Domestic Violence by mikeholy


									Domestic Violence

Integration of Services Training Series
  Themes for Today

Our focus is on achieving child safety, permanency,
and well-being by:
   – Supporting survivors to keep themselves and their
     children safe.
   – Holding batterers accountable for their actions.
   – Assisting all family members in recovery.


• Summarize dynamics and common impacts on family
• Review approaches to screening.
• Identify interventions that assist survivors in
  providing safety for themselves and children.
• Identify and develop strategies to partner with the
  survivor and community to hold batterers


1. Power and Control      1 hr

2. Dynamics and Impacts   2 hrs.

3. Screening              1.5 hrs.

4. Interventions          1.5 hr
Slide Show 1
  Florida Criminal Definition of DV

"Domestic violence" means any assault, aggravated
assault, battery, aggravated battery, sexual assault,
sexual battery, stalking, aggravated stalking,
kidnapping, false imprisonment, or any criminal offense
resulting in physical injury or death of one family or
household member by another family or household
                                              - Ch. 741 F.S.

  Definition of Family or Household Member

"Family or household member" means spouses, former
spouses, persons related by blood or marriage, persons
who are presently residing together as if a family or
who have resided together in the past as if a family, and
persons who are parents of a child in common
regardless of whether they have been married. With
the exception of persons who have a child in common,
the family or household members must be currently
residing or have in the past resided together in the
same single dwelling unit.
                                            - Ch.741 F.S.

 Family Violence Threatens Child

• Uses family or household member definition
  from criminal statute.
• Builds on documentation from interviewing and
   - Current and past incidents
   - Information from children, caregivers, other
     witnesses, and/or persons who know the family
• Documentation of a pattern of domestic violence
  related incidents.
                                  - DCF Allegation Matrix

Family Centered Practice Model
  Role of Investigator/DCM

• IMPRESS upon the family the importance of child and
  family safety.
• EDUCATE the family about the danger of witnessing
  and experiencing domestic violence.
• ENGAGE with survivor and community partners to
   – Self-esteem and self-efficacy
   – Knowledge of dynamics and resources
   – Ability to protect self and child(ren)
  Role of Investigator/DCM

• ASSIST survivor with strengthening/building formal
  and informal partnerships for achieving safety and
• MOBILIZE child welfare system resources to support
  safety planning and recovery.
• CREATE a context for change for the batterer.
  Objectives for Session 2:
  Dynamics and Impacts

• Summarize common impacts of DV on family
  members and family dynamics.
• Summarize survivor efforts to protect the children.
• Work with all family members in a manner that
  expresses empathy and hope for achieving mutually
  agreed upon goals.
  Characteristics of a Batterer

A “batterer” is someone who has a consistent pattern
of coercive control of an intimate partner. Coercive
control includes different forms of:
   – Psychological abuse
   – Intimidation
   – An inflated sense of self-entitlement
   – Physical or sexual abuse

  The Perception that Abuse and Control are

• Behaviors to control increase over time.
• The batterer perceives his controlling behavior as
  justified and therefore sees his partner’s reluctance
  to be controlled as evidence of her mental instability,
  volatility, or desire to control him.

                                  - Bancroft and Silverman, 2002

  Characteristics that are common…

The overarching attitudinal characteristic is
   – The belief that one has special rights and privileges
     without accompanying reciprocal responsibilities.
   – The belief that violence can be justified against a
   – The belief that family life should center around the
     meeting of his needs.

  What Entitlement Looks Like…

Entitlement in the context of “battering” is evident
   – Demands for physical and emotional caretaking.
   – The perception that when needs or wants are not
     met, the batterer has been wronged.
   – The tendency to see oneself as being provoked to

  Types of Entitlement

• High demand for service:
   – Insistence that the batterer’s needs come first and
     must be met.

• High level of control:
   – Insistence on controlling even the most mundane
     actions, decisions, expressions, behaviors, and
     relationships of the partner.
    Additional Characteristics

• Confusion of Love and Abuse:
   – “My violence is a result of the
     intensity of my love for my partner.
     If I didn’t feel so deeply, I would not
     get like that.”
• Externalization of Responsibility:
   – “It’s not my fault.”
   – Blaming the violence on stress,
     substance abuse, issues from
     childhood, intolerable emotional
Additional Characteristics

• Serial Battering:
   – Batterers tend to
     abuse more than one
     woman over the
     course of their adult
  Typology of Batterers

• 50% of batteres in research samples inflict low levels
  of violence and psychological abuse.
• Batterers with strong pro-social connections
  (employment, community involvement) and without
  other criminal tendencies are thought to have the
  best prospects for achieving long-term behavior

  Anti-social or Hyper-violent Batterers

• Have persistent behavioral problems
• Are generally violent, have criminal records that cite
  multiple violent incidents
• Are more prone to engage in severe or threatening
  dominance struggles with authority figures
• In exceptional circumstances this can result in
  violence towards child welfare personnel or law


1. Domestic violence and substance abuse:
  – Most incidents occur without the use of alcohol.
  – Roughly 80% of men who abuse alcohol do not beat
    their partners.
2. Domestic violence and mental health problems:
  – Men who are abusive do not have substantially
    higher rates of psychopathology than men who do
    not abuse.
  – There is no particular personality disorder or mental
    illness diagnosis shown consistently by men who

  Myth-Busting, continued

3. Men who abuse their partners have poor impulse
  – Abusive patterns reveal behaviors that require
    forethought. “Battering” is seen as a pattern of
    behaviors, rather than impulsive reactions.
  – Further evidence of this can be seen in the rate at
    which men who abuse can calm themselves when
    the police arrive.

  Myth Busting, Continued

“I think I could tell if he was an batterer….”

• Many batterers use systems such as the juvenile and
  probate courts and the child protection system to punish
  battered women through struggles for custody.
• Batterers are able to perform well under formal

  The Range of Parenting Behaviors
  of Batterers who engage in DV

• Children can be made into “accomplices”, siding
  against the survivor.
• Batterers sometimes encourage children to
  disrespect their mothers (psychological abuse) or to
  assault them (physical abuse).
• Children are used to manipulate the survivor, reveal
  safety plans or whereabouts, or to spy on the
• Child visitation can be used to obtain access to
  The Range of Parenting Behaviors
  of Batterers who engage in DV

• Batterers tend to vacillate between being
  authoritarian and rigid to maintain control with an
  intolerance for resistance or argument and
• Permissive or neglectful, either to curry favor with
  children or because of pre-occupation with self.
• Children are at risk of abuse: 50% of men who
  regularly abuse their partners also physically abuse
  their children.

  Batterers who engage in DV actively work to prevent
  Partners from Effective Parenting

• Increased physical abuse and murder rates during
• Direct interference:
   – Keeping the mother from comforting or picking up the
   – Contradiction and undermining the mother’s attempts
     at limit setting and discipline
• Indirect Interference and Undermining:
   – Harsh and frequent criticism of the survivor’s
   – Directing an older child to be in charge of parenting,
     implying that the survivor is incapable                  27
Impact of Domestic Violence on Survivors

            Slide show 2

   Stages of Change: Survivors Living with DV

1. Denial: ‘It was an accident, it didn’t happen’
2. Guilt: ‘There is a problem, but I deserve it.’
3. Enlightenment: ‘I am not responsible, and I don’t
    deserve this, but I want to work things out.’
4. Recovery: ‘This is not going to change. I need to make
    a new life’.

               - Adapted from L. Walker, The Battered Women’s Syndrome

Power and Control Video
  Reasons Why She Stays…*
  Susan G McGee.                       *First, that is the wrong question…

1. *Why does the batterer
   batter? Why does this
   continue in our society?
2. Separation violence.
3. Psychological terror and
   brainwashing (Stockholm Syndrome)
4. For the children: custody or
5. Isolation from support.
6. Some still love the batterer.                                   31
  Reasons She Stays, continued

6. They believe counseling
   will help.
7. Cannot get protection or
8. Legal System failings.
9. Historically disempowered.
10. Cultural, moral, and
    religious values.

   Last, but not Least

They fear their children
will be killed.

Impact of DV on Children

            Slide Show 3
  Impact of DV on Children

• Daughters of batterers are 6.5 times more likely than
  other girls to be the victims of incest.
• 63% of boys between the ages of 11 and 20 years of
  age, who commit murder, commit murder against
  their mother’s batterer.
• Sons of batterers are 1,000 times more likely to
  commit domestic violence themselves.

  Objectives for Session 3: Screening

• Assessing dangerousness.
• Gathering collateral information.
• Interviewing family members.
  Initial In-Home Safety Assessment

• The parent, caregiver or household member(s) have
  a history of violence or display current violent
  behaviors (e.g. battery, domestic violence,
  intimidation) AND the child may be in danger of
  harm as a result.
• There is a pattern of continuing, escalating and/or
  increasing frequency of incidents, either reported or
  unreported (e.g. child discloses ongoing abuse or
  chronic in-home violence for which no abuse or law
  enforcement reports were made).
  Family Assessment

• Emerging Dangers
  – Are danger-related risk dynamics (substance abuse,
    violence, domestic violence…) escalating in intensity
    or frequency?
• Relationships/Domestic Violence Factors
  – Has a history free of being a victim of domestic abuse
  – Has a history free of perpetrating domestic abuse
  – Has a history free of physical, and/or emotional
    aggression towards others
  – Balance of power with other household members
    does not impact ability to protect a child
  Ongoing Dangerousness Assessment

Ongoing Dangerousness Assessment

Assessing Dangerousness

                                   to a
           Binging or
                                                    Severe &

         Recent                                           Threats to
        Instability                                        Injure or
       (Job loss or                                        punish if
       Separation)                                        she leaves

                                            Severe &
                       Severe               persistent
                      isolation            monitoring &
  Factors that predict continuing violence

• Violent crimes and previous violations of protection
• Motor vehicle violations involving alcohol
  intoxication/arrests due to substance abuse.
• Severe violence with spouses or children.
• Having attended a BIP that was not followed up on
  by cessation of violence.
• History of suicidality or of suicidal ideation.

Gathering Information


                FAMILY INTERVIEWS
              Other Household Members
              Extended Family Members

                 EXISTING RECORDS
                   Criminal Records
                   Police “Call-outs”
                   Injunction History
           Past CPS Reports and Summaries
           Past Service Records, Evaluations

  Family Centered Approach

• Increase
  – Recognition of family strengths
  – Reflection on actions
  – Sense of responsibility
  – Positive change
• Reduce
  – Denial
  – Minimization
  Introduction to Interviewing Family Members

1. Assume that any family may be experiencing
   domestic violence, no matter how individuals
   present or seem to you.
   –   Similar rates of domestic violence occur in all types
       of locations, cities, suburbs, and rural areas.
   –   Women of all races are about equally vulnerable to
       violence with an intimate partner.

                                          - Bureau of Justice, 1995

  Introduction to Interviewing, continued

2. Interview each family member separately, even if
   you begin with a joint interview.
3. Explain that your role is to assist parents in
   attaining safety within the family.
4. Routinely give information that will connect
   survivors to local DV Services.

  Make this a part of your regular practice with all parents.

  The Family Story Process

1. Engage: Build a bridge of strengths.
2. Appreciate and Align: Learn the family vision and try
   to find common ground for partnering.
3. Develop Discrepancy: Find ways that the individual
   already wants or has tried to change and build on it.
4. Support Efficacy: Use strengths to give people hope.

  Interviewing batterers

• Do not reveal information that would endanger the
• Start with the batterer’s wishes for the family and for
  his relationships, building on strengths.
• Continuously assess your own safety during the

  Sample Questions to Batterers

• When do you think the family has ‘worked’ the best?
• If you could magically make the family situation
  better, what would you change?
• What are some changes you would like to see in
  others in the family?
• What are some changes you have considered
• What, if anything, have you already tried?

  “But what if he tries to use excuses
  like a bad childhood?”

• Seeing the link between trauma and battering does
  not excuse the behavior, but may be a basis for
  treatment to begin.
• Choosing competent providers who understand
  trauma and domestic violence will keep the batterer
  accountable clinically.
• Violence and abuse often beget violence and abuse.
  That’s why the cycle must end.

  Interviewing Survivors, Assumptions

• The survivor is focused on survival and safety, too.
• The survivor has considered and likely attempted to
  leave in the past, and her/his actions are based on
  what she thinks is realistic and safest.
• There’s probably more violence than what we know.
• The survivor is the best hope for children in terms of
  maintaining a strong relationship while getting to

  Interviewing Survivors, continued

• How it looks to the outside:
   – “She is choosing her man over her children.”

• How it looks to the survivor:
   – “I am making sacrifices to keep my family together
     and keep my children as safe from harm as I am

  Bear in Mind…

• As afraid as the survivor may
  be of losing her children, she
  may be more concerned that
  she will be killed, leaving her
  children unprotected.
• We cannot know how many
  ways the batterer has
  threatened and brainwashed
  the survivor and children.

  Bear in Mind…

• It is inappropriate to pressure or threaten abused
  women into providing information. By using
  coercion, the interviewer is unwittingly competing
  with the batterer, whose capacity to coerce is
• Good case practice involves acceptance of the
  victim’s limits on disclosure and reliance on
  information from collateral sources.
  Sample Questions to Survivors:

• When do you think the family has ‘worked’ the best?
• If you could magically make the family situation
  better, what would you change?
• What are some changes you would like to see in
  others in the family?
• What are some changes you have considered
• What, if anything, have you already tried?

  Sample Questions for Survivors, Continued

• What are some of the ways you have tried to keep
  your children safe?
• When you have felt the most able to keep yourself
  and your children safe, what was happening?
• When do you think your children would say they feel
  most safe? How can you increase their sense of
• What do you think it would take to make things
• What, if anything, do you think others can do to help
  you get there?
  Questions that can be asked of children

• What has your (mother/father) done to make you
  feel safe in your home?
• What are some of the things that give you a warning
  feeling that (the batterer) is going to begin to hurt
• If I was watching a movie of what happened (one
  incident, usually), what would I see?
• How would your (mother/father) describe what
  happens in your home when things get difficult?

  Objectives for Session 4: Interventions

• Work in the context of a
  coordinated community
• Create effective safety
  and recovery plans.

  Coordinated Community Response

Create effective partnerships:
   –   Survivor
   –   Batterer
   –   PI/DCM/CWLS
   –   Law Enforcement
   –   Probation/Parole
   –   DV Advocates
   –   Substance Abuse Professional(s)
   –   Mental Health Professional(s)
   –   School/Day Care
  Safety and Recovery Planning

• Partnerships result in plans that may include:
   – Strategies for holding batterer accountable
   – Steps for achieving increased safety and control
     regardless of survivor decisions to stay or leave
   – Recovery supports for survivors and children
• Plans may also include:
   – Legal and other options for removal of batterer
   – Options for placement of children
      • Visits with non-offending parent and siblings
   – Conditions needed for children’s visits with batterer
   – Substance abuse interventions
  What Works? Services for Batterers

• The most effective time for intervention with
  batterers is between arrest and adjudication.
   – Individuals who have been arrested for DV re-offend
     at a rate of 67% between arrest and adjudication.
   – That rate goes down to 34% for those who enter or
     participate in treatment between arrest and

  Service Options for Batterers

• Batterer Intervention Program
   – most common intervention
• Substance abuse treatment
• Parenting programs.
• Individual counseling.
  Batterer Intervention Program (BIP)

Batterer Intervention Programs are
   – Designed for men who have been arrested or would
     be arrested if known, for DV.
   – Include educational classes and/or treatment groups.
   – May also include counseling or case management.
   – Are linked to justice and accountability systems.
   – Must consider survivor safety implications throughout

  Florida Batterer Intervention Program (BIP)

Chapter 741.325 (8) F.S., specifies that BIP is set up and
authorized to address the use of Intimate Partner
Violence for the purpose of exercising power and
control …over the other.

The chapter further states that:
   – It will endanger victims if courts and other referral agencies
     refer family and household members who are not perpetrators
     of the type of domestic violence encompassed by these
   – Accordingly, the court and others who make referrals should
     refer perpetrators only to programming that appropriately
     addresses the violence committed.
  BIP Assessment

• Used to assess an individual’s appropriateness for
  participation in BIP.
• Does not assess whether or not DV has occurred.
• Findings may include identification and assessment of
  conditions that would keep the individual from
  benefitting from BIP, including:
    –   mental illness
    –   substance abuse
    –   criminal record of violence
    –   ‘mental deficiency’
• The law limits BIP suitability to those adjudicated for DV.
            - 65H-2.008 Assessment Requirements for participation in a BIP
What Makes for Change in Batterers?

                 • Fear of incarceration is
                   shown to be more
                   effective than empathy
                   for the survivor at
                   inducing batterers to
                   refrain from violence.
                 • These men may respond
                   more positively to
                   approaches designed to
                   elicit empathy for
   Recidivism based on Treatment Modality
• Babcock et al. used multiple studies to do a ‘Meta-study’
  comparing treatment for batterers used data following
  batterers for a minimum of two years.
• The general recidivism rate for batterers without treatment is
  estimated at 65%.
• Batterers who have participated in treatment, including:
    – Batterer Intervention
    – Anger Management
    – Couples Counseling
    – Individual Counseling
• Improved the recidivism rate by lowering the reported rate to
  60% within 2 years, as reported by both police and ‘victims’.
                                                   - Babcock, J. et al
  Co-occurring Factors and Domestic Violence

• While drugs and alcohol do not cause DV, they can
  make it more lethal. An estimated 25% to 50% of
  batterers also have substance abuse issues.
• Survivors may develop somatic or physical symptoms
  and depression as a result of the numbing and
  coping response to Battered Woman Syndrome.
• One study found that survivors have 16 times the
  rate of alcohol abuse as non-battered women.

  Filing A Chapter 39 Injunction

Section 39.504, Florida Statutes, provides that at any
time after the initiation of a child protective
investigation, the department, a law enforcement
officer, the state attorney, or other responsible person,
may motion the court to issue an injunction to prevent
any act of child abuse or violence, not limited to
domestic violence. The primary purpose of the
injunction is to protect and promote the best interests
of the child, while taking the preservation of the child's
immediate family into consideration.
  When A Chapter 39 Injunction Should Be

• If the parent or caregiver is a victim of violence
  themselves, they may be fearful that leaving the offender
  will be more dangerous than staying.
• The Chapter 39 injunction provides a resource to protect
  the child from abuse or violence by taking allowing the
  Department or another party to initiate the action in the
  eyes of the offender.
• Examples for when it may be appropriate to seek a
  Chapter 39 injunction include but are not limited to:
   – Removing an offending parent, caregiver, paramour, or
     person from the home to protect the child
   – Returning a child to a non-offending parent
  Collaboration with CWLS

• The Children’s Legal Services Attorney is responsible
  for drafting the petition for the injunction using the
  specific case facts and supporting documentation
  provided by the child protective investigator and/or
  case manager.
• A court may issue an injunction if reasonable cause
  exists. Reasonable cause exists when there is
  evidence of child abuse or there is a likelihood of
  such abuse occurring based upon a recent overt act
  or failure to act.
   The DCM Role in Getting Families to Safety

• It is important to remember that you may be the key
  to getting the survivor and children to safety and that
  their fears are real.
• Despite the best assessment, DV can quickly turn
• Building a trusting relationship with survivors and
  other community partners will help you to help the
  survivor further protect herself and her family.

  Interventions to Support Survivors

• DV programs and shelter
• Group work (self-help and provider led)
• Individual counseling
   – Trauma
   – Grief and loss
   – Role recovery
• Substance abuse treatment
• Supports for education, employability, and
• TANF program exceptions for DV Survivors
  Florida Domestic Violence Centers

• Information and referral
• Counseling
• Emergency shelter (24 hrs. or more)
• Hotline (24 hrs. a day, 7 days a week)
• Child assessments (for those in shelter more
  than 72 hrs.)
• Case management
• Community education
• Other local resources
  Domestic Violence Advocate, Privileged

• All center staff are required to have 30 hours of
  training to become privileged.
• Primary purpose is to give advice, counseling and/or
  assistance to victims of domestic violence.
• Conversations between domestic violence advocate
  and victim are confidential if they relate to incident
  that victim is seeking assistance for.
• DV Advocate can ask survivor to sign a release of
  Creating Context for Children’s Healing

• Sense of physical and emotional safety in current
• Structure, limits and predictability.
• Strong bond to non-battering parent.
• Not to feel responsible for care of adults.
• Contact with battering parent as appropriate.
• Strong bond to siblings.
  Interventions to Support Children

• Shelter (with survivor whenever safe to do so)
• Get to Safety (normalization when possible)
• Counseling (group, individual depending on age and
  responses to DV)
• Supported and safe contact with survivor if
  placement away from parents is necessary.

   Stages of Change: Survivors Living with DV

1. Denial: ‘It was an accident, it didn’t happen’
2. Guilt: ‘There is a problem, but I deserve it.’
3. Enlightenment: ‘I am not responsible, and I don’t
    deserve this, but I want to work things out.’
4. Recovery: ‘This is not going to change. I need to make
    a new life’.

               - Adapted from L. Walker, The Battered Women’s Syndrome

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