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					The Nixon
  Years
 1969-1974
The New Nixon Returns
 Nixon brings a bitter
  resentment of the “Liberal
  Establishment” to the
  White House
 He also brings great
  expertise & knowledge in
  foreign affairs
Nixon‟s Vietnam Policies
 Nixon’s  calls for elections
  in Vietnam rejected by the
  North
 He outlines the “Nixon
  Doctrine” to win the war
The Nixon Doctrine
 Statedthat Southeast Asian
 nations would have to fight
 their own wars without US
 troops
Vietnamization
 Nixon calls for the
  withdrawal of 540,000
  American troops over time
 Aiding of South Vietnam so
  the ARVN could take over
  the war
The Silent Majority
 Nixon  begins an attack on
  the anti-war movement
 Calling on the “Silent
  Majority” of America to
  support his war efforts
Woodstock Nation
August 1969: 250,000
young people flock to
Bethel, New York farm for
three days of “Peace &
Music”
Woodstock Music
Festival
Nixon Meets the King
Anti-War
Demonstrations
           Anti-war
           moratorium
           called for in
           October 1969
 Massive  marches staged
 all over the country,
 including a candle-light
 march in front of the White
 House
 Spiro T.
 Agnew
 VP  Agnew becomes the
  attack dog for Nixon
 Attacks the media as an
  “effete corps of impudent
  snobs” & “nattering nabobs
  of negativism”
Nixon calls college
protesters “Bums”
The War goes on…
 By1970, 40,000
 American dead &
 250,000 wounded leads
 to more protests
 My Lai Massacre
 American  Lt.
 William Calley
 orders his
 troops to kill
 women &
 children at the
 village of My
 Lai
Invasion of Cambodia
      29, 1970: Nixon,
 April
 without consulting
 Congress, orders the
 invasion of neutral
 Cambodia to clear out Viet
 Cong along the Ho Chi
 Minh Trail
More Protests
 MyLai Massacre &
 Nixon’s order to invade
 Cambodia & Laos led to
 massive demonstrations
 Kent State (1970)
 May  3: National Guard fired
 on student demonstrators at
 Kent State
 killing 4 &
 wounding
 others
Jackson State (1970)
  May:Mississippi State
  Highway Patrol open fire
  on a Jackson State
  College dormitory killing 2
  black students
War continues…
 Presidentorders to
 continue the secret “carpet
 bombing” of Cambodia,
 Laos & North Vietnam
Vietnamese Children
Napalmed
 Nixon withdraws American
  troops from Cambodia after
  2 months
 Many argued that Nixon’s
  decision strengthened the
  communists politically in
  Cambodia
 Senate  repeals the Tonkin
  Gulf Resolution & begins
  discussion of limiting
  presidential war powers
 Right wing groups begin
  attacking anti-war
  demonstrators
 Congress   reduces draft
  calls & institutes a lottery
  system
 1971: 26th Amendment
  lowers the voting age to 18
Pentagon Papers
 1971: Classified Defense
  Department papers are
  leaked to The New York
  Times by Daniel Ellsberg
 Papers documented the
  Pentagon’s misleading of
  Congress & the people
Plumbers go to work
 White House creates a
  secret security team to
  locate & plug leaks in the
  government called the
  Plumbers
 Nixon orders Ellsberg’s
  psychiatrist’s office
  burglarized & bugged
Paris Peace Talks
  Henry Kissinger, National
  Security Advisor, begins
  secret discussions with
  North Vietnam in Paris
        Nixon,
  Kissinger, &
Foreign Policy
Nixon Goes to China
 Nixon  sought to use
  tensions between Moscow
  & Beijing to help bring
  North Vietnam to the
  bargaining table
 American ping-pong
  players travel to China for
  a tournament
Ping-Pong Diplomacy
 July 1971: Nixon
  announces he will go to
  China
 February 1972: Nixon flies
  to Beijing & meets with
  Mao Zedong
Forrest Gump
Détente & „72 Grain Deal
 Russia fearing new
  American relations with
  China agreed to relax
  tensions leading to détente
  (agreeing to disagree)
 America agrees to sell
  USSR $750 million worth of
  grain
Arms Agreements
 ABM   (anti-ballistic missile)
  Treaty signed by US &
  USSR
 SALT (strategic arms
  limitation treaty) signed to
  freeze long-range missile
  production for 5 years
MIRVs
 Nixon  plans for nuclear
  arms reductions from a
  position of strength
 Begins developing MIRVs
  (multiple independently
  targeted re-entry vehicles)
  & the Soviets follow suit
Allende & Chile
  CIA  leads coup against
   leftist Salvador Allende in
   Chile
  Allende assassinated

  Right wing dictator
   Augusta Pinochet took
   power
Arab Oil Embargo
 October   1973: Yom Kippur
  War leads to oil embargo
 OPEC raise oil prices

 Inflation skyrockets

 America begins building
  the Alaska pipeline &
  lowers speed limit to 55
  mph
       Nixon‟s
Domestic Policy
The Warren Court
 Nixon attacked the liberal
 Warren court for its
 “permissiveness” for
 rulings such as:
Legal Rights
 Gideon  v. Wainwright - all
  defendants were entitled to
  legal counsel
 Escobedo & Miranda
  rulings which insured the
  rights of the accused
School Prayer & other
rulings
 Court   ruled that school
  prayer was against the 1st
  Amendment
 Also ruled in favor of black
  civil rights & called for
  reapportionment to obtain
  “one-man-one-vote”
Impeach Earl Warren
 Right wing critics called
  for the impeachment of
  Earl Warren
 Nixon appoints Warren
  Burger as Chief Justice &
  4 other conservatives to
  the court
The Burger Court
 Burger Court agrees to
 abortion rights in 1973
 ruling Roe v. Wade
Nixon Legislation
 1970: Occupational Safety
  & Health Act (OSHA)
 1970: Environmental
  Protection Agency (EPA)
Inflation
 1971:  President orders 90
  day freeze on wages &
  prices to end inflation
 Nixon orders American
  currency off the gold
  standard & devalued the
  dollar
Moon Walk
 July, 1969:
 Apollo 11 - Neil
 Armstrong
 fulfills
 Kennedy’s
 pledge &
 walks on the
 moon
  One small step for man,
one giant leap for mankind.
Chicago Eight Trial



 1969:Black Panther Bobby
 Seale is bound & gagged in
 court & removed to be tried
 separately
Chicago Eight Seven
 “Chicago  7” trial finds
 seven defendants,
 including Yippies Jerry
 Rubin & Abbie Hoffman
 guilty of inciting a riot in
 1968
Black Panthers
 Black  Panthers protest
  “Whitey’s War” & call for
  armed revolution against
  white America
 Panther Huey Newton will be
  killed in gun battle with
  police
 HUEY
NEWTON
Attica (1971)
 Riots in Attica State
 Prison in New York lead to
 a call for prison reform
1972 Election
 Nixon plans for a
  “southern strategy” to win
  a majority in 1972
 Vietnam becomes the
  major issue in the election
Bombing Vietnam
  March 1972: Nixon
  ordered the mining of
  Haiphong harbor & an
  increase in bombing raids
  over North Vietnam
  including the capital of
  Hanoi
George McGovern
 Senator George McGovern
 of South Dakota wins the
 1972 Democratic
 nomination with a large
 anti-war vote
“New” Democratic Party
 Hisappeal to minorities,
 feminists, leftists, & young
 alienated the traditional
 working-class backbone of
 the Democratic Party
Eagleton Affair
    is revealed that
  It
  Democratic vice
  presidential candidate
  Thomas Eagleton had had
  shock therapy for
  depression & he is forced
  to leave the ticket
 SergeantShriver, a
 Kennedy brother-in-law,
 replaces him
Paris Peace Talks
  Kissinger  announces from
   Paris that “Peace is at
   hand”
  Helping Nixon’s campaign
Nixon‟s the one… again
 Nixon& Agnew defeat
  McGovern & Shriver in a
  massive landslide
 McGovern only carries
  Massachusetts
Armistice & POW
Exchange
 December    1972: Christmas
 Bombings
 –Nixon orders increased
  bombing to force the North
  to agreement
 Armistice   signed January
 23, 1973
 Saigon    & South Vietnam
  will fall in June 1975
 Costs of War:

 –58,000 dead
 –300,000 wounded
 –$150 billion
 –Growing distrust of
  government
Tie a yellow ribbon
Secret Bombing Revealed
 July 1973: Word leaks about
  the Air Force’s secret
  bombing raids over
  Cambodia & Laos
 August 1973: Nixon forced
  to end Cambodian bombing
  beginning the “new
  isolationism”
      The
Watergate
  Scandal
    Watergate Scandal
    Synonymous with the abuse of
Presidential power by President Nixon
                political burglary
                     bribery
                    extortion
                   wiretapping
                   conspiracy
              obstruction of justice
             destruction of evidence
                    tax fraud
illegal use of government agencies/CIA and FBI
         illegal campaign contributions
   use of public money for private purposes
CREEP
 1972:Committee to
 Re-elect the President
 organizes break-in &
 bugging of the Democratic
 National headquarters at
 the Watergate Hotel in
 Washington, DC
 Howard Hunt & James
 McCord lead men
 recruited by G. Gordan
 Liddy on raids into the
 Watergate Hotel
Busted
 On  second raid a night
  watchmen discovers taped
  doors & calls police
 After arrest, evidence links
  the burglars to CREEP &
  the White House
All the President‟s Men
 Reporters  Bob Woodward
  & Carl Bernstein of the
  Washington Post cover the
  story
 Continue to uncover links
  to the White House
      to White House are
 Links
 uncovered & the Senate
 begins to investigate the
 growing scandal
 Allegations made that the
 president had used the IRS,
 FBI, & CIA to harass
 political opponents &
 cover-up the break-in
Bob & John Say
Goodbye
  April1973: Nixon
  announces resignation of
  H.R. “Bob” Haldeman &
  John Erhlichman his two
  top aides
 Nixon appoints Archibald
 Cox as Special Prosecutor
 to lead an “independent
 investigation” of
 Watergate
John Dean
 WhiteHouse counsel,
 John Dean, testifies before
 Sam Ervin’s Senate
 committee that the
 president was guilty of
 obstruction of justice
The Nixon
Tapes

 July1973: Testimony
 reveals that Nixon routinely
 taped all Oval Office
 conversations & that tapes
 could corroborate Dean’s
 testimony
The Subpoenas
 The  Senate Committee,
  Washington Grand Jury, &
  Special Prosecutor all
  subpoena segments of the
  tapes
 Nixon claims “executive
  privilege” in refusing to
  release the tapes
Spiro Agnew – nolo
contendere
 VP   Spiro Agnew resigns
  after pleading no contest
  to bribery charges to avoid
  jail
 25th Amendment makes
  House minority leader
  Gerald Ford the new VP
Saturday Night
Massacre
 October 20, 1973: Nixon
 fires Special Prosecutor
 Cox & 2 top Justice
 Department officials resign
 in the so-called “Saturday
 Night Massacre”
The Gap
 Nixon  tapes, finally turned
  over, found to have gaps
  determined to be
  intentionally erased
 Nixon’s secretary claims it
  was accidental
 IRSclaims Nixon owes
 $450,000 in back taxes &
 has used federal dollars to
 upgrade his own property
The Final Days
  House  Judiciary
   Committee begins drafting
   Articles of Impeachment
  Nixon begins counter-
   attack making his “I am
   not a crook” speech
 July1974: Supreme Court
  orders Nixon to hand over
  tapes
 Judiciary Committee
  begins televised debate on
  impeachment
The Smoking Gun
 Tapeof Nixon discussing
 using the CIA to hold off
 an FBI investigation into
 White House involvement
 6 days after the break-in is
 considered to be the
 “smoking gun”
Nixon Resigns
  New  Chief of Staff
   Alexander Haig begins
   preparations to pass
   powers to Gerald Ford
  August 8, 1974: Nixon
   announces he will resign
   claiming he is guilty of
   only “bad judgment”
 “I shall resign the presidency
 effective at noon tomorrow.”
 August
  9, 1974:
  Nixon
  resigns
  at noon
   AFTERMATH
 26thAmendment gave 18 year olds the right to vote. If 18
  year old young men could fight and die for this country,
  than they should have the right to vote.
 In middle of crisis, Congress passed, over Nixon’s veto, the
  War Powers Resolution limiting presidential commitment of
  troops overseas to 60 days before requiring congressional
  approval
 1974 Freedom of Information Act gave citizens greater
  access to files that federal government agencies had
 FairCampaign Practices Act of 1974 limited campaign
  contributions and provided for stricter accountability and
  public financing of presidential campaigns
 Independent Counsel Act of 1978 required the Attorney
  General, in cases of suspected criminal activity in the
  executive branch, to call on three federal judges to appoint
  a special prosecutor
 American distrust of gov’t increased: “credibility gap”
Ford Takes Office
  Gerald  Ford takes the oath
   of office
  September 8: He will
   pardon Nixon
War Powers Act
 November   1973: President
  must report to Congress
  within 48 hours of ordering
  troops into combat
 Draft ends in January 1973

				
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