DRAMA! “The student identifies, analyzes, and applies knowledge of the themes, structures, and elements of dramatic literature and provies evidence from the text to support understanding….” (ELA9RL1) Dramatic Literature Drama is simply a story told in front of an audience Comes from the Greek Word, “Dran” Means “To do” or “To Act” William Shakespeare’s plays have been grouped into three categories: tragedies comedies histories Types of Dramatic Literature Tragedy—drama emphasizing that human beings are inevitably doomed through their own failures or errors, or through the nature of fate, destiny, etc. Characters usually suffer, fail, and/or die... (sounds exciting, huh?) Romeo and Juliet is a TRAGEDY) Comedy--Shakespearean comedy is one that has a happy ending, usually involving marriages between the unmarried characters, and a tone and style that is more light-hearted History--Histories are normally described as those based on the lives of English kings including King John, Edward III, Henry VIII, etc Dramatic Structure Exposition Rising action Climax Denouement Exposition The exposition provides the background information needed to properly understand the story, such as the protagonist, the antagonist, the basic conflict, and the setting. Rising action During rising action, the basic conflict is complicated by the introduction of related secondary conflicts, including various obstacles that frustrate the protagonist’s attempt to reach their goal. Secondary conflicts can include adversaries of lesser importance than the story’s antagonist, who may work with the antagonist or separately, by and for themselves or actions Climax The third act is that of the climax, or turning point, which marks a change, for the better or the worse, in the protagonist’s affairs. If the story is a comedy, things will have gone badly for the protagonist up to this point; now, the tide, so to speak, will turn, and things will begin to go well for him or her. If the story is a tragedy, the opposite state of affairs will ensue, with things going from good to bad for the protagonist. Denouement The comedy ends with a dénouement (a conclusion) in which the protagonist is better off than at the story’s outset. The tragedy’s denouement ends with a catastrophe in which the protagonist is worse off than at the beginning of the narrative. Other Dramatic Elements Dialogue Monologue Soliloquy Aside Dramatic irony Dialogue vs. Monologue Dialogue- A conversation between characters. It is used to reveal character and to advance action. In drama, dialogue is not put in quotation marks in the script. Monologue- A long speech made by one person Aside vs. Soliloquy Aside- a short remark or conspiratorial whisper delivered only for the audience’s benefit. often sarcastic, and usually reveal a character’s true feelings, unbeknown to other characters. Soliloquy- A character reveals his/her thoughts alone or, unaware, in front of others. Dramatic irony Situation in which the audience knows something about present or future circumstances that the character does not know Stage Directions Stage Directions- notes included in a drama to describe how the work is to be performed or staged. These instructions are printed in italics and are not spoken out loud. They describe sets, lighting, sound effects, and the appearance, personalities and movements of characters. Acts Acts- large units in to which plays are divided in to. Scenes Smaller units which acts are divided in to. Props Objects, such as a sword or a cup of tea, that are used onstage.