Archery - Coe-Brown Academy by shuifanglj

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									Archery
                                        History
1879 AD - The First Tournament of the National Archery Association held in Chicago, USA

1900 AD - Archery in Olympic Games - also in 1904, 1908 and 1920. Women were allowed to
   compete in the Archery event in 1904 and 1908.

1931 AD - FITA (International Archery Federation) is formed.



1972 AD - Archery reappears in the Munich Olympic Games for both Men and Women.

1988 AD - Olympic Games held in South Korea. The Teams Event was added into the Archery Competition




2008 AD - Developments in materials technology will see the production of lighter
   and stronger bows as well as lighter and stronger arrows. Arrow speed will
   increase giving better accuracy over the longer distances.
                                        Equipment




Compound Bow                            Recurve Bow   Cross Bow




 Yellow -9, Red- 7, Blue-5, Black -3,
 White-1
                                                                                       Bows
The bow and arrow is a w eapon consisting of two parts; the bow is made of a strip of flexible material, such as w ood, w ith a cord linking the tw o ends of the strip to form a tension
       from w hich is propelled the arrow ; the arrow is a straight shaft w ith a sharp point on one end and usually w ith feathers attached to the other end.

Longbow
 The longbow w as first accepted as a formal military w eapon in 1252. The longbow has a very narrow limb and a thick core. The longbow is extremely stable and can be easily
        shot w hen canted or tilted. These bow s can be made to shoot varying draw weights and are surprisingly fast shooters. Longbows are light in w eight and generally hand
        made. They are shot w ithout sights.
  Longbow s w ere not as elaborate as other w eapons of the time, especially those commonly used by the w ealthier members of society such as the nobles. Sw ords, axes, shields
        &c. w ere built to last, and w ere often elaborately decorated. An archer, on the other hand, w ould generally w ork through several bow s during his life, and at most may
        have painted his bow , or attached some carved nocks to keep the bow string in place. Younger archers w ere usually more likely to decorate their bow s than w ere the
        grizzled veterans, and occasionally a w ealthier archer would have some extra armor, or maybe even a full set of armor, but his bow w as never significantly fancier then
        the rest.
  A longbow w as usually full of knots and bends. A great deal of patience had to be put into tapering these imperfections to pr oduce a usable bow . Every knot and knobble had to
        be either follow ed carefully to eliminate w eak spots, or „raised‟ w ithout causing any w eakening of the bow . Although the longbow w as a work of great artistry, it had none
        of the frills that you might see on a crossbow, with a complicated mechanism to fire the arrow , a fancy grip, and a fancy arr ow-plate to prevent the arrow from wearing a
        groove.
  Longbow s w ere generally self -nocking, meaning that the nocks for the string w ere an integral part of the bow . Some of the fancier bow s had horn or ivory nocks fastened to the
        end, but otherw ise the nock w as part of the w ood of the bow . The bow strings were generally made of good quality flax or linen, and w ere impregnated w ith beesw ax to
        repel rain and dew . “The bow man w ould watch his string carefully and if it show ed signs of fraying, especially at the loops, he scrapped it before it broke. With a good yew
        bow , a broken string often meant a broken bow . Spare strings w ere always carefully broken in at practice - a new string never shot at first in the same w ay as the old one;
        archers were required to carry two spare bowstrings

Recurve Bow
 Recurve bow s are very similar to the longbow . The main difference is that the tips of the recurve bow are bent forward.
 A recurve bow is a bow that, in contrast to the simple bow longbow has ends that curve aw ay from the archer w hen the bow is held in shooting position. An unstrung recurve
       bow can have a confusing shape and many north American aboriginal (Indian) w eapons w ere incorrectly strung and destroyed when attempts w ere made to fire them.
  The recurve shape in effect can reduce loading at full draw (let-off) and will impart more energy to the arrow than a longbow The longbow of similar top draw w eight. A recurve
       w ill permit a shorter bow than the simple bow for a given arrow energy and this form w as preferred by archers who were forced into environments w here long w eapons
       could be cumbersome: e.g. in brush and forest terrain, on horseback, etc

Com posite Bow
 Around 2800 B.C., the Egyptians developed the "composite bow ." Using this device, archers mounted on light chariots became a devestating military force. A composite bow is
      made of various materials (w ood, horn, sinew ) glued together so as to increase their natural strength and elasticity. The composite bow gives superior accuracy, velocity,
      and distance in comparison to the longbow . Using a modern bow , target archers of equal skill can score an average 30 to 40 percent higher than they can w ith the
      longbow . The modern composite bow shoots farther than the longbow : a maximum distance of more than 850 yards has been obtained w ith it, compared to about 300
      yards for the longbow . The efficiency (the percentage of energy in a fully draw n bow that is transferred to the arrow at the moment of loose) of the modern bow doubles
      that of the longbow , the velocity of the arrow with the new bow reaching 212 feet (65 m) per second as opposed to 150 feet per second.

Com pound Bow
 One of the biggest advantages to the compound bow is that the shooter does not have to hold the "pull w eight" w hen the bow is fully drawn. This is a result of eccentric cams.
       The benefit is that the hunter can hold the bow at full draw for a longer period of time. This gives the compound bow a mechanical advantage over other bow s.
 A modern compound bow or composite bow is a special type of bow made of laminated w ood, plastic, and fibreglass. It is affect ed little by changes of temperature and humidity
       and gives superior accuracy, velocity, and distance in comparison to the classic longbow
 In addition to the composite, the compound has pulleys set on its limbs, usually at the ends of its limbs. One or both of the pulleys is a cam This enables the shooter to hold the
       bow fully drawn with less effort by providing a mechanical advantage
                                                                                        Arrows

Arrow weight has a great deal to do w ith the penetration qualities that are inherent in the broadhead. That does not mean that a heavier arrow w ill always have better
          penetration. An arrow needs to be "spined" to m atch a bow. Most compound bows can shoot a lighter arrow than other bow s of the same draw weight and retain
          true flight.
If you have ever w atched an arrow as it is released from a compound bow , you can see that the arrow will w arp or almost buckle as it is fired and then straighten itself out. So, the
          initial thrust on a relaxed compound bow is not the value of the full thrust to come. For this reason, the arrow released from a compound bow doesn't need to be as stiff as
          a standard bow s arrow.
The arrow is m ade up of five basic parts:
Arrowhead -- This is the part that hits the target and does the damage.
Inserts/Outserts -- This is the part w here the arrow and the arrow head are fastened.
Shaft -- This is the body of the arrow .
Fletching -- These are the feathers w hich keep the arrow stable in the air.
Nock -- This is the piece w hich holds the arrow to the bow string.
Arrow Nochs
    The proper fit of a noch is that w hen it is seated on the string, the arrow will just hang from the string by its ow n w eight, but is on firm enough so the arrow will not slide on the
          string.
    There are four main materials used for the shaft portion of arrow s. They are w ood, fiberglass, aluminum and carbon or graphite.
Wood Arrow Shafts
    Wood is the original material used for making arrow s. Wood shafts were used by the earliest hunters and they w ere also used as w eapons. Finding quality w ood arrow s today
          can be difficult. If you w ant to use w ood arrows, you will need to learn about w eight, grain, spine and straightness. Wood arrow s will very a great deal in these attributes
          from one arrow to another and from one set to another. Wood is how ever a very durable material to shoot from a bow . It w ill take some abuse from rocks and stumps
          before breaking or other damage. If you plan to use w ood, do your homew ork.
28 Cedar Wood Shaft Archery Arrows from Satellite Archery TM- 72 Arrow s
Features include: 3 Feathers Metal Points Price is for 72 arrow s There is no actual image of this item. The image show n is representative only. The actual item w ill have a cedar
          w ood shaft.
Econom y Wood Arrows (Pack of 12) from Cajun Archery, Inc.
Mill run grade 5/16 shafts. 2 1/4 feathers and snap nocks, w ith lightw eight crimp-on target point. Spined up to 30 lbs.
    The w ooden arrow s used by archers for millennia have been replaced by ones made from aluminum-alloy or fibreglass tubing, and plastic fins have replaced feathers.
Fiberglass Arrow Shafts
    Light, Precise; Easy to fit to draw length and w eight. Difficult to find, liable to snap
1939 - James Easton experiments with making arrow shafts out of aluminum, rather than wood.

1941 - Larry Hughes uses aluminum arrows to win the American National (archery) Championship.
Alum inum Arrow Shafts
  Greatest Range of Sizes, Weights; Light, More Precise, Interchangable Arrow heads. Aluminum arrow s are used by the majority of hunters and target shooters today. The first
        aluminum arrow w as developed by Doug Easton. (Easton Arrow s) Aluminum arrow are extremely consistent in w eight, spine and str aightness. Aluminum arrow are very
        durable unless abused. Fletching or vanes are easily replaced w hen damages. These arrow s come in more than four dozen sizes. The reason for the range of sizes
        (w eight) is that each bow shoots (and shooter) certain weights and lengths of arrows to obtain maximum speed and efficiency. In addition, lighter w eight aluminum arrow s
        are normally used for target shooting and travel faster. Heavier arrow s are most commonly used by hunters.
1983 - Easton develops the first carbon arrow shaft.
Carbon Arrow Shafts (Graphite)
 Durable, Most Precise, Light w ith Interchangable Arrow heads. Carbon arrows are growing in popularity. There are tw o kinds of carbon arrow s shafts; pultruded and cross
        w rapped. Pultruded shafts have grain that runs the length of the arrow . This type required the use of outserts to prevent splitting w here the field point of broadhead
        attaches. Putruded shafts w here the first type of carbon arrow and had a reputation for splitting w hen hitting a hard object like rock, trees or bone. Cross w rapped carbon
        arrow s are a bit larger in diameter but are still less than 5/16ths of an inch in diameter. In general, carbon arrow s are very light w eight. The cross w rapped carbon arrows
        are tougher than the pultruded. Neither can be permanently bent.
                                         Shooting steps
"Take your stance
•      ¨ feet in line with target (toes and shoulders facing a side wall)
•      ¨ legs shoulder width apart
•      ¨ knees “soft”
•
"Nock your arrows
•      ¨ bring arrow “over the bow”
•      ¨ arrow should be on the same side of the bow as your arm
•      ¨ make sure cock feather is facing away from bow
•
"Grip the string
•      ¨ very little of three fingers - no thumb or baby finger
•      ¨ one finger above arrow and two below
•
"Raise your bow
•      ¨ push bow away so arm is quite straight
•      ¨ keep shoulders facing side wall
•
"Draw to anchor
•      ¨ drawing arm elbow high
•      ¨ anchor on face to keep arrow still
•
"Aim
•      ¨ use point of aim relative to your bow
•      ¨ look down the arrow toward the target
•
"Release
•      ¨ straighten all fingers by opening your hand
•      ¨ hold the position still until the arrow hits the target
                                                                               Vocabulary
AMO Speed Rating
       The Archery Manufacturer's Organization set this standard for evaluating arrow speed. To discover the AMO Speed a bow is set at 60 pounds, w ith a 30-inch draw and
       shooting arrow s that weigh 540 grains. For today's compounds, speeds over 240fps are considered fast w hile anything under 220fps are relatively slow .
Anchor
       You should draw the bow and hold the string in the same location every time--(anchoring) the bow string. Many people w ho shoot w ith fingers use the corner of their mouth
       as an anchor point.
Archer's Paradox
       Describes the movement of the arrow as it bends and flexes around a riser w hen released.
Arm guard
       Placed on the arm that holds the bow , an armguard protects your arm from being slapped by the bow string on release.
Arrow Length
       Arrows are cut to a specified length. Measured from bottom of nock to the end of the arrow shaft.
Arrow nock
       The notch at the end of the arrow designed to fit around the bow string and hold the arrow in place on the string.
Axle
       The axles are the shafts on w hich a compound bow 's cams rotate.
Axle-to-Axle Length
       The distance from one axle of a compound bow to the other. This is an important number because it tells you tw o things: 1) Generally if you w ant a finger bow , it should
       have an axle-to-axle length of at least 42 inches to avoid drastic finger-pinch. 2)A really short axle-to-axle length makes the bow more extreme and a little more difficult to
       shoot but may make it faster.
Blunt
       An arrow tip that is not pointed. Usually used to hunt small game or to stump shoot.
Bow Press
       A device used to hold the bow in a bent position so you can w ork on the bow or remove its string.
Bow Square
       Used to measure brace height or to align nocking points.
Brace Height
       Is the length of a direct line from the back of the grip to the string of a bow . Generally, the low er the brace height, the f aster the bow is. It is faster because the shorter
       brace height means that the pow er stroke is longer. But, because a shorter brace height provides a longer pow er stroke it can be much more difficult to shoot accurately.
Broadhead
       Arrow tips meant for hunting big-game. They generally feature at least one-inch of cutting diameter and may be fixed blades or expandables (mechanicals).
Brush Button
       For recurves and longbow s, these rubber round items are placed on a bow string to prevent brush from catching betw een the bow string and the bow .
Cable Guard
       Holds the cables to the side to ensure arrow clearance.
Cable Slide
       Fits on the cable guard and helps the cables move smoothly across the cable guard. New Teflon cable slides are said to add speed to your bow because they reduce the
       friction greatly. Pure Teflon is a clear or milky w hite color. If the slide is not w hite, it's not Teflon.
Center Serving
       The center portion of the bow string is w rapped (or served) to protect the bow string from damage, either from the release aid or from the string hitting the cable guard.
Center Shot
       Is the point that places the arrow shaft directly in line w ith the string grooves on compound eccentrics or the center of the limb tips on recurves or longbow s.
Creep
       The arrow moving aw ay from the w all or your anchor point as you aim or get ready to release.
•
                                                                       Vocabulary continued

Cresting
        The colored designs on the end of an arrow shaft. Cresting tools are available.
Deflex
        Design w here limbs or riser are angled tow ard the archer. Deflex designs are generally slow er but easier to shoot accurately than reflex designs
Draw Length
        The distance at full draw from the nocking point to the back of the grip. The AMO draw length is the distance from the nocking point to a point 1 3/4 inches past the back
        of the grip.
How to Determine Draw Length
        Your Draw Length is used to determine your Actual Peak Bow Weight for recurve bow s, and to select the proper draw length setting for compound bow s. To determine
        your Draw Length, use a lightw eight recurve bow with an extra-long arrow and have someone mark the arrow at the back (far side) of the bow w hile you are in a
        comfortable full-draw position. Your Draw Length is the distance from the mark to the bottom of the nock groove.
Draw Weight
        The amount of force in pounds required to draw the bow .
How to determine Actual Peak Bow Weight for Recurve
        Actual Bow Wight (maximum of "peak" bow w eight) of a recurve or longbow is the force (in pounds) to pull your bow to your full Draw Length. See "Determining Draw
        Length" information above. Then measure the force required to pull your bow to your Draw Length ( most pro shops have a bow s cale). The AMO-standard bow w eight is
        usually marked on the low er limb or handle.
How to determine Actual Peak Bow Weight for Compound Bow
        To shoot properly, the maximum draw length of a compound bow must be set to your Draw Length. A compound bow reaches its maximum or peak bow w eight before
        reaching maximum draw length and then "lets off" in draw w eight 50 to 80%. This reduced w eight at full draw is called the "holding w eight." The Actual Peak Bow w eight
        of your compound bow can be determined on a bow scale at your archery pro shop.
Eccentric
        The cam or part of the bow that is designed to control the stored energy of the bow .
Efficiency
        The amount of kinetic energy of the arrow just as it leaves the bow divided by the potential energy that w ent into draw ing it, multiplied by 100.
Fletch
        The plastic vane or feather that is at the end of the arrow used to stabilize the arrow s flight path.
Grain
        The measure of w eight usually used w hen w eighing arrows or arrow tips. 7000 grains make a pound.
Helical
        refers to the w ay fletching is laid on an arrow . Rather than straight, helical fletching curves slightly around the arrow shaft.
IBO Speed Rating
        The International Bow hunter's Organization has a speed rating that is generally measured w ith a bow set at 70 pounds, 30-inch draw and shooting a 350-grain arrow .
        Today's fastest bows will shoot over 310fps using the IBO rating.
Insert
        the adapter w hich is placed into a shaft to make a nock or arrow point fit the shaft. Outserts are the opposite, they fit around the shaft. Some people believe outserts make
        an arrow fly less true, but if all other factors are the same, outserts shouldn't effect an arrow 's flight much.
                                                                   Vocabulary continued
Kisser
        Allow s you to anchor consistently by placing the kisser on the bow string and making sure it touches the same part of your lips each draw .
Nocking loop
        Loop placed around nocking point. This protects your string from being damaged by the release aid but the dow nside is, it reduces speed slightly and some people find it
        difficult to quickly attach their relase aid to it w hen "the big bucks a' comin"
Nocking Point
        Location w here arrow sits on the bow string.
Nocking Points
        Objects placed on the bow string used to keep the arrow in place and keep the nocking point consistent.
Peep Sight
        used as the rear sight of a gun is used. The peep sight is placed on or in the bow string and the sight pins and target aare v iew ed through the peep. Sight pins should be
        centered in the peep. Small peeps help you gain accuracy but don't let a lot of light in. Hunters generally apt for larger diameter peeps.
Quiver
        Holds arrow s, the most popular for bow hunting is the bow -quiver which holds arrows on the bow . But some say that makes the bow too heavy and makes it harder to hold
        the bow steady in the w ind. Other options are hip quivers and back-quivers.
Recurve
        a bow design w hich features limbs that bend aw ay from the archer at the tips.
Reflex Riser
        Features a grip w hich is closer to the archer than the ends of the riser. This results in a short brace height and a longer pow er stroke. Thus creating a faster bow but
        generally more difficult to shoot than deflexed risers
Shelf
        The part of the riser that is cut out and w here the arrow rests.
Pow er Stroke
        Refers to the motion of the bow string after it is released. The longer it is, the faster the arrow leaving it. But the llonger the pow er stroke, the longer the archer must hold
        steady after releasing the string.
Serving Jig
        Tool used to w rap center serving.
Shoot-around Rest
        Rest w hich features the arrow shaft sitting on the rest and as it is released it bends around the rest.
Shoot-through Rest
        Shooters using release aids use shoot-through rests. These feature tw o prongs holding the srrow shaft. when the arrow releases, the cock vane flys through the tw o
        prongs.
Spine
        Refers to the strength of the arrow shat and its ability to resist bending and to recover after bending or experiencing archer's paradox.
Stabilizer
        Placed on a bow for the purpose of reducing torque and shock after releasing the arrow . Also, it helps level out the bow and hold it steady prior to releasing.
Tiller
        To measure the tiller is to measure the perpindicular distance from the bow string to the points w here the riser and limbs meet. The tiller is the difference in these tw o
        measurements.
Torque
        is to turn the bow to one side w hen aiming or releasing the arrow .
Valley
        When at full-draw , the area betw een a compound's w all and the point w here the let-off ceases to exist.
Wall
        Term used to describe the back of the draw ing motion of a bow . A solid or hard w all is w hen the draw ing motion comes to a sudden and precise end. If the back of the
        draw ing motion is nondescript, it is called a soft or mushy w all. A solid w all is usually preferred because it makes it easier to anchor consistently. Now , some bow
        companies offer a draw -stop that helps make the w all more solid.
                    Worksheet

1.Describe in detail what the four different
  types of Bows used in Archery are.
2.Describe in detail what the seven shooting
  steps used in Archery are.
3.What are the point values for the target.
4.Define twenty-five of the fifty one
  vocabulary words.
5.What are the five parts of an arrow?
6.What are arrows made from?
7. List the shooting steps.
                                   Work cited
•   http://www.centenaryarchers.gil.com.au/history.htm#1900%20-%20Present%20Day
•   http://www.cabelas.com/cabelas/en/templates/index/index-
    display.jsp?id=cat602590&navAction=jump&navCount=1&cmCat=perf&parentType=category&parentId=cat21424
•   http://www.3riversarchery.com/Product.asp?c=37&s=175&p=0&i=7842X
•   http://www.3riversarchery.com/Product.asp?c=1&s=41&p=0&i=4033X
•   http://schools.cbe.ab.ca/b628/Physical%20Education/Archery%20Steps%20in%20Shooting.htm
•   http://tucsonarchery.com/Archery_Terms.php

								
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