HENRY VIII by wuyunyi

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									HENRY VIII




Tereza Vodňanská
     Henry VIII (1491 – 1547)
 King of England, King of Ireland, Prince of
                     Wales
• born as the second son of Henry VII and
  Elizabeth of York
• had 6 siblings – only 3 survived infancy – the
  successor should have been Arthur, not Henry
• he was the second monarch of the House of
  Tudor
• famous for having been married six times
• King 1509 - 1547
                     Youth
• was given a first-rate education from leading
  tutors, becoming fluent in Latin, French, and
  Spanish
• is known to have been an avid gambler and dice
  player
• excelled at sports, especially jousting, hunting,
  and real tennis
• was also an accomplished musician, player of
  many instruments, author, and poet
18 years old
Henry VIII
          Catherine of Aragon
• Prince Arhtur´s widow
• Youngest child of King
  Ferdinand II of Aragon
  and Queen Isabella I of
  Castile
• problems with this
  marriage because of Pope
• wedding on 11 June 1509,
  and on 24 June 1509, the
  two were crowned, at
  Westminster Abbey
Coronation of Henry VIII and
    Catherine of Aragon
• Catherine couldn´t produce the desired male
  heir of the throne
• daughter Mary
• Henry became attracted to a young courtier
  of Queen – Anne Boleyn
• Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was ordered to
  start proceedings with Rome and Pope –
  Henry wanted to annul the marriage with
  Catherine
• Henry wasn´t successful
 Thomas Cromwell and Thomas Cranmer

• young clerics
• they appeared after some time in the court and they
  supported the King
• Cranmer was at first rewarded with a position as
  ambassador to the imperial court, then he became
  the Archbishop of Canterbury
• Cromwell earned a position of chief adviser to the
  king – a proposal that Henry should declare himself
  the head of the Church in England
• Cranmer declare the marriage with Catherine invalid
  and Henry´s new one with Anne Boleyn valid
Thomas Cranmer   Thomas Cromwell
Anne Boleyn
     • crowned as Queen on 1 June
       1533
     • she gave birth to a daughter
       Elizabeth, but not to a male
       heir
     • she was arrested on charges
       of using witchcraft, having
       relationships with other men
       and of incest with her brother
       George Boleyn
     • 1536 - with her brother she
       was beheaded
• 1533 – Henry was excomunicated from the
  Roman Church
• 1534 – Act of Supremacy - which declared
  that the King was "the only Supreme Head
  in Earth of the Church of England".
• Parliament passed many other acts – e.g.
  Act of Succession (Mary couldn´t became
  the Queen)
• 1535 – Laws in Wales Act - which legally
  annexed Wales, uniting England and Wales
  into one unified nation; use of English in
  official proceedings in Wales
                    Jane Seymour
• Henry became engaged to her
  one day after Anne's execution in
  1536 , and 10 days later married
  her
• she was one of the Queen's
  ladies-in-waiting to whom the
  King had been showing favour
  for some time
• 1537 - she gave Henry a son,
  Prince Edward (future Edward
  VI), but in the same year Jane
  died
• according to Henry she was the
  only true wife
Anne Cleves
      • suggested by Cromwell
      • painted by Hans Holbein the
        Younger and the portrait sent
        to the King
      • sister of the Protestant Duke
        of Cleves
      • January 1540 – wedding
      • Henry found her unattractive,
        the marriage was annuled
      • called "The King's Sister"
                Catherine Howard
• wedding in July 1540
• from powerful Catholic family
• very young but the King was
  delighted with her
• T. Cranmer tried to keep
  evidence of Queen Catherine's
  activities
• Catherine's marriage was
  annulled shortly before her
  execution
• Catherine was executed on 13
  February 1542 - she was only
  about eighteen years old at the
  time
Catherine Parr
      • a wealthy widow, the last wife
      • 1543 – wedding
      • she argued with Henry about
        religion (she was radical, Henry
        conservative)
      • she helped Henry with his two
        daughters (1544 – The Act of
        Parliament put them back in the
        line of succession after Edward)
      • she survived thanks to her
        submissiveness
                        All six wives


Catherine of Aragon -                          Jane Seymour -
      divorced              Anne Boleyn -           died
                             beheaded




   Anne Cleves -          Catherine Howard -      Catherine Parr -
     divorced                 beheaded               survived
        The English Reformation
• the process by which the Primacy of the Roman Pontiff in
  England was eliminated and replaced with Royal Supremacy
  and the institution of a Church of England outside of the
  Roman Catholic Church and under the power of the
  Supreme Governance of the English monarch
• the English Reformation was more of a political than a
  theological dispute
• the breakup between Rome and England started in the reign
  of Henry VIII and is therefore sometimes called the
  Henrician Reformation
• Henry didn’t really establish new ideas about religion, he just
  wanted England’s church independent
• this gave England’s church its own power and influenced
  other states to establish their own churches.
                        Culture
• Henry was a Renaissance man - his court was a centre of
  scholarly and artistic innovation
• The discovery of America or "The New World" set the stage
  for Henry's innovative attitude - Henry was among the first
  European rulers to learn about the true geography of the
  world, a revolutionary discovery
• This discovery developed an atmosphere of exploration and
  discovery in the arts and sciences of which Henry took full
  advantage in his court and daily life
• Henry is traditionally called one of the founders of the Royal
  Navy - his favourite ship was Mary Rose
• Henry personally wrote letters mainly to Anne Boleyn and
  Thomas Wolsey, also some books and songs
• His character inspired many artists – e.g. later painters, W.
  Shakespeare
Mary Rose
                 The end of life
• Later in life, Henry was grossly overweight, with a waist
  measurement of 54 inches (137 cm)
• possibly suffered from gout (dna)
• The well known theory that he suffered from syphilis was
  first promoted approximately 100 years after his death
• But also he gradually became ulcerated (pokrytý vředy)
• He died on 28 January 1547 at the Palace of Whitehall
  (he died on what would have been his father's 90th
  birthday)
• Henry VIII was buried in St George's Chapel in Windsor
  Castle, next to his wife Jane Seymour
• His successor was at first Edward VI, the first Protestant
  monarch in England
Henry´s children
Family
Passing the throne to Edward VI
Thank you for your attention

								
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