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Chapter 14 The Renaissance and Reformation _1350-1600_

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Chapter 14 The Renaissance and Reformation _1350-1600_ Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 14: The Renaissance
and Reformation (1350-1600)


  Section 1: The Renaissance in
               Italy
   “What a glorious time to be alive!”
            Italian City-States

• Renaissance = rebirth…of classical culture
• Birthplace in Italy: Florence
• Produced gifted poets, artists, architects, scholars and
  scientists
• Eventually spread north: Flanders
• Prosperous cities of trade – Florence, Milan, Venice,
  Genoa
• Wealthy & powerful merchant class supported the arts
  and culture – patrons (supporters of the arts)
• Education, individual achievement, curiosity
  (Copernicus/Galileo) and adventure (Columbus)
  stressed
    Medici family of Florence
• built a powerful banking
  and merchant business
  (mined alum-chemical
  used in textile
  production/dying of wool)
• Giovanni, Cosimo
  (Godfather) and Lorenzo
  ―the Magnificent‖ (1449-
  1492)
• 1434 onward: served as
  uncrowned rulers of
  Florence
• Medici
  What was the Renaissance?
• Most important change: the way people viewed
  themselves and the world
• The human experience in the living world replaced the
  preoccupation with gaining salvation in the afterlife!
• Preserving classical (Greek/Roman) heritage:
  Medieval monks/nuns & scholars copied manuscripts
• Latin – survived as language of the Catholic Church and
  of educated people
• Renaissance ideal = person with many talents
  (knows a great deal about many things: a
  Polymath)
• Education, individual achievement, curiosity and
  adventurous spirit
               Humanism
• intellectual movement based on the study of
  classical culture – did not focus only on
  religious issues!
• Humanist scholars believed that education
  should stimulate creative powers of an
  individual.
• They were collectors of classical manuscripts
  from church & monastery libraries.
• Humanities: subjects taught in Greek and
  Roman schools – grammar, poetry, rhetoric,
  history, philosophy, etc.
   Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374)
                Father of Humanism
• Humanist who searched for
  classical manuscripts
  (Homer, Virgil, Cicero, etc.) in
  monastery & church libraries.
• He was also a devout Catholic.
• wrote literature of his own
  (Sonnets to Laura)
• April 8, 1341: crowned poet
  laureate in Rome on Easter
  Sunday
• The laurel wreath was identified
  by Petrarch as being the
  symbol of literary and poetic
  immortality.
• July 13, 1374: died with “a pen
  in his hand and Laura in his
  heart.”
• Petrarch
      When Love within her lovely face appears
        now and again among the other ladies,
        as much as each is less lovely than she
      the more my wish I love within me grows.
   I bless the place, the time and hour of the day
 that my eyes aimed their sights at such a height,
    and say: 'My soul, you must be very grateful
that you were found worthy of such great honour.
 From her to you comes loving thought that leads,
       as long as you pursue, to highest good,
          esteeming little what all men desire;
       there comes from her all joyous honesty
that leads you by the straight path up to Heaven—
           already I fly high upon my hope.'
         A Golden Age in Arts

• PATRONS: Popes, nobility and wealthy businessmen
  (Medici) supported the work of artists, architects,
  sculptors.
• Isabella d’Este (1474-1539) from Mantua also
  patronized the arts.
• She invited scholars, artists, sculptors & musicians to her
  city; was a Renaissance woman herself.
• Isabella
• Artists studied Greek & Roman works.
• Religious figures (Mary & Jesus) were set against
  classical backgrounds
• Humanist interest in individual achievement led to
  portraits of well-known people.
      Portraits of Isabella d’Este,
1st Renaissance Woman, by Leonardo
           Da’Vinci & Titian
           New Techniques
• Artists revived
  lifelike, classical
  forms
• studied human
  anatomy and live
  models – more
  accurate portrayal
• used realism, linear
  perspective and
  shading
• Architects rejected
  Gothic style – went
  back to columns,
  arches and domes
Donatello di Betto Bardi (1386-1466)
                    • Son of a Florentine wool-
                      carder; apprentice to
                      goldsmith Lorenzo
                      Ghiberti at age 14
                    • Bronze David (1440s?)
                      was 1st life-sized, free
                      standing nude to be cast
                      in bronze since classical
                      times
                    • Placed in the courtyard of
                      the Medici palace for
                      Lorenzo and Clarice
                      Orsini’s wedding
                    • Today it can be found in
                      the Bargello Museum in
                      Florence.
      Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446)
            “Father of Perspective”
• Architect, engineer, goldsmith
• Visited Rome with Donatello to
  study the ancient ruins
• created the dome (1417-
  1434) of Florence Cathedral
  – based on the Pantheon in
  Rome
• Used more than 4 million
  bricks
• (1401-1403) Lost the
  competition to Ghiberti to
  design the bronze doors for
  the baptistery of the Florence
  Cathedral (Santa Maria del
  Fiore)
• He is buried in the Florence
  Cathedral (Santa Maria del
  Fiore)
Three Geniuses of Renaissance Art
   Self-Portraits of DaVinci & Raphael
                      Leonardo DaVinci
                         (1452-1519)
• Born in Vinci, Italy (had 17 half-brothers & sisters!)
• Many interests: botany, anatomy, optics, music, architecture,
  engineering, military
• Genius for invention: placed sketches in notebooks: mirror
  writing
• Dissected corpses to learn anatomy
• Considered himself a painter
• Invented sfumato: blending of light & shade
• Famous works: Mona Lisa (1503-1506) & The Last Supper
  (1495-1498), Vitruvian Man/Proportions of Man (1487)
•   Apprentice to Andrea del Verrochio (1470-1477)
•   Served the Duke of Milan (Ludovico Sforza) from 1482-1499 – completed only 6
    works in 17 years!
•   1513-1516: worked in Rome under Pope Leo X (Giovanni d’Medici)
•   1516-Premier Painter & Engineer and Architect of King Francis I in France.
•   Died May 2, 1519 (67 yrs.) with his head in the hands of King Francis I
•   Leonardo da Vinci
              Michelangelo Buonarotti
                    (1475-1564)
• Born March 6, 1475 in Caprese; 2nd of 5 brothers
• His mother died when he was 6 years old
• At age 13 he was apprenticed to Domenico Ghirlandaio and later lived
  with the Medici family in Florence.
• Multi-talented genius: sculptor, engineer, painter, architect
  and poet
• Considered himself a sculptor
• Dissected corpses to learn anatomy
• Famous works: Sculpture - Pieta (1499), David (1501-1504)
• Painting - Sistine Chapel ceiling (1508-1512) & The Last
  Judgment (1536-1541)
• Architecture – Dome of St. Peter’s (Rome)
•   Died February 18, 1564 (89 yrs.) in Rome and is buried in Santa Croce
    Basilica in Florence
•   In his will, he left "his soul to God, his body to the earth, and his material
    possessions to his nearest relations."
     Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520)
• Italian painter, architect and draftsman from Urbino, Italy
• Studied DaVinci & Michelangelo
•   Both parents died when he was 8 years old
•   He moved from Florence to Rome in 1508, where he ran a workshop until his
    death (37 yrs.)
•   Painted frescoes in the Vatican Palace while Michelangelo was painting the
    Sistine Chapel ceiling
•   Architect of the new St. Peter’s Basilica
• Paintings portrayed the Madonna (Mary) & child (Jesus)
• Famous work: The School of Athens- an imaginary
  gathering of philosophers & scientists – included faces of
  Michelangelo, DaVinci & himself
•   Died on April 6th (Good Friday & his birthday) of a possible fever (lasted 2
    weeks) & wrong cure
•   He was buried in the Pantheon after a grand funeral.
•   "Here lies that famous Raphael by whom Nature feared to be conquered while
    he lived, and when he was dying, feared herself to die."
       Italian Renaissance Writers
• ―how-to‖/handbooks became popular – to help ambitious men
  and women rise in the Renaissance world.

                 Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
• Served as a diplomat in Florence – observed kings/princes in
  courts during a time when the Medici were ousted from power
  (following Lorenzo’s death)
• Lived during a time of religious fanaticism in Florence, the invasion of
  Italy by France and Spain and political turmoil
• He was tortured an imprisoned when the Medici returned to power in
  1512 – following the death of Savonarola
• Saw himself as an enemy of oppression/corruption; wanted to earn
  the respect of the ruling Medici
• wrote The Prince - a guide for rulers to help them gain &
  maintain power: It was dedicated to the deceased Lorenzo de
  Medici.
• ―The end justifies the means.‖
• ―It is better to be feared than loved.‖
• ―Machiavellian‖ = deceit in politics
  Baldassare Castiglione
       (1478-1529)
• Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and author
• wrote The Book of the Courtier (1528)–
  describes manners, skills, learning, virtues of a
  courtier (aristocrat)
• Ideal courtier = well-educated, well-mannered;
  master in music, poetry, history, sports, etc.
• Ideal woman = graceful, kind, reserved &
  beautiful (on the outside!)
• 108 editions published between 1528 – 1616 (in
  Spanish, German, French and English)
• Died of a violent fever in Toledo, Spain on
  February 2nd
Machiavelli (1469-1527) &
 Castiglione (1478-1529)

				
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