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Nutrition Performance in Extreme Conditions How to train and

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Nutrition Performance in Extreme Conditions How to train and Powered By Docstoc
					    Nutrition &
   Performance
    in Extreme
    Conditions

 How to train & compete at
    your best when the
environment is your fiercest
         opponent




                               CPT Trisha B Stavinoha, MS, RD
Our Opponents

•   Heat
•   Cold
•   Altitude
•   Time
•   Indoor vs outdoor

    An environment is only extreme if
         you are not used to it
             Disclaimer

This is your class…based on your needs
we can target more training, competing,
or either deploying or PCSing to adverse
 conditions. Each scenario has different
           needs and strategies.
            Factors to consider
•   Training          •   What to wear
•   Competing         •   What to eat
•   Traveling         •   What to drink
•   Acclimatization   •   What to supplement
                      •   What to NOT
                          supplement!!
       Training vs Competing
• Train in the environment you will compete in…
  if possible

• Time of day, temperature, precipitation, and
  clothing all have an impact on your performance
  – Positive or Negative!!


• You might compete in an environment different
  than what you have been competing in so it is
  imperative you know what to expect
                 Fluid Loss
•   Intensity – racing or training
•   Duration – sprint, distance, game play
•   Environment – dry/wet heat, altitude, cold
•   Training state – novice, elite, masters
•   Acclimatization – traveling to new location
HEAT
WBGT – Wet Bulb Global Temp
• Measurement of humidity, ambient temperature,
  and heat from the sun

• Humidity contributes most to WBGT

• It is easier and safer to exercise in a hot dry
  environment than a hot wet environment

• If you must train or compete at a WBGT >85
  degrees, prepare properly!!
0F      70    75     80   85    90   95   100 105 110 115 120
0%      64    69     73   78    83   87   91   95   99   103 107
10%     65    70     75   80    85   90   95   100 105 111     116
20%     66    72     77   82    87   93   99   105 112 120 130
30%     67    73     78   84    90   96   104 113 123 135 148
40%     68    74     79   86    93   101 110 123 137 151
50%     69    75     81   88    96   107 120 135 150
60%     70    76     82   90    100 114 132 149
70%     70    77     85   93    106 124 144
80%     71    78     86   97    113 136
90%     71    79     88   102 122
100% 72       80     91   108

     Caution!                   Danger!                STOP:
  heat cramps             heat cramps & heat    heat stroke & death a
& fatigue possible         exhaustion likely         definite risk
               Acclimatization
•   Can take up to 2 weeks to fully acclimate
•   Much acclimation is done in the first 4 days
•   Take a multivitamin if you don’t already
•   Don’t avoid salty foods
•   Don’t skip meals
•   Wear sunscreen
                      Sweating
• How your body cools itself off

• Normal: 2-3 cups a day or 1-2#
• Running in hot weather: 4-8 cups or 2-4# per hour
• Prolonged exercise – hot weather: 1¾ - 2 gallons a
  day

• The better acclimated you are the more you sweat and
  the less concentrated it is (tastes less salty)



       How could you get dehydrated swimming??
     How do you get dehydrated
            swimming?
• You are not drinking the water…hopefully

• You are probably spitting a lot instead

• You can still be warm & sweat…especially
  if in a wet suit

• Indoor pools can be quite steamy
                      Sweat Rate
• Laboratory Method:
   Pre-exercise wt          Fluid consumed
          (-)           +          (-)
   Post-exercise wt          Urine volume


• Simple Method:
  – Don’t pee or drink for that one exercise session
  Wt before exercise         Wt after exercise
          Sweat Loss Example
• Simple Method:
  – Don’t pee or drink for that one exercise session


  Wt before exercise         Wt after exercise
       = 135#                     = 132#


  – Sweat rate = 3# or 6 cups per hour
  – This will vary based on time of year,
    environmental conditions & acclimatization
     Water loss & Performance
• Beyond 2-3% weight loss from water-
  performance is impaired
• 2% weight loss from water = 3.7% slower
  – 24-36 seconds for 2 mile run
  – 5-7 minutes for 12 mile road march
• Don’t set yourself up for failure
Can you drink too much?
• Yes – Water Intoxication can be deadly
  – slower marathon runners
  – Triathletes
  – Grand Canyon Hikers
  – Soldiers
• Prevention –
  – Do not drink in excess of sweating rate
  – Follow your thirst
  – Never drink in excess of 1.5 quarts/6 cups
    per hour for > 1 h.
   Chronic Training in the Heat
• Increased loss of Magnesium, Calcium,
  Sodium, and Potassium
• Increase intake of fruits and vegetables
• Don’t avoid salty foods
• Drink milk
• Avoid HIGH protein diets
• May want to consider calcium
  supplements along with a MVI
               Stay Hydrated
• If you are eating 3 meals a day and exercise
  bouts last less than 60 minutes, water is fine
• For longer exercise sessions, consume a
  beverage with carbohydrate (6-8%), sodium,
  and potassium
  – Most sports beverages are fine
• Eat extra fruits for the vitamin C & carbs
  – 3 each of fruits & veggies daily
• Keep beverages cold
• Urine should be clear
Before
• 16 oz 2 hours prior
• Drink 4-8 oz water 15 minutes prior
During
• 20-40 oz/hr
• 4-8 oz every 15-20 min
   – Multiple events, indoor track
After
• 2 cups per # lost during exercise
• Water, Crystal Light, Sports Drink
• Endurox, Accelerade, Low Fat Chocolate Milk
• Sport drink after 60-90 minutes of exercise
• Juice and soda have too much sugar…GI
• Cool drinks absorbed better
• Warm fluids best in cold weather (soup)
Scenario: 12 mile road march at the end of EFMB
at Ft. Polk in September

• Have sports drink in canteen or camelback
• Drink 2 cups the hour before the march
• Drink about 1 cup every ½ hour during the event
• Take sport beans, sport gel, jelly beans, or
  power bar to eat (1 bar or 2-3 gels)
• Don’t avoid drinking so you don’t have to pee
• If you plan on doing an event where you need to
  consume fluid during, practice (cycling disaster)
   Eek…should have
practiced the drink a bit!
COLD   <300F
From the National Weather Service
     Dehydration in the COLD
• Can lose up to 0.2-1.5 liters of water a day
  through respiration in the cold
• Some may drink less to avoid having to
  pee
• Thirst is often decreased
• Sweat under clothing
• Monitor urine color
 Cold May Increase Energy Needs
• Being in the cold doesn’t always increase
  energy needs…may decrease

• Are you sitting, shivering, and fidgeting?

• Are you running with tights, cap, long sleeves?

• Is training level staying the same?

• Monitor weight weekly
                 Train Smart
• Train in environment you will be competing
• If you have a race in the winter, don’t train on the
  treadmill or indoors the whole time
• Watch for ice on the road or track
• Cycling on sand or ice
• Pulled muscle from starting off too fast

• Seek alternatives…
   – Indoor pool
   – Snow shoeing
   – XC skiing
Altitude
                                                                Mt. Everest
                                                                29,000

 What is Altitude?
                                                       18000
                                    Pikes Peak
                                    13,500


                                          12000
                                                        Altitude Levels in
                 Boulder                                Feet
                 5,500      8000

                5000


     0
Sea Level   Altitude   Moderately    High         Extremely
                         High                       High
                  Altitude
• Are you training at high altitude or
  competing at high altitude??

• Performance may start to decline @
  5,000 feet
• Altitude sickness may begin @ 8,000 feet
• Everyone is different
Acute Mountain Sickness - AMS
• Results from failure to acclimatize
  – Mild to severe headache
  – Mild to severe nausea
  – Vomiting
  – Lethargy, sluggish
  – Possible personality changes
• Avoid strenuous exercise until acclimated
• Develops quicker the higher up you go
  – 4-12 hours & goes away in about a week
            Acclimatization
• Can take up to 10 days
• Consume a diet high in carbs and low in
  sodium
• Race/Event Preparation: (<8,000 ft)
  – Arrive either 10 days before the event or 1
    day before the event to avoid the effects of
    altitude
        Altitude Dehydration
• Fluid needs increase due to increased
  breathing and urination for acclimatization
  – Can lose UP TO 2-4 liters a day
  – 1900 ml for men & 850 ml for women
• Increased diuresis for acclimatization
  – 500 ml/day for about 7 days
• Appetite can decrease the first 72 hours
  resulting in a 40-60% decreased energy
  intake and fluid intake
              Altitude Nutrition
• Deliberately increase fluid intake by at least 1
  liter a day

   – Total fluid needs can be as high as 3-4 liters a day


• Calories in sport drinks can help compensate for
  the decreased appetite

• Take a multivitamin or prenatal vitamin (iron)
Scenario: Traveling from Ft. Bragg to
Boulder, CO for All Army XC championships
•   Sea level to 5,500 ft      • Start taking an MVI
•   5 hour plane ride          • Increase fruits/veggies
•   2 hour time change         • Increase fluids by at
•   Similar temps                least 2 cups a day
                               • Don’t start out too fast



         Don’t worry about what you cannot control
                        i.e. altitude
                  TIME
• Time Zone changes
• Plan meals based on the event, not time if
  you are changing time zones



• Late or early competitions
• Train at the time you will be competing
         Indoor vs Outdoor
• Wrestling, gymnastics, basketball, indoor
  track
• Treadmill
• Frequent hydration
         Travel to Compete
• East Coast West Coast
• Hot to Cold…Cold to Hot
• Planes dehydrate you
• Get there at least 1-2 days before the
  competition
• Bring comfort foods
• Expect appetite to decrease
Scenario: Stationed in Alaska, traveling to
San Diego for All Army Triathlon competition

• Arrive 2-3 days before race
• Drink lots of fluids on plane ride & don’t skip
  meals
• Take a MVI if you do not already
• Make sure you are eating 3 each fruits &
  veggies a day
• Go for a short run at the time you will be running
  for the race both days before the race
               Are there limits?
• How hot is too hot?
  – >880F WBGT = 800F @ 90% humidity or 950F @ 0% humidity



• How cold is too cold?
  – (-)20-300F with wind chill = 200F w/ 40 mph or (-)20 with no wind



• How high is too high?
  – >19,000 feet
      What about supplements?
• As with exercise in a normal environment, there
  is not a significant need for supplementing if
  calorie needs are met with a variety of foods.
• Borderline inadequate intake of any nutrient will
  be felt more in an athlete .
• Taking a general multivitamin/mineral is a safe
  and smart recommendation (not a “mega”)

• Avoid:
  – Amphetamine derivatives – ephedra, Ma-huang,
    synephrine, bitter orange
  – Testosterone boosters
Extreme Nutrition Hierarchy
              Water
            Every Hour

        Carbs and Sodium
           Every Meal

    Protein, Vitamins, Minerals
             Every Day

             Energy
           Every Week

				
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posted:7/3/2011
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