EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION 1300-1600 by wuyunyi

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									EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE
   AND REFORMATION
        1300-1600
  chapter 17, pg.469-500




     BY:Kaylynn Wilson
         World history
    Dr.Linebarger 1st block
  Lets embark on a journey
 back in time, where events
   of the Renaissance and
reformation we will find. Put
  on your thinking caps, sit
 back and unwind, today an
      abound amount of
    knowledge well dwell
      through your mind
         Information center
GPS objective; during my oral and visual
 presentation we will be discussing various
 events that have occurred during the time
 era of 1300 and 1600 ( The European
 Renaissance and reformation). I will state
 the important facts of the Renaissance
 and what took place during that time, I
 will also include what was the cause of the
 reformation, what happen during
 reformation, who had the biggest
 influence on the reformation and how or
 did if ended.
    Italy: Birthplace of the
    Renaissance
   The Renaissance was a period in Italy that caused an explosion of
    creativity in art, writing, and thought that lasted approximately from
    1300 to 1600
   Renaissance mean rebirth, and in this context it refers to a revival of
    art and learning                                                    ab
   Men and women hoped o bring back the ways of the classical
    Greece and Rome
   The contribution made during this period led to innovative style of
    arts and literature
   The Renaissance spread from northern Italy to the rest of Europe
   Three advantages included thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class,
    and classical Greek and Rome heritage.
                         About the city

• Overseas trade, spurred by the crusades, had led to the growth of the large
  city states in Northern Italy

• Had many sizeable towns

• North Europe was the urban part and the rest of Europe was rural

• Ideal breeding ground for an intellectual revolution

• In the 1300’s the bubonic plague struck cities, killing up to 60% of the
  population
                  Life as a merchant
• Merchants dominated politics
• Didn’t inherit social rank
• Believed they deserved power and wealth because of their individual
  merit
• Florence was a republican state
• Florence came under the rule of one powerful banking family, the
  Medici.
• The Medici family had branch offices throughout Italy and in major
  cities of Europe,( one of the wealthiest families of Europe,
  Renaissance time)
       Scholars, classical, and worldly
                    values
  Renaissance scholars looked down on the art and literature of the middle
   ages.
 As scholars studied manuscripts they became more influenced by classical
   ideas
 The study of classical texts led to humanism, an intellectual movement that
   focused on human potential and achievements. Basically it was a theory
   saying that you had to study in Greek and Latin to better yourself.
 Instead of trying to make classical texts agree with Christian teachings as
   medieval scholars had, humanist studied them to understand ancient Greek
   values
 Humanist influenced artists and architects to carry out classical traditions
 They also popularized the study of history, literature, and philosophy
 People demonstrated their piety by wearing rough clothing and eating plain
   foods
 Humanist suggested that a person might enjoy life without offending God
 ( Petrarch was one of the earliest and most influential humanist, some called
   him the father of renaissance, he was also a great poet, he wrote in both in
   Italian and in Latin)
   wealthy people enjoyed material luxuries, good music, and fine food
   Many were devoted Catholics
   The basic spirit of Renaissance society was secular, worldly rather than spiritual and
    concerned with the here and now
   Many church leaders were secular, some lived in beautiful mansions, threw lavish
    banquets, and wore expensive clothes
   Leaders became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artist
   Merchants and wealthy families also were patrons of the arts aswell
    Renaissance men and women
 Renaissance writers introduced the idea that all educated people were expected to
  create art. A man who excelled in many fields was praised as a “ universal man”,
  later ages called such people “ Renaissance men”. Baldassare Castiglione wrote a
  book called The Courtier that taught how to become such a person. The book stated
  that a young man should be charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He
  also should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. In addition, he should be a
  skilled rider, wrestler, and swords man.

 According to the book upper class women also should know the classics and be
  charming. But yet they were not expected to seek fame, however they were expected
  to inspire art but rarely to create it. Upper-class Renaissance women were better
  than medieval women. How ever, most Renaissance women had little influence in
  politics.
 Renaissance painters used the technique of perspective, which shows three
  dimensions on a flat surface. Renaissance writers produced works that reflected their
  time, but they also used techniques that writers rely in today. many writers began to
  write in vernacular, which was Dante’s native language, Italian. Renaissance writers
  wrote either for self-expression or to portray the individuality of their subjects.
Renaissance men and women
 Renaissance men              Renaissance
   Baldassare Castiglione      women
   Leonardo Da Vinci            Isabella d’Este
   Michelangelo Buonarioti      Sofonisba Anguissola
   Raphael Sanizo               Artemisia Gentileschi
                                 Victoria Colonna
         The Northern Renaissance
•   By 1450 the population of Northern Europe, which had declined due to
    the bubonic plague, was beginning to grow again

•   Urban merchants became wealthy

•   Hundred year’s war between France and England ended in 1453

•   Flanders was rich from long-distance trade and the cloth industry

•   Wealth increased, patronage of artists increased as well

•   Unified under strong monarchs

•   Renaissance ideal of humanist inspired some Northern humanist to
    develop plans for social reform based on Judeo-Christian values.
      Artistic ideas, German and Flemish
                     painters
•   as war in 1494 dragged, on many Italian artists and writers left f or safer life in Northern
    Renaissance

•   They brought with them the styles and techniques of the Italian Renaissance

•   Most famous person to do such was German artists, Albrecht Durer

•   The popularity or Durer’s work helped to spread Renaissance styles

•   Durer emphasis upon realism influenced the work of another German artist Hans Holbein

•   The first great Flemish Renaissance painters was Jan Van Eyck

•   He developed oil-based paint

•   Flemish painting reached its peak after 1550 with the work of Pieter Bruegel the elder

•   He was skillful in portraying large numbers of people
  During this chapter many
reforms were started, many
    people separated and
   departed, what was the
 cause, was the reform that
 started them all. How did it
began and when did it end?
  Lets find out my friends.
    Northern writers try to
        reform society
• Italian humanist were very interested in
  reviving classical languages and classical
  texts. The northern humanist were
  criticized for the failure of the Christian
  church to inspire people to live a Christian
  life. The criticism produced a new
  movement know as Christian humanism.
  The focus of Christian humanism was the
  reform of society. The humanists
  promoted the education of women and
  founded schools attended by both boys
  and girls.
                    Christian humanists
   Desiderius Erasmus of                         Thomas More of England
    Holland                                       Tried to show a better model of
   Wrote his most famous work “ The               society
    Praised Folly”                                In 1516, he wrote the book “ Utopia”
   The booked poked fun at greedy                Utopia means no place
    merchants, heart sick, lovers, quarrel        The book is about an imaginary land
    some scholars and pompous priests.             where greed, corruption, and war have
   Believed in a Christianity of the heart,       been weeded out.
    not one of ceremonies or rulers               As well as utopians having little use of
   Believed everyone should study the             money
    bible                                         His work was translated in French,
                                                   German, English, Spanish, and Italian
Women’s reform
 The women’s reform was about
 women speaking out against the ideal
 that only males should be sent to
 school.
 Christine de Pizan was one of the first
 highly educated women to earn a
 living as a writer
 She was one of the first Europeans to
 question treatment between male and
 female
             The Elizabethan Age
• When the renaissance spread to Europe it became known as
    the Elizabethan age
•   Queen Elizabeth ruled from 1558 to 1603
•   She was well educated and spoke, French, Italian, Latin, and
    Greek
•   She did a lot to support the development of English art and
    literature
•   The most famous writer of the Elizabethan age was William
    Shakespeare
•   He wrote plays, poetry, and was a performer
•   His work displays a masterful command of the English
    language and a deep understanding of human beings
•   Plays include: Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, Rome and Juliet, King
    Lear, A Midsummer Night’s Dream and The Taming of The
    Shrew
             That’s my printing press




• Around 1440 Johann Gutenberg, a craftsman from Mainz, Germany
  developed a printing press that incorporated a number of technologies in
  a new way. The process made it possible to produce books quickly and
  cheaply. Gutenberg printed a complete bible, the Gutenberg bible in
  about 1455. It was the first full sized book printed with movable type.
  Printing Press enabled a printer to produce hundreds of copies of a single
  work.
    The legacy of the renaissance
   The European Renaissance was a period of great artistic and social
    change.
   Art drew on techniques and styles of classical Greece and Rome
   Printing changed society by making more information available and
    cheap
   Paintings and sculptures portrayed individuals and nature in more
    realistic and lifelike ways
   Christian humanists attempts to reform society changed views about
    how life should be lived
   Writers began to use vernacular languages to express their ideas
   Published accounts of new discoveries, maps, and charts, led to
    further discoveries
   The arts praised individual achievement
    Luther leads the reformation

• Reformation means change.
• 1500 church weakened
• Printing press spreads secular ideas
• Rulers began to challenge power of
  church
• Segregation between the Roman catholic
  church and French orthodox church
Who is Martin Luther?

 Martin Luther was a man who questioned the
  way that the catholic church did things. He
  was a monk and a teacher. Martin Luther only
  wanted to be a good Christian, not to lead a
  religious reformation. He was the “ main man”
  in what is called the religious reformation.
Corruption in the church
 Indulgence was a pardon, it released a
  sinner from performing the penalty that
  priest imposed for sin.
 Popes were not only popes but they
  were also pimps.
 Made up their own words to the bible
     Lutheran’s response to the
     corruption

   Luther didn’t agree with the indulgences that Johann Tetzel created, so he took
    action. Luther's action became the reformation, a movement from religious reform. It
    led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope’s authority.




   Luther soon went beyond criticizing indulgences, he wanted full reform of the church.
      Luther’s teachings
• People could win salvation only by faith in God’s
  Gift or forgiveness. The church taught that faith
  and “ Good works” were need for salvation

• All church teachings should be clearly based on
  the words of the bible. Both the pope and Church
  traditions were false authorities

• All people with faith were equal. Therefore,
  people did not need priests to interpret the bible
  for them
The response to Luther
   Luther's ideas spread rapidly            church officials viewed Luther as a
   They saw that Luther’s idea was a         rebellious monk
    way to change                            Saw him as a threat
   Many people had been unhappy             Pope Leo issued a decree
    with the church for political and         threatening Luther with
    economic reasons                          excommunication unless he took
   Suggested that Christians drive the       back his word ( Luther didn’t take
    pope out by force                         back a word )
   Luther translated the new testament      Leo Excommunicated Luther, he
    of the bible                              was an outlaw and heretic
                                             No one in the empire was allowed
                                              to give Luther food or shelter
                                             All books were burned
                                             The emperor was ignored and
                                              wishes weren’t granted
After opposition, Germany at war

    Luther returned to Wittenberg in 1522. he discovered many of his
     practices and ideas were being put into affect. instead of continuing to
     seek reform Luther and the followers became a separate religion called
     Lutherans. Many northern German Princes supported Lutheranism.
     Some princes genuinely shared Luther’s beliefs, others liked Luther’s
     ideas for selfish reasons. They saw his teachings as a good excuse to
     seize church property and to assert their independence from Charles V.
     princes who stayed loyal to the popes agreed to join forces against
     Luther’s ideas. These protesting princes came to be known as
     protestants, the term protestant was applied to Christians who belonged
     to non catholic churches. Still determined that his subjects remain
     catholic, Charles v. went to war against the protestant princes. Even
     though he defeated them in 1547 he failed to force them back into the
     catholic church. Charles ordered all German princes, both protestant and
     catholic, to assemble in the city of Augsburg. There the princes agreed
     that each ruler would decide the religion of his state. This famous
     religious settlement was known as the Peace of Augsburg.
Henry wants a son
   Henry became king of England in 1509, he was a devoted
    catholic. He disagreed with Luther’s ideas. In consideration of
    Henry's support the pope gave him the title “ defender of
    faith”. Political needs tested his religious loyalty. Henry asked
    the pope to annul, or set aside his marriage so that he could
    marry a younger women and have a son to claim the throne
    when he died, the pope denied. Henry called a parliament to
    pass a set of laws that ended the pope’s power in England,
    known as the reformation parliament. The council agreed
    with the parliament, Henry became head of England's church.
     Unwanted daughter restores
              England
• After Henry’s in 1547, each of his three children ruled
  England in turn. This of course created conflict such as
  religious turmoil. Henry’s son almost in ill health , Edward
  reigned for just six years. Mary daughter of Catherine of
  Aragon, took the throne in 1553. She was a catholic who
  returned the English church to the rule of the pope. Her
  efforts met with considerable resistance, and she had many
  protestants executed. When Mary died in 1558, Elizabeth,
  Anne Boleyn’s daughter, inherited the throne. She was
  determined to return her kingdom to Protestantism. In
  1559, parliament followed Elizabeth's wishes and set up the
  church of England, or Anglican church, with Elizabeth as its
  head. By taking this moderate approach, Elizabeth brought
  a level of religious peace to England.
The reformation continues

   When Martin Luther posted his 95 theses in 1517,
    john Calvin had been only eight years of age
   Calvin grew up to have as much influence in the
    spread of Protestantism as Luther did
   Calvin believed that god has known since the
    beginning of time who will be saved, the doctrine
    is called predestination
   The religion based on Calvin’s teachings is called
    Calvinism
            Calvin spread’s his ideas
•   Calvin lead reformation in Switzerland
•   Calvin believed that the ideal government
    was a theocracy, a government
    controlled by religious leaders
•   In 1541 protestants in Geneva,
    Switzerland asked Calvin to lead their
    city
•   Calvin and his follower’s ran the city with
    strict rules: no one was allowed to play
    card games, or bright coloring, everyone
    attended religious classes
•   Authorities would excommunicate,
    imprison, or banish those who broke
    such rules
•   Any one who preached different
    doctrines might be burned at stake
•   The city was a model city of highly moral
    citizens
•   Scottish preacher John Knox started to
    take on Calvin's example of a model city
    an ran their city the same, John Knox
    named his followers Presbyterians
          The catholic reformation
•   The counter reformation was also known as the Catholic reformation, (
    helping Catholics to remain loyal was a movement within the catholic
    church to reform its self ). Jesuits was a religious order for the pope’s
    followers called the society of Jesus. Their role was to find schools
    throughout Europe, convert non Christians to Catholicism, and to stop
    the spread of Protestantism. From 1545 to 1563 at the Council of Trent,
    catholic bishops and cardinals came together to agree of several
    doctrines: 1. the church’s interpretation of the bible was final, any
    Christian who substituted his or her own was a heretic, 2. Christians
    needed fait and good works for salvation, they weren’t saved by faith
    alone, as Luther argued, 3. the bible and church traditions were
    equally powerful authorities for guiding Christian life, 4. indulgences
    were valid expressions of faith, but the false selling of indulgences
    was banned.
The legacy of reformation

   Reformation had an enduring impact
   Through its social, religious, and political effects, the reformation
    set the stage for modern world
   It ended Christian unity in Europe and left it culturally divided
   Protestant churches flourished and new denominations
    developed
   Church’s moral and political authority declined, individual
    monarchs and states gained power
   Development of modern nations-states

								
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