gap trpck by mikeholy


									ARQ part II data

      Training pack 4:
Drug treatment

• Process of intervention directed
  towards individual active drug users
  offered by providers of health, social or
  community services, aiming at ending
  or reducing the use of drugs or the
  negative consequences of drug use

  – ARQ: any service provision that a country labels
    “drug treatment”
AIDS deaths

• Deaths among injecting drug users
  – AIDS has been assessed as the direct
    underlying cause of death
  – Drug injecting has been identified as the
    mode of transmission of HIV

• The extent of diseases related to or
  associated with the use of illicit drugs

  – Includes diseases caused by the use of drugs but
    does not exclude other causes
  – ARQ: limited to infections of hepatitis B, hepatitis C
    and HIV among injecting drug users
  – Usually reported as a (cumulative) incidence of
    detected cases

• The extent of deaths related to or
  associated with the use of illicit drugs

  – Includes deaths directly or indirectly caused by the
    use of drugs but does not exclude other cases
    where drug use has been a contributory cause or is
    involved in the circumstances of death
  – ARQ: country-specific definition applies
Fatal drug overdose

• Case of deaths where an overdose of
  or intoxication with illicit drugs is
  assessed as the direct underlying
  cause of death

  – Usually recorded in general mortality registers
    based on ICD-9 or ICD-10 or in special mortality
Illicit drug

• Any drug listed in the schedules to
  the international drug control
  conventions whose origin was illicit
  or illegal
Injecting drug

• Taking drugs by means of injecting/the
  person doing so
  – Methods of injecting: intravenous, subcutaneous,
  – Injecting drug user: usually refers to drug users who
    have injected a drug at least once during the previous
    12 months
New drug/pattern
of use/user group

• ARQ: drugs, patterns of use and user
  groups observed in the reporting
  year but not in the year before

  – “New” depends on the perspective of the reporting
Patterns of
drug use

• ARQ: broad concept including:

  – How drugs are used (mode or route of
    administration, regularity, frequency, etc.)
  – In which environment or circumstances
    they are used (site and setting)
of drugs (1)

• The extent of drug use among a
  reference population during a
  reference period

  – Drug use means having taken a drug at least once
    during the reference period
  – Common reference populations:
     • General population: 15-64 years
     • Youth population: 15-24 years
of drugs (2)

• Prevalence is expressed as a
  percentage of the reference
• Standard prevalence measures relate
  to reference period:
  – Lifetime prevalence (“ever use”)
  – Last 12 months’ prevalence (“recent use”, “use
    in reporting year”)
  – Last 30 days’ prevalence (“current use”)
Severe drug abuse
(problem drug use)

• Problematic or chronic drug use or
  drug users in need of help from the
  perspective of the reporting country:

  – Applies only when a country differentiates
    between types or patterns of drug use
  – ARQ: specification of the definition used is
Sharing needles
or syringes

• Using a needle or syringe that has
  been used previously by someone
     of drugs

Cannabis type              Marijuana (herbal), hashish (resin)
Opioids                    Heroin

                           Opium, other                          Other opioids
Cocaine type               Powder (salt), crack, other

Amphetamine type           Amphetamine, methamphetamine          Other
                           Ecstasy type
Sedatives/tranquillizers   Barbiturates, benzodiazepines

Hallucinogens              LSD, other

Other drugs

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