DRAMA_ by shuifanglj



“The student identifies, analyzes, and applies knowledge of the
  themes, structures, and elements of dramatic literature and
 provies evidence from the text to support understanding….”
                    Dramatic Literature
   Drama is simply a story told in front of an audience
       Comes from the Greek Word, “Dran”
       Means “To do” or “To Act”

   William Shakespeare’s plays have been grouped
    into three categories:
     tragedies
     comedies
       histories
            Types of Dramatic Literature
   Tragedy—drama emphasizing that human beings are inevitably
    doomed through their own failures or errors, or through the nature
    of fate, destiny, etc. Characters usually suffer, fail, and/or die...
    (sounds exciting, huh?)
        Romeo and Juliet is a TRAGEDY)

   Comedy--Shakespearean comedy is one that has a happy ending,
    usually involving marriages between the unmarried characters, and a
    tone and style that is more light-hearted

   History--Histories are normally described as those based on the lives
    of English kings including King John, Edward III, Henry VIII, etc
           Dramatic Structure
 Exposition
 Rising action
 Climax
 Denouement

   The exposition provides the background
    information needed to properly understand
    the story, such as the protagonist, the
    antagonist, the basic conflict, and the setting.
                     Rising action

   During rising action, the basic conflict is complicated by
    the introduction of related secondary conflicts, including
    various obstacles that frustrate the protagonist’s attempt
    to reach their goal. Secondary conflicts can include
    adversaries of lesser importance than the story’s
    antagonist, who may work with the antagonist or
    separately, by and for themselves or actions
 The third act is that of the climax, or turning point, which
  marks a change, for the better or the worse, in the
  protagonist’s affairs.
 If the story is a comedy, things will have gone badly for
  the protagonist up to this point; now, the tide, so to
  speak, will turn, and things will begin to go well for him
  or her.
 If the story is a tragedy, the opposite state of affairs will
  ensue, with things going from good to bad for the

 The comedy ends with a dénouement (a conclusion) in
  which the protagonist is better off than at the story’s
 The tragedy’s denouement ends with a catastrophe in
  which the protagonist is worse off than at the beginning
  of the narrative.
       Other Dramatic Elements
 Dialogue
 Monologue
 Soliloquy
 Aside
 Dramatic irony
           Dialogue vs. Monologue
   Dialogue- A conversation between characters.       It is used to
    reveal character and to advance action. In drama, dialogue is not
    put in quotation marks in the script.

Monologue- A long speech made by one person
            Aside vs. Soliloquy
   Aside-
      a short remark or conspiratorial whisper
     delivered only for the audience’s benefit.
      often sarcastic, and usually reveal a character’s true feelings,
       unbeknown to other characters.

   Soliloquy- A character reveals his/her thoughts alone or,
    unaware, in front of others.
            Dramatic irony

 Situation in which the audience knows
something about present or future
circumstances that the character does not
             Stage Directions
   Stage Directions- notes included in a
    drama to describe how the work is to be
    performed or staged. These instructions
    are printed in italics and are not spoken
    out loud. They describe sets, lighting,
    sound effects, and the appearance,
    personalities and movements of
   Acts- large units in to which plays are
    divided in to.
   Smaller units which acts are divided in to.
   Objects, such as a sword or a cup of tea,
    that are used onstage.

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