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					                Ports of Portsmouth

               Critical Infrastructure Study



Authors: Balazs Kovacs, Tomasz Jankowski, Jonathan Baker

                Date: September 13, 2005
Abstract

The purpose of this document is to give a brief description of the ports of Portsmouth and its

key assets. Bridge, wharf, military, rail and air facilities are discussed with special emphasis

on those that compose the backbone of communication and transportation between New

Hampshire and Maine. Beyond the description we made assessments on the aftermath of

possible terrorist attacks on this infrastructure.    Finally the results of the CARVER2

infrastructure analysis software appear in this document.
1. Introduction

The Port of Portsmouth, New Hampshire is located on the south bank of the Piscataqua River,

opposite Seavey Island and the town of Kittery, Maine. The port is 56 nautical miles

southwest of Portland, Maine and 61 nautical miles northeast of Boston, Massachusetts. The

river, formed by the confluence of the Salmon Falls and Cocheco Rivers, flows 13 miles

generally southeast to the Atlantic Ocean, and forms a portion of the boundary between the

states of Maine and New Hampshire. The mouth of the river is known as Portsmouth Harbor.

All except three of the waterfront facilities at the port are located on the south bank along the

lower 4.5 miles of the Piscataqua River [1].

2. Commerce

The waterways used for this shipping is Portsmouth Harbor and the first few miles of the

Piscataqua River. Petroleum products, gypsum rock, steel cable, lobsters, salt and coal

comprise the majority of waterborne commerce at the ports. The most common ships are oil

carriers, both international and coastwise. These ships arrive frequently, except during the

summer.    There are more vessels served: liner, passenger ships, container ships, feeder

vessels, and barges. Gypsum and salt shipments also arrive from other domestic ports with

some frequency.

3. Infrastructure

3.1 Military installations

The military installations are Portsmouth Naval Shipyard and the Portsmouth Harbor US

Coast Guard Station. At Fort Point, on New Castle Island, at the mouth of the Piscataqua

River, U.S. Coast Guard Station Portsmouth Harbor keeps a watch on Portsmouth Harbor, the

upriver Great Bay, and all points between Cape Porpoise and the Massachusetts and New

Hampshire border. The Coast Guard Station runs an important lighthouse for navigation of

the port, as well as being the base for 1 cutter and 1 helicopter.
The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard is one of the most important strategic points within Port of

Portsmouth areas. It is located in Seavey Island, in the entry of the Portsmouth harbor, with

access to the mainland by two bridges that connect it to Kittery, Maine.

It is used for overhaul, repair, modernization, and refueling of LOS ANGELES Class nuclear

powered submarines. It is also the Ship Availability Planning and Engineering Center for the

LOS ANGELES Class.

The Shipyard plant equipment value is approximately $500M.[2]

3.2 Bridges

There are several Bridges located in the Port of Portsmouth area. Major bridges are: The

Memorial Bridge, The railroad and U.S. Highway 1 Bypass Bridge and The Interstate

Highway 95 Bridge. Each span the Piscataqua River between Portsmouth and Kittery. The

I95 bridge is important as the primary conduit for road traffic for connecting all points north

and south on the seacoast.

Two Seavey Island Bridges serves the communication to the Seavey Island where the

Portsmouth Naval Shipyard is located .

The Dover PT Bridge connects the Portsmouth area with Western Part of NH State.

The last Bridge we list in this document we call Railway Bridge. Its function is to provide the

rail transport to and from the Port terminals which are located along the right bank of the

Piscataqua River.

Below is table where all of them are listed with priorities. (1 – most important)
                             Table 1. Critical Bridges in Portsmouth
 Nr          Name           Type              Road              Location      Priority

        The Memorial     Lift         U.S. Highway 1       3,5 miles above
        Bridge                                             the mouth of the
                                                           rive                      2
    1
      The railroad and   Lift         U.S. Highway 1       4 miles above
      U.S. Highway 1                  Bypass               mouth of the
    2 Bypass Bridge                                        river                     1

      The Interstate     Fixed        Interstate 95        4,5 miles above
      Highway 95                                           mouth of the
    3 Brigde                                               river                     1

        Seavey Island    Fixed        Local                Connection to
        Bridges                                            Seavey I from
    4                                                      Kittery                   2

        Dover PT         Fixed        U.S. Highway 4, On the west of
                                      16              Portsmouth along
                                                      the Piscataqua
                                                      River, above the
    5                                                 Little Bay                     2

        Railway Bridge   Fixed        Railway              Between Inter.
                                      connnection to       95 and U.S Hwy
                                      the Pertoleum        1 Bypass Bridges
                                      facilities located   along the
                                      along the right      Piscataqua River
                                      bank of the
    6                                 Piscataqua River                               2

3.3 Airports

There is one Airport located in Portsmouth area – The Pease International Airport. It is used

to passengers/cargo transportation. It is located on the west side of Portsmouth. The Airport

serves: Passengers transport (Allegiant Air, Pan American Airways, Boston-Maine Airways),

cargo facilities (utilized by Pan Am services), military base (The KC-135R equipped New

Hampshire Air National Guard ).
3.4 Port Terminals

The marine terminals of Portsmouth Harbor consist of several cargo, military, fishing and

passenger docks. The principal cargoes handled by the commercial docks are fuels and

minerals. The fuel docks are run by Sprague Energy, PSNH, and Irving Oil. The mineral

docks are run by National Gypsum and Granite State Minerals. Other cargo docks are run by

Simplex Wire and Cable and the NH State Port Authority. Passenger service is handled by

Isles of Shoals Steamship Company and NE Charter Boats. In the next two subsections we

summarize those that handle hazardous materials, and large number of passengers.

Portsmouth has four active, non public terminals that receive dangerous materials. The

flammability of these materials can be a threat for citizens and other infrastructures in the

surroundings. Sprague Energy Corp., River Road terminal wharf is close to the route 4 Dover

bridge, while Irving Oil Portsmouth Plant Wharf is next to the I95 bridge. Two more notable

terminals that need special care due to the materials they receive are the Avery Lane and the

Gosling Road Wharf.

Portsmouth has one terminal that is open to public. It is located on the Piscataqua River, three

nautical miles form the open sea. In general the terminal accept bulk cargo (scrap, salt, wood
chips), break bulk (industrial and machinery parts, construction materials), project cargo

(power plant components, vacuum tanks) and container cargo. [4]

All of the terminals are connected with a rail system.

                                  Table 2. Critical Portsmouth Terminals
       Nr       Name                         Flammable          CI nearby   Densely

                                             materials                      Populated area

            1   River Road Terminal Wharf    yes               yes          no

            2   Avery Lane Terminal Wharf    yes               no           no

            3   Gosling Road Wharf           yes               no           no

            4   Portsmouth Plant Wharf       yes               yes          Yes

            5   DPH Market Street Terminal   no                yes          Yes




3.5 Railways

There is one railway system located in Portsmouth area - Boston and Maine RR (GuildFord

Rail System). It connects terminals from the both sides of Piscataqua river to the main railway

that connects to Boston Maine RR. The first part of the railway is located along the

Piscataqua River on the New Hampshire side. The second part crosses the river using the

railroad and U.S. Highway 1 Bypass Bridge.

4. Map – Critical Infrastructures – Key Assets

The Critical Infrastructure consists of the fuel docks, military installations, and the I95 bridge.

Sprague Energy is the furthest from the ocean (1,2,3 – reference number to map). It receives

mainly fuel oil and coal. Immediately downstream from the I95 bridge is Irving Oil, which

receives various petroleum products (4). Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (12) is located on

Seavey Island in Kittery, ME and houses a submarine repair facility as well as medical
facilities.   The I95 bridge (7) is important as the primary conduit for road traffic for

connecting all points north and south on the seacoast.

The most likely targets for an attack are the Irving Oil storage area (4), the Memorial

Highway Bridge (9), and the Route 1 Bypass Bridge (8). The Irving Oil terminal has several

large oil storage tanks. The proximity of these tanks to the I95 bridge make them the most

likely target in the Portsmouth area. A successful attack on this could cause an explosion or

severe fire. This could cause loss of life, disabling of I95 for months, and loss of petroleum

products and much of the ability to receive petroleum products for this region. Disabling I95

would disrupt trucking as well as much of the significant tourism industry in Maine. The loss

of oil stores combined with the loss of the point of reception of oil would increase prices and

possibly cause shortages of oil products for the region. This is also true for the Sprague

Energy facilities.

Both the Memorial Highway Bridge and the Route 1 Bypass Bridge are lift bridges. With

clearances of 19 feet and 10 feet respectively, with their lift sections down, these bridges

would block much of the commercial trade out of this port. The Route 1 Bypass Bridge could

block all of the petroleum terminals, and the Memorial Highway Bridge could block all cargo,

passenger and much of the fishing industry. Disabling a lift section of a bridge is a much less

difficult task than taking a bridge down altogether. Cutting power or damaging the mechanics

of the bridge could accomplish this. The primary impact of disabling either of these bridges

would be the maritime shipping. Road and rail traffic across these bridges is not of critical

importance. The amount of time an attack on one of these bridges could close the harbor for

could range from a few days for disabling the electrical systems, to several weeks if

significant mechanical damage was accomplished.

Other targets that may seem like good targets, but are not significant are the military

installations. Portsmouth Naval Shipyard is not active enough to warrant the risk of an attack.

The duties of the Coast Guard Station could mostly be handled by other nearby stations, and
loss of the lighthouse would be more of an inconvenience than a major danger for ships

navigating into the harbor.

Below is attached map of Potential Critical Infrastuctures [5] and a table where all of them are

prioritized (1 – most critical).




                                   Figure 1. Key asset positions


All critical assets are listed in table below

                           Table 3. Key assets and CARVER2 score
  Nr           Name          Type of CI          Priority     Carver 2 Score

       1 River Road     Terminal
         Terminal Wharf                                        2                  105

         Avery Lane     Terminal
       2 Terminal Wharf                                        2                    95
  Nr          Name          Type of CI           Priority           Carver 2 Score

         Gosling Road     Terminal
       3 Wharf                                                 2                     95

         Portsmouth       Terminal
       4 Plant Wharf                                           3                  140

         DPH Market      Terminal
       5 Street Terminal                                       3                  265

       6 Dover PT         Fixed Bridge                         2                  245

         The Interstate   Fixed Bridge
         Highway 95
       7 Brigde                                                1                  290

         The railroad     Lift Bridge
         and U.S.
         Highway 1
       8 Bypass Bridge                                         1                  165

         The Memorial     Lift Bridge
                                                               2                  190
       9 Bridge
        Seavey Island     Fixed Brige
     10 Bridges                                                2                  115

        Seavey Island     Fixed Brige
     11 Bridges                                                1                  115

          Naval Base      Naval Base
                                                               1                  115
     12
     13 The Pease         Airport
        International
        Airport                                                1                  255



5. Conclusion

There is significant critical infrastructure within Port of Portsmouth area, including military,

civil and business area of interests. All of them are located inside the Portsmouth Harbor, or

along the Piscataqua River. The defense of this infrastructure is an issue that we have to face.

The loss of some of this infrastructure from a possible attack could affect directly the

economy of the country. A great step in prevention would be to protect the entrance harbor of
the Port. It could be provided by a system, which is able to authenticate the entering ships,

their staff and the cargo.

6. Bibliography

[1]     US Army Corps of Engineers Institute of Water Resources, Ports of Portland, Maine

        and Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Ports on the Kennebec and Penobscot Rivers,

        Maine, Port Series NO. 1, Revised in 2001

[2]     http://www.ports.navy.mil

[3]     http://www.peasedev.org

[4]     http://www.portofnh.org

[5]     http://map.google.com

				
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