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					        Chapter 1


The Legacy of the Roman Empire
a painting on a wall



                       mural
a picture made
  up of small
 pieces of tile,
   glass, or
colored stones


   mosaic
 a picture
painted on
 the moist
plaster of a
   wall or
   ceiling

  fresco
an arched structure used to
 hold up a ceiling or a roof



                        vault
  a roof shaped
like a half-circle
 or hemisphere


     dome
a large and important church



cathedral
a pipe or channel built to carry
water between distant places
            aqueduct
a person trained to write or
 copy documents by hand
          scribe
a popular saying that is meant to
 express something wise or true


            proverb

 A stitch in time saves nine.
the study of wisdom, knowledge,
     and the nature of reality


         philosophy
       Chapter 2
The Development of Feudalism
     in Western Europe
a person belonging to a tribe
   considered uncivilized


   barbarian
 a religion based on the
teachings of Jesus Christ


       Christianity
Christian church headed by
     the pope in Rome


 Roman Catholic Church
a bishop of Rome
  and supreme
   leader of the
 Roman Catholic
      Church

   pope
one ruler, such as a king or
           queen


   monarch
land granted by
   a lord to a
    vassal in
  exchange for
   service or
     loyalty

     fief
  a large
estate with
 farmland
and villages
 held by a
    lord

               manor
the belief that God gives
monarchs the right to rule


   divine right of kings
a person of high rank by birth
           or title


                        noble
 the highest type of noble,
ranking just below a prince


  duke
a deep, wide ditch filled with
           water


                       moat
a system of organizing people
         into ranks

          hierarchy
a covering worn
 to protect the
     body

     armor
the medieval knight’s code of
         behavior


          chivalry
    Chapter 3

The Role of the Church
  in Medieval Europe
when a person is made to
suffer because of religious
          beliefs

        persecute
   a community of monks



monastery
 a man who
has a taken a
vow to serve
 the church

   monk
the body of people, such as
  priests, who perform the
sacred functions of a church

           clergy
to refuse membership in a
          church

     excommunicate
a solemn rite of Christian
       churches

       sacrament
a religious journey




             pilgrimage
 an object considered to be
holy because it belonged to or
  was touched by a saint or
      other holy person

            relic
a community of nuns

            convent
  a woman who has
taken a vow to serve
     the church


    nun
a school of advanced learning
university
the study of persuasive writing
        and speaking

           rhetoric
the study of God and religion


          theology
   the concept that there is a
universal order built into nature
 that can guide moral thinking

           natural law
a way of life in which men and
women withdraw from the rest
of the world in order to devote
    themselves to their faith


         monasticism
 a handwritten   illuminated
book decorated   manuscript
  with metals
a brotherhood or sisterhood of
    monks, nuns, or friars

       religious order
 a member of a
certain religious
order devoted to
  teaching and
works of charity

      friar
    Chapter 4


Life in Medieval Towns
the land controlled by a ruler
           or lord

           domain
a written grant
 of rights by a
   ruler to a
  community


    charter
organization of people in the
    same craft or trade


            guild
   a person who
works for an expert
in a trade in return
    for training

   apprentice
a person who has learned a
particular trade but has not
  become an employer or
           master

        journeyman
the buying and selling of
         goods

       commerce
a person whose religion is
        Judaism

          Jew
a skin and nerve disease


        leprosy
a deadly contagious disease
bubonic plague
a body of rulings that become
part of a nation’s legal system


         common law
a singer or musician who sang
       or recited poems
          minstrel
a type of religious drama in the
Middle Ages based on stories
         from the Bible

         mystery play
a type of religious drama in
the Middle Ages based on
    stories about saints

       miracle play
     Chapter 5


The Decline of Feudalism
  the principle that accused
persons cannot be held in jail
without the consent of a court

       habeus corpus
a person who is not of noble
           rank

         commoner
a medieval weapon made up of a
  bow that was fixed across a
wooden stock (which had a grove
 to direct the arrow’s flight) and
       operated by a trigger


   crossbow
a large bow used
     for firing
feathered arrows


   longbow
an agreed-upon halt in fighting


             truce
 a person who holds beliefs that
are contrary to the teachings of a
      church or other group

             heretic
   Chapter 6


The Byzantine Empire
construction projects built by a
  government for public use,
such as buildings, roads, and
           bridges

         public works
in the Eastern Orthodox
Church, the bishop of an
      important city


       patriarch
a sacred rite of public worship

            liturgy
a type of religious image
  typically painted on a
small wooden panel and
 considered sacred by
    Eastern Orthodox
        Christians

          icon
a formal division in a church or
        religious body

            schism

				
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