is currently used
                                                16
as a living history site, interpreting the 1876 cattle industry and the Florida “cow hunters.”
Historic pottery shards and a partial projectile point were collected at the site; the point has not
been identified (Florida Department of State: 8PO5301). The site is protected by heavy staff
presence, and the condition assessment is good.

Since the 1850s, the land around the Kissimmee River and Lake Kissimmee have been utilized
by a number of different industries: cattle ranching, timber, turpentine, farming, and now outdoor
recreation and tourism. Several saw mill sites have been located. Catfaced pine trees, some with
tin cups and clay pots, are evidence of turpentine activities. An unnamed cemetery lies by the
park’s hiking trail (Florida Department of Environmental Protection 1998).

Both recorded archaeological sites would benefit from further archaeological investigation and
analysis to assess their significance, and the entire park would benefit from an archaeological
reconnaissance survey.
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

                              Special Management Considerations

Timber Management Analysis
Chapters 253 and 259, Florida Statutes, require an assessment of the feasibility of managing
timber in land management plans for parcels greater than 1,000 acres if the lead agency
determines that timber management is not in conflict with the primary management objectives of
the land. The feasibility of harvesting timber at this park during the period covered by this plan
was considered in context of the Division’s statutory responsibilities, and an analysis of the
park’s resource needs and values. The long-term management goal for forest communities in the
state park system is to maintain or re-establish old-growth characteristics to the degree
practicable, with the exception of early successional communities such as sand pine scrub and
coastal strand.

A timber assessment was conducted for Lake Kissimmee State Park (see Addendum 6). At Lake
Kissimmee State Park, there are areas that are in need of restoration. Prescribed fire is our
primary management tool in restoring and maintaining the flatwoods in the park. As the
assessment points out, there is the potential for timber management options for the flatwoods.
Use of timber management as a tool should be limited to areas where other management
practices have been unsuccessful. If timber management is utilized, it should be applied to small
areas and great care should be taken to avoid ecological as well as aesthetic disturbances to these
areas.

The pasture area west of the park entrance has restoration potential as pointed out in the timber
assessment and other parts of this document. The restoration plan would include a certain
amount of pine planting as well as ground cover reestablishing.

Many of the park’s marsh areas have an abundance of wax myrtle. As the timber assessment
points out, there is a market for this “crooked wood”. This could be used to generate funds for
restoration in areas that are planned for wax myrtle removal.
Additional Considerations
The park has a short-term cattle lease on a portion of the park. The area that this incorporates
was formerly cattle pasture prior to the DEP acquiring it. The cattle grazing is only an interim
management tool that is being used until a longer term restoration plan for the area is carried out.

                                                  17
The long-term goal would be to restore the area to the extent possible to the original natural
community(s).
                               Management Needs and Problems
There are increasing needs for funds for restoration projects at Lake Kissimmee State Park. The
pasture property north of Lake Rosalie is in need of marsh restoration and eventual flatwoods
restoration of the pasture. Also partly due to the recent drought, the use of mechanical restoration
on some of the scrubby flatwoods areas may be necessary to manage this habitat.

There is a need for additional personnel to help work on resource management projects at Lake
Kissimmee State Park as well as the Allen David Broussard Catfish Creek Preserve State Park
(managed and staffed by personnel at Lake Kissimmee). These projects include fire
management, habitat restoration, listed species management, exotic species control, and
interpretation of natural and cultural resources to the public.
                                    Management Objectives
The resources administered by the Division are divided into two principal categories: natural
resources and cultural resources. The Division’s primary objective in natural resource
management is to maintain and restore, to the extent possible, to the conditions that existed
before the ecological disruptions caused by man. The objective for managing cultural resources
is to protect these resources from human-related and natural threats. This will arrest deterioration
and help preserve the cultural resources for future generations to enjoy.

1.    Restore, protect, and maintain all native plant communities in a natural condition based on
      scientifically acceptable standards and methods. Particular attention will be provided to
      unique communities such as the scrubby flatwoods, cutthroatgrass seeps, and to
      populations of rare and protected species. Special emphasis will be placed on protecting
      and increasing populations of listed species.
2.    Restore and maintain, to the greatest degree possible, historic drainage patterns,
      hydroperiods, and water levels in natural communities.
3.    Restore, to the greatest degree possible, areas altered by recent human activities.
4.    Conduct educational and interpretive programs for visitors, emphasizing the conservation
      of natural resources and unique features of the area.
5.    Protect and maintain the cultural resources of the park
6.    Conduct ground disturbing activities in accordance with Division policy.
7.    Conduct an archaeological reconnaissance survey of the park.
8.    Improve public awareness and encourage protection and stewardship of cultural resources
      through education and enforcement of agency rules and regulations.
                        Management Measures for Natural Resources

Hydrology
The hydrology of the unit is largely controlled by the water levels set for the Kissimmee Chain
of Lakes. Unfortunately, in combination with on-site drainage by the Zipprer Canal, these levels
are too low to maintain the unit’s floodplain marsh community. Ideally, the Zipprer Canal should
be filled back in and restored to original topographic grade. As a minimum, efforts should be
made to establish some type of water control device on the west end of the canal to hold water on
the park. This may be more feasible now since the park owns the large marsh area on the
northeast side of Lake Rosalie.

The large marsh to the north of Lake Rosalie has been ditched and bermed. The ditches need to

                                                18
be filled back in to slow drainage from the site. Research needs to done into whether the marsh
could still be maintained if the berm was removed. At present, the berm acts to impound surface
waters and prevent them from draining to Lake Rosalie that is currently controlled at a level
below the natural historic lake level.

The South Florida Water Management District’s Kissimmee River Project in concert with the
Kissimmee River restoration project would greatly enhance the long-term perpetuation of the
wetland systems in the Kissimmee Chain of Lakes. The acquisition project, if completed, would
include substantial acreage of lake shorelines in the upper Kissimmee Basin (including Lake
Kissimmee, Lake Rosalie, and Tiger Lake) that would allow stages in the lakes to be raised from
52.5 to 54 feet (the amount needed to provide year-long flow to the river restoration).

Management will comply with best management practices to maintain or improve the existing
water quality on site and will take measures to prevent soil erosion or other impacts to water
resources
Prescribed Burning
The objectives of prescribed burning are to create those conditions that are most natural for a
particular community, and to maintain ecological diversity within the unit's natural communities.
To meet these objectives, the park is partitioned into burn zones, and burn prescriptions are
implemented for each zone (see Burn Zone Map). The park burn plan is updated annually to
meet current conditions. All prescribed burns are conducted with authorization from the
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Forestry (DOF). Wildfire
suppression activities will be coordinated between the Division and the DOF.

The total fire-type acreage is over 5,000 acres. The burn plan for the next five years attempts to
include the burn frequency needed on a per zone basis to restore or maintain the natural fire-type
community. This burn plan is available at the park. There are several areas with substantial
amounts of fuel accumulation that need to be addressed. The scrubby flatwoods area around the
ranger station is one of the areas with high fuel levels. The mesic flatwoods in zone K-4 are
another example of high fuel loads. These areas of high fuel accumulation needs several fuel
reduction burns before restoration burning. Burning of the scrubby flatwoods areas needs to be
carefully planned to minimize impact to nesting Florida scrub-jays as well as to assure a
sufficient amount of different vegetation age classes to assure the best habitat conditions for the
most number of birds. Precautions also need to be taken related to the several bald eagle nesting
trees found in the park.
Designated Species Protection
The welfare of designated species is an important concern of the Division. In many cases, these
species will benefit most from proper management of their natural communities. At times,
however, additional management measures are needed because of the poor condition of some
communities, or because of unusual circumstances that aggravate the particular problems of a
species. The Division will consult and coordinate with appropriate federal, state and local
agencies for management of designated species.

The designated species found at the unit largely benefit from the restoration of ecological
processes, specifically prescribed burning and hydrological restoration. All of the species will
benefit from the continuation of this important resource management activities. Special attention
should be paid to the cutthroatgrass at the unit. Little is presently known of its distribution, and
while prescribed burning will benefit and expand its distribution, work needs to done related to


                                                 19
                                                          K-2a




                                   K-18                    K-2b
                            K-19



                                                   K-1                K-2c
                                                                                          K-3

                                                                                                 K-5a            K-4                   K-6
                                                 K-5c

                                                                                  K-5b
                                                                                                                              K-8b
                                                                                                                                             K-8a

                                                                                    K-7
                                                                                                                               K-12b


                                                                                                  K-9


                                                                                                        K-11b          K-16             K-12a
                                                                     K-10


                                           K-17



                                                                                 K-11a
                                                                                                                       K-13




  LEGEND                                                                                                        K-14
      Burn zones K 1-K 19                                                              K-15


                                          2000              0          N      2000               4000 Feet
LAKE KISSIMMEE                                                     Prepared by:
                                                  Florida Department of Environment Protection
                                                                                                                                                    BURN ZONE
  STATE PARK                                             Division of Recreation and Parks
                                                              Office of Park Planning                                                                  MAP
surveying it and monitoring changes in population levels. Gopher tortoise burrow surveys should
continue following burns. Commensals such as the gopher frog can be surveyed at the same
time. Periodic monitoring of the Florida mice populations should be conducted. A survey should
be conducted to verify the presence of the bluetail mole skink. New species continue to be added
to the species list, as recently evidence by sightings of Florida long-tailed weasels (Mustela
frenata peninsulae) at the park. The importance of natural history observations and surveys
cannot be overemphasized. The South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (USFWS 1999)
should be used as a guide in the management of all the federally listed species found in the park.

The Florida scrub-jay is a very visible species at the park, and more work needs to be done to
map the family territories and to document movements of the birds within the park. Work should
follow guidelines as outlined in Johnson (2003). Recommendations include increased monitoring
(including color-banding), fire management techniques, mechanical treatments of certain areas,
and habitat evaluation. Mechanical treatment focusing on overgrown edge habitat should be
applied using mowing and/or roller chopping. Habitat evaluation should consist of scrub height
and composition as well as proportion of bare patches. The Lake Wales Ridge Ecosystem
Working group should be utilized in all of these efforts for help in guidance and coordination.
The park should continue its participation in the Jay Watch program, administered by the Nature
Conservency. This program provides a unified framework for jay monitoring and involves
volunteer participation for monitoring.

In the past, certain designated bird species have been fed by visitors and others. However, this is
not a practice that should be continued. While feeding may be appealing to the public, this action
may cause the birds to become more subject to predation. Feeding of designated species or other
native wildlife should only be authorized in cases where necessary to attract and capture the
species for approved research projects.
Exotic Species Control
Exotic species are those plants or animals that are not native to Florida, but were introduced
because of human-related activities. Exotics have fewer natural enemies and may have a higher
survival rate than do native species, as well. They may also harbor diseases or parasites that
significantly affect non-resistant native species. Consequently, it is the strategy of the Division to
remove exotic species from native natural communities.

Plants. The level of exotic plant species invasions at this unit is presently moderate. The
following discussion of the known exotic plants is in priority order of their perceived degree of
threat; and accordingly, in the order in which removal should proceed.
Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) has shown up in several locations in the park. All known
locations have been treated several times and are being monitored for re-sprouts. Because this
species poses such a threat to natural communities, any infestations of this species should be
eradicated as soon as possible. Nearby private properties also have cogongrass, and the park
should contact its neighbors and work towards eradication from the entire local area.

Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) has been found in the floodplain swamp along Rosalie
Creek. The mature trees have been removed but follow-up treatments will be necessary to
remove any sprouts and seedlings. Because of the threat this species poses, searches for its
occurrence should be made in other areas of the floodplain swamp as well.

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) occur in Lake
Kissimmee and other surrounding lakes. Complete eradication from the marina and Zipprer
Canal are likely impossible because of the continual transport from associated lakes. Biocontrol
                                                 21
methods will likely be necessary for permanent large-scale control of these species. Control of
exotic aquatic plants is primarily handled by the South Florida Water Management District.

Bladderpod or prairie bean (Sesbania vesicaria) is a prolific legume growing at the margins of
the floodplain marsh and on recent spoil islands created by the Florida Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission. It produces tall rank stands and has the ability to seed bank large
quantities of seed in the soil. These seeds can germinate over a period of years. This species
occurs on a large scale in the park and is the most pervasive exotic plant problem. A combination
of burning or mowing before seed set and manipulation of water levels is working to reduce the
numbers of this species in the park. A sustained concerted effort and cooperation from other
agencies is necessary to eliminate this species from the park.

Caesar-weed (Urena lobata) occurs in the park. It produces copious quantities of seed that can be
stimulated to germinate by fire. The park does not have a heavy infestation of Caesar-weed in
most areas. In these areas, a minimum amount of effort now may be successful in managing this
species in the park. The pasture parcel north of Lake Rosalie has a large amount of this species.
This ruderal/hammock area needs work to remove the exotic especially if any restoration efforts
occur there.

Camphor-tree (Cinnamomum camphora), mimosa (Albizia julibrissin), guava (Psidium guajava),
and sour orange (Citrus aurantium) occur sporadically in hammock areas of the park. When they
are found, they should be either manually removed or treated with herbicide.

Lion’s-ear (Leonotis nepetaefolia) has been seen in at least two locations of the park. This
species does not pose a serious threat to the natural areas of the park but could become a
localized nuisance in pastures.

The recent acquisition needs to be surveyed thoroughly for exotic plants. Tropical soda apple
(Solanum viarum) that is typically associated with cattle operations occurs there, as well as
bladderpod. Citrus is scattered throughout the hammock. A few landscape exotics occur around
the cabin area (out parcel).

Para grass (Urochloa mutica) is found along the shoreline of Lake Kissimmee mainly along
Gobbler Ridge and along Zipprer Canal from the marina out to the lake. It is found on the spoil
piles out in the lake and inland from the lake. The spoil pile out in the lake was treated with
herbicide before reconfiguring the mound along the Gobbler Ridge shoreline. Further work
needs to be done to control this exotic and monitor it within the park. Control methods are not
well known for this species, as it has not been worked on by many in the past.

A recent invader to the area that has moved up from the south is Old world climbing fern
(Lygodium microphyllum). Another invader that has moved down from the north is Japanese
climbing fern (Lygodium japonicum). These two exotics have not presently been found in the
park but have been found in several protected and unprotected lands in Polk county. These
exotics are very invasive and an effort should be made to survey the park for this species and
control it before it becomes a major problem.

When equipment for general maintenance as well as for ecological restoration projects is used,
care must be taken to avoid introducing new exotics as well as spreading existing exotics. Efforts
to ensure that the equipment is cleared of any debris and cleaned before use should be taken.


                                                22
Animals. Feral hog (Sus scrofa), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), coyote (Canis
latrans), walking catfish (Clarius batrachus), Cuban brown anole (Anolis s. sagrei), and fire ant
(Solenopsis invicta) are known to be established in the park. Feral cats (Felis catus) are
occasionally observed and removed from the park. Feral hogs do more damage by far than any
other exotic animal in the park. Soil and ground cover disturbance is frequent, especially along
wetland margins. The park has an active control program directed at feral hogs. This program
needs to continue at its present level.

Armadillos occur frequently throughout the park. The level of ecological damage caused by
armadillos has likely been underestimated. Staff should make a concerted effort to remove as
many armadillos as possible during the early spring of each year before the breeding season. This
has been shown to significantly reduce the need for reduction efforts during the remainder of the
year. Coyotes are occasionally seen at the park. If the opportunity for removal presents itself,
staff should take advantage of it.

Walking catfish are established throughout the Kissimmee Chain of Lakes. It is doubtful that
efforts to remove them permanently from the park and associated waters would be successful.
Cuban brown anoles are established at the marina area. This species typically displaces the
native green anole (Anolis c. carolinensis) around buildings when it becomes established.
Compared to other resource management needs, their removal is of very low priority. Fire ants
occur most frequently in areas with disturbed soils. Most problems at the park occur where
visitors encounter ant mounds. Fire ants are controlled with approved pesticide applications.
Problem Species
Problem species are defined as native species whose habits create specific management problems
or concerns. Occasionally, problem species are also a designated species, such as alligators. The
Division will consult and coordinate with appropriate federal, state and local agencies for
management of designated species that are considered a threat or problem.

The American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis) is occasionally a problem at the marina
because people feed them, and they come to associate people with food. The park provides
interpretive material related to alligators, and periodically an alligator judged to have lost its fear
of humans is removed from the marina area.

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are problem species in the campground where they scavenge for food
from the campers. Education of the park visitor related to the consequences of feeding wildlife
needs to continue. Periodically, the least cautious raccoons are removed from the campground.
                         Management Measures for Cultural Resources
The management of cultural resources is often complicated because these resources are
irreplaceable and extremely vulnerable to disturbances. The advice of historical and
archaeological experts is required in this effort. Approval from Department of State, Division of
Historical Resources (DHR) must be obtained before taking any actions, such as development or
site improvements that could affect or disturb the cultural resources on state lands (see DHR
Cultural Management Statement).

Actions that require permits or approval from DHR include development, site excavations or
surveys, disturbances of sites or structures, disturbances of the substrate, and any other actions
that may affect the integrity of the cultural resources. These actions could damage evidence that
would someday be useful to researchers attempting to interpret the past.

                                                  23
The general objective for the management of the cultural resources of Lake Kissimmee State
Park is to protect, preserve and interpret the prehistoric and historic resources. Because of the
presence of recorded archaeological sites within the park, management measures for cultural
resources should include monitoring the recorded sites, and drafting a proposal for an
archaeological reconnaissance survey.

If the recommended archaeological reconnaissance survey locates and identifies any prehistoric
and/or historic sites, measures should be taken to develop a phased plan for managing the
cultural resources in the context of their surroundings. This should include developing a
workable written plan for the physical management of the identified resources. The plan should
outline approved methodologies for executing the plan and training staff and volunteers in
managing the cultural resources of the park.

The park currently has a sufficient number of staff that have been trained and certified as
archaeological monitors. In the future, as the composition of staff changes over time, efforts
should be made to insure that there is always at least one staff member who is a certified
archaeological monitor.
                                         Research Needs

Natural Resources
Any research or other activity that involves the collection of plant or animal species on park
property requires a collecting permit from the Department of Environmental Protection.
Additional permits from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, the
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service may
also be required.

The current plant list needs to be updated for the park. The cutthroatgrass seeps at the park seem
to be expanding; however, more detailed mapping and monitoring is necessary to gauge this
possible expansion. The park has a moderate population of Florida scrub-jays. Efforts have been
made to monitor them but increased surveying is needed to better document the population.
Some of the birds have been color banded and this should continue. A concerted effort needs to
be made to learn more about the various families on the park and determine more accurate
population levels and use of areas as it relates to the prescribed burning program.

In general, better documentation of the unit’s burn program needs to be made, and permanent
photo plots need to be established in several burn zones. Burrowing owls used to occur on the
park and in nearby pastures. The possibility of reintroducing the birds to the park needs to be
pursued. The pasture areas in the recent acquisition area may be suitable. The large disturbed
marsh area in the new acquisition needs to be studied to determine if water levels can be
maintained in order to attract more wading birds to the area. A hydrological/feasibility study
should be done of this marsh area as well as of the Zipprer Canal to determine the feasibility of
placing water-control structures on both marshes to raise water levels and lengthen hydroperiods.
Cultural Resources
There have been no cultural resource research projects at Lake Kissimmee State Park. Staff
should draft a proposal for an archaeological reconnaissance survey to locate, identify, preserve
and protect any prehistoric and/or historic cultural resources on the park. The survey should
investigate the two recorded sites, 8PO5300 and 8PO5301. Research is needed on environmental
change and prehistoric adaptation, development of prehistoric settled communities and social
complexity, and aboriginal cultural history. Research is needed on the history of the Kissimmee

                                                 24
River and Lake Kissimmee area during the First Spanish Period, the British Period, the Second
Spanish Period, Territorial Period, and the Second Seminole War. Research is need for possible
evidence or documentation on the activities of the cattle, timber, turpentine and farming
industries, and the acquisition and operational history of Lake Kissimmee State Park.
                              Resource Management Schedule
A priority schedule for conducting all management activities that is based on the purposes for
which these lands were acquired, and to enhance the resource values, is contained in Addendum
7. Cost estimates for conducting priority management activities are based on the most cost
effective methods and recommendations currently available (see Addendum 7).
                                 Land Management Review
Section 259.036, Florida Statutes, established land management review teams to determine
whether conservation, preservation, and recreation lands titled in the name of the Board of
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund (board) are being managed for the purposes for
which they were acquired and in accordance with a land management plan adopted pursuant to s.
259.032, the board of trustees, acting through the Department of Environmental Protection
(department). The managing agency shall consider the findings and recommendations of the land
management review team in finalizing the required update of its management plan.

This park was subject to a land management review on June 27, 2000. The review team made
the following determinations:

 1.   The land is being managed for the purpose for which it was acquired.
 2.   The actual management practices, including public access, complied with the management
      plan for this site.




                                              25
26
                                 LAND USE COMPONENT

INTRODUCTION
Land use planning and park development decisions for the state park system are based on the
dual responsibilities of the Division of Recreation and Parks. These responsibilities are to
preserve representative examples of original natural Florida and its cultural resources, and to
provide outdoor recreation opportunities for Florida's citizens and visitors.

The general planning and design process begins with an analysis of the natural and cultural
resources of the unit, and then proceeds through the creation of a conceptual land use plan that
culminates in the actual design and construction of park facilities. Input to the plan is
provided by experts in environmental sciences, cultural resources, park operation and
management, through public workshops, and environmental groups. With this approach, the
Division objective is to provide quality development for resource-based recreation throughout
the state with a high level of sensitivity to the natural and cultural resources at each park.

This component of the unit plan includes a brief inventory of the external conditions and the
recreational potential of the unit. Existing uses, facilities, special conditions on use, and
specific areas within the park that will be given special protection, are identified. The land use
component then summarizes the current conceptual land use plan for the park, identifying the
existing or proposed activities suited to the resource base of the park. Any new facilities
needed to support the proposed activities are described and located in general terms.
EXTERNAL CONDITIONS
An assessment of the conditions that exist beyond the boundaries of the unit can identify any
special development problems or opportunities that exist because of the unit's unique setting
or environment. This also provides an opportunity to deal systematically with various
planning issues such as location, adjacent land uses, and the park interaction with other
facilities.

Lake Kissimmee State Park is located within Polk County, about 20 miles east of Lake Wales
in the central part of the state. The populations of Polk County and the adjacent Osceola
County have grown 28 percent since 1990, and are projected to grow an additional 20 percent
by 2010 (BEBR, University of Florida, 2001). As of 2000, 21 percent of residents in these
counties were in the 0-14 age group, 41 percent in the 15-44 age group, 22 percent in the 45-
64 age group, and 17 percent were aged 65 and over, which reflects the state average for these
groupings (BEBR, University of Florida, 2001). Nearly 2.4 million people reside within 50
miles of the park, which includes the cities of Orlando, Kissimmee, Melbourne and Lakeland
(U.S. Department of Commerce, 2000).

Lake Kissimmee State Park recorded 46,342 visitors in FY 2002-03, which is a 10 percent
increase over 1993-94. By Division estimates, these visitors contributed $1,632,814 in direct
economic impact and the equivalent of nearly 33 jobs to the local economy (Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, 2003). Visitation figures for this ten year period
reflect a general upward trend, with a low of 41,406 in 1997-98.
                               Existing Use of Adjacent Lands
Lake Rosalie buffers the western boundary of the park. A portion of the northeastern
boundary lies adjacent to Lake Kissimmee and Tiger Lake forms part of the southern
boundary. Adjacent lands along the eastern boundary between Lake Kissimmee and Tiger

                                                 27
Lake are managed by the South Florida Water Management District and known as the
Kissimmee Chain of Lakes. Adjacent land north of Camp Mack Road has recently been
acquired and is managed by the Division as part of Allen David Broussard Catfish Creek
Preserve State Park. Remaining uplands in private ownership to the north and south consist of
low-density residential development and agricultural land uses, primarily cattle ranching.

In addition to Catfish Creek and the Kissimmee Chain of Lakes, a variety of public and
privately managed lands are located in proximity to the park that offer various resource-based
recreation opportunities including picnicking, boating, hiking, biking, horseback riding,
primitive camping and hunting. These areas include Tiger Creek Preserve, Sumica
Lake/Walk-in-the-Water Tract, Lake Wales Ridge State Forest, Three Lakes Wildlife
Management Area, Upper Lakes Basin Watershed, Disney Wilderness Preserve, and Avon
Park Air Force Range (see Vicinity Map).
                               Planned Use of Adjacent Lands
Lands adjacent to the park are designated Agriculture/Residential-Rural on the Polk County
Future Land Use Map (Polk County, 2000). Development is limited to single family homes (1
DU/5 acres) and structures associated with agricultural operations. Lands adjacent to the park
are not anticipated to undergo significant change in the near future. Density and use
restrictions of existing land use designations serve to maintain a rural landscape that is
compatible with the maintenance of resources and a quality visitor experience at the park.
Recent acquisitions to the north and the extensive presence of open water and wetlands along
park boundaries provide an important buffering function for the park.
PROPERTY ANALYSIS
Effective planning requires a thorough understanding of the unit's natural and cultural
resources. This section describes the resource characteristics and existing uses of the property.
The unit's recreation resource elements are examined to identify the opportunities and
constraints they present for recreational development. Past and present uses are assessed for
their effects on the property, compatibility with the site, and relation to the unit's
classification.
                               Recreation Resource Elements
This section assesses the unit’s recreation resource elements those physical qualities that,
either singly or in certain combinations, supports the various resource-based recreation
activities. Breaking down the property into such elements provides a means for measuring the
property's capability to support individual recreation activities. This process also analyzes the
existing spatial factors that either favor or limit the provision of each activity.

Lake Kissimmee State Park contains a portion of the remaining natural habitats of the Lake
Wales Ridge, recognized to be among the most biologically diverse and unique ecosystems in
the nation. The park consists of approximately 5,934 acres, 60 percent of which are wetlands,
located on the shores of Lakes Kissimmee, Tiger, and Rosalie. It provides opportunities for
fishing, boating, nature study, camping, hiking, horseback riding, canoeing/kayaking and
historical interpretation through an 1876 living history cow camp. The unit is a good example
of how a state park can maintain a natural setting of exceptional quality, while at the same
time providing a full program of compatible recreational activities.

The park contains floodplain forest and marsh, open pine flatwoods, dense scrub, and shady
hardwood hammocks. The expansive marshes and adjacent lakes provide unique opportunities
for scenic vistas. The park borders approximately seven miles of shoreline on adjacent lakes,

                                                 28
with access restricted by extensive wetlands. The park has a wonderful variety of fauna,
supported by a diversity of habitats that provides ample watchable wildlife opportunities. Bird
life thrives in the park, with more than 150 species recorded, many of which have state or
federal protection. Bald eagles regularly nest in the park and fish the surrounding lakes,
wading birds use the open marshes, Florida scrub-jays reside in the scrubby flatwoods, and
sandhill cranes are common in the open grasslands. Alligator, deer, turkey, quail, squirrels,
and bobcat are common here, as they were in early Florida. Evidence of the rare Florida
Panther has been observed in the more remote areas of the park.

The park contains two recorded cultural sites that reveal a former Native American presence
on the property and present opportunities for prehistoric interpretation. One of these sites is
also the location of the park’s Cow Camp--a living history interpretation of a late 19th century
cattle ranch.
                                      Assessment of Use
All legal boundaries, significant natural features, structures, facilities, roads, trails and
easements existing in the unit are delineated on the base map (see Base Map). Specific uses
made of the unit are briefly described in the following sections.
Past Uses
The park property has been used for a variety of industries including cattle ranching,
timbering, farming, and turpentining. During the late 1800s, the park and surrounding lands
were used for Florida’s pioneer cattle industry.
Recreational Uses
The park offers opportunities for picnicking, boating, canoeing/kayaking, fishing, hiking,
horseback riding, developed and primitive camping, and nature study and historic
interpretation.
Protected Zones
A protected zone is an area of high sensitivity or outstanding character from which most types
of development are excluded as a protective measure. Generally, facilities requiring extensive
land alteration or resulting in intensive resource use, such as parking lots, camping areas,
shops or maintenance areas, are not permitted in protected zones. Facilities with minimal
resource impacts, such as trails, interpretive signs, and boardwalks are generally allowed. All
decisions involving the use of protected zones are made on a case-by-case basis after careful
site planning and analysis.

At Lake Kissimmee State Park the baygall, depression marsh, floodplain forest, floodplain
marsh, hydric hammock, seepage slope, wet flatwoods, scrubby flatwoods and blackwater
stream communities have been designated as protected zones as delineated on the Conceptual
Land Use Plan. These communities combine for 68 percent of park lands. The areas around
active bald eagle and scrub-jay nests, are also considered protected zones and will be buffered
appropriately from park development.
Wilderness Preserves
Approximately 3,070 acres south of the Rosalie Drain have been designated as a Wilderness
Preserve at Lake Kissimmee State Park (see Conceptual Land Use Plan). Wilderness
Preserve designations are reserved for large, undeveloped areas within a park that have
retained their principal character and influence without permanent alteration. They are
protected and managed in a manner to preserve the natural appeal and values of a significant

                                                29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      INSET 1

                                         RESIDENCE


                           RD.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        BATHHOUSES
                    MACK                                                                                                                                                                                                      CAMP SITES
             CAMP




                                     PRIMITIVE                          PASTURES
                                    CAMP SITES                                                                                                                                                                                              RESTROOM
                                                                           3
                                                                                                                                   LAKE KISSIMMEE
                                                                         2 INSET 2


                                                                          1                                                                                                                                         CONCESSION                                GROUP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               CAMP

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       PICNIC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOCKS                 SHELTERS
                                                                                                      INSET 1


                                                                                ZIPPRE
                                                                                      R CANA
                                                                                            L




                                 LAKE ROSALIE                                                                       4
                                                                                                                                   TIGER
                                                                                                           #                       COVE
                                                                                                COW                  5

                                                                                                CAMP                                                                                                                INSET 2
                                                                                                                6



                                                                                                 7

                                                             BUSTER
                                                              ISLAND                                       8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      RESIDENCES
                                                                                                10
                                                                                                                                EK
                                                                                                                             CRE
                                                                                                       9

                                                                                                                         R
                                                                                                                    TIGE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     BARN
                                                                                                 PASTURES
                                                                                                                                                                                            LEGEND
                                                                        PRIMITIVE                                                                                                               County Road                                   BARN
                                                                       CAMP SITES
                                                                                                                                                                                                Park Road Paved          EQUIPMENT
                                                 RO                                                                                                                                             Park Road Unpaved         SHELTER
                                                   SA
                                                        LI                                                                                                                                      Canoe/Kayak Trail
                                                                                                                                                                                                Hiking Trail                                         OFFICE
                                                        E
                                                             CR




                                                                                                                                                                                                Park Boundary
                                                             EE




                                                                                                                                                                                                Structures                                  SHOP
                                                               K




                                                                                                                                                                                                Parking Lots
                                                                                         TIGER LAKE                                                                                             Marine Structures
                                                                                                                                                                                                Camp Sites
                                                                                                                                                                                                Special Use Areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                Water Bodies




                                                                                                                                                          N
                                                                                                                         2000                0                  2000                  4000 Feet
LAKE KISSIMMEE                                                                                                                                         Prepared by:

  STATE PARK                                                                                                                         Florida Department of Environmental Protection
                                                                                                                                             Division of Recreation and Parks
                                                                                                                                                  Office of Park Planning                                                                                             BASE MAP
portion of the park. The characteristics of a Wilderness Preserve are as follows:

 •    Generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with human
      impacts substantially unnoticeable;
 •    Offers outstanding opportunities for solitude, or a primitive and unconfined type of
      recreation;
 •    Is expansive and sufficient in size to make preservation and use in an unimpaired
      condition practical;
 •    May also contain ecological, archaeological, or other features of scientific, educational,
      scenic, or historic value.

Uses are to be limited, passive in nature, and related to the aesthetic, educational and
scientific enjoyment of the features and conditions maintained. Other uses may be permitted if
fully compatible. Activities which are generally recognized as being compatible within a
Preserve are trail use, canoeing/kayaking, nature study and natural scenery appreciation.
Facilities are limited to those considered essential for management and appropriate forms of
public use.
Existing Recreation and Support Facilities
Camping. The standard campground contains 60 sites in a double loop configuration with
two bathhouses located in a beautiful oak hammock. All sites have water and electrical
service.

Two primitive camping areas are located in the park. The Buster Island and Falling Oak sites
are accessible via hiking trails, with facilities limited to fire rings and picnic tables.

The primitive group camping area, located south of the standard campground, can
accommodate groups of 25 people. The group camping area has cold-water showers (2), fire
rings, picnic tables, and privies (2).

Marina. A marina with a boat ramp and docks provides access to the Lake Kissimmee chain
of lakes. Boat camping is available at the marina. The dock is showing signs of deterioration,
does not meet current ADA standards, although a section has been modified to provide a
universally accessible fishing facility, and is not large enough to meet the growing demand for
boat dockage. The marina area contains paved parking with 59 spaces, 32 of which can
accommodate vehicles with trailers. Restrooms are located in a building that also used to
serve as a concession. The concession is currently not in operation and the space is utilized for
storage. Static interpretive displays in the area include an interpretive sign and kiosk.

Picnic Area. The picnic area is located in the shade of an oak hammock near Tiger Cove a
short distance northeast of the marina. Playground equipment, three medium picnic shelters,
one large shelter with a BBQ pit, and numerous grills and picnic tables are scattered
throughout the area. A restroom located nearby serves users in this area. An observation tower
provides spectacular views over floodplain marsh and Lake Kissimmee. An interpretive sign
is located at its base. A paved parking area provides space to accommodate 98 vehicles.

Trails. A 0.5-mile nature trail provides access to an oak hammock community north of the
marina. Additional hiking trails, including the North Loop Trail, Buster Island Loop Trail and
Gobbler Ridge Trail, combine to provide roughly 13 miles of hiking opportunities north and
south of the Zipprer Canal. These trails allow access to the more remote areas of the park, and
provide visitors with representative examples of the park’s different natural communities. An

                                                31
approximately six-mile loop shared-use trail provides access to Buster Island for equestrians
and bicyclists along park service roads south of the Zipprer Canal. The winding, 3.3-mile park
drive provides a scenic route through the park, and is popular with bicyclists.

A 10-mile canoe trail makes a loop from Lake Kissimmee, through the Zipprer Canal into
Lake Rosalie, along Rosalie Creek into Tiger Lake, and along Tiger Creek back to Lake
Kissimmee. Periodically, the amount of aquatic growth in the Zipprer Canal makes paddling
difficult through this waterway.

Cow Camp. The park’s “Cow Camp” provides a living history demonstration of the life of
early Florida “cow hunters.” This region was the heart of the south Florida frontier cattle
country. The history of the region and era is portrayed in a realistic fashion with period
architecture, trained re-enactors, and authentic “scrub cows.”

Support Facilities. Most support facilities are concentrated midway between the entrance
station and main use areas north of the park drive and include two ranger residences, an
administrative office, a primary shop building, and various structures used for maintenance
and storage. A third residence is located between the entrance station and Camp Mack Road.
The entrance station is situated just inside the park boundary a short distance from Camp
Mack Road and serves as the primary visitor contact point, and camper registration site.

The following is a complete listing of recreation and support facilities at Lake Kissimmee
State Park:

Camping                                             Picnic Area
Developed Campground                                Medium picnic shelters (3)
 60 sites                                           Large picnic shelter w/BBQ pit
 Bathhouse                                          Observation tower
Primitive Group Camp                                Playground equipment
 Outside showers (2)                                Interpretive sign
 Privies (2)                                        Restrooms
 Fire rings                                         Scattered tables and grills
 Scattered tables                                   Paved parking (98 spaces)
Primitive Campsites (2)                             Trails
 Fire rings                                         North Loop Trail (6 miles)
 Tables                                             Gobbler Ridge Trail (2 miles)
Marina                                              Buster Island Trail (6 miles)
Dock (6 finger piers)                               Oak Hammock Nature Trail (0.5 mile)
Boat ramp                                           Shared-use Trail (6 miles)
Restrooms                                           Canoe Trail (10 miles)
Interpretive sign                                   Cow Camp
Interpretive kiosk                                  Corral and small shelter
Paved parking (59 spaces, 32 oversized)
Support Facilities
Entrance station                                    Residences (3--incls. an employee owned
Shop building                                       trailer)
Administrative office                               Paved park drive (3.3 miles)
Barns and storage buildings




                                               32
CONCEPTUAL LAND USE PLAN
The following narrative represents the current conceptual land use proposal for this park. As
new information is provided regarding the environment of the park, cultural resources,
recreational use, and as new land is acquired, the conceptual land use plan may be amended
to address the new conditions (see Conceptual Land Use Plan). A detailed development plan
for the park and a site plan for specific facilities will be developed based on this conceptual
land use plan, as funding becomes available. During the development of the unit
management plan, the Division assesses potential impacts of proposed uses on the resources
of the property. Uses that could result in unacceptable impacts are not included in the
conceptual land use plan. Potential impacts are more thoroughly identified and assessed
through the site planning process once funding is available for the development project. At
that stage, design elements, such as sewage disposal and stormwater management, and
design constraints, such as designated species or cultural site locations, are more thoroughly
investigated. Advanced wastewater treatment or best available technology systems are
applied for on-site sewage disposal. Stormwater management systems are designed to
minimize impervious surfaces to the greatest extent feasible, and all facilities are designed
and constructed using best management practices to avoid impacts and to mitigate those that
cannot be avoided. Federal, state and local permit and regulatory requirements are met by
the final design of the projects. This includes the design of all new park facilities consistent
with the universal access requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). After
new facilities are constructed, the park staff monitors conditions to ensure that impacts
remain within acceptable levels.
                           Potential Uses and Proposed Facilities
The existing forms of recreation at Lake Kissimmee State Park are appropriate and should
be continued. This plan recommends the development of rental cabin accommodations,
hiking trail expansion, and upgrades and improvements to existing recreation and support
facilities within established use areas.
Recreation Facilities
Cabins. Up to 12 rental cabins are proposed on Buster Island adjacent to the main
developed area of the park, where day use parking areas, picnic areas, a boat ramp and
mooring basin, are located. The proposed cabin site is along the southern edge of the Zipprer
Canal and is served by the park road that allows visitors to reach the historic Cow Camp
interpretive area. A pedestrian bridge connects this area to the marina. A multiple-purpose
building will be included in the project to provide registration and operations facilities,
activity room, storage space and possibly a small store. However, it is preferable to locate
this latter function in a more central area at the marina so that it may also serve other visitors
to the park and reduce traffic into the cabin area (see discussion under Marina). The multi-
purpose building will be located in a clear area adjacent to the Zipprer Canal, where no oak
trees will be affected by construction of the building and a small parking area.

The natural community of the site has been designated as upland mixed forest (see Natural
Communities Map.) However, the vegetation of the site has been significantly altered from
its natural state due to past land uses and hydrological changes. Live oaks, cabbage palms,
and scattered slash pines dominate the area. Bahia grass exists in the understory, especially
adjacent to the canal. The proposed location minimizes the development footprint of this
project by essentially expanding an existing developed area, while avoiding impacts to new,
disjunct areas of the park.


                                                  33
                                                  ENTRANCE STATION
         ALLEN DAVID BROUSSARD                    IMPROVEMENTS
                                                  *EXPAND/REPLACE EXISTING                                                                            KIS
         CATFISH CREEK PRESERVE                    STRUCTURE                                                                                             SIM
               STATE PARK                         *TRAILHEAD/VISITOR REGISTRATION
                                                   PARKING
                                                                                                                                                             ME
                                                                                                                                                                EC
                                                                                                         r                                                            AN
                                                                                                                                                                        AL

                                                       AD
                                                    RO
                                              ACK               MARSH OVERLOOK
                                          MPM                   & TRAIL                     r                                                                                                       LAKE
                                       CA                                                                                                                                                        KISSIMMEE



                                                                         LAKE
                                                                        ROSALIE



                                                                                                                                                                           SEE INSET
                                             UPGRADE                                                                                      L
                                                                                                                                                                                    r
                                           r GROUP CAMP                                                             ZIPPR
                                                                                                                            ER C
                                                                                                                                 ANA

                        MARINA IMPROVEMENTS RESTROOM
                        *REPLACE DOCKS AND BULKHEAD
                        *RENOVATE/EXPAND CONCESSION                                                                                                                          COW
                         BUILDING                                                                                                                                            CAMP
                                                               PICNIC
                                                               AREA

                                                                                                                                            BUSTER
                                                                                                                                            ISLAND




                                                                                                                                                                                         K
                                                                                                                                                                                        EE
                                                                                                                                                                                    CR
                                                                                                                                                                                    ER
                                                                                                                                                                                                          LEGEND




                                                                                                                                                                                TIG
     CABIN DEVELOPMENT
                                                                                                                                                                                             r   PROPOSED FACILITIES/IMPROVEMENTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                 PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT AREA
                                                                                                RO
     *12 RENTAL UNITS                                                                             SA                                                                                             PROPOSED TRAIL
                                                                                                        LIE                                                                                      EXISTING TRAIL
     *MULTI-PURPOSE SUPPORT FACILITY                                                                          CR
                                                                                                                   EE                                                                            WILDERNESS PRESERVE BOUNDARY
                                                                                                                     K
                                                                                                                                                                                                 PROTECTED ZONE
                                                                                                                                                                                                 LAKE KISSIMMEE STATE PARK
                               600                         0               600 Feet                                                                                                              ALLEN DAVID BROUSSARD CATFISH
                                                                                                                                                                                                 CREEK PRESERVE STATE PARK
                                                                                                                                                      TIGER LAKE


                                                                                      0.5                      0           N          0.5                   1 Miles
LAKE KISSIMMEE                                                                                                                                                                                                   CONCEPTUAL
  STATE PARK                                                                                                           Prepared by:
                                                                                                     Florida Department of Environmental Protection                                                             LAND USE PLAN
                                                                                                             Division of Recreation and Parks
                                                                                                                  Office of Park Planning
Many large, old live oaks occur on the proposed site and will provide beneficial shade and
aesthetic quality to the cabin development. No oak trees greater than fifteen inches in
diameter at breast height will be removed because of the cabin development. In order to
minimize impact to the trees, the design of the cabin sites and access roads will be planned
to avoid soil compaction and ground disturbance within the drip zones of the significant
trees, and tree barricades and other protective measures will be used to ensure their
protection. An accurate tree survey will be conducted, and a site plan will be developed with
input and advice from the Division biological staff during the site-planning phase of the
cabin project.

Preliminary review of the Florida Master Site File by the Florida Department of State,
Division of Historic Resources (DHR) for potential cultural sites indicates no known sites
will be affected by the proposed development. As recommended by DHR, a professional
cultural resources assessment survey will be conducted before ground disturbing activities.
In addition, Division staff will provide monitoring of construction activities during the
development project to assure that any unknown sites are identified and protected.

Preliminary evaluations of the site for listed plant and animals have been conducted.
Although the area is not prime gopher tortoise habitat, a few tortoises, a state-listed species,
may be present. A survey was conducted in November 2001 and no tortoise burrows were
located. During site surveying and design for the cabin project, any tortoise burrows that are
discovered will be managed by either relocating the proposed improvements or by
implementing commonly accepted tortoise relocation procedures, as authorized by the
FWCC.

The pine flatwoods community adjacent to the cabin site is occupied by Sherman’s fox
squirrels, also a state-listed species. The squirrels may occasionally use the oaks in the
proposed cabin area for food, although their preferred habitats are pine flatwoods and
sandhill communities. The cabins will be located away from the flatwoods area to minimize
the potential impacts of the development on this habitat. The acorn food source for the
squirrels will be maintained by minimizing removal or damage of the oaks during
construction, and by protecting the trees as part of the management of the cabin area after
construction.

Camping. The privies in the primitive Group Camp are to be upgraded with more modern
facilities sized to accommodate group use. It is recommended that future consideration be
given to expanding primitive camping opportunities by providing a designated canoe-in
campsite on the shores of Lake Rosalie or Rosalie Creek.

Marina. The dock and bulkhead are recommended for replacement to enhance public
safety, universal accessibility and provide docking space for an additional 12 boats. The
building that includes restrooms and storage space has supported a park concession in the
past. It is recommended that this facility be renovated and expanded to re-establish a park
concession that would serve day use visitors, campers and those staying in the nearby
cabins. If it is determined that a concession operation at this location is not feasible, then
consideration should be given to modifying the building to house an open-air interpretive
center. Display cases and interpretive panels could provide a self-guided interpretive
experience that would greatly enhance interpretation of the natural and cultural resources of
the park. Modifications to this building should strive to preserve the existing architectural
style, which is well suited to the park landscape.

                                                 35
Trails and Interpretation. An overlook is recommended to enhance wildlife-viewing
opportunities at the large marsh in the northwest portion of the park. A boardwalk is
recommended to extend into the marsh a short distance, terminating at an elevated overlook
designed to enhance views of the area. The boardwalk and overlook would be linked to the
existing hiking trail and the entrance station by a spur trail running north along the dike. The
entrance station parking area should be slightly expanded to serve as a trailhead for visitors
unable to hike the 2.5 miles required to reach the overlook from the main use area of the
park.

The recent additions to Allen David Broussard Catfish Creek Preserve State Park due north
across Camp Mack Road creates a significant corridor of park land between Lake
Kissimmee and Lake Pierce. Future consideration will be given to connecting these
properties with a system of trails to enhance recreation opportunities at these two parks.

It is recommended that existing use areas be evaluated for the need for new or improved
interpretive signage to educate the public about the park’s unique resources and the
management activities used to enhance and protect them. The park’s picnic area, marina,
campground and cabin development area should provide opportunities for self-guided
interpretation via static interpretive displays.

Support Facilities. The current entrance station does not provide sufficient administrative
space. The existing structure should be evaluated for possible expansion, and if deemed
unfeasible, a new building constructed in the same general area. Consideration will also be
given to establishing additional office space within the shop area. Improvements to the
existing parking area are recommended to provide sufficient space for registering campers
and the aforementioned trailhead.

The park drive is deteriorating and is not sufficiently wide to accommodate modern
recreation vehicles as well as bicyclists and pedestrians. The road is recommended to be
improved to meet current park service standards. Consideration should also be given to
improving bicycle and pedestrian safety along park roadways, particularly along stretches
linking the main use areas of the park.
                                   Facilities Development
Preliminary cost estimates for the following list of proposed facilities are provided in
Addendum 7. These cost estimates are based on the most cost-effective construction
standards available at this time. The preliminary estimates are provided to assist the Division
in budgeting future park improvements, and may be revised as more information is collected
through the planning and design processes.

Cabins                                                Trails and Interpretation
12 rental units                                       Spur hiking trail (approx. .75 mi.) and marsh
Multi-purpose building                                overlook
                                                      Trailhead parking at entrance station (up to
Camping
                                                      5 spaces)
Replace Group Camp restrooms
                                                      Interpretive signage
Marina
                                                      Support Facilities
Replace bulkhead
                                                      Expanded/replace entrance station
Expand docking capacity
                                                      Park drive improvements (paving, widening)
Renovate/expand old concession building

                                                 36
                              Existing Use and Optimum Carrying Capacity
Carrying capacity is an estimate of the number of users a recreation resource or facility can
accommodate and still provide a high quality recreational experience and preserve the
natural values of the site. The carrying capacity of a unit is determined by identifying the
land and water requirements for each recreation activity at the unit, and then applying these
requirements to the unit's land and water base. Next, guidelines are applied which estimate
the physical capacity of the unit's natural communities to withstand recreational uses without
significant degradation. This analysis identifies a range within which the carrying capacity
most appropriate to the specific activity, the activity site, and the unit's classification is
selected (see Table 1).

The optimum carrying capacity for this park is a preliminary estimate of the number of users
the unit could accommodate after the current conceptual development program has been
implemented. When developed, the proposed new facilities would approximately increase
the unit's carrying capacity as shown in Table 1.

                          T a b le 1 --E x istin g U se A n d O p tim u m C a rry in g C a p a city


                                           E x istin g            P ro p o se d A d d itio n a l E stim a te d O p tim u m
                                           C a p a c ity                  C a p a city                  C a p a city

                                      One                              One                        One
A ctiv ity / F a cility               T im e          D a ily          T im e      D a ily        T im e        D a ily

T ra ils
  H ikin g                                   73             146               4           8             77            150
  S h a re d U se                           60             120              60         240             60            120
P icn ic k in g                            294             588                                        294            588
C a m p in g
   S ta n d a rd                           480             480                                        480            480
   G ro u p                                 25              25                                         25             25
   P rim itive                              24              24              12           12            36             36
C a b in s                                                                  96           96            96             96
Cow Cam p                                   25             100                                         25            100
F ish in g (sh o re lin e )                 25              50                                         25             50
B o a tin g
  C an o ein g /kaya kin g                  40              80                                         40             80
   P o w er                                 48              96              24           48            72            144
W ild e rn e ss P re se rv e               136             236                                        136            236

TOTAL                                  1 ,0 9 4        1 ,7 0 9           196         404          1 ,2 3 0      1 ,8 6 9

N ote: W ild ern ess P reserve cap acity in clu d es sh a red -u se trail, p rim itive cam p in g an d can oein g
cap acities a n d is n ot in clu d ed in to tals.



                                                  Optimum Boundary
As additional needs are identified through park use, development, research, and as adjacent
land uses change on private properties, modification of the unit's optimum boundary may
occur for the enhancement of natural and cultural resources, recreational values, and
management efficiency.

                                                                  37
Identification of lands on the optimum boundary map is solely for planning purposes and not
for regulatory purposes. A property’s identification on the optimum boundary map is not
meant to be used by any party or other government body to reduce or restrict the lawful right
of private landowners. Identification on the map does not empower or require any
government entity to impose additional or more restrictive environmental land use or zoning
regulations. Identification is not meant to be used as the basis for permit denial or the
imposition of permit conditions. The optimum boundary map reflects lands identified for
direct management by the Division as part of the park. These parcels may include public as
well as privately owned lands that improve the continuity of existing park lands, provide
additional natural and cultural resource protection, and/or allow for future expansion of
recreational activities.

Property along the boundary with Lake Rosalie is proposed for acquisition to provide
additional shoreline protection. Land between the north boundary and the Kissimmee Canal
would provide a buffer from future development, and add desirable natural resources. Land
on the southwest side of the park is also proposed for acquisition to provide a buffer from
future development and to include the length of Rosalie Creek. At this time, no lands are
considered surplus to the needs of the park.




                                               38
                                LAKE
                             HATCHINEHA




                            KISSIMMEE
                          CHAIN OF LAKES

                                                                           KIS
                                                                              SIM
                                                                                       ME
                                                                                         ER
                                                                                           IVE
                                                                                              R




                                                                                                                            LAKE
                                                                                                                         KISSIMMEE

                      R
                 D




                 CK                                                 LAKE KISSIMMEE
            P MA                  LAKE                                STATE PARK
     CA M                        ROSALIE




                                                                                                   TIGER
                                                                                                   LAKE

              SR 60




                                                                                                                 LEGEND
                                                                       N
                                                                                                                     Park Boundary
                                           4000               0               4000                 8000 Feet         Optimum Boundary
LAKE KISSIMMEE                                                      Prepared by:

  STATE PARK                                      Florida Department of Environmental Protection
                                                          Division of Recreation and Parks
                                                               Office of Park Planning                         OPTIMUM BOUNDARY MAP
40
Addendum 1—Acquisition History
                                      Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                         Acquisition History

Acquisition
On January 7, 1970, the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund (Trustees) obtained
title to the property that became Lake Kissimmee State Park. The purchase was funded through the
General Obligation Bonds (1968). The Trustees conveyed management authority to the Department of
Environmental Protection, Division of Recreation and Parks, under Lease No. 2461. This lease expires
on September 4, 2069.
Title Interest
The Trustees hold fee simple title to Lake Kissimmee State Park.
Special Conditions on Use
Lake Kissimmee State Park is designated single-use to provide resource-based public outdoor
recreation and other related uses. Uses such as water resource development projects, water supply
projects, stormwater management projects, linear facilities and sustainable agriculture and forestry
(other than those forest management activities specifically identified in this plan) are not consistent
with this plan.
Outstanding Reservations
The lease from the Trustees stipulates that all the property be utilized for public outdoor recreation and
related purposes. Following is a listing of outstanding rights, reservations, and encumbrances that
apply to Lake Kissimmee State Park.

Instrument:                                       Easement
Instrument Holder:                                Florida Power Corporation
Beginning Date:                                   July 11, 1975
Ending Date:                                      Until the use thereof is abandoned
Outstanding Rights, Uses, Etc.:                   This easement shall terminate and all rights herein
                                                  conveyed shall automatically revert to the Grantor
                                                  when said lands are not utilized for the purposes
                                                  outlined in this easement

Instrument:                                       Warranty Deed
Instrument Holder:                                Elizabeth Wood Zipprer
Beginning Date:                                   January 7, 1970
Ending Date:                                      N/A
Outstanding Rights, Uses, Etc.:                   The instrument holder (Grantor) reserves unto herself,
                                                  her heirs and assigns an easement for public road
                                                  purposes over that part of Section 12 conveyed hereby
                                                  lying within 100 feet of both sides of the center line of
                                                  said easement as described in said Parcel 17 of Official
                                                  Record 846, Page 159; and this conveyance is also
                                                  subject to public roads and 1970 taxes.




                                                A 1 - 1
                    Allen David Broussard Catfish Creek Preserve State Park
                                  Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                   Advisory Group Members

The Honorable Randy Wilkinson, Chair                 Karen Kaplan, Chair
Polk County Board of County Commissioners            Sierra Club, Polk Group
Drawer BC01, Post Office Box 9005                    Post Office Box 7544
Bartow, Florida 33831-9005                           Winter Haven, Florida 33883
Jim Keene, County Manager                            Represented by:
Polk County                                          Mr. Chuck Geanangel
Post Office Box 9005                                 92 Lake Otis Road
330 West Church Street                               Winter Haven, Florida 33884
Bartow, Florida 33830
                                                     Barbara Gordon, President
Represented by:                                      Ridge Audubon Society
Ms. Gaye Sharp                                       200 North Crooked Lake
4177 Ben Durrance Road                               Babson Park, Florida 33827
Bartow, Florida 33898
                                                     Tricia Martin, Program Director
Alton C. Morrell, Park Manager                       Lake Wales Ridge Program
Lake Kissimmee State Park                            The Nature Conservancy
14248 Camp Mack Road                                 P.O. Box 630
Lake Wales, Florida 33853                            Babson Park, Florida 33859
Kevin Grimes, Chair                                  Represented by:
Polk Soil and Water                                  Ms. Tabitha Biehl
Conservation District                                155 Pfundstein Road
1700 Highway 17 South                                Babson Park, Florida 33827
Bartow, Florida 33830
                                                     Ken Williams, Chair
Mr. Dwight Myers                                     Florida Trail Association
Florida Fish and Wildlife                            Heartland Chapter
Conservation Commission                              1042 Success Avenue
42 Blue Jordan Road                                  Lakeland, Florida 33803
Frostproof, Florida 33843
                                                     Represented by:
Mark Hebb, District Manager,                         Ms. Vicki Bailey
Lakeland District Office                             11212 W. Beach Parkway
Florida Division of Forestry                         Lake Wales, Florida 33898
5745 South Florida Avenue
                                                     Rae Gayer, President
Lakeland, Florida 33813
                                                     Florida Sport Horse Club
Represented by:                                      2077 West Lake Hamilton Drive
Patrick Keogh, Forester                              Winter Haven, Florida 33881
Florida Division of Forestry
                                                     Mr. Bill Drasdo
1700 U.S. Highway 17 South
                                                     33 N Lakeshore Blvd.
Bartow, Florida 33830
                                                     Lake Wales, FL 33853
David Birdsall, Senior Environmental Analyst
                                                     Mr. William Broussard
South Florida Water Management District
                                                     502 East New Haven Avenue
1707 Orlando Central Parkway
                                                     Melbourne, Florida 32901
Suite 200
Orlando, Florida 32809                               Mr. Gary Bartley
                                                     Future Farmers of America Foundation
Lynn Collins, Director
                                                     5000 Firetower Road
Central Florida Visitors
                                                     Haines City, Florida 33844
& Convention Bureau
Post Office Box 8040                                 Represented by:
Cypress Gardens, Florida 33884-0009                  Marjorie Chandler
                                                     5000 Firetower Road
                                                     Haines City, Florida 33844


                                               A 1 - 2
                     Allen David Broussard Catfish Creek Preserve State Park
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                    Advisory Group Staff Report

The Advisory Group meeting to review the proposed land management plans for Allen David
Broussard Catfish Creek Preserve State Park and Lake Kissimmee State Park was held at the Lake
Wales Public Library on June 27, 2003. Gaye Sharpe represented Mr. Jim Keene, Dwight Myers
represented Larry Campbell, Patrick Keogh represented Mark Hebb, Chuck Geanangel represented
Karen Kaplan, Tabitha Biehl represented Tricia Martin, Vicki Bailey represented Ken Williams and
Marjorie Chandler represented Gary Bartley. The Honorable Randy Wilkinson, Kevin Grimes, Lynn
Collins, and Barbara Gordon did not attend. All other appointed Advisory Group members were
present. Attending staff were Larry Fooks, Donald Forgione, Erik Egensteiner, Tony Morrell, Pat
Mitchell and Michael Kinnison. A handful of citizens also attended the meeting.
Mr. Kinnison began the meeting by explaining the purpose of the advisory group and reviewing the
meeting agenda. He also provided a brief overview of the Division's planning process and summarized
public comments received during the previous evening’s public workshop. He then asked each
member of the advisory group to express his or her comments on the plan.
Summary Of Advisory Group Comments
Patrick Keogh indicated he was supportive of the plans’ timber management analyses and did not
recommend any changes.
David Birdsall recommended discussing what management actions are anticipated on lands identified
on the Optimum Boundary Maps so that members of the public is not surprised when the state
acquires additional land in the area. An example would be mentioning possible long-term lease
agreement between the Division of Recreation and Parks and the South Florida Water Management
District on lands known as the Kissimmee Lakes tract currently managed by the District. Chuck
Geanangel asked about the degree of interagency coordination between existing land managers. Eric
Egensteiner discussed examples of interagency cooperation, such as staff participation in the Lake
Wales Ridge ecosystem working group.
Tony Morell expressed excitement at the potential for future restoration of Catfish Creek. He also
thanked all other land managing organizations that have assisted with burning and other resource
management activities at the parks.
Bill Drasdo asked about the State Park funding process and the implementation of management
actions. Mr. Kinnison and Larry Fooks discussed the legislative budget process, alternative funding
sources for smaller projects, and the way projects are prioritized. Mr. Egensteiner discussed grants
and cost sharing options. Donald Forgione explained that management plans are long-term in nature,
and include facilities and uses considered to develop a park optimally.
Mr. Kinnison provided an overview of facilities and uses being considered for the new addition to
Catfish Creek Preserve that were not currently identified in the draft plan, such as an equestrian
primitive camp area, trails and picnic facilities.
Dwight Myers stated that he felt the plans were sufficiently detailed and covered all major points.
Chuck Geanangel suggested the plans include some indication of priorities. He recommended
making restoration and planning on the new addition to Catfish Creek Preserve and the expansion of
staff higher priorities than developing cabins at Lake Kissimmee. Mr. Egensteiner and Mr. Morrell
responded that individual parks do create their own priority lists of projects for use in requesting
funds. Mr. Morrell added that maintaining the existing facilities and quality of resources at both parks
would be a high priority.
Gaye Sharp complemented staff on the description of resources and management objectives to
maintain and restore them in the plan. She recommended strengthening the hydrology section of the
plan, noting that there was limited discussion on the restoration of Catfish Creek. She also asked for an
explanation of the state’s Outstanding Florida Water designation. Mr. Egensteiner explained that all
waters within a park used to be listed automatically, but now land managers have to apply to have a

                                                A 1 - 3
                     Allen David Broussard Catfish Creek Preserve State Park
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                    Advisory Group Staff Report

waterbody designated. He indicated that the Division intended to pursue an OFW designation for park
waters. Marjorie Chandler asked about the implications for having a waterway designated. Mr.
Kinnison responded that he would research and provide more information on the OFW program and
its significance. Ms. Sharp asked what type of wastewater systems were preferred at the parks. Mr.
Morrell indicated that flush toilets were preferred when conditions permitted their use.
Ms. Chandler expressed some concerns about the proposed trail connection to the Future Farm
workers of America (FFA) facility. Mr. Kinnison explained that this was not intended as a link for
public use but to provide access to the park by visitors to the FFA facility. Ms. Chandler noted that the
Optimum Boundary Map includes the FFA facility but that it was unlikely that the FFA would ever be
interested in selling. She asked for an explanation of the intern bunkhouse concept in the Catfish
Creek Preserve plan. Mr. Egensteiner discussed unmet resource management needs that could be
worked on by interns housed on the Rolling Meadows tract. Ms. Chandler urged the park to consider
approaching the FFA for short-term resident needs.
Vicki Bailey indicated that she had nothing new to add to the discussion.
Tabatha Biehl complemented staff on the content of the Resource Management Component, but
echoed the need for some degree of prioritization of management actions to help measure success. She
urged caution when using mechanical treatment for upland restoration due to the potential for impacts
to listed skinks and recommended discussing in the plan. She also recommended discussing Japanese
climbing fern as a potential exotic problem at the park due to its invasiveness.
William Broussard expressed his overall support for the plans and asked about plans for timber
management. Mr. Egensteiner clarified that timber management was discussed as a short-term,
resource management tool to restore an area that had been overgrown with a dense stand of slash
pines. Mr. Broussard supported the use of cattle on pastures but stated that all leases should prohibit
the use of fertilizers. He recommends closing and restoring some of the roads and trails on the older
portion of the Preserve. Pat Mitchell responded that some roads have been closed but staff need to
keep most open for fire management until the use of prescribed fire becomes more manageable. Mr.
Broussard asked for a clarification of the Area of Critical State Concern designation. Mr. Kinnison
explained the significance of this designation and that it is a statutory requirement to be discussed in
the plan. Mr. Broussard discussed his experience with pasture restoration and recommended a
gradual, small scale approach to restoration using grazing, burning, limited replanting and natural
recovery.
Rae Gayer expressed appreciation to all public land managers for access for equestrians. She was
happy to hear about the proposed equestrian camping area and asked for clarification on the different
types of trails at Catfish Creek Preserve. Mr. Mitchell explained that existing roads were used for
trails. Mr. Kinnison added that the park contains some hiking-only trails in addition to miles of shared
use trails. Ms. Gayer asked if primitive equestrian camping was being considered at Lake Kissimmee.
Mr. Morrell indicated that the trail system was not long enough to support back country camping.
Ms. Gayer discussed the facility requirements for equestrians, and indicated that stables would be
appreciated, but that a place to tie-up horses, restrooms and water were of primary concern. She
referred to the South Florida Water Management District’s DePuis Management Area as an example
of a popular equestrian camping area.
Mr. Geanangel asked staff to clarify the reference to using crooked wood. Mr. Egensteiner
explained that harvesting crooked wood was a cottage industry that supplies florists and usually
involves rusty lyonia. Mr. Morrell added that the trees die back after burning scrub and harvesting
them is a possible revenue source for the park.
Larry Fooks expressed the Division’s interest in opening a dialogue with the South Florida Water
Management District regarding restoration of sod farms on the Rolling Meadows tract. He indicated
that partnering with the District could help facilitate the use of land use proceeds from active sod

                                                A 1 - 4
                     Allen David Broussard Catfish Creek Preserve State Park
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                     Advisory Group Staff Report

farms and asked for assistance from the District in acquiring mitigation funding for some of the work.
Ms. Chandler raised concerns about airboat traffic and public safety on Catfish Creek and
recommended being proactive in planning for recreational boating use before the creek is restored.
Mr. Morrell stated that he would like to see the creek eventually limited to canoe and kayaking only.
The advisory group members all supported limiting boating traffic to canoes and kayaks. Mr.
Kinnison responded that staff would discuss how to approach the issue in the plan.
Summary Of Public Comments
Martha Sehi expressed support for restricting airboats on Catfish Creek if they posed a threat to public
safety. She presented her ideas about future use and protection of Snodgrass Island, including
establishing an onsite staff presence, conducting educational tours, and constructing an archaeology
research center. Ms. Sehi also requested that she be sent a copy of Advisory Group staff report.
Staff Recommendations
Staff recommends approval of the proposed management plans for Allen David Broussard Catfish
Creek Preserve State Park and Lake Kissimmee State Park as presented with the following
recommendations.
Optimum Boundary Maps
The optimum boundary text will be revised to discusses the potential for the Division entering into a
lease agreement for future management of the area known as the Kissimmee Lakes tract currently
managed by the Water Management District.
Hydrology
Text will be added that expands on the current discussion of the potential restoration of Catfish Creek.
However, until further research is complete a detailed discussion of restoration is not possible. Plans
are currently being developed to hire a consultant to do a hydrological restoration plan for Catfish
Creek and the surrounding area including the sod farm.
Trail Planning
Text will be added that clarifies that the proposed trail connection with the FFA facility is to provide
access for FFA visitors to the park trails and not for general public access to FFA property.
Mechanical Treatment of Uplands
Text will be added that discusses the need to consider potential impacts to listed skink species when
using mechanical treatment methods for uplands restoration.
Exotics
Text will be added that mentions the potential for Japanese climbing fern to invade park lands.
Recreational Use of Catfish Creek
Catfish Creek is a windy, narrow waterway with the potential for conflicts between canoes/kayaks and
motorboats. To address public safety concerns, the plan will be revised to recommend designating
those portions of Catfish Creek within park boundaries for access by watercraft with non-combustion
engines only. Park staff will coordinate implementation of this designation with the county, relevant
law enforcement and other agencies with jurisdictional authority over navigable waters.
Snodgrass Island
The Division of Recreation and Parks has entered into agreement with the Division of State Lands to
serve as interim manager of Snodgrass Island until a permanent manager has been identified. Park
staff will continue to periodically patrol the Island and perform caretaker functions such as clean-ups,
exotic control, and leading special guided visits. However, the development of additional facilities,
including a residence, should be pursued in the future by a permanent management entity.


                                                A 1 - 5
Addendum 2—References Cited
                                    Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                         References Cited

Brooks, H. K. 1981. Physiographic Regions. Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv., Inst. Food Agric. Sci., Univ. of
        Florida, Gainesville.

Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR), University of Florida. 2001. Florida Statistical
       Abstract 2001. Gainesville, Florida.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 1998. Lake Kissimmee State Park Unit Plan.
        Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 2003. Florida State Park System Economic Impact
        Assessment for Fiscal Year 2002/2003. Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Department of State. Florida Master Site File: 8PO5300, 8PO5301. Tallahassee, Florida.

Johnson, E.D. 2003. Draft Document: The Florida scrub-jay in Florida state parks, status, trends, and
       an ecosystem approach to management and restoration needs. Resource Management
       Evaluation Report. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Recreation
       and Parks, Tallahassee, Florida.

Polk County. 2000. Polk County Comprehensive Plan 2000. Polk County, Florida.

U. S. D. A. 1990. Soil Survey of Polk County, Florida.

U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 2000. U. S. Census 2000.

USFWS, 1999. South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan. USFWS, Atlanta, GA.




                                              A 2 - 1
Addendum 3–Soils Descriptions
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                         Soils Descriptions

13 - Samsula muck - is a very poorly drained organic soil found in swamps and marshes. Slopes are
smooth and less than two percent. This Samsula soil has a seasonal high water table at or above the
surface except during extended dry periods. The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly bay, cypress, red
maple, blackgum, and other water-tolerant trees.
17 - Smyrna and Myakka fine sands - consist of poorly drained soils in broad areas on flatwoods.
The Smyrna and Myakka soils have a seasonal high water table within 12 inches of the surface for one
to four months in most years. The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash pine, South Florida
slash pine, saw palmetto, runner oak, gallberry, wax myrtle, wiregrass, and lyonia.
19 - Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional - is a very poorly drained soil found in depressional
areas mostly in flatwoods. The Floridana soil is ponded for more than six months during most years.
Natural vegetation includes cypress, blackgum, red maple, pickeralweed, sedges, and water-tolerant
grasses.
21 - Immokalee sand - is a poorly drained soil in broad areas of flatwoods. This soil has a seasonal
high water table within 12 inches of the surface for one to four months in most years. The natural
vegetation includes longleaf pine, South Florida slash pine, saw palmetto, gallberry, wax myrtle, oak,
lyonia, and wiregrass.
23 - Ona fine sand - is a poorly drained soil in broad areas on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to
concave and are 0 to 2 percent. This soil has a seasonal high water table within 12 inches of the
surface for 1 to 4 months in most years. The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash pine,
South Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, saw palmetto, runner oak, gallberry, wax myrtle, wiregrass,
and lyonia.
25 - Placid and Myakka fine sands, depressional - consist of very poorly drained soils in
depressions in flatwoods. This Placid soil is ponded for at least six months during most years. The
Myakka soil has a seasonal high water table that is above the surface for about six months during most
years. Most areas of the Placid and Myakka soils are vegetated by bay trees, scattered cypress,
blackgum, St. Johnswort, maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants.
31 - Adamsville fine sand - is a somewhat poorly drained soil found on low ridges in flatwoods and
in low area on uplands. It has a seasonal high water table at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for two to six
months during the year. Natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine, laurel oak, water oak
and an understory of saw palmetto, wiregrass, bluestem and panicums.
34 - Anclote mucky fine sand, depressional - is a very poorly drained soil in depressions mostly
bordering lakes. It is ponded for at least six months during most years. The natural vegetation is
cypress, bay trees, Carolina ash, scattered cabbage palm, red maple, and rushes.
35 - Hontoon muck - is a very poorly drained soil in swamps and marshes. It has a seasonal high
water table that is at or above the surface except during extended dry periods. The natural vegetation
is bay trees, red maple, blackgum, and cypress with a ground cover of sawgrass, lilies, reeds, ferns,
greenbrier, and other aquatic plants.
36 - Basinger mucky fine sand, depressional - is as very poorly drained soil found in wet
depressions on flatwoods. This soil is ponded for more than six months during most years. The
vegetation includes broomsedge bluestem, chalky bluestem, maidencane, cutgrass, St. Johnswort,
wiregrass, cypress, and other water-tolerant trees.
70 - Duette fine sand - is a moderately well drained soil on low ridges in flatwoods. It has a seasonal
high water table at a depth of four to six feet for one to four months during most years. The natural
vegetation is mostly myrtle oak, Chapman’s oak, sand live oak, turkey oak, sand pine, and slash pine.
The understory includes saw palmetto, runner oak, and wiregrass.
74 - Narcoossee sand - is somewhat poorly drained soil on low hammocks and ridges on flatwoods.

                                                A 3 - 1
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                         Soils Descriptions

The seasonal high water table is at 24 to 40 inches for four to six months during most years. The
natural vegetation is mostly water oak, live oak, laurel oak, cabbage palm, scattered pines, greenbrier,
saw palmetto, wiregrass, creeping bluestem, and panicums.
77 - Satellite sand - is a somewhat poorly drained soil on low knolls and ridges in flatwoods. Satellite
soil has a seasonal high water table within a depth of 12 to 40 inches for two to six months in most
years. The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, saw palmetto, sand live oak, and wiregrass.
87 - Basinger fine sand - is a poorly drained soil found in sloughs or poorly defined drainageways in
flatwoods. It has a seasonal high water table within 12 inches of the surface for two to four months in
most years. The natural vegetation is mostly wax myrtle, St. Johnswort, wiregrass, and scattered
cypress and pines.




                                                A 3 - 2
Addendum 4—Plant And Animal List
                                    Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                              Plants
                                                                           Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                            Scientific Name                     (for designated species)

Red maple                              Acer rubrum
Giant leather fern                     Acrostichum danaeifolium
Beach false foxglove                   Agalinis fasciculata
Flaxleaf false foxglove                Agalinis linifolia
Silktree, mimosa *                     Albizia julibrissin
Yellow colicroot                       Aletris lutea
Alligatorweed*                         Alternanthera philoxeroides
Slim amaranth; Pigweed*                Amaranthus hybridus
Spiny amaranth*                        Amaranthus spinosus
Common ragweed                         Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Peppervine                             Ampelopsis arborea
Chaffweed                              Anagallis minima
Chalky bluestem                        Andropogon virginicus var. glaucus
Groundnut                              Apios americana
Wiregrass                              Aristida beyrichiana
Bottlebrush threeawn                   Aristida spiciformis
Florida milkweed                       Asclepias feayi
Swamp milkweed                         Asclepias incarnata
Savannah milkweed                      Asclepias pedicellata
Butterflyweed; Butterfly milkweed      Asclepias tuberosa
Bigflower pawpaw                       Asimina obovata
Netted pawpaw                          Asimina reticulata
Climbing aster                         Aster carolinianus
Rice button aster                      Aster dumosus
Annual saltmarsh aster                 Aster subulatus
Whitetop aster; Dixie aster            Aster tortifolius
Fernleaf yellow false foxglove         Aureolaria pedicularia var. pectinata
Carolina mosquito fern                 Azolla caroliniana
Groundsel tree; Sea myrtle             Baccharis halimifolia
Lemon bacopa; Blue waterhyssop         Bacopa caroliniana
Coastalplain honeycombhead             Balduina angustifolia
Tarflower                              Bejaria racemosa
Beggarticks; Romerillo                 Bidens alba
Burrmarigold; Smooth beggarticks       Bidens laevis
Smallfruit beggarticks                 Bidens mitis
Pineland rayless goldenrod             Bigelowia nudata
Toothed midsorus fern                  Blechnum serrulatum
False nettle, Bog hemp                 Boehmeria cylindrica
American bluehearts                    Buchnera americana
Bluethread                             Burmannia biflora
American beautyberry                   Callicarpa americana
Matted waterstarwort                   Callitriche peploides
Bandana-of-the-everglades              Canna flaccida
Coastalplain chaffhead                 Carphephorus corymbosus
Vanillaleaf                            Carphephorus odoratissimus
Hairy chaffhead                        Carphephorus paniculatus
Love vine; Devil's gut                 Cassytha filiformis
Sugarberry; Hackberry                  Celtis laevigata

* Non-native Species
                                           A 4 - 1
                                 Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                           Plants
                                                                     Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                         Scientific Name                  (for designated species)

Spadeleaf                           Centella asiatica
Common buttonbush                   Cephalanthus occidentalis
Coontail                            Ceratophyllum demersum
Sensitive pea                       Chamaecrista nictitans
Hyssopleaf sandmat                  Chamaesyce hyssopifolia
Alicia                              Chapmannia floridana
Lamb's-quarters                     Chenopodium album
Mexican tea*                        Chenopodium ambrosioides
Coastalplain goldenaster            Chrysopsis scabrella
Scrubland goldenaster               Chrysopsis subulata
Spotted water hemlock               Cicuta maculata
Camphortree *                       Cinnamomum camphora
Yellow thistle                      Cirsium horridulum
Nuttall's thistle                   Cirsium nuttallii
Sour orange *                       Citrus aurantium
Jamaica swamp sawgrass              Cladium jamaicense
Dayflower                           Commelina diffusa
Whitemouth dayflower                Commelina erecta
Canadian horseweed                  Conyza canadensis var. pusilla
Swamp dogwood; Stiff dogwood        Cornus foemina
Seven-sisters; String-lily          Crinum americanum
Pursh's rattlebox                   Crotalaria purshii
Vente conmigo                       Croton glandulosus
Pineland croton; Grannybush         Croton linearis
Colombian waxweed                   Cuphea carthagenensis
Compact dodder                      Cuscuta compacta
Gulf coast swallowwort              Cynanchum angustifolium
Summer farewell                     Dalea pinnata var. pinnata
Willow-herb; Swamp loosestrife      Decodon verticillatus
Ticktrefoil                         Desmodium incanum
Panicledleaf ticktrefoil            Desmodium paniculatum
Dixie ticktrefoil*                  Desmodium tortuosum
Pangolagrass*                       Digitaria pentzii
Poor joe; Rough buttonweed          Diodia teres
Virginia buttonweed                 Diodia virginiana
Common persimmon                    Diospyros virginiana
Pink sundew                         Drosera capillaris
False daisy                         Eclipta purpurea
Common water-hyacinth*              Eichhornia crassipes
Knotted spikerush                   Eleocharis interstincta
Tall elephantsfoot                  Elephantopus elatus
Lilac tasselflower*                 Emilia sonchifolia
Florida butterfly orchid            Encyclia tampensis                        21,35
American burnweed; Fireweed         Erechtites hieracifolia
Oakleaf fleabane                    Erigeron quercifolius
Early whitetop fleabane             Erigeron vernus
Flattened pipewort                  Eriocaulon compressum
Tenangle pipewort                   Eriocaulon decangulare

* Non-native Species
                                        A 4 - 2
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                              Plants
                                                                   Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                             Scientific Name            (for designated species)

Baldwin's eryngo                        Eryngium baldwinii
Button rattlesnakemaster                Eryngium yuccifolium
Dogfennel                               Eupatorium capillifolium
Falsefennel                             Eupatorium leptophyllum
Mohr's thoroughwort                     Eupatorium mohrii
Lateflowering thoroughwort              Eupatorium serotinum
Lesser Florida spurge                   Euphorbia polyphylla
Slender goldenrod                       Euthamia caroliniana
Strangler fig; Golden fig               Ficus aurea
Carolina ash; Water ash; Pop ash        Fraxinus carolinianus
Cottonweed; Plains snakecotton          Froelichia floridana
Southern umbrellasedge                  Fuirena scirpoidea
Elliott's milkpea                       Galactia elliottii
Downy milkpea                           Galactia volubilis
Stiff marsh bedstraw                    Galium tinctorium
Garberia                                Garberia heterophylla               8,15
Dwarf huckleberry                       Gaylussacia dumosa
Yellow jessamine                        Gelsemium sempervirens
Sweet everlasting; Rabbit tobacco       Gnaphalium obtusifolium
Rough hedgehyssop                       Gratiola hispida
Shaggy hedgehyssop                      Gratiola pilosa
Branched hedgehyssop                    Gratiola ramosa
Toothpetal false reinorchid             Habenaria floribunda
Waterspider false reinorchid            Habenaria repens
Innocence; Roundleaf bluet              Hedyotis procumbens
Clustered mille graine                  Hedyotis uniflora
Pinebarren frostweed                    Helianthemum corymbosum
Florida scrub frostweed                 Helianthemum nashii
Muck sunflower*                         Helianthus simulans
Scarlet rosemallow                      Hibiscus coccineus
Swamp rosemallow                        Hibiscus grandiflorus
Queen-devil                             Hieracium gronovii
Waterthyme*                             Hydrilla verticillata
Manyflower marshpennywort               Hydrocotyle umbellata
Skyflower                               Hydrolea corymbosa
Roundpod St. John's-wort                Hypericum cistifolium
Sandweed; Peelbark St. John's-wort      Hypericum fasciculatum
Pineweeds; Orangegrass                  Hypericum gentianoides
St. Andrew's-cross                      Hypericum hypericoides
Dwarf St. John's-wort                   Hypericum mutilum
Atlantic St. John's-wort                Hypericum reductum
Fourpetal St. John's-wort               Hypericum tetrapetalum
Fringed yellow stargrass                Hypoxis juncea
Clustered bushmint; Musky mint          Hyptis alata
Dahoon holly                            Ilex cassine
Inkberry; Gallberry                     Ilex glabra
Cogongrass *                            Imperata cylindrica
Hairy indigo *                          Indigofera hirsuta

* Non-native Species
                                            A 4 - 3
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                              Plants
                                                                             Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                             Scientific Name                      (for designated species)

Moonflowers                             Ipomoea alba
Saltmarsh morningglory                  Ipomoea sagittata
Virginia willow                         Itea virginica
Seacoast marshelder                     Iva imbricata
Piedmont marshelder                     Iva microcephala
Soft rush                               Juncus effusus
Pineland waterwillow                    Justicia angusta
Virginia saltmarsh mallow               Kosteletzkya virginica
Virginia dwarfdandelion                 Krigia virginica
Carolina redroot                        Lachnanthes caroliniana
Piedmont pinweed                        Lechea torreyi
Lesser duckweed                         Lemna aequinoctialis
Lion's-ear; Christmas candlestick*      Leonotis nepetifolia
Virginia pepperweed                     Lepidium virginicum
Shortleaf gayfeather                    Liatris tenuifolia
Gopher apple                            Licania michauxii
Catesby's lily; Pine lily               Lilium catesbaei                              8,41
Canada toadflax                         Linaria canadensis
Apalachicola toadflax                   Linaria floridana
Savannah false pimpernel                Lindernia grandiflora
Sweetgum                                Liquidambar styraciflua
Glade lobelia                           Lobelia glandulosa
Piedmont primrosewillow                 Ludwigia arcuata
Yerba de jicotea                        Ludwigia erecta
Anglestem primrosewillow                Ludwigia leptocarpa
Southeastern primrosewillow             Ludwigia linifolia
Seaside primrosewillow                  Ludwigia maritima
Mexican primrosewillow                  Ludwigia octovalvis
Marsh seedbox                           Ludwigia palustris
Peruvian primrosewillow*                Ludwigia peruviana
Hairy primrosewillow                    Ludwigia pilosa
Creeping primrosewillow                 Ludwigia repens
Shrubby primrosewillow                  Ludwigia suffruticosa
Skyblue lupine                          Lupinus diffusus
Southern watergrass                     Luziola fluitans
Southern club-moss                      Lycopodiella appressa
Taperleaf waterhorehound                Lycopus rubellus
Rose-rush                               Lygodesmia aphylla
Rusty staggerbush                       Lyonia ferruginea
Coastalplain staggerbush                Lyonia fruticosa
Fetterbush                              Lyonia lucida
Loosestrife                             Lythrum alatum var. lanceolatum
Sweetbay                                Magnolia virginiana
Creeping cucumber                       Melothria pendula
Florida keys hempvine                   Mikania cordifolia
Florida sensitive brier                 Mimosa quadrivalvis var. floridana
Southern balsampear*                    Momordica balsamina
Indianpipe                              Monotropa uniflora

* Non-native Species
                                            A 4 - 4
                                    Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                             Plants
                                                                          Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                            Scientific Name                    (for designated species)

Southern bayberry; Wax myrtle          Myrica cerifera
Sword fern; Wild Boston fern           Nephrolepis exaltata
Big floatingheart                      Nymphoides aquatica
Swamp tupelo                           Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora
Pricklypear                            Opuntia humifusa
Cinnamon fern                          Osmunda cinnamomea                          31,35
Royal fern                             Osmunda regalis                             31,35
Common yellow woodsorrel               Oxalis corniculata
Pink woodsorrel*                       Oxalis debilis var. corymbosa
Water cowbane                          Oxypolis filiformis
Feay's palafox                         Palafoxia feayi
Coastalplain palafox                   Palafoxia integrifolia
Cutthroatgrass                         Panicum abscissum                           37,41
Maidencane                             Panicum hemitomon
Torpedograss*                          Panicum repens
Warty panicgrass                       Panicum verrucosum
Virginia creeper; Woodbine             Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Bahiagrass*                            Paspalum notatum
Purple passionflower                   Passiflora incarnata
Red bay                                Persea borbonia var. borbonia
Golden polypody                        Phlebodium aureum
Florida false sunflower                Phoebanthus grandiflorus
Turkey tangle fogfruit; Capeweed       Phyla nodiflora
Cutleaf groundcherry                   Physalis angulata
Cypresshead groundcherry               Physalis arenicola
Husk tomato                            Physalis pubescens
American pokeweed                      Phytolacca americana
Wild pennyroyal                        Piloblephis rigida
Yellow butterwort                      Pinguicula lutea                            8,41
Small butterwort                       Pinguicula pumila
Slash pine                             Pinus elliottii
South Florida slash pine               Pinus elliottii var. densa
Longleaf pine                          Pinus palustris
Pitted stripeseed                      Piriqueta caroliniana
Water-lettuce*                         Pistia stratiotes
Narrowleaf silkgrass                   Pityopsis graminifolia
Resurrection fern                      Pleopeltis polypodioides var. michauxiana
Stinking camphorweed                   Pluchea foetida
Sweetscent                             Pluchea odorata
Paintedleaf; Fire-on-the-mountain      Poinsettia cyathophora
Tall pinebarren milkwort               Polygala cymosa
Procession flower                      Polygala incarnata
Orange milkwort                        Polygala lutea
Candyroot                              Polygala nana
Yellow milkwort                        Polygala rugelii
Coastalplain milkwort                  Polygala setacea
October flower                         Polygonella polygama
Hairy smartweed                        Polygonum hirsutum

* Non-native Species
                                           A 4 - 5
                                   Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                            Plants
                                                                  Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                           Scientific Name             (for designated species)

Mild waterpepper                      Polygonum hydropiperoides
Dotted smartweed                      Polygonum punctatum
Rustweed; Juniperleaf                 Polypremum procumbens
Pickerelweed                          Pontederia cordata
Pink purslane; Kiss-me-quick          Portulaca pilosa
Marsh mermaidweed                     Proserpinaca palustris
Combleaf mermaidweed                  Proserpinaca pectinata
Guava *                               Psidium guajava
Shortleaf wild coffee                 Psychotria sulzneri
Bracken fern                          Pteridium aquilinum
Blackroot                             Pterocaulon pycnostachyum
Giant orchid                          Pteroglossaspis ecristata           8,41,81
Mock bishopsweed; Herbwilliam         Ptilimnium capillaceum
Chapman's oak                         Quercus chapmanii
Sand live oak                         Quercus geminata
Scrub oak                             Quercus inopina
Turkey oak                            Quercus laevis
Laurel oak; Diamond oak               Quercus laurifolia
Dwarf live oak                        Quercus minima
Myrtle oak                            Quercus myrtifolia
Water oak                             Quercus nigra
Running oak                           Quercus pumila
Virginia live oak                     Quercus virginiana
Pale meadowbeauty                     Rhexia mariana
Nuttall's meadowbeauty                Rhexia nuttallii
Winged sumac                          Rhus copallinum
Starrush whitetop                     Rhynchospora colorata
Sawtooth blackberry                   Rubus argutus
Heartwing dock; Hastateleaf dock      Rumex hastatulus
Dwarf palmetto; Bluestem palm         Sabal minor
Cabbage palm                          Sabal palmetto
Shortleaf rosegentian                 Sabatia brevifolia
Lanceleaf rosegentian                 Sabatia difformis
Marsh rosegentian                     Sabatia dodecandra
Largeflower rosegentian               Sabatia grandiflora
Sugarcane plumegrass                  Saccharum giganteum
American cupscale                     Sacciolepis striata
Grassy arrowhead                      Sagittaria graminea
Bulltongue arrowhead                  Sagittaria lancifolia
Broadleaf arrowhead                   Sagittaria latifolia
Carolina willow                       Salix caroliniana
Water spangles                        Salvinia minima
American elder; Elderberry            Sambucus canadensis
White twinevine                       Sarcostemma clausum
Lizard's tail                         Saururus cernuus
Brazilian pepper *                    Schinus terebinthifolius
Cuban bulrush*                        Scirpus cubensis
Softstem bulrush                      Scirpus tabernaemontani

* Non-native Species
                                          A 4 - 6
                                      Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                               Plants
                                                                      Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                              Scientific Name              (for designated species)

Sweetbroom; Licoriceweed                 Scoparia dulcis
Helmet skullcap                          Scutellaria integrifolia
Butterweed                               Senecio glabellus
Coffeeweed; Sicklepod                    Senna obtusifolia
Septicweed*                              Senna occidentalis
Saw palmetto                             Serenoa repens
Danglepod                                Sesbania herbacea
Bladderpod; Bagpod                       Sesbania vesicaria
Giant bristlegrass                       Setaria magna
Yellow bristlegrass; Yellow foxtail      Setaria parviflora
Yaupon blacksenna                        Seymeria cassioides
Piedmont blacksenna                      Seymeria pectinata
Common wireweed                          Sida acuta
Narrowleaf blueeyed grass                Sisyrinchium angustifolium
Nash's blueeyed grass                    Sisyrinchium nashii
Earleaf greenbrier                       Smilax auriculata
Saw greenbrier                           Smilax bona-nox
Laurel greenbrier                        Smilax laurifolia
American black nightshade                Solanum americanum
Soda apple; Cockroachberry               Solanum capsicoides
Black nightshade                         Solanum chenopodioides
Tropical soda apple*                     Solanum viarum
Pinebarren goldenrod                     Solidago fistulosa
Wand goldenrod                           Solidago stricta
Lopsided Indiangrass                     Sorghastrum secundum
Sand cordgrass                           Spartina bakeri
Greenvein ladiestresses                  Spiranthes praecox
Yellow hatpins                           Syngonanthus flavidulus
Pond-cypress                             Taxodium ascendens
Scurf hoarypea                           Tephrosia chrysophylla
Wood sage; Canadian germander            Teucrium canadense
Alligatorflag; Fireflag                  Thalia geniculata
Toothed lattice-vein fern                Thelypteris serrata
Cardinal airplant                        Tillandsia fasciculata                21,35
Ballmoss                                 Tillandsia recurvata
Southern needleleaf                      Tillandsia setacea
Spanish moss                             Tillandsia usneoides
Eastern poison ivy                       Toxicodendron radicans
Forked bluecurls                         Trichostema dichotomum
Southern cattail                         Typha domingensis
Broadleaf cattail                        Typha latifolia
American elm; Florida elm                Ulmus americana
Caesarweed*                              Urena lobata
Paragrass*                               Urochloa mutica
Horned bladderwort                       Utricularia cornuta
Leafy bladderwort                        Utricularia foliosa
Zigzag bladderwort                       Utricularia subulata
Highbush blueberry                       Vaccinium corymbosum

* Non-native Species
                                             A 4 - 7
                             Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                      Plants
                                                         Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                     Scientific Name          (for designated species)

Darrow's blueberry              Vaccinium darrowii
Shiny blueberry                 Vaccinium myrsinites
Deerberry                       Vaccinium stamineum
Bog white violet                Viola lanceolata
Common blue violet              Viola sororia
Muscadine                       Vitis rotundifolia
Netted chain fern               Woodwardia areolata
Virginia chain fern             Woodwardia virginica
Tallow wood; Hog plum           Ximenia americana
Shortleaf yelloweyed grass      Xyris brevifolia
Carolina yelloweyed grass       Xyris caroliniana
Bog yelloweyed grass            Xyris difformis
Elliott's yelloweyed grass      Xyris elliottii
Fringed yelloweyed grass        Xyris fimbriata
Savannah yelloweyed grass       Xyris flabelliformis
Adam's needle                   Yucca filamentosa
Atamasco lily; Rainlily         Zephyranthes atamasco             29,32




* Non-native Species
                                    A 4 - 8
                           Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                    Animals
                                                          Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                   Scientific Name                (for all species)

                                      FISH
Longnose gar                   Lepisosteus osseus                  53
Florida gar                    Lepisosteus platyrhincus            53
Bowfin                         Amia calva                          53
Gizzard shad                   Dorosoma cepedianum                 53
Threadfin shad                 Dorosoma petenense                  53
Golden shiner                  Notemigonus crysoleucas             53
Taillight shiner               Notropis maculatus                  53
Coastal shiner                 Notropis petersoni                  53
Lake chubsucker                Erimyzon sucetta                    53
White catfish                  Ameiurus catus                      53
Brown bullhead                 Ameiurus nebulosus                  53
Channel catfish                Ictalurus punctatus                 53
Tadpole madtom                 Noturus gyrinus                     53
Walking catfish*               Clarias batrachus                   53
Chain pickerel                 Esox niger                          53
Atlantic needlefish            Strongylura marina                  53
Golden topminnow               Fundulus chrysotus                  53
Seminole killifish             Fundulus seminolis                  53
Flagfish                       Jordanella floridae                 53
Bluefin killifish              Lucania goodei                      53
Western mosquitofish           Gambusia affinis                    53
Least killifish                Heterandria formosa                 53
Sailfin molly                  Poecilia latipinna                  53
Broadspotted molly             Poecilia latipunctata               53
Brook silversides              Labidesthes sicculus                53
Everglades pygmy sunfish       Elassoma evergladei                 53
Bluespotted sunfish            Enneacanthus gloriosus              53
Warmouth                       Lepomis gulosus                     53
Bluegill                       Lepomis macrochirus                 53
Dollar sunfish                 Lepomis marginatus                  53
Redear sunfish                 Lepomis microlophus                 53
Spotted sunfish                Lepomis punctatus                   53
Largemouth bass                Micropterus salmoides               53
Black crappie                  Pomoxis nigromaculatus              53
Swamp darter                   Etheostoma fusiforme                53
Blue tilapia*                  Tilapia aurea                       53
                                AMPHIBIANS
Greater siren                  Siren lacertina                  29,32,53
Oak toad                       Bufo quercicus                    8,21,41
Southern toad                  Bufo terrestris                   8,21,41
Florida cricket frog           Acris gryllus dorsalis           26,35,53
Green treefrog                 Hyla cinerea                     26,35,41
Pine woods treefrog            Hyla femoralis                    8,35,41
Barking treefrog               Hyla gratiosa                     8,35,41
Squirrel treefrog              Hyla squirella                    8,35,41
Little grass frog              Pseudacris ocularis                35,41

* Non-native Species
                                  A 4 - 9
                                  Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                           Animals
                                                                       Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                          Scientific Name                      (for all species)

Eastern narrow-mouthed toad           Gastrophryne carolinensis               8,35,41
Florida gopher frog                   Rana capito aesopus                       15
Bullfrog                              Rana catesbeiana                         32,53
Pig frog                              Rana grylio                              32,53
Florida leopard frog                  Rana utricularia                         5,32

                                         REPTILES
Florida snapping turtle               Chelydra serpentina                       53
Striped mud turtle                    Kinosternon bauri                         53
Florida mud turtle                    Kinosternon subrubrum steindachneri       53
Peninsula cooter                      Pseudemys floridana peninsularis          53
Florida redbelly turtle               Pseudemys nelsoni                         53
Common musk turtle                    Sternotherus odoratus                     53
Florida box turtle                    Terrapene carolina bauri                 8,21
Gopher tortoise                       Gopherus polyphemus                      8,15
American alligator                    Alligator mississippiensis                53
Green anole                           Anolis carolinensis carolinensis        8,21,35
Brown anole *                         Anolis sagrei sagrei                     81,82
Florida worm lizard                   Rhineura floridana                       8,21
Six-lined racerunner                  Cnemidophorus sexlineatus sexlineatus    8,15
Ground skink                          Scincella laterale                      8,21,35
Bluetail mole skink                   Eumeces egregius lividus                  15
Southeastern five-lined skink         Eumeces inexpectatus                     21,35
Eastern glass lizard                  Ophisaurus ventralis                    8,21,35
Florida cottonmouth                   Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti           32,53
Eastern diamondback rattlesnake       Crotalus adamanteus                     8,15,41
Dusky pigmy rattlesnake               Sistrurus miliarius barbouri            8,15,41
Florida scarlet snake                 Cemophora coccinea coccinea              8,21
Southern black racer                  Coluber constrictor priapus             8,15,21
Southern ringneck snake               Diadophis punctatus punctatus           8,21,35
Eastern indigo snake                  Drymarchon corais couperi               8,15,21
Corn snake                            Elaphe guttata guttata                   8,21
Yellow rat snake                      Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata            8,21
Eastern mud snake                     Farancia abacura abacura                 32,53
Eastern hognose snake                 Heterodon platyrhinos                    8,21
Southern hognose snake                Heterodon simus                          8,21
Florida kingsnake                     Lampropeltis getula floridana            8,21
Scarlet kingsnake                     Lampropeltis trianglulum elapsoides      8,21
Eastern coachwhip                     Masticophis flagellum flagellum          8,15
Mississippi green water snake         Nerodia cyclopion                        32,53
Florida water snake                   Nerodia fasciata pictiventris            32,53
Brown water snake                     Nerodia taxispilota                      32,53
Rough green snake                     Opheodrys aestivus                       8,21
Florida pine snake                    Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus           8,15
Striped crayfish snake                Regina alleni                            32,53
Pine woods snake                      Rhadinaea flavilata                     8,15,21
South Florida swamp snake             Seminatrix pygaea cyclas                 32,53
Central Florida crowned snake         Tantilla relicta neilli                  21,35

* Non-native Species
                                        A 4 - 10
                                Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                         Animals
                                                                     Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                        Scientific Name                      (for all species)

Peninsula ribbon snake              Thamnophis sauritus sackeni             8,21
Eastern garter snake                Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis            8,21
Eastern coral snake                 Micrurus fulvius fulvius                21,35

                                         BIRDS
Pied-billed Grebe                   Podilymbus podiceps                       53
American White Pelican              Pelecanus erythrorhynchos                 32
Brown Pelican                       Pelecanus occidentalis                    32
American Bittern                    Botaurus lentiginosus                    32,53
Great Blue Heron                    Ardea herodias                           32,53
Great Egret                         Ardea alba                               32,53
Snowy Egret                         Egretta thula                            32,53
Little Blue Heron                   Egretta caerulea                         32,53
Tricolored Heron                    Egretta tricolor                         32,53
Cattle Egret                        Bubulcus ibis                            32,81
Black-crowned Night-Heron           Nycticorax nycticorax                    32,53
White Ibis                          Eudocimus albus                          32,53
Glossy Ibis                         Plegadis falcinellus                     32,53
Roseate Spoonbill                   Ajaia ajaja                               32
Wood Stork                          Mycteria americana                       29,32
Black Vulture                       Coragyps atratus                          all
Turkey Vulture                      Cathartes aura                            all
American Black Duck                 Anas rubripes                            32,53
Mallard                             Anas platyrhynchos                       32,53
Mottled Duck                        Anas fulvigula                           32,53
Blue-winged Teal                    Anas discors                             32,53
Ring-Necked Duck                    Aythya collaris                          32,53
Lesser Scaup                        Aythya affinis                           32,53
Osprey                              Pandion haliaetus                        31,32
Swallow-tailed Kite                 Elanoides forficatus                     31,41
Snail Kite                          Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus            32
Bald Eagle                          Haliaeetus leucocephalus                 8,15
Northern Harrier                    Circus cyaneus                            32
Sharp-shinned Hawk                  Accipiter striatus                       8,21
Cooper's Hawk                       Accipiter cooperii                       8,21
Red-shouldered Hawk                 Buteo lineatus                           8,21
Broad-winged Hawk                   Buteo platypterus                        8,21
Short-tailed Hawk                   Buteo brachyurus                         8,21
Red-tailed Hawk                     Buteo jamaicensis                        8,21
Crested Caracara                    Caracara cheriway                        32,81
American Kestrel                    Falco sparverius                         8,15
Southeastern American Kestrel       Falco sparverius paulus                  8,15
Merlin                              Falco columbarius                        8,15
Wild Turkey                         Meleagris gallopavo                      8,21
Northern Bobwhite                   Colinus virginianus                     8,15,21
Sora                                Porzana carolina                          32
Purple Gallinule                    Porphyrula martinica                      32
Common Moorhen                      Gallinula chloropus                       32

* Non-native Species
                                      A 4 - 11
                            Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                     Animals
                                                             Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                    Scientific Name                  (for all species)

American Coot                   Fulica americana                     32,53
Limpkin                         Aramus guarauna                      32,53
Florida Sandhill Crane          Grus canadensis pratensis            32,81
Whooping Crane                  Grus americana                       32,81
Black-bellied Plover            Pluvialis squatarola                  32
Killdeer                        Charadrius vociferus                 32,81
Black-necked Stilt              Himantopus mexicanus                  32
Greater Yellowlegs              Tringa melanoleuca                    32
Lesser Yellowlegs               Tringa flavipes                       32
Solitary Sandpiper              Tringa solitaria                      32
Spotted Sandpiper               Actitis macularia                     32
Least Sandpiper                 Calidris minutilla                    32
Pectoral Sandpiper              Calidris melanotos                    32
Common Snipe                    Gallinago gallinago                   32
American Woodcock               Scolopax minor                        32
Laughing Gull                   Larus atricilla                       32
Ring-billed Gull                Larus delawarensis                    32
Forster's Tern                  Sterna forsteri                       32
Black Tern                      Chlidonias niger                      32
Rock Dove *                     Columba livia                         81
Mourning Dove                   Zenaida macroura                    8,15,21
Common Ground-Dove              Columbina passerina                    8
Yellow-billed Cuckoo            Coccyzus americanus                  35,31
Barn Owl                        Tyto alba                            35,31
Eastern Screech-Owl             Otus asio                             81
Great Horned Owl                Bubo virginianus                    8,21,35
Barred Owl                      Strix varia                          21,35
Common Nighthawk                Chordeiles minor                     8,15
Chuck-will's-widow              Caprimulgus carolinensis             8,21
Whip-poor-will                  Caprimulgus vociferus                8,21
Chimney Swift                   Chaetura pelagica                    8,32
Ruby-throated Hummingbird       Archilochus colubris                 21,81
Belted Kingfisher               Ceryle alcyon                        32,53
Red-headed Woodpecker           Melanerpes erythrocephalus           8,15
Red-bellied Woodpecker          Melanerpes carolinus                8,15,31
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker        Sphyrapicus varius                  8,15,31
Downy Woodpecker                Picoides pubescens                   8,15
Hairy Woodpecker                Picoides villosus                    8,15
Northern Flicker                Colaptes auratus                     8,15
Pileated Woodpecker             Dryocopus pileatus                  8,21,35
Eastern Wood-Pewee              Contopus virens                    21,31,35
Acadian Flycatcher              Empidonax virescens                21,31,35
Eastern Phoebe                  Sayornis phoebe                      8,32
Great Crested Flycatcher        Myiarchus crinitus                   8,15
Eastern Kingbird                Tyrannus tyrannus                    8,15
Loggerhead Shrike               Lanius ludovicianus                 8,15,81
White-eyed Vireo                Vireo griseus                       8,21,35
Yellow-throated Vireo           Vireo flavifrons                     8,21

* Non-native Species
                                  A 4 - 12
                                Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                         Animals
                                                                 Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                        Scientific Name                  (for all species)

Philadelphia Vireo                  Vireo philadelphicus                  21
Red-eyed Vireo                      Vireo olivaceas                      8,21
Blue Jay                            Cyanocitta cristata                 8,21,81
Florida Scrub-Jay                   Aphelocoma coerulescens               15
American Crow                       Corvus brachyrhynchos                8,15
Fish Crow                           Corvus ossifragus                    8,32
Purple Martin                       Progne subis                         8,32
Tree Swallow                        Tachycineta bicolor                  8,32
Northern Rough-winged Swallow       Stelgidopteryx serripennis           8,32
Barn Swallow                        Hirundo rustica                      8,32
Carolina Chickadee                  Parus carolinensis                  8,15,21
Tufted Titmouse                     Parus bicolor                       8,15,21
Brown-headed Nuthatch               Sitta pusilla                        8,15
Carolina Wren                       Thryothorus ludovicianus            8,21,35
House Wren                          Troglodytes aedon                   8,15,21
Sedge Wren                          Cistothorus platensis                29,32
Marsh Wren                          Cistothorus palustris                29,32
Ruby-crowned Kinglet                Regulus calendula                    8,21
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher               Polioptila caerulea                  8,21
Eastern Bluebird                    Sialia sialis                        8,15
Gray-cheeked Thrush                 Catharus minimus                      21
Hermit Thrush                       Catharus guttatus                     21
Wood Thrush                         Hylocichla mustelina                  21
American Robin                      Turdus migratorius                   8,81
Gray Catbird                        Dumetella carolinensis               8,21
Northern Mockingbird                Mimus polyglottos                    8,81
Brown Thrasher                      Toxostoma rufum                      8,21
European Starling *                 Sturnus vulgaris                      81
American Pipit                      Anthrus rubescens                     32
Cedar Waxwing                       Bombycilla cedrorum                 8,21,35
Blue-winged Warbler                 Vermivora pinus                       21
Tennessee Warbler                   Vermivora peregrina                   21
Orange-crowned Warbler              Vermivora celata                      21
Northern Parula                     Parula americana                     8,21
Yellow Warbler                      Dendroica petechia                    21
Chestnut-sided Warbler              Dendroica pensylvanica                21
Magnolia Warbler                    Dendroica magnolia                    21
Cape May Warbler                    Dendroica tigrina                     21
Black-throated Blue Warbler         Dendroica caerulescens                21
Yellow-rumped Warbler               Dendroica coronata                    21
Black-throated Green Warbler        Dendroica virens                      21
Blackburnian Warbler                Dendroica fusca                       21
Yellow-throated Warbler             Dendroica dominica                    21
Pine Warbler                        Dendroica pinus                      8,15
Prairie Warbler                     Dendroica discolor                   8,15
Palm Warbler                        Dendroica palmarum                   8,21
Bay-breasted Warbler                Dendroica castanea                    21
Blackpoll Warbler                   Dendroica striata                     21

* Non-native Species
                                      A 4 - 13
                              Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                       Animals
                                                               Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                      Scientific Name                  (for all species)

Cerulean Warbler                  Dendroica cerulea                     21
Black-and-white Warbler           Mniotilta varia                       21
Prothonotary Warbler              Protonotaria citrea                   35
Worm-eating Warbler               Helmitheros vermivorus                21
Ovenbird                          Seiurus aurocapillus                  21
Common Yellowthroat               Geothlypis trichas                   21,29
Hooded Warbler                    Wilsonia citrina                      21
Summer Tanager                    Piranga rubra                        8,15
Scarlet Tanager                   Piranga olivacea                      21
Eastern Towhee                    Pipilo erythrophthalmus              8,15
Bachman's Sparrow                 Aimophila aestivalis                 8,15
Chipping Sparrow                  Spizella passerina                   8,15
Field Sparrow                     Spizella pusilla                     8,15
Savannah Sparrow                  Passerculus sandwichensis             32
Song Sparrow                      Melospiza melodia                     32
Swamp Sparrow                     Melospiza georgiana                   32
White-throated Sparrow            Zonotrichia albicollis                 8
Northern Cardinal                 Cardinalis cardinalis               8,21,81
Rose-breasted Grosbeak            Pheucticus ludovicianus               21
Indigo Bunting                    Passerina cyanea                       8
Bobolink                          Dolichonyx oryzivorus                 81
Red-winged Blackbird              Agelaius phoeniceus                 8,32,81
Eastern Meadowlark                Sturnella magna                       81
Common Grackle                    Quiscalus quiscula                   8,32
Boat-tailed Grackle               Quiscalus major                       32
Brown-headed Cowbird              Molothrus ater                        81
Baltimore Oriole                  Icterus galbula                       21
Pine Siskin                       Carduelis pinus                       21
American Goldfinch                Carduelis tristis                      8
                                    MAMMALS
Virginia opossum                  Didelphis virginiana                8,21,81
Least shrew                       Cryptotis parva                      8,15
Northern short-tailed shrew       Blarina brevicauda                   8,15
Eastern mole                      Scalopus aquaticus                  8,21,81
Eastern pipistrelle               Pipistrellus subflavus               8,32
Seminole bat                      Lasiurus seminolus                   8,32
Northern yellow bat               Lasiurus intermedius                 8,32
Evening bat                       Nycticeius humeralis                 8,32
Rafinesque's big-eared bat        Corynorhinus rafinesquii             8,32
Brazilian free-tailed bat         Tadarida brasiliensis                8,32
Florida black bear                Ursus americanus                      41
Raccoon                           Procyon lotor                       8,21,82
Florida long-tailed weasel        Mustela frenata peninsulae           8,15
River otter                       Lutra canadensis                     32,53
Striped skunk                     Mephitis mephitis                   8,15,21
Coyote*                           Canis latrans                       8,15,21
Gray fox                          Urocyon cinereoargenteus            8,15,21

* Non-native Species
                                    A 4 - 14
                             Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                      Animals
                                                          Primary Habitat Codes
Common Name                     Scientific Name              (for all species)

Florida panther                  Puma concolor coryi               rare
Bobcat                           Felis rufus                      8,15
Feral cat *                      Felis catus                    all areas
Gray squirrel                    Sciurus carolinensis           8,21,81
Sherman's fox squirrel           Sciurus niger shermani           8,15
Southern flying squirrel         Glaucomys volans               8,15,21
Southeastern pocket gopher       Geomys pinetis                   8,15
Cotton mouse                     Peromyscus gossypinus            8,15
Florida mouse                    Podomys floridanus                 15
Eastern woodrat                  Neotoma floridana                  21
Marsh rice rat                   Oryzomys palustris              29,32
Hispid cotton rat                Sigmodon hispidus                8,15
Round-tailed muskrat             Neofiber alleni                 29,32
Eastern cottontail               Sylvilagus floridanus            8,15
Marsh rabbit                     Sylvilagus palustris            32,35
Wild pig *                       Sus scrofa                     all areas
White-tailed deer                Odocoileus virginianus         all areas
Nine-banded armadillo *          Dasypus novemcinctus           8,21,35




* Non-native Species
                                   A 4 - 15
                                Habitat Codes


Terrestrial                               Lacustrine
1.     Beach Dune                         46.    Flatwood/Prairie Lake
2.     Bluff                              47.    Marsh Lake
3.     Coastal Berm                       48.    River Floodplain Lake
4.     Coastal Rock Barren                49.    Sandhill Upland Lake
5.     Coastal Strand                     50.    Sinkhole Lake
6.     Dry Prairie                        51.    Swamp Lake
7.     Maritime Hammock
                                          Riverine
8.     Mesic Flatwoods
                                          52.    Alluvial Stream
9.     Coastal Grasslands
                                          53.    Blackwater Stream
10.    Pine Rockland
                                          54.    Seepage Stream
11.    Prairie Hammock
                                          55.    Spring-Run Stream
12.    Rockland Hammock
13.    Sandhill                           Estuarine
14.    Scrub                              56.    Estuarine Composite Substrate
15.    Scrubby Flatwoods                  57.    Estuarine Consolidated Substrate
16.    Shell Mound                        58.    Estuarine Coral Reef
17.    Sinkhole                           59.    Estuarine Grass Bed
18.    Slope Forest                       60.    Estuarine Mollusk Reef
19.    Upland Glade                       61.    Estuarine Octocoral Bed
20.    Upland Hardwood Forest             62.    Estuarine Sponge Bed
21.    Upland Mixed Forest                63.    Estuarine Tidal Marsh
22.    Upland Pine Forest                 64.    Estuarine Tidal Swamp
23.    Xeric Hammock                      65.    Estuarine Unconsolidated Substrate
                                          66.    Estuarine Worm Reef
Palustrine
24.    Basin Marsh                        Marine
25.    Basin Swamp                        67.    Marine Algal Bed
26.    Baygall                            68.    Marine Composite Substrate
27.    Bog                                69.    Marine Consolidated Substrate
28.    Bottomland Forest                  70.    Marine Coral Reef
29.    Depression Marsh                   71.    Marine Grass Bed
30.    Dome                               72.    Marine Mollusk Reef
31.    Floodplain Forest                  73.    Marine Octocoral Bed
32.    Floodplain Marsh                   74.    Marine Sponge Bed
33.    Floodplain Swamp                   75.    Marine Tidal Marsh
34.    Freshwater Tidal Swamp             76.    Marine Tidal Swamp
35.    Hydric Hammock                     77.    Marine Unconsolidated Substrate
36.    Marl Prairie                       78.    Marine Worm Reef
37.    Seepage Slope
                                          Subterranean
38.    Slough
                                          79.   Aquatic Cave
39.    Strand Swamp
                                          80.   Terrestral Cave
40.    Swale
41.    Wet Flatwoods
                                          Miscellaneous
42.    Wet Prairie
                                          81.    Ruderal
Lacustrine                                82.    Developed
43.    Clastic Upland Lake
                                          MTC Many Types
44.    Coastal Dune Lake
                                              Of Communities
45.    Coastal Rockland Lake
                                          OF     Overflying



                                   A 4 - 16
Addendum 5—Designated Species List
                                       Rank Explanations
                             For FNAI Global Rank, FNAI State Rank,
                                 Federal Status And State Status

The Nature Conservancy and the Natural Heritage Program Network (of which FNAI is a part) define an element
as any exemplary or rare component of the natural environment, such as a species,natural community,bird
rookery,spring,sinkhole,cave,or other ecological feature. An element occurrence (EO) is a single extant habitat
that sustains or otherwise contributes to the survival of a population or a distinct,self-sustaining example of a
particular element.
Using a ranking system developed by The Nature Conservancy and the Natural Heritage Program Network,the
Florida Natural Areas Inventory assigns two ranks to each element. The global rank is based on an element's
worldwide status; the state rank is based on the status of the element in Florida. Element ranks are based on
many factors,the most important ones being estimated number of Element occurrences,estimated abundance
(number of individuals for species; area for natural communities),range,estimated adequately protected
EOs,relative threat of destruction,and ecological fragility.
Federal and State status information is from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; and the Florida Game and
Freshwater Fish Commission (animals),and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
(plants),respectively.
                                     FNAI GLOBAL RANK DEFINITIONS
G1           =    Critically imperiled globally because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences or less than 1000
                  individuals) or because of extreme vulnerability to extinction due to some natural or man-made
                  factor.
G2           =    Imperiled globally because of rarity (6 to 20 occurrences or less than 3000 individuals) or
                  because of vulnerability to extinction due to some natural or man-made factor.
G3           =    Either very rare and local throughout its range (21-100 occurrences or less than 10,000
                  individuals) or found locally in a restricted range or vulnerable to extinction of other factors.
G4           =    apparently secure globally (may be rare in parts of range)
G5           =    demonstrably secure globally
GH           =    of historical occurrence throughout its range,may be rediscovered (e.g.,ivory-billed
                  woodpecker)
GX           =    believed to be extinct throughout range
GXC          =    extirpated from the wild but still known from captivity or cultivation
G#?          =    tentative rank (e.g.,G2?)
G#G#         =    range of rank; insufficient data to assign specific global rank (e.g.,G2G3)
G#T#         =    rank of a taxonomic subgroup such as a subspecies or variety; the G portion of the rank refers
                  to the entire species and the T portion refers to the specific subgroup; numbers have same
                  definition as above (e.g.,G3T1)
G#Q          =    rank of questionable species - ranked as species but questionable whether it is species or
                  subspecies; numbers have same definition as above (e.g.,G2Q)
G#T#Q        =    same as above,but validity as subspecies or variety is questioned.
GU           =    due to lack of information,no rank or range can be assigned (e.g.,GUT2).
G?           =    not yet ranked (temporary)
S1           =    Critically imperiled in Florida because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences or less than
                  1000 individuals) or because of extreme vulnerability to extinction due to some natural or man-
                  made factor.
S2           =    Imperiled in Florida because of rarity (6 to 20 occurrences or less than 3000 individuals) or
                  because of vulnerability to extinction due to some natural or man-made factor.
S3           =    Either very rare and local throughout its range (21-100 occurrences or less than 10,000
                  individuals) or found locally in a restricted range or vulnerable to extinction of other factors.
S4           =    apparently secure in Florida (may be rare in parts of range)
S5           =    demonstrably secure in Florida
SH           =    of historical occurrence throughout its range,may be rediscovered (e.g.,ivory-billed
                  woodpecker)
SX           =    believed to be extinct throughout range
SA           =    accidental in Florida,i.e.,not part of the established biota
SE           =    an exotic species established in Florida may be native elsewhere in North America
SN           =    regularly occurring,but widely and unreliably distributed; sites for conservation hard to
                  determine
SU           =    due to lack of information,no rank or range can be assigned (e.g.,SUT2).
S?           =    not yet ranked (temporary)


                                                    A 5 - 1
                                    Rank Explanations
                          For FNAI Global Rank, FNAI State Rank,
                              Federal Status And State Status

                                             LEGAL STATUS
N         = Not currently listed,nor currently being considered for listing,by state or federal agencies.
FEDERAL   (Listed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service - USFWS)
LE        =   Listed as Endangered Species in the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants
              under the provisions of the Endangered Species Act. Defined as any species that is in danger of
              extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
PE        =   Proposed for addition to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants as
              Endangered Species.
LT        =   Listed as Threatened Species. Defined as any species that is likely to become an endangered
              species within the near future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
PT        =   Proposed for listing as Threatened Species.
C         =   Candidate Species for addition to the list of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants.
              Defined as those species for which the USFWS currently has on file sufficient information on
              biological vulnerability and threats to support proposing to list the species as endangered or
              threatened.
E(S/A)    =   Endangered due to similarity of appearance.
T(S/A)    =   Threatened due to similarity of appearance.
STATE
Animals       (Listed by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission - FFWCC)
LE        =   Listed as Endangered Species by the FFWCC. Defined as a species,subspecies,or isolated
              population which is so rare or depleted in number or so restricted in range of habitat due to
              any man-made or natural factors that it is in immediate danger of extinction or extirpation from
              the state,or which may attain such a status within the immediate future.
LT        =   Listed as Threatened Species by the FFWCC. Defined as a species,subspecies,or isolated
              population which is acutely vulnerable to environmental alteration,declining in number at a
              rapid rate,or whose range or habitat is decreasing in area at a rapid rate and as a consequence
              is destined or very likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future.
LS        =   Listed as Species of Special Concern by the FFWCC. Defined as a population which warrants
              special protection,recognition,or consideration because it has an inherent significant
              vulnerability to habitat modification,environmental alteration,human disturbance,or substantial
              human exploitation which,in the foreseeable future,may result in its becoming a threatened
              species.
Plants        (Listed by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services - FDACS)
LE        =   Listed as Endangered Plants in the Preservation of Native Flora of Florida Act. Defined as
              species of plants native to the state that are in imminent danger of extinction within the
              state,the survival of which is unlikely if the causes of a decline in the number of plants
              continue,and includes all species determined to be endangered or threatened pursuant to the
              Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973,as amended.
LT        =   Listed as Threatened Plants in the Preservation of Native Flora of Florida Act. Defined as
              species native to the state that are in rapid decline in the number of plants within the state,but
              which have not so decreased in such number as to cause them to be endangered.




                                                 A 5 - 2
                             Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                Designated Species
                                      Plants

Common Name/                                            Designated Species Status
 Scientific Name                                     FDA         USFWS            FNAI

Florida butterfly orchid
 Encyclia tampensis                                  CE
Garberia
 Garberia heterophylla                                T
Catesby's lily; Pine lily
 Lilium catesbaei                                     T
Cinnamon fern
 Osmunda cinnamomea                                  CE
Royal fern
 Osmunda regalis                                     CE
Cutthroatgrass
 Panicum abscissum                                    E              MC             S3
Yellow butterwort
 Pinguicula lutea                                     T
Giant orchid
 Pteroglossaspis ecristata                            T              MC             S2
Tooth lattice-vein fern
 Thelypteris serrata                                  E                              S1
Cardinal airplant
 Tillandsia fasciculata                               E
Atamasco lily; Rainlily
 Zephyranthes atamasco                                T




                                     A 5 - 3
                                  Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                     Designated Species
                                          Animals

Common Name/                                               Designated Species Status
Scientific Name                                       FFWCC       USFWS           FNAI

                                       AMPHIBIANS
Florida gopher frog
 Rana capito aesopus                                      SSC                        S3
                                         REPTILES
Gopher tortoise
 Gopherus polyphemus                                      SSC                        S3
American alligator
 Alligator mississippiensis                               SSC      T(S/A)            S4
Bluetail mole skink
 Eumeces egregius lividus                                 T          T               S2
Eastern diamondback rattlesnake
 Crotalus adamanteus                                                                 S3
Eastern indigo snake
 Drymarchon corais couperi                                T          T               S3
Southern hognose snake
 Heterodon simus                                                                     S2
Mississippi green water snake
 Nerodia cyclopion                                                                   S1
Florida pine snake
 Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus                           SSC                        S3
                                           BIRDS
Brown Pelican
 Pelecanus occidentalis                                   SSC                        S3
Great Egret
 Ardea alba                                                                          S4
Snowy Egret
 Egretta thula                                            SSC                        S3
Little Blue Heron
 Egretta caerulea                                         SSC                        S4
Tricolored Heron
 Egretta tricolor                                         SSC                        S4
Black-crowned Night-Heron
 Nycticorax nycticorax                                                               S3
White Ibis
 Eudocimus albus                                          SSC                        S4
Glossy Ibis
 Plegadis falcinellus                                                                S3
Roseate Spoonbill
 Ajaia ajaja                                              SSC                        S2
Wood Stork
 Mycteria americana                                       E          E               S2
Osprey
 Pandion haliaetus                                                                 S3S4
Swallow-tailed Kite
 Elanoides forficatus                                                                S2
Snail Kite

                                          A 5 - 4
                                  Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                     Designated Species
                                          Animals

Common Name/                                               Designated Species Status
Scientific Name                                       FFWCC       USFWS           FNAI

 Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus                           E          E               S2
Bald Eagle
 Haliaeetus leucocephalus                                 T          T               S3
Cooper's Hawk
 Accipiter cooperii                                                                  S3
Short-tailed Hawk
 Buteo brachyurus                                                                    S1
Crested Caracara
 Caracara cheriway                                        T          T               S2
Southeastern American Kestrel
 Falco sparverius paulus                                  T                          S3
Merlin
 Falco columbarius                                                                   S2
Limpkin
 Aramus guarauna                                          SSC                        S3
Florida Sandhill Crane
 Grus canadensis pratensis                                T                        S2S3
Whooping Crane
 Grus americana                                           SSC       E,XN           SXC
Hairy Woodpecker
 Picoides villosus                                                                   S3
Florida Scrub-Jay
 Aphelocoma coerulescens                                  T          T               S2
Worm-eating Warbler
 Helmitheros vermivorus                                                              S1
Bachman's Sparrow
 Aimophila aestivalis                                                                S3
                                        MAMMALS
Rafinesque's big-eared bat
 Corynorhinus rafinesquii                                                            S2
Florida black bear
 Ursus americanus                                         T                          S2
Florida long-tailed weasel
 Mustela frenata peninsulae                                                          S3
Florida panther
 Puma concolor coryi                                      E          E               S1
Sherman's fox squirrel
 Sciurus niger shermani                                   SSC                        S3
Florida mouse
 Podomys floridanus                                       SSC                        S3
Round-tailed muskrat
 Neofiber alleni                                                                     S3




                                          A 5 - 5
Addendum 6—Timber Management Analysis
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                    Timber Management Analysis

The timber assessment require by Chapters 253 and 259, Florida Statutes, was conducted by Michael
M. Penn, Senior Forester, Florida Division of Forestry.
Purpose
This document is intended to fulfill the timber assessment requirement for Lake Kissimmee State Park
(LKSP) as required by Section 253.036, Florida Statutes. The goal of this Timber Assessment is to
evaluate the potential and feasibility of utilizing silvicultural techniques in assisting managers in
achieving objectives at LKSP.
Forest Resource Background and History
Lake Kissimmee State Park was heavily timbered in the past. The presence of old sawmill locations
within the park boundaries as well as numerous lighter stumps confirms this assumption. This area
was also used for turpentine collection and for cattle ranching. Today, evidence of these past activities
presents themselves in the form of cat-faced trees and residual pastures, respectively. Recently
acquired pastureland is being grazed through a cattle lease.
While there are no legal statutes that constrain the use of Lake Kissimmee State Park, it is currently
designated for single-use management with public outdoor recreation as the primary goal. Other uses
will be considered on a case-by-case basis as for compatibility with the parks recreation and resource
preservation purposes.
Prescribed burning has been the major management tool on the area since purchase by the state.
Burning intervals are planned on a three-year rotation. Until the early 1990s, prescribed fires were set
mostly during the winter months, but since then, more emphasis has been placed on growing season
burns.
Goals and Objectives Related to Timber Management
The following are Goals and Objectives as outlined in the 1998 Unit Management Plan (UMP) for the
Lake Kissimmee State Park relate directly to timber management. Other objectives found in the UMP
relate specifically to biological surveys and other archeological and recreational objectives and are not
listed here.
        1.      Pursue restoration of pasture in newly acquired addition.
        2.      Continue and increase efforts to restore fire type communities with emphasis on
                growing season burns.
Mesic and Wet Flatwoods
The mesic and wet flatwoods on Lake Kissimmee State Park often are difficult to discern as they have
been altered by previous uses and often intermix inconspicuously. For these reasons, they will be
discussed together.
Timber Resources
The following description of the timber resource within the mesic and wet flatwoods has been
generalized due to time and manpower constraints. The reader should be aware that all acreage figures
are “best estimates” using aerial photos and GIS software. Density estimates are based on a small
number of sample points and do not withstand statistical scrutiny. A more intensive survey would be
beneficial to more accurately portray the timber resource for long range planning purposes.
Lake Kissimmee State Park has approximately 612 and 1,056 acres of mesic and wet pine flatwoods
respectively, for a total of 1,668 acres. The mesic flatwoods consist of a mixture of both South Florida
slash and longleaf pine overstory while the wet flatwoods areas consist almost entirely of South
Florida slash pine. There is one area on Buster Island where offsite slash pine has been planted but
other than that, these flatwoods appear to have regenerated naturally following the logging activities
that took place prior to purchase by the State. These stands appear natural and are variable with
regards to stocking levels and size classes. It is assumed that at least some of the mesic/wet flatwoods

                                                A 6 - 1
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                    Timber Management Analysis

type was last harvested with a seed tree cut because they have two distinct age classes. It is unknown
what trees were chosen as seed trees and the possibility exists that hygrading occurred within these
stands. Basal areas within the mesic/wet flatwoods are variable, ranging from 20 to 120 sq. ft. acre.
Of these, approximately 862 acres have basal areas greater then 80 sq. ft. per acre and would benefit
ecologically from a thinning. Of the stands with high basal areas, 406 acres are located on Buster
Island and are inaccessible for mechanical treatment due to a bridge with a 14 ton weight limit. The
denser stands with basal areas greater than 100 sq. ft per acre have little ground cover. Product mix is
mostly pulpwood and chip-n-saw with a few scattered sawtimber trees throughout.
Management Options
1) Do Nothing – Areas with higher densities of timber will continue to grow but at a much slower rate
becoming more susceptible to insect, disease and wildfire. Wildlife habitat for some species will
decrease, as ground vegetation will continue to be shaded out. The less dense stands will continue to
grow and increase slightly in basal area but will probably not reach densities high enough to be
considered overstocked. If new regeneration is not established through natural processes these stands
will eventually begin to succumb to inevitable mortality.
2) Timber Management Emphasis – There may be certain areas within the mesic/wet flatwood
communities that could be managed for timber revenue. This option will be discussed briefly as
managing this vegetation type strictly for timber would conflict with objectives found in the Lake
Kissimmee UMP. It is included here only to make the reader aware of the various alternatives
available for managing the area. It is not expected or recommended that the pine communities be
managed in this manner unless on a very small scale.
These stands will need to be thinned when live crowns in the majority of the dominant and co-
dominant trees have been reduced to approximately 1/3 of their total height. This will help ensure a
healthy stand of trees. These stands should be thinned back to 60 – 80 sq. ft. BA per acre each time
they reach 100 sq. ft. BA per acre or more. An added benefit of opening up the canopy is that more
sunlight will reach the forest floor increasing the amount and quality of flora and fauna. Once the
stand has reached maturity, it can be harvested then planted or naturally regenerated.
3) Ecosystem Management (Restoration) Emphasis – For the more dense stands this option is similar
to the Timber Management Emphasis above, however, this strategy gradually transitions the stand
back even further to 30-50 sq. ft. BA per acre through a series of thinnings. This strategy will increase
the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor, increasing the amount and variety of flora and fauna.
Over time, this method will also increase the uneven-aged character of the stands, which will benefit
native species. A variety of thinning methods can be utilized. Thinning options to consider are:
normal thinning with relatively even spacing, group selection, group seed tree, or a combination of all
three. Natural regeneration should become established without much difficulty after harvest if the
ground becomes sufficiently scarified.
For the less dense and even-aged nature of some of these stands, a high priority should be placed on
providing for pine regeneration. Natural regeneration can be achieved by scheduling prescribed fire to
take advantage of good seed crops. Seed crops can be predicted by watching trees for good cone
production and scheduling a burn just prior to seed dispersal in the fall. This occurs in October. Pine
cones mature and drop seed almost two years after pollination so managers have a year’s heads up on
an upcoming seed crop.
Over time, this method will increase the uneven-aged character of the stands, which will more closely
resemble pre-settlement conditions. Once a new age class has been established, depending on the
density, additional age classes can then be established through burning as described above or by
mechanical thinning. Thinning options to consider are: normal thinning with relatively even spacing,
group selection, group seed tree, or a combination of all three. Natural regeneration should become
established without much difficulty after harvest if the ground becomes sufficiently scarified. It must
be kept in mind that this process takes many years and strategies need to be modified depending on
technology and existing conditions.

                                                A 6 - 2
                                    Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                   Timber Management Analysis


Scrubby Flatwoods
Timber Resources
Again the following description of the timber resource within the scrubby flatwoods has been
generalized and acreage figures were derived using aerial photos and GIS software. Density estimates
are based on a small number of sample points and do not withstand statistical scrutiny.
LKSP has approximately 461 acres of scrubby pine flatwoods. These areas are characterized by an
open South Florida slash and longleaf pine overstory with various scrub species found in the
understory. Wiregrass is present but not abundant. These stands appear to have regenerated naturally
and are in an open, even-aged condition. Younger age classes and regeneration are lacking. Basal
area measurements are variable but generally range from 10-60 Sq. ft per acre. Product mix is high to
Chip-N-Saw and Better.
Management Options
1) Do Nothing – As with the less dense mesic/wet flatwoods above these stands will continue to grow
for a while and increase slightly in basal area but will probably not reach densities high enough to be
considered overstocked. If new regeneration is not established through natural processes these stands
will eventually begin to succumb to inevitable mortality and stacking levels will begin to decrease.
2) Timber Management Emphasis – As with the mesic/wet flatwoods above, this type of management
would not be compatible with current park objectives. It is included here to describe the timber
producing potential of the area.
These stands will need to be regenerated quickly to increase the stocking of the stand. This can be
accomplished by either planting seedlings or managing for natural regeneration. Planting would be
the more reliable method and some sort of site preparation would have to be utilized. After the stand
has been established, the area can then be managed as described above under the Mesic/Wet
Flatwoods Timber Management Emphasis.
3) Ecosystem Management (Restoration) Emphasis – Due to the openness and even-aged character of
these stands the highest priority should be placed on providing for pine regeneration. The method for
managing these areas to achieve natural regeneration is the same as described above for the open
mesic/wet flatwoods. This will assure a perpetual existence of natural scrubby flatwoods.
Pasture
There are approximately 670 acres of pasture located on Lake Kissimmee State Park. Of these, 350
were created on Buster Island to graze the scrub cattle maintained by the park for historic
interpretation purposes. These pastures will remain as is for this purpose. The remaining 320 acres
are part of a newly acquired portion of the property and is currently being grazed through a cattle
lease. The newly acquired pasture has restoration potential under the current UMP and will be
discussed briefly here.
Management Options
1) Do Nothing – The Pastures will remain much the same as they are now if cattle are allowed to
continue grazing on the area. If the cattle are removed and nothing else is done, the pasture will begin
to be invaded with undesirable species such as wax myrtle and dog fennel.
2) Restoration Emphasis – Restoration of pasture is a two-part process and resource managers
throughout the State are still working on the best, most economical method to accomplish this. This
process involves reestablishing both the groundcover species and the overstory pine component. The
ground cover is the more difficult and costly part of the process so some will argue that is should be
accomplished first. Others believe that by establishing the pine component first, it will aid in
controlling the non-native pasture grass by shading it out. Future thinnings designed to create
openings or holes in the overstory will provide places for the groundcover species to be re-introduced.

                                               A 6 - 3
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                    Timber Management Analysis

The economical benefit is that revenue from the timber harvest or thinning can be used to pay or offset
the cost of groundcover restoration. Another thing to consider is the cattle presently grazing the area.
If tree-planting operations do occur, it would be wise to exclude the cattle until the trees are large
enough to resist trampling. This may require planting in stages and fencing off the recently planted
areas for several years.
Miscellaneous Forest Products
There are areas within LKSP that have an abundance of wax myrtle growing on severely deteriorated
(drained) marshes. One management objective of the park is to control this species by roller chopping,
which will allow existing herbaceous vegetation to recover. There is a market for some of this
material which is used as stems for artificial trees and plants, sometimes called “crooked wood”.
Areas to be roller chopped could be harvested prior to these operations and the revenue could be used
to help offset the roller chopping costs.
Access
A typical logging operation can easily access any of the areas on the northern portion of Lake
Kissimmee State Park unless ground conditions are extremely wet. Existing roads are in good
condition and accessible for logging trucks. A bridge with a weight limit of 14 tons will be an obstacle
to restoring any of the areas on Buster Island to the south. The weight limit currently placed on this
bridge restricts access to all loaded semi tractor-trailers. Unless it is found that the bridge can
withstand significantly higher weight loads than posted, or is reconstructed to a higher standard, it will
be impossible for all but the smallest heavy equipment to operate on Buster Island. This includes
most wildfire suppression tractors. Improving the road system on the reserve will not only improve
access for timber harvests, but also improve access for other management and recreational activities.
Revenue from timber harvests could be used to pay for needed roadwork on Lake Kissimmee State
Park.
Prescribed Fire
Prescribed fire is an important tool for ecosystem management in Florida. Before European
settlement, natural fires occurred at regular intervals on an average of two to five years. These fires
reduced the fuel load, produced a seedbed for pine regeneration and released nutrients back into the
soil. Prescribed fire, coupled with a well-planned timber harvest, is often the most economical and
responsible method for conducting ecosystem management. Managers at LKSP have been actively
prescribed burning the area since it was purchased by the State. Currently the goal is to burn fire-type
natural communities once every three years. Since there is already an active burn program in place on
LKSP, this document will briefly discuss prescribed fire only as it relates to timber management.
Some flatwoods stands on LKSP may exhibit unnaturally heavy fuel buildup due to lack of fire,
although none were observed during reconnaissance for this document. These areas are usually found
mostly in the wet flatwoods areas and on the boundaries between mesic flatwoods and wet flatwoods
where fire has been less frequent due to higher moisture levels. This also occurs when fire has been
excluded for many years. In these types of areas it would be risky to attempt burning without first
implementing some kind of mechanical treatment. One option would be to thin the area first and then
conduct a series of cool backing fires at frequent intervals (every 1-2 years) until it becomes safe to
conduct more aggressive growing season burns. Again, a series of cool backing fires should be
implemented until eventually the fuel loads become more manageable.
The major objective when prescribed burning in timber should be minimal mortality of the trees.
Historic natural fires caused very little tree mortality except in small seedlings because they burnt
mostly on the finer fuels of wiregrass and pine straw. South Florida slash pine is more intolerant to
fire than longleaf pine, especially during the seedling stage when longleaf pine is in the grass stage.
Both species are susceptible to fire caused mortality for several years after initiation of height growth.
Therefore, burning intervals should be adjusted until the majority of the trees grow out of the
susceptible stage. One study suggests that once slash pine seedlings surpass 1.5 inches diameter 6

                                                A 6 - 4
                                     Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                    Timber Management Analysis

inches above the ground, most will survive, providing the fire is cool. (Johansen, R.W. and Wade,
D.D. 1987). When burning, even in mature timber, it must be kept in mind that not all fire is good. A
hot fire may not initially kill trees, but will stress them enough to dramatically increase their
susceptibility to insect and disease attack. This is especially true when combined with other stresses,
such as drought or flood.
Economics
It is difficult to predict with any certainty the amount of revenue that can be derived through timber
harvests on Lake Kissimmee State Park. Market conditions, harvest prescriptions, product mix,
logging conditions and distance to manufacturing facilities all play a factor in stumpage prices. It
becomes even more difficult when trying to predict what future timber markets will be. Although
economics are hard to predict, they must be analyzed before making any management decision.
Lake Kissimmee State Park is located in east central Polk County and is approximately 3.5 hours to
major wood processing facilities in Palatka, Florida. This is getting to be a long distance to haul
timber, especially pulpwood. There are other wood processing facilities closer than Palatka but quotas
are not as dependable. Stumpage prices are low at this time, especially for pulpwood. This is due in
part to the flood of material into the markets the last several years from salvage fire and bug damaged
wood. Even though the distance is great and the markets are low, it is reasonable to expect viable bids
on this timber. This is due to the quality of timber on Lake Kissimmee State Park and by the fact that
timber was sold on Three Lakes Wildlife Management Area in the last year. Three Lakes is about the
same distance to Palatka as Lake Kissimmee State Park. When timber markets improve, restoration
efforts on Lake Kissimmee can be expected to become even more viable.
Summary
Lake Kissimmee State Park has approximately 2,130 acres of flatwoods, of which, 862 exhibit
stocking levels higher than what is considered healthy by ecological standards. It is possible to
manage almost all the flatwoods (scrubby, mesic and wet) on Lake Kissimmee State Park in such a
manner as to retain the natural appearance, meet objectives stated in the UMP, and produce revenue
through timber harvests.
The stands exhibiting higher basal areas (70+ sq.ft. per acre) can begin to be ecologically restored
through mechanical thinnings at any time. The less dense stands (less than 50 sq. ft. BA per acre)
within the mesic and scrubby flatwoods are relatively even-aged and could benefit from scheduling
fall prescribed burns to aid in regeneration. These methods are the first step towards moving the
stands toward an uneven-aged condition.
One large obstacle to management on Buster Island, which is a significant portion of Lake Kissimmee
State Park, is a bridge with a weight limit of 14 tons. This bridge is the only dry access to the area and
at present restricts most all traffic larger than a loaded pickup truck.
There is opportunity to cut restoration expenses on the northern pasture areas by planting trees and
using future revenues to offset groundcover restoration costs. Another cost saving opportunity is to let
crooked wood cutters harvest usable wax myrtle prior to roller chopping those areas.
The prescribed burn program on LKSP appears to be in good shape. The only recommendation would
be to schedule some fall burns for seed catch to establish a new age-class of pine trees.
Distance from wood processing facilities and current wood markets may make restoration activities on
Lake Kissimmee State Park less than optimal but similar sales have showed there is still a valid
monetary interest in timber from this distance.
Literature Cited
Johansen, R.W. and Wade, D.D. 1987. An insight into thinning young slash pine stands with fire, pp
103-106. In: Douglas R. Phillips (comp.) Proceedings of the Forth Biennial Southern Silvicultural
Research Conference; 1986 November 4-6; Atlanta, GA. USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest

                                                A 6 - 5
                                  Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                 Timber Management Analysis

Experiment Station General Technical Report, SE-42.




                                            A 6 - 6
Addendum 7—Priority Schedule And Cost Estimates
                                             Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                        Priority Schedule And Cost Estimates


Estimates are developed for the funding and staff resources needed to implement the management plan
based on goals, objectives and priority management activities. Funding priorities for all state park
management and development activities are reviewed each year as part of the Division’s legislative
budget process. The Division prepares an annual legislative budget request based on the priorities
established for the entire state park system. The Division also aggressively pursues a wide range of other
funds and staffing resources, such as grants, volunteers, and partnerships with agencies, local
governments and the private sector for supplementing normal legislative appropriations to address unmet
needs. The ability of the Division to implement the specific goals, objectives and priority actions identified
in this plan will be determined by the availability of funding resources for these purposes.
Resource Management
1.    Continue and increase efforts to restore fire-type communities with emphasis on growing season burns. 0-10 years.
      Estimated Cost: $ 20,000.
2.    Continue exotic removal efforts with specific attention to Category I plants. Monitor areas for the Old world
      climbing fern and Japanese climbing fern. 0-10 years. Estimated Cost: $ 20,000.
3.    Monitor and track the Florida scrub-jay population as well as other designated species (includes salary for half-time
      OPS biologist). Estimated Cost: $ 12,000/year reoccurring.
4.    Mechanically treat areas of the scrubby flatwoods and mesic flatwoods where needed, with particular attention
      to improving Florida scrub-jay habitat. 0-10 years. Estimated Cost: $ 15,000.
5.    Pursue removal of the remaining spoil pile material deposited on the park as part of the Lake Kissimmee
      restoration project. 10+ years. Estimated Cost: $ 5,000.
6.    Evaluate previous hydrological modifications and design restoration measures to enhance and maintain the marsh
      community in the addition north of Lake Rosalie. Carry out restoration measures that are recommended. From
      evaluation. 5+years. Estimated Cost: $ 200,000.
7.    Pursue restoration of pasture in addition north of Lake Rosalie. 5+years. Estimated Cost: $ 300,000.
8.    Survey and map the cutthroatgrass seeps. 0-2 years. Estimated Cost: $ 2,000.
9.    Develop a hydrological restoration plan for the Zipprer Canal. 3-10 years. Estimated Cost: $ 10,000.
10.   Update the unit’s plant list. 0-2 years. Estimated Cost: $ 2,000.
11.   Increase reporting of wildlife observations and exotic removals. 0-2 years. Estimated Cost: $ 0.00.
12.   Complete archaeological reconnaissance survey of the park, marking site locations with GPS technology. 1-5
      years. Estimated Cost: $ 20,000.
13.   Seek grant funding for a research project to document the prehistory and history of the park and surrounding
      area. 0-2 years. Estimated Cost: $ 1,000.
14.   Develop and implement a written plan to protect and preserve the recorded archaeological sites from erosion,
      slumpage, animal burrowing, root damage and tree fall, and vandalism. 1-3 years. Estimated Cost: $ 5,000,
      plus $500/year reoccurring.

Visitor Services/Recreation
1.    Continue the interpretation of Florida’s early cattle industry with an emphasis on historical accuracy. 0-10 years.
      Estimated Cost: $ 90,000.
2.    Improve public awareness and encourage protection and stewardship of the park’s cultural and natural
      resources through education, interpretation (including signage), and enforcement of agency rules and
      regulations. 0-10 years. Estimated Cost: $ 25,000, plus $1,000/year in reoccurring costs.
3.    Additional personnel resources to meet the demands of park operations, and information/education programs.
      0-10 years. Estimated Cost: Approximately 32 hrs./week x 52 wks. @ $11/hr = $18,304 reccurring.

Total Costs:                                                                                      $1,033,040.00




                                                         A 7 - 1
                                        Lake Kissimmee State Park
                                    Priority Schedule and Cost Estimate
Item                                 Quantity     Unit        Unit Price         Multiplier    Amount

Capital Improvements

Cabin Use Area
Cabins & Furnishings                   12.000       ea.    $120,000.00            1.00        $1,444,000.00

Camping
Group Camp Restroom                     1.000       ea.     $20,000.00            1.00          $20,000.00

Marina
Concrete Sheet Pile Bulkhead          400.000        LF       $110.00             1.00          $44,000.00
Fixed Boat Dock                        12.000       slip     $9,000.00            1.00         $108,000.00
Renovate/Expand
Concession Building                     1.000       ea.    $125,000.00            1.00         $125,000.00

Support Facilities
Administrative Office                   1.000       ea.    $190,000.00            1.00         $190,000.00
Park Drive Repaving                     3.300      mile    $175,000.00            1.00         $577,500.00

Trails & Interpretation
Nature Trail                         2640.000       LF           $2.00            1.00           $5,280.00
New Paved Parking (10 Car)              0.500    per 10     $20,000.00            1.00          $10,000.00
Scenic Overlook/Wildlife Blind          1.000       ea.     $18,000.00            1.00          $18,000.00
Boardwalk                             450.000       LF         $195.00            1.00          $87,750.00
Interpretive Signs                      4.000       ea.      $5,000.00            1.00          $20,000.00

                                                                  Sub-Total                   $2,645,530.00

                           20 Percent Design, Permitting and Contingency Fee                   $529,106.00

                                                                         Total                $3,174,636.00




NOTE: These preliminary cost estimates, based on Divisions standards, do not include costs for site-
specific elements not evident at the conceptual level of planning. Additional costs should be investigated
before finalizing budget estimates.
                                                  A 7 - 2
               Descriptions Of Natural Communities Developed By FNAI


This summary presents the hierarchical classification and brief descriptions of 82 Natural
Communities developed by Florida Natural Areas Inventory and identified as collectively
constituting the original, natural biological associations of Florida.

A Natural Community is defined as a distinct and recurring assemblage of populations of
plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms naturally associated with each other and their
physical environment. For more complete descriptions, see Guide to the Natural
Communities of Florida, available from Florida Department of Natural Resources.

The levels of the hierarchy are:

Natural Community Category - defined by hydrology and vegetation.

Natural Community Groups - defined by landform, substrate, and vegetation.

Natural Community Type - defined by landform and substrate; soil moisture condition;
climate; fire; and characteristic vegetation.


        TERRESTRIAL COMMUNITIES                         LACUSTRINE COMMUNITIES
              XERIC UPLANDS
                                                         RIVERINE COMMUNITIES
             COASTAL UPLANDS
              MESIC UPLANDS
               ROCKLANDS                              SUBTERRANEAN COMMUNITIES
             MESIC FLATLANDS
                                                    MARINE/ESTUARINE COMMUNITIES
         PALUSTRINE COMMUNITIES
              WET FLATLANDS
                                                    Definitions of Terms Used in Natural
            SEEPAGE WETLANDS
                                                          Community Descriptions
          FLOODPLAIN WETLANDS
             BASIN WETLANDS


TERRESTRIAL - Upland habitats dominated by plants which are not adapted to anaerobic
soil conditions imposed by saturation or inundation for more than 10% of the growing
season.

XERIC UPLANDS - very dry, deep, well-drained hills of sand with xeric-adapted vegetation.

Sandhill - upland with deep sand substrate; xeric; temperate; frequent fire (2-5 years);
longleaf pine and/or turkey oak with wiregrass understory.

Scrub - old dune with deep fine sand substrate; xeric; temperate or subtropical; occasional
or rare fire (20 - 80 years); sand pine and/or scrub oaks and/or rosemary and lichens.

Xeric Hammock - upland with deep sand substrate; xeric-mesic; temperate or subtropical;
rare or no fire; live oak and/or sand live oak and/or laurel oak and/or other oaks,
sparkleberry, saw palmetto.

COASTAL UPLANDS - substrate and vegetation influenced primarily by such coastal
(maritime) processes as erosion, deposition, salt spray, and storms.

Beach Dune - active coastal dune with sand substrate; xeric; temperate or subtropical;
occasional or rare fire; sea oats and/or mixed salt-spray tolerant grasses and herbs.



                                              1
               Descriptions Of Natural Communities Developed By FNAI


Coastal Berm - old bar or storm debris with sand/shell substrate; xeric-mesic; subtropical
or temperate; rare or no fire; buttonwood, mangroves, and/or mixed halophytic herbs
and/or shrubs and trees.

Coastal Grassland - coastal flatland with sand substrate; xeric-mesic; subtropical or
temperate; occasional fire; grasses, herbs, and shrubs with or without slash pine and/or
cabbage palm.

Coastal Rock Barren - flatland with exposed limestone substrate; xeric; subtropical; no
fire; algae, mixed halophytic herbs and grasses, and/or cacti and stunted shrubs and trees.

Coastal Strand - stabilized coastal dune with sand substrate; xeric; subtropical or
temperate; occasional or rare fire; dense saw palmetto and/or seagrape and/or mixed
stunted shrubs, yucca, and cacti.

Maritime Hammock - stabilized coastal dune with sand substrate; xeric-mesic; subtropical
or temperate; rare or no fire; mixed hardwoods and/or live oak.

Shell Mound - Indian midden with shell substrate; xeric-mesic; subtropical or temperate;
rare or no fire; mixed hardwoods.

MESIC UPLANDS - dry to moist hills of sand with varying amounts of clay, silt or organic
material; diverse mixture of broadleaved and needleleaved temperate woody species.

Bluff - steep slope with rock, sand, and/or clay substrate; hydric-xeric; temperate; sparse
grasses, herbs and shrubs.

Slope Forest - steep slope on bluff or in sheltered ravine; sand/clay substrate; mesic-
hydric; temperate; rare or no fire; magnolia, beech, spruce pine, Shumard oak, Florida
maple, mixed hardwoods.

Upland Glade - upland with calcareous rock and/or clay substrate; hydric-xeric;
temperate; sparse mixed grasses and herbs with occasional stunted trees and shrubs, e.g.,
eastern red cedar.

Upland Hardwood Forest - upland with sand/clay and/or calcareous substrate; mesic;
temperate; rare or no fire; spruce pine, magnolia, beech, pignut hickory, white oak, and
mixed hardwoods.

Upland Mixed Forest - upland with sand/clay substrate; mesic; temperate; rare or no fire;
loblolly pine and/or shortleaf pine and/or laurel oak and/or magnolia and spruce pine and/or
mixed hardwoods.

Upland Pine Forest - upland with sand/clay substrate; mesic-xeric; temperate; frequent
or occasional fire; longleaf pine and/or loblolly pine and/or shortleaf pine, southern red oak,
wiregrass.

 ROCKLANDS - low, generally flat limestone outcrops with tropical vegetation; or limestone
exposed through karst activities with tropical or temperate vegetation.

Pine Rockland - flatland with exposed limestone substrate; mesic-xeric; subtropical;
frequent fire; south Florida slash pine, palms and/or hardwoods, and mixed grasses and
herbs.

Rockland Hammock - flatland with limestone substrate; mesic; subtropical; rare or no



                                               2
              Descriptions Of Natural Communities Developed By FNAI


fire; mixed tropical hardwoods, often with live oak.

Sinkhole - karst feature with steep limestone walls; mesic-hydric; subtropical or
temperate; no fire; ferns, herbs, shrubs, and hardwoods.

MESIC FLATLANDS - flat, moderately well-drained sandy substrates with admixture of
organic material, often with a hard pan.

Dry Prairie - flatland with sand substrate; mesic-xeric; subtropical or temperate; annual or
frequent fire; wiregrass, saw palmetto, and mixed grasses and herbs.

Mesic Flatwoods - flatland with sand substrate; mesic; subtropical or temperate; frequent
fire; slash pine and/or longleaf pine with saw palmetto, gallberry and/or wiregrass or
cutthroat grass understory.

Prairie Hammock - flatland with sand/organic soil over marl or limestone substrate;
mesic; subtropical; occasional or rare fire; live oak and/or cabbage palm.

Scrubby Flatwoods - flatland with sand substrate; xeric-mesic; subtropical or temperate;
occasional fire; longleaf pine or slash pine with scrub oaks and wiregrass understory.


PALUSTRINE - Wetlands dominated by plants adapted to anaerobic substrate conditions
imposed by substrate saturation or inundation during 10% or more of the growing season.
Includes non-tidal wetlands; tidal wetlands with ocean derived salinities less than 0.5 ppt
and dominance by salt-intolerant species; small (less than 8 ha), shallow (less than 2 m
deep at low water) water bodies without wave-formed or bedrock shoreline; and inland
brackish or saline wetlands.

WET FLATLANDS - flat, poorly drained sand, marl or limestone substrates.

Hydric Hammock - lowland with sand/clay/organic soil, often over limestone; mesic-
hydric; subtropical or temperate; rare or no fire; water oak, cabbage palm, red cedar, red
maple, bays, hackberry, hornbeam, blackgum, needle palm, and mixed hardwoods.

Marl Prairie - flatland with marl over limestone substrate; seasonally inundated; tropical;
frequent to no fire; sawgrass, spikerush, and/or mixed grasses, sometimes with dwarf
cypress.

Wet Flatwoods - flatland with sand substrate; seasonally inundated; subtropical or
temperate; frequent fire; vegetation characterized by slash pine or pond pine and/or
cabbage palm with mixed grasses and herbs.

Wet Prairie - flatland with sand substrate; seasonally inundated; subtropical or temperate;
annual or frequent fire; maidencane, beakrush, spikerush, wiregrass, pitcher plants, St.
John's wort, mixed herbs.

SEEPAGE WETLANDS - sloped or flat sands or peat with high moisture levels maintained
by downslope seepage; wetland and mesic woody and/or herbaceous vegetation.

Baygall - wetland with peat substrate at base of slope; maintained by downslope seepage,
usually saturated and occasionally inundated; subtropical or temperate; rare or no fire;
bays and/or dahoon holly and/or red maple and/or mixed hardwoods.

Seepage Slope - wetland on or at base of slope with organic/sand substrate; maintained



                                              3
               Descriptions Of Natural Communities Developed By FNAI


by downslope seepage, usually saturated but rarely inundated; subtropical or temperate;
frequent or occasional fire; sphagnum moss, mixed grasses and herbs or mixed hydrophytic
shrubs.

FLOODPLAIN WETLANDS - flat, alluvial sand or peat substrates associated with flowing
water courses and subjected to flooding but not permanent inundation; wetland or mesic
woody and herbaceous vegetation.

Bottomland Forest - flatland with sand/clay/organic substrate; occasionally inundated;
temperate; rare or no fire; water oak, red maple, beech, magnolia, tuliptree, sweetgum,
bays, cabbage palm, and mixed hardwoods.

Floodplain Forest - floodplain with alluvial substrate of sand, silt, clay or organic soil;
seasonally inundated; temperate; rare or no fire; diamondleaf oak, overcup oak, water oak,
swamp chestnut oak, blue palmetto, cane, and mixed hardwoods.

Floodplain Marsh - floodplain with organic/sand/alluvial substrate; seasonally inundated;
subtropical; frequent or occasional fire; maidencane, pickerelweed, sagittaria spp.,
buttonbush, and mixed emergents.

Floodplain Swamp - floodplain with organic/alluvial substrate; usually inundated;
subtropical or temperate; rare or no fire; vegetation characterized by cypress, tupelo, black
gum, and/or pop ash.

Freshwater Tidal Swamp - river mouth wetland, organic soil with extensive root mat;
inundated with freshwater in response to tidal cycles; rare or no fire; cypress, bays,
cabbage palm, gums and/or cedars.

Slough - broad, shallow channel with peat over mineral substrate; seasonally inundated,
flowing water; subtropical; occasional or rare fire; pop ash and/or pond apple or water lily.

Strand Swamp - broad, shallow channel with peat over mineral substrate; seasonally
inundated, flowing water; subtropical; occasional or rare fire; cypress and/or willow.

Swale - broad, shallow channel with sand/peat substrate; seasonally inundated, flowing
water; subtropical or temperate; frequent or occasional fire; sawgrass, maidencane,
pickerelweed, and/or mixed emergents.

BASIN WETLANDS - shallow, closed basin with outlet usually only in time of high water;
peat or sand substrate, usually inundated; wetland woody and/or herbaceous vegetation.

Basin Marsh - large basin with peat substrate; seasonally inundated; temperate or
subtropical; frequent fire; sawgrass and/or cattail and/or buttonbush and/or mixed
emergents.

Basin Swamp - large basin with peat substrate; seasonally inundated, still water;
subtropical or temperate; occasional or rare fire; vegetation characterized by cypress,
blackgum, bays and/or mixed hardwoods.

Bog - wetland on deep peat substrate; moisture held by sphagnum mosses, soil usually
saturated, occasionally inundated; subtropical or temperate; rare fire; sphagnum moss and
titi and/or bays and/or dahoon holly, and/or mixed hydrophytic shrubs.

Coastal Interdunal Swale - long narrow depression wetlands in sand/peat-sand
substrate; seasonally inundated, fresh to brackish, still water; temperate; rare fire;



                                               4
               Descriptions Of Natural Communities Developed By FNAI


graminoids and mixed wetland forbs.

Depression Marsh - small rounded depression in sand substrate with peat accumulating
toward center; seasonally inundated, still water; subtropical or temperate; frequent or
occasional fire; maidencane, fire flag, pickerelweed, and mixed emergents, may be in
concentric bands.

Dome Swamp - rounded depression in sand/limestone substrate with peat accumulating
toward center; seasonally inundated, still water; subtropical or temperate; occasional or
rare fire; cypress, blackgum, or bays, often tallest in center.


LACUSTRINE - Non-flowing wetlands of natural depressions lacking persistent emergent
vegetation except around the perimeter.

Clastic Upland Lake - generally irregular basin in clay uplands; predominantly with
inflows, frequently without surface outflow; clay or organic substrate; colored, acidic, soft
water with low mineral content (sodium, chloride, sulfate); oligo-mesotrophic to eutrophic.

Coastal Dune Lake - basin or lagoon influenced by recent coastal processes;
predominantly sand substrate with some organic matter; salinity variable among and within
lakes, and subject to saltwater intrusion and storm surges; slightly acidic, hard water with
high mineral content (sodium, chloride).

Coastal Rockland Lake - shallow basin influence by recent coastal processes;
predominantly barren oolitic or Miami limestone substrate; salinity variable among and
within lakes, and subject to saltwater intrusion, storm surges and evaporation (because of
shallowness); slightly alkaline, hard water with high mineral content (sodium, chloride).

Flatwoods/Prairie Lake - generally shallow basin in flatlands with high water table;
frequently with a broad littoral zone; still water or flow-through; sand or peat substrate;
variable water chemistry, but characteristically colored to clear, acidic to slightly alkaline,
soft to moderately hard water with moderate mineral content (sodium, chloride, sulfate);
oligo-mesotrophic to eutrophic.

Marsh lake - generally shallow, open water area within wide expanses of freshwater
marsh; still water or flow-through; peat, sand or clay substrate; occurs in most
physiographic regions; variable water chemistry, but characteristically highly colored, acidic,
soft water with moderate mineral content (sodium, chloride, sulfate); oligo-mesotrophic to
eutrophic.

River Floodplain Lake - meander scar, backwater, or larger flow-through body within
major river floodplains; sand, alluvial or organic substrate; colored, alkaline or slightly
acidic, hard or moderately hard water with high mineral content (sulfate, sodium, chloride,
calcium, magnesium); mesotrophic to eutrophic.

Sandhill Upland Lake - generally rounded solution depression in deep sandy uplands or
sandy uplands shallowly underlain by limestone; predominantly without surface
inflows/outflows; typically sand substrate with organic accumulations toward middle; clear,
acidic moderately soft water with varying mineral content; ultra-oligotrophic to mesotrophic.

Sinkhole Lake - typically deep, funnel-shaped depression in limestone base; occurs in
most physiographic regions; predominantly without surface inflows/outflows, but frequently
with connection to the aquifer; clear, alkaline, hard water with high mineral content
(calcium, bicarbonate, magnesium).


                                                5
               Descriptions Of Natural Communities Developed By FNAI


Swamp Lake - generally shallow, open water area within basin swamps; still water or flow-
through; peat, sand or clay substrate; occurs in most physiographic regions; variable water
chemistry, but characteristically highly colored, acidic, soft water with moderate mineral
content (sodium, chloride, sulfate); oligo-mesotrophic to eutrophic.


RIVERINE - Natural, flowing waters from their source to the downstream limits of tidal
influence and bounded by channel banks.

Alluvial Stream - lower perennial or intermittent/seasonal watercourse characterized by
turbid water with suspended silt, clay, sand and small gravel; generally with a distinct,
sediment-derived (alluvial) floodplain and a sandy, elevated natural levee just inland from
the bank.

Blackwater Stream - perennial or intermittent/seasonal watercourse characterized by tea-
colored water with a high content of particulate and dissolved organic matter derived from
drainage through swamps and marshes; generally lacking an alluvial floodplain.

Seepage Stream - upper perennial or intermittent/seasonal watercourse characterized by
clear to lightly colored water derived from shallow groundwater seepage.

Spring-run Stream - perennial watercourse with deep aquifer headwaters and
characterized by clear water, circumneutral pH and, frequently, a solid limestone bottom.


SUBTERRANEAN - Twilight, middle and deep zones of natural chambers overlain by the
earth's crust and characterized by climatic stability and assemblages of trogloxenic,
troglophilic, and troglobitic organisms.

Aquatic Cave - cavernicolous area permanently or periodically submerged; often
characterized by troglobitic crustaceans and salamanders; includes high energy systems
which receive large quantities of organic detritus and low energy systems.

Terrestrial Cave - cavernicolous area lacking standing water; often characterized by bats,
such as Myotis spp., and other terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates; includes interstitial
areas above standing water such as fissures in the ceiling of caves.


MARINE/ESTUARINE (The distinction between the Marine and Estuarine Natural
Communities is often subtle, and the natural communities types found under these two
community categories have the same descriptions. For these reasons they have been
grouped together.) - Subtidal, intertidal and supratidal zones of the sea, landward to the
point at which seawater becomes significantly diluted with freshwater inflow from the land.

Consolidated Substrate - expansive subtidal, intertidal and supratidal area composed
primarily of nonliving compacted or coherent and relatively hard, naturally formed mass of
mineral matter (e.g., coquina limerock and relic reefs); octocorals, sponges, stony corals,
nondrift macrophytic algae, blue-green mat-forming algae and seagrasses sparse, if
present.

Unconsolidated Substrate - expansive subtidal, intertidal and supratidal area composed
primarily of loose mineral matter (e.g., coralgal, gravel, marl, mud, sand and shell);
octocorals, sponges, stony corals, nondrift macrophytic algae, blue-green mat-forming algae
and seagrasses sparse, if present.




                                               6
              Descriptions Of Natural Communities Developed By FNAI


Octocoral Bed - expansive subtidal area occupied primarily by living sessile organisms of
the Class Anthozoa, Subclass Octocorallia (e.g., soft corals, horny corals, sea fans, sea
whips, and sea pens); sponges, stony corals, nondrift macrophytic algae and seagrasses
spares, if present.

Sponge Bed - expansive subtidal area occupied primarily by living sessile organisms of the
Phylum Porifera (e.g., sheepswool sponge, Florida loggerhead sponge and branching candle
sponge); octocorals, stony corals, nondrift macrophytic algae and seagrasses sparse, if
present.

Coral Reef - expansive subtidal area with elevational gradient or relief and occupied
primarily by living sessile organisms of the Class Hydrozoa (e.g., fire corals and
hydrocorals) and Class Anthozoa, Subclass Zoantharia (e.g., stony corals and black corals);
includes deepwater bank reefs, fringing barrier reefs, outer bank reefs and patch reefs,
some of which may contain distinct zones of assorted macrophytes, octocorals, & sponges.

Mollusk Reef - substantial subtidal or intertidal area with relief from concentrations of
sessile organisms of the Phylum Mollusca, Class Bivalvia (e.g., molluscs, oysters, & worm
shells); octocorals, sponges, stony corals, macrophytic algae and seagrasses sparse, if
present.

Worm Reef - substantial subtidal or intertidal area with relief from concentrations of
sessile, tubicolous organisms of the Phylum Annelida, Class Polychaeta (e.g., chaetopterids
and sabellarids); octocorals, sponges, stony corals, macrophytic algae and seagrasses
sparse, if present.

Algal Bed - expansive subtidal, intertidal or supratidal area, occupied primarily by attached
thallophytic or mat-forming prokaryotic algae (e.g, halimeda, blue-green algae); octocorals,
sponges, stony corals and seagrasses sparse, if present.

Grass Bed - expansive subtidal or intertidal area, occupied primarily by rooted vascular
macrophytes, (e.g., shoal grass, halophila, widgeon grass, manatee grass and turtle grass);
may include various epiphytes and epifauna; octocorals, sponges, stony corals, and
attached macrophytic algae sparse, if present.

Composite Substrate - expansive subtidal, intertidal, or supratidal area, occupied
primarily by Natural Community elements from more than one Natural Community category
(e.g., Grass Bed and Algal Bed species; Octocoral and Algal Bed species); includes both
patchy and evenly distributed occurrences.

Tidal Marsh - expansive intertidal or supratidal area occupied primarily by rooted,
emergent vascular macrophytes (e.g., cord grass, needlerush, saw grass, saltwort, saltgrass
and glasswort); may include various epiphytes and epifauna.

Tidal Swamp - expansive intertidal and supratidal area occupied primarily by woody
vascular macrophytes (e.g., black mangrove, buttonwood, red mangrove, and white
mangrove); may include various epiphytes and epifauna.




                                              7
               Descriptions Of Natural Communities Developed By FNAI


DEFINITIONS OF TERMS Terrestrial and Palustrine Natural Communities

Physiography
Upland - high area in region with significant topographic relief; generally undulating
Lowland - low area in region with or without significant topographic relief; generally flat to
gently sloping
Flatland - generally level area in region without significant topographic relief; flat to gently
sloping
Basin - large, relatively level lowland with slopes confined to the perimeter or isolated
interior locations
Depression - small depression with sloping sides, deepest in center and progressively
shallower towards the perimeter
Floodplain - lowland adjacent to a stream; topography influenced by recent fluvial
processes
Bottomland - lowland not on active floodplain; sand/clay/organic substrate

Hydrology
occasionally inundated - surface water present only after heavy rains and/or during flood
stages
seasonally inundated - surface water present during wet season and flood periods
usually inundated - surface water present except during droughts

Climatic Affinity of the Flora
tropical - community generally occurs in practically frost-free areas
subtropical - community generally occurs in areas that experience occasional frost, but
where freezing temperatures are not frequent enough to cause true winter dormancy
temperate - community generally occurs in areas that freeze often enough that vegetation
goes into winter dormancy

Fire
annual fire - burns about every 1-2 years
frequent fire - burns about every 3-7 years
occasional fire - burns about every 8-25 years
rare fire - burns about every 26-100 years
no fire - community develops only when site goes more than 100 years without burning




                                               8
              Descriptions Of Natural Communities Developed By FNAI


LATIN NAMES OF PLANTS MENTIONED IN NATURAL COMMUNITY DESCRIPTIONS
anise - Illicium floridanum               overcup oak - Quercus lyrata
bays:                                     pickerel weed - Pontederia cordata or P.
    swamp bay -Persea palustris           lanceolata
    gordonia -Gordonia lasianthus         pignut hickory - Carya glabra
    sweetbay -Magnolia virgiana           pop ash - Fraxinus caroliniana
beakrush - Rhynchospora spp.              pond apple - Annona glabra
beech - Fagus grandifolia                 pond pine - Pinus serotina
blackgum - Nyssa biflora                  pyramid magnolia - Magnolia pyramidata
blue palmetto - Sabal minor               railroad vine - Ipomoea pes-caprae
bluestem - Andropogon spp.                red cedar - Juniperus silicicola
buttonbush - Cephalanthus occidentalis    red maple - Acer rubrum
cabbage palm - Sabal palmetto             red oak - Quercus falcata
cacti - Opuntia and Harrisia spp.,        rosemary - Ceratiola ericoides
    predominantly stricta and             sagittaria - Sagittaria lancifolia
pentagonus                                sand pine - Pinus clausa
cane - Arundinaria gigantea or A. tecta   saw palmetto - Serenoa repens
cattail - Typha spp.                      sawgrass - Cladium jamaicensis
cedars:                                   scrub oaks - Quercus geminata, Q. chapmanii, Q.
    red cedar - Juniperus silicicola      myrtifolia,Q. inopina
    white cedar - Chamaecyparis           sea oats - Uniola paniculata
thyoides or C. henryi                     seagrape - Coccoloba uvifera
cladonia - Cladonia spp.                  shortleaf pine - Pinus echinata
cypress - Taxodium distichum              Shumard oak - Quercus shumardii
dahoon holly - Ilex cassine               slash pine - Pinus elliottii
diamondleaf oak - Quercus laurifolia      sphagnum moss - Sphagnum spp.
fire flag - Thalia geniculata             spikerush - Eleocharis spp.
Florida maple - Acer barbatum             spruce pine - Pinus glabra
gallberry - Ilex glabra                   St. John's wort - Hypericum spp.
gums:                                     swamp chestnut oak - Quercus prinus
    tupelo - Nyssa aquatica               sweetgum - Liquidambar styraciflua
    blackgum - Nyssa biflora              titi - Cyrilla racemiflora, and Cliftonia monophylla
    Ogeechee gum - Nyssa ogeche           tuliptree - Liriodendron tulipfera
hackberry - Celtis laevigata              tupelo - Nyssa aquatica
hornbeam - Carpinus caroliniana           turkey oak - Quercus laevis
laurel oak - Quercus hemisphaerica        water oak - Quercus nigra
live oak - Quercus virginiana             waterlily - Nymphaea odorata
loblolly pine - Pinus taeda               white cedar - Chamaecyparis thyoides
longleaf pine - Pinus palustris           white oak - Quercus alba
magnolia - Magnolia grandiflora           willow - Salix caroliniana
maidencane - Panicum hemitomon            yucca - Yucca aloifolia
needle palm - Rhapidophyllum hystrix




                                             9
                             Management Procedures For
                   Archaeological And Historical Sites And Properties
                       On State -- Owned Or Controlled Lands
                                (Revised August, 1995)

A. GENERAL DISCUSSION
Archaeological and historic sites are defined collectively in 267.021(3), F.S., as "historic
properties" or "historic resources." They have several essential characteristics that must be
recognized in a management program.
First of all, they are a finite and non-renewable resource. Once destroyed, presently
existing resources, including buildings, other structures, shipwreck remains, archaeological
sites and other objects of antiquity, cannot be renewed or revived. Today, sites in the State
of Florida are being destroyed by all kinds of land development, inappropriate land
management practices, erosion, looting, and to a minor extent even by well-intentioned
professional scientific research (e.g., archaeological excavation). Measures must be taken
to ensure that some of these resources will be preserved for future study and appreciation.
Secondly, sites are unique because individually they represent the tangible remains of
events that occurred at a specific time and place.
Thirdly, while sites uniquely reflect localized events, these events and the origin of
particular sites are related to conditions and events in other times and places. Sites can be
understood properly only in relation to their natural surroundings and the activities of
inhabitants of other sites. Managers must be aware of this "systemic" character of historic
and archaeological sites. Also, it should be recognized that archaeological sites are time
capsules for more than cultural history; they preserve traces of past biotic communities,
climate, and other elements of the environment that may be of interest to other scientific
disciplines.
Finally, the significance of sites, particularly archaeological ones, derives not only from
the individual artifacts within them, but equally from the spatial arrangement of those
artifacts in both horizontal and vertical planes. When archaeologists excavate, they
recover, not merely objects, but also a record of the positions of these objects in relation to
one another and their containing matrix (e.g., soil strata). Much information is sacrificed if
the so-called "context" of archaeological objects is destroyed or not recovered, and this is
what archaeologists are most concerned about when a site is threatened with destruction or
damage. The artifacts themselves can be recovered even after a site is heavily disturbed,
but the context -- the vertical and horizontal relationships -- cannot. Historic structures
also contain a wealth of cultural (socio-economic) data that can be lost if historically
sensitive maintenance, restoration or rehabilitation procedures are not implemented, or if
they are demolished or extensively altered without appropriate documentation. Lastly, it
should not be forgotten that historic structures often have associated potentially significant
historic archaeological features that must be considered in land management decisions.
B. STATUTORY AUTHORITY
Chapter 253, Florida Statutes ("State Lands") directs the preparation of "single-use" or
"multiple-use" land management plans for all state-owned lands and state-owned
sovereignty submerged lands. In this document, 253.034(4), F.S., specifically requires that
"all management plans, whether for single-use or multiple-use properties, shall specifically
describe how the managing agency plans to identify, locate, protect and preserve, or
                                              1
                             Management Procedures For
                   Archaeological And Historical Sites And Properties
                       On State -- Owned Or Controlled Lands
                                (Revised August, 1995)

otherwise use fragile non-renewable resources, such as archaeological and historic sites, as
well as other fragile resources..."
Chapter 267, Florida Statutes is the primary historic preservation authority of the state.
The importance of protecting and interpreting archaeological and historic sites is
recognized in 267.061(1)(a), F.S.:The rich and unique heritage of historic properties in this
state, representing more than 10,000 years of human presence, is an important legacy to be
valued and conserved for present and future generations. The destruction of these
nonrenewable historic resources will engender a significant loss to the state's quality of
life, economy, and cultural environment. It is therefore declared to be state policy to:
1.   Provide leadership in the preservation of the state's historic resources; [and]
2.   Administer state-owned or state-controlled historic resources in a spirit of stewardship
     and trusteeship;...
Responsibilities of the Division of Historical Resources in the Department of State
pursuant to 267.061(3), F.S., include the following:
1.   Cooperate with federal and state agencies, local Governments, and private
     organizations and individuals to direct and conduct a comprehensive statewide survey
     of historic resources and to maintain an inventory of such responses.
2.   Develop a comprehensive statewide historic preservation plan.
3.   Identify and nominate eligible properties to the National Register of Historic Places
     and otherwise administer applications for listing properties in the National Register of
     Historic Places.
4.   Cooperate with federal and state agencies, local governments, and organizations and
     individuals to ensure that historic resources are taken into consideration at all levels of
     planning and development.
5.   Advise and assist, as appropriate, federal and state agencies and local governments in
     carrying out their historic preservation responsibilities and programs.
6.   Carry out on behalf of the state the programs of the National Historic Preservation Act
     of 1966, as amended, and to establish, maintain, and administer a state historic
     preservation program meeting the requirements of an approved program and fulfilling
     the responsibilities of state historic preservation programs as provided in subsection
     101(b) of that act.
7.   Take such other actions necessary or appropriate to locate, acquire, protect, preserve,
     operate, interpret, and promote the location, acquisition, protection, preservation,
     operation, and interpretation of historic resources to foster an appreciation of Florida
     history and culture. Prior to the acquisition, preservation, interpretation, or operation
     of a historic property by a state agency, the Division shall be provided a reasonable
     opportunity to review and comment on the proposed undertaking and shall determine
     that there exists historic authenticity and a feasible means of providing for the
     preservation, interpretation and operation of such property.
8.   Establish professional standards for the preservation, exclusive of acquisition, of
     historic resources in state ownership or control.
9.   Establish guidelines for state agency responsibilities under subsection (2).

                                               2
                             Management Procedures For
                   Archaeological And Historical Sites And Properties
                       On State -- Owned Or Controlled Lands
                                (Revised August, 1995)

Responsibilities of other state agencies of the executive branch, pursuant to 267.061(2),
F.S., include:
1.   Each state agency of the executive branch having direct or indirect jurisdiction over a
     proposed state or state-assisted undertaking shall, in accordance with state policy and
     prior to the approval of expenditure of any state funds on the undertaking, consider the
     effect of the undertaking on any historic property that is included in, or eligible for
     inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places. Each such agency shall afford
     the division a reasonable opportunity to comment with regard to such an undertaking.
2.   Each state agency of the executive branch shall initiate measures in consultation with
     the division to assure that where, as a result of state action or assistance carried out by
     such agency, a historic property is to be demolished or substantially altered in a way
     that adversely affects the character, form, integrity, or other qualities that contribute to
     [the] historical, architectural, or archaeological value of the property, timely steps are
     taken to determine that no feasible and prudent alternative to the proposed demolition
     or alteration exists, and, where no such alternative is determined to exist, to assure that
     timely steps are taken either to avoid or mitigate the adverse effects, or to undertake an
     appropriate archaeological salvage excavation or other recovery action to document
     the property as it existed prior to demolition or alteration.
3.   In consultation with the division [of Historical Resources], each state agency of the
     executive branch shall establish a program to locate, inventory, and evaluate all
     historic properties under the agency's ownership or control that appear to qualify for
     the National Register. Each such agency shall exercise caution to assure that any such
     historic property is not inadvertently transferred, sold, demolished, substantially
     altered, or allowed to deteriorate significantly.
4.   Each state agency of the executive branch shall assume responsibility for the
     preservation of historic resources that are owned or controlled by such agency. Prior to
     acquiring, constructing, or leasing buildings for the purpose of carrying out agency
     responsibilities, the agency shall use, to the maximum extent feasible, historic
     properties available to the agency. Each agency shall undertake, consistent with
     preservation of such properties, the mission of the agency, and the professional
     standards established pursuant to paragraph (3)(k), any preservation actions necessary
     to carry out the intent of this paragraph.
5.   Each state agency of the executive branch, in seeking to acquire additional space
     through new construction or lease, shall give preference to the acquisition or use of
     historic properties when such acquisition or use is determined to be feasible and
     prudent compared with available alternatives. The acquisition or use of historic
     properties is considered feasible and prudent if the cost of purchase or lease, the cost
     of rehabilitation, remodeling, or altering the building to meet compliance standards
     and the agency's needs, and the projected costs of maintaining the building and
     providing utilities and other services is less than or equal to the same costs for
     available alternatives. The agency shall request the division to assist in determining if
     the acquisition or use of a historic property is feasible and prudent. Within 60 days
     after making a determination that additional space is needed, the agency shall request
     the division to assist in identifying buildings within the appropriate geographic area
     that are historic properties suitable for acquisition or lease by the agency, whether or
                                                 3
                             Management Procedures For
                   Archaeological And Historical Sites And Properties
                       On State -- Owned Or Controlled Lands
                                (Revised August, 1995)

     not such properties are in need of repair, alteration, or addition.
6.   Consistent with the agency's mission and authority, all state agencies of the executive
     branch shall carry out agency programs and projects, including those under which any
     state assistance is provided, in a manner which is generally sensitive to the
     preservation of historic properties and shall give consideration to programs and
     projects which will further the purposes of this section.
Section 267.12 authorizes the Division to establish procedures for the granting of research
permits for archaeological and historic site survey or excavation on state-owned or
controlled lands, while Section 267.13 establishes penalties for the conduct of such work
without first obtaining written permission from the Division of Historical Resources. The
Rules of the Department of State, Division of Historical Resources, for research permits
for archaeological sites of significance are contained in Chapter 1A-32, F.A.C.
Another Florida Statute affecting land management decisions is Chapter 872, F.S. Section
872.02, F.S., pertains to marked grave sites, regardless of age. Many state-owned
properties contain old family and other cemeteries with tombstones, crypts, etc. Section
872.05, F.S., pertains to unmarked human burial sites, including prehistoric and historic
Indian burial sites. Unauthorized disturbance of both marked and unmarked human burial
site is a felony.
C. MANAGEMENT POLICY
The choice of a management policy for archaeological and historic sites within state-
owned or controlled land obviously depends upon a detailed evaluation of the
characteristics and conditions of the individual sites and groups of sites within those tracts.
This includes an interpretation of the significance (or potential significance) of these sites,
in terms of social and political factors, as well as environmental factors. Furthermore, for
historic structures architectural significance must be considered, as well as any associated
historic landscapes.
Sites on privately owned lands are especially vulnerable to destruction, since often times
the economic incentives for preservation are low compared to other uses of the land areas
involved. Hence, sites in public ownership have a magnified importance, since they are
the ones with the best chance of survival over the long run. This is particularly true of sites
that are state-owned or controlled, where the basis of management is to provide for land
uses that are minimally destructive of resource values.
It should be noted that while many archaeological and historical sites are already recorded
within state--owned or controlled--lands, the majority of the uplands areas and nearly all of
the inundated areas have not been surveyed to locate and assess the significance of such
resources. The known sites are, thus, only an incomplete sample of the actual resources -
i.e., the number, density, distribution, age, character and condition of archaeological and
historic sites - on these tracts. Unfortunately, the lack of specific knowledge of the actual
resources prevents formulation of any sort of detailed management or use plan involving
decisions about the relative historic value of individual sites. For this reason, a generalized
policy of conservation is recommended until the resources have been better addressed.

                                               4
                             Management Procedures For
                   Archaeological And Historical Sites And Properties
                       On State -- Owned Or Controlled Lands
                                (Revised August, 1995)

The generalized management policy recommended by the Division of Historical Resources
includes the following:
1.   State land managers shall coordinate all planned activities involving known
     archaeological or historic sites or potential site areas closely with the Division of
     Historical Resources in order to prevent any kind of disturbance to significant
     archaeological or historic sites that may exist on the tract. Under 267.061(1)(b), F.S.,
     the Division of Historical Resources is vested with title to archaeological and historic
     resources abandoned on state lands and is responsible for administration and
     protection of such resources. The Division will cooperate with the land manager in
     the management of these resources. Furthermore, provisions of 267.061(2) and
     267.13, F.S., combined with those in 267.061(3) and 253.034(4), F.S., require that
     other managing (or permitting) agencies coordinate their plans with the Division of
     Historical Resources at a sufficiently early stage to preclude inadvertent damage or
     destruction to known or potentially occurring, presently unknown archaeological and
     historic sites. The provisions pertaining to human burial sites must also be followed
     by state land managers when such remains are known or suspected to be present (see
     872.02 and 872.05, F.S., and 1A-44, F.A.C.)
2.   Since the actual resources are so poorly known, the potential impact of the managing
     agency's activities on historic archaeological sites may not be immediately apparent.
     Special field survey for such sites may be required to identify the potential
     endangerment as a result of particular management or permitting activities. The
     Division may perform surveys, as its resources permit, to aid the planning of other
     state agencies in their management activities, but outside archaeological consultants
     may have to be retained by the managing agency. This would be especially necessary
     in the cases of activities contemplating ground disturbance over large areas and
     unexpected occurrences. It should be noted, however, that in most instances Division
     staff's knowledge of known and expected site distribution is such that actual field
     surveys may not be necessary, and the project may be reviewed by submitting a
     project location map (preferably a 7.5 minute U.S.G.S. Quadrangle map or portion
     thereof) and project descriptive data, including detailed construction plans. To avoid
     delays, Division staff should be contacted to discuss specific project documentation
     review needs.
3.   In the case of known significant sites, which may be affected by proposed project
     activities, the managing agency will generally be expected to alter proposed
     management or development plans, as necessary, or else make special provisions to
     minimize or mitigate damage to such sites.
4.   If in the course of management activities, or as a result of development or the
     permitting of dredge activities (see 403.918(2)(6)a, F.S.), it is determined that valuable
     historic or archaeological sites will be damaged or destroyed, the Division reserves the
     right, pursuant to 267.061(1)(b), F.S., to require salvage measures to mitigate the
     destructive impact of such activities to such sites. Such salvage measures would be
     accomplished before the Division would grant permission for destruction of the
     affected site areas. The funding needed to implement salvage measures would be the
     responsibility of the managing agency planning the site destructive activity.
     Mitigation of historic structures at a minimum involves the preparation of measured
                                                5
                             Management Procedures For
                   Archaeological And Historical Sites And Properties
                       On State -- Owned Or Controlled Lands
                                (Revised August, 1995)

     drawings and documentary photographs. Mitigation of archaeological resources
     involves the excavation, analysis and reporting of the project findings and must be
     planned to occur sufficiently in advance to avoid project construction delays. If these
     services are to be contracted by the state agency, the selected consultant will need to
     obtain an Archaeological Research Permit from the Division of Historical Resources,
     Bureau of Archaeological Research (see 267.12, F.S. and Rules 1A-32 and 1A-46
     F.A.C.).
5.   For the near future, excavation of non-endangered (i.e., sites not being lost to erosion
     or development) archaeological site is discouraged. There are many endangered sites
     in Florida (on both private and public lands) in need of excavation because of the
     threat of development or other factors. Those within state-owned or controlled lands
     should be left undisturbed for the present - with particular attention devoted to
     preventing site looting by "treasure hunters". On the other hand, the archaeological
     and historic survey of these tracts is encouraged in order to build an inventory of the
     resources present, and to assess their scientific research potential and historic or
     architectural significance.
6.   The cooperation of land managers in reporting sites to the Division that their field
     personnel may discover is encouraged. The Division will help inform field personnel
     from other resource managing agencies about the characteristics and appearance of
     sites. The Division has initiated a cultural resource management training program to
     help accomplish this. Upon request the Division will also provide to other agencies
     archaeological and historical summaries of the known and potentially occurring
     resources so that information may be incorporated into management plans and public
     awareness programs (See Management Implementation).
7.   Any discovery of instances of looting or unauthorized destruction of sites must be
     reported to the agent for the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund
     and the Division so that appropriate action may be initiated. When human burial sites
     are involved, the provisions of 872.02 and 872.05, F. S. and Rule 1A-44, F.A.C., as
     applicable, must also be followed. Any state agent with law enforcement authority
     observing individuals or groups clearly and incontrovertibly vandalizing, looting or
     destroying archaeological or historic sites within state-owned or controlled lands
     without demonstrable permission from the Division will make arrests and detain those
     individuals or groups under the provisions of 267.13, 901.15, and 901.21, F.S., and
     related statutory authority pertaining to such illegal activities on state-owned or
     controlled lands. County Sheriffs' officers are urged to assist in efforts to stop and/or
     prevent site looting and destruction.
In addition to the above management policy for archaeological and historic sites on state-
owned land, special attention shall be given to those properties listed in the National
Register of Historic Places and other significant buildings. The Division recommends that
the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for
Rehabilitating Historic Buildings (Revised 1990) be followed for such sites.
The following general standards apply to all treatments undertaken on historically
significant properties.
1.   A property shall be used for its historic purpose or be placed in a new use that requires
                                                6
                            Management Procedures For
                  Archaeological And Historical Sites And Properties
                      On State -- Owned Or Controlled Lands
                               (Revised August, 1995)

    minimal change to the defining characteristics of the building and its site and
    environment.
2. The historic character of a property shall be retained and preserved. The removal of
    historic materials or alterations of features and spaces that characterize a property shall
    be avoided.
3. Each property shall be recognized as a physical record of its time, place and use.
    Changes that create a false sense of historical development, such as adding conjectural
    features or architectural elements from other buildings, shall not be undertaken.
4. Most properties change over time; those changes that have acquired historic
    significance in their own right shall be retained and preserved.
5. Distinctive features, finishes, and construction techniques or examples of
    craftsmanship that characterize a historic property shall be preserved.
6. Deteriorated historic features shall be repaired rather than replaced. Where the
    severity of deterioration requires replacement of a distinctive feature, the new feature
    shall match the old in design, color, texture, and other visual qualities and, where
    possible, materials. Replacement of missing features shall be substantiated by
    documentary, physical, or pictorial evidence.
7. Chemical or physical treatments, such as sandblasting, that cause damage to historic
    materials shall not be used. The surface cleaning of structures, if appropriate, shall be
    undertaken using the gentlest means possible.
8. Significant archaeological resources affected by a project shall be protected and
    preserved. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures shall be
    undertaken.
9. New additions, exterior alterations, or related new construction shall not destroy
    materials that characterize the property. The new work shall be differentiated from the
    old and shall be compatible with the massing, size, scale, and architectural features to
    protect the historic integrity of the property and its environment.
10. New additions and adjacent or related new construction shall be undertaken in such a
    manner that if removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the historic
    property and its environment would be unimpaired. (see Secretary of the Interior's
    Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings
    [Revised 1990]).
Divisions of Historical Resources staff are available for technical assistance for any of the
above listed topics. It is encouraged that such assistance be sought as early as possible in
the project planning.
D. MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION
As noted earlier, 253.034(4), F.S., states that "all management plans, whether for single-
use or multiple-use properties, shall specifically describe how the managing agency plans
to identify, locate, protect and preserve, or otherwise use fragile non-renewable resources,
such as archaeological and historic sites..." The following guidelines should help to fulfill
that requirement.
1.   All land managing agencies should contact the Division and send U.S.G.S. 7.5 minute
     quadrangle maps outlining the boundaries of their various properties.
                                              7
                             Management Procedures For
                   Archaeological And Historical Sites And Properties
                       On State -- Owned Or Controlled Lands
                                (Revised August, 1995)

2.   The Division will in turn identify site locations on those maps and provide
     descriptions for known archaeological and historical sites to the managing agency.
3.   Further, the Division may also identify on the maps areas of high archaeological and
     historic site location probability within the subject tract. These are only probability
     zones, and sites may be found outside of these areas. Therefore, actual ground
     inspections of project areas may still be necessary.
4.   The Division will send archaeological field recording forms and historic structure field
     recording forms to representatives of the agency to facilitate the recording of
     information on such resources.
5.   Land managers will update information on recorded sites and properties.
6.   Land managers will supply the Division with new information as it becomes available
     on previously unrecorded sites that their staff locate. The following details the kind of
     information the Division wishes to obtain for any new sites or structures that the land
     managers may report:
 A. Historic Sites
     (1) Type of structure (dwelling, church, factory, etc.).
     (2) Known or estimated age or construction date for each structure and addition.
     (3) Location of building (identify location on a map of the property, and building
         placement, i.e., detached, row, etc.).
     (4) General Characteristics: (include photographs if possible) overall shape of plan
         (rectangle, "L" "T" "H" "U", etc.); number of stories; number of vertical divisions
         of bays; construction materials (brick, frame, stone, etc.); wall finish (kind of
         bond, coursing, shingle, etc.); roof shape.
     (5) Specific features including location, number and appearance of:
         (a) Important decorative elements;
         (b) Interior features contributing to the character of the building;
         (c) Number, type, and location of outbuildings, as well as date(s) of construction;
         (d) Notation if property has been moved;
         (e) Notation of known alterations to building.
 B. Archaeological Sites
     (1) Site location (written narrative and mapped location).
     (2) Cultural affiliation and period.
     (3) Site type (midden, burial mound, artifact scatter, building rubble, etc.).
     (4) Threats to site (deterioration, vandalism, etc.).
     (5) Site size (acreage, square meters, etc.).
     (6) Artifacts observed on ground surface (pottery, bone, glass, etc.).
     (7) Description of surrounding environment.
7.   No land disturbing activities should be undertaken in areas of known archaeological or
     historic sites or areas of high site probability without prior review by the Division
     early in the project planning.
8.   Ground disturbing activities may proceed elsewhere but land managers should stop
     disturbance in the immediate vicinity of artifact finds and notifies the Division if
     previously unknown archaeological or historic remains are uncovered. The provisions
                                              8
                            Management Procedures For
                  Archaeological And Historical Sites And Properties
                      On State -- Owned Or Controlled Lands
                               (Revised August, 1995)

    of Chapter 872, F.S., must be followed when human remains are encountered.
9. Excavation and collection of archaeological and historic sites on state lands without a
    permit from the Division are a violation of state law and shall be reported to a law
    enforcement officer. The use of metal detectors to search for historic artifacts shall be
    prohibited on state lands except when authorized in a 1A-32, F.A.C., research permit
    from the Division.
10. Interpretation and visitation which will increase public understanding and enjoyment
    of archaeological and historic sites without site destruction or vandalism is strongly
    encouraged.
11. Development of interpretive programs including trails, signage, kiosks, and exhibits is
    encouraged and should be coordinated with the Division.
12. Artifacts found or collected on state lands are by law the property of the Division.
    Land managers shall contact the Division whenever such material is found so that
    arrangements may be made for recording and conservation. This material, if taken to
    Tallahassee, can be returned for public display on a long term loan.
E. ADMINISTERING AGENCY
Questions relating to the treatment of archaeological and historic resources on state lands
may be directed to:
                               Compliance Review Section
                              Bureau of Historic Preservation
                             Division of Historical Resources
                                    R.A. Gray Building
                                500 South Bronough Street
                             Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250
Contact Person:                     Susan M. Harp
                               Historic Preservation Planner
                                Telephone (850) 245-6333
                                    Suncom 205-6333
                                   FAX (850) 245-6437




                                              9
                                    Lake Kissimmee State Park
                              Final Land Management Review Report
                                     LMR Date--June 27, 2000


                               Management Review Team Members

Agency                                   Team member                      Team member
Represented                              Appointed                        in attendance

DEP/DRP                                  Ms. Rosi Mulholland              Ms. Rosi Mulholland
DEP District                             Ms. Dianne McCommons-Beck
DACS/DOF                                 Mr. Wes Howell                   Mr. Wes Howell
FWCC                                     Mr. Jimmy Conner                 Mr. Jimmy Conner
Polk County Commission                   Ms. Gaye sharpe                  Ms. Gaye Sharpe
Private Land manager                     Mr. Dennis Anderson              Mr. Dennis Anderson
Private Conservation Organization
(Audubon)                                Mr. Norm Moss                    Mr. Norm Moss
Polk County SWCD                         Mr. Ken Ford


                 Process for Implementing Regional Management Review Teams
Legislative Intent and Guidance:
Chapter 259.036, F. S. was enacted in 1997 to determine whether conservation, preservation, and
recreation lands owned by the state Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund (Board)
are being managed properly. It directs the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to establish
land management review teams to evaluate the extent to which the existing management plan provides
sufficient protection to threatened or endangered species, unique or important natural or physical
features, geological or hydrological functions, and archaeological features. The teams also evaluate the
extent to which the land is being managed for the purposes for which it was acquired and the degree to
which actual management practices, including public access, are in compliance with the adopted
management plan. If a land management plan has not been adopted, the review shall consider the
extent to which the land is being managed for the purposes for which it was acquired and the degree to
which actual management practices are in compliance with the management policy statement and
management prospectus for that property. If the land management review team determines that
reviewed lands are not being managed for the purposes for which they were acquired or in compliance
with the adopted land management plan, management policy statement, or management prospectus,
DEP shall provide the review findings to the Board, and the managing agency must report to the Board
its reasons for managing the lands as it has. A report of the review findings are given to the managing
agency under review, the Acquisition and Restoration Council (ARC), and to the Division of State
Lands. Also, DEP shall report the annual review findings of its land management review teams to the
Board no later than the second board meeting in October of each year.
                                             Review Site
The management review of the Lake Kissimmee State Park considered approximately 5,081 acres in
Polk County that are managed by the Division of Recreation and Parks. The team evaluated the extent
to which current management actions are sufficient, whether the land is being managed for the purpose
for which it was acquired, and whether actual management practices, including public access, are in
compliance with the management plan. The Division of State Lands approved the management plan
on November 6, 1997 and the management plan update is due November 6, 2002.
                                    Review Team Determination
1.   Is the land being managed for the purpose for which it was acquired? All team members agreed
     that Lake Kissimmee State Park is being managed for the purpose for which it was acquired.
2.   Are actual management practices, including public access, in compliance with the management


                                                   1
                                    Lake Kissimmee State Park
                              Final Land Management Review Report
                                     LMR Date--June 27, 2000


     plan? All team members agreed that actual management practices, including public access, were
     in compliance with the management plan for this site.

Commendations to the managing agency
The following commendation’s resulted from a discussion and vote of review team members.
1.   The team commends the park staff for their exceptional efforts and good results of their
     prescribed fire program.
2.   The team commends the park staff for the general operations of the park and it’s overall
     cleanliness.
Exceptional management actions
The following items received high scores on the review team checklist (see Attachment 1), which
indicates that management actions exceeded expectations.
1.   Natural communities: Upland mixed forest, floodplain marsh, mesic flatwoods, depression marsh,
     cutthroat seeps, scrubby flatwoods and wet flatwoods
2.   Prescribed fire: Area, frequency, and quality
3.   Non-native/invasive eradication: Plants and animals
                             Recommendations And Checklist Findings
The management plan must include responses to the recommendations and checklist items that are
identified below.
Recommendations
The following recommendations resulted from a discussion and vote of review team members.
1.   The team recommends that the managing agency increase funding for operations within the park
     to keep pace with expansion of the park.
Response: Agree. Additional funding is a legislative function. Efforts will be made to allocate an
equitable portion of available funding to Lake Kissimmee State Park..

2.   The team recommends that the spoil piles located along the shore of Lake Kissimmee and west of
     Gobblers Ridge be removed.
Response: Agree. Although the park supports removal of the spoil piles, this is a Florida Fish and
Wildlife Conservation Commission problem. The park doesn’t have equipment or resources to
conduct this work.

Checklist findings
The following items received low scores on the review team checklist which indicates that
management actions were insufficient (f) or that the issue was not sufficiently addressed in the
management plan (p). These items need to be addressed in the management plan update.

1.   Ground water monitoring: Quality and quantity (p)
Response: Agree. This issue will be considered in the next plan revision. However, due to the costs
ground water quality and quantity monitoring is not usually recommended except where problems are
apparent.
2.   Surface water monitoring: Quality and quantity (p)
Response: Agree. This issue will be considered in the next plan revision However, due to the costs

                                                   2
                                   Lake Kissimmee State Park
                             Final Land Management Review Report
                                    LMR Date--June 27, 2000


surface water quality and quantity monitoring is not usually recommended except where problems are
apparent.
3.   Resource protection: Boundary survey, gates/fencing and signage (p)
Response: Agree. Comments concerning this matter will be addressed in next plan revision
4.   Adjacent property concerns: Inholding and additions (p)
Response: Agree. Comments concerning this matter will be addressed in the next plan revision.




                                                 3

				
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